Uploaded by Jesse Hundal

Lesson 1 student notes

advertisement
S2689C Kinesiology in Sports
Lesson 1
The Basics of Human Anatomy
School of
Sports, Health
and Leisure
Learning Objectives
• Identify and describe the five functions of the skeletal
system.
• Identify and classify the articulations (joints) of the axial
skeleton.
• Identify the anatomical structure and the major muscles
of the vertebral column and thoracic cage.
• Apply the basic terminologies in describing human
movements related to the vertebral column and thorax,
and their associated muscles in sports.
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Human Anatomy &
Planes of Motion
Human Anatomy
The study of structures and morphology of the human
body.
Why Study Anatomy?
• Consistent method of naming tissues and organs
• Consistent vocabulary when describing the human
body
• Consistent terminology when describing locations
and planes of movement
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Anatomical Position and Planes
Anatomical position: The universal starting reference point for
describing the human body. Important as it is used in all
anatomical description, specifying locations of specific parts of
the body relative to other body parts.
Coronal Plane
Anatomical planes:
imaginary surfaces that separate
the body into segments.
Terms of reference
• Anterior – Posterior
• Left – Right / Medial – Lateral
• Superior – Inferior
• Proximal – Distal
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Sagittal
Plane
Transverse
Plane
Anatomical Planes
Coronal (Frontal) plane:
Segments the body into anterior (towards the chest) or
posterior (towards the back) parts
Mid-Sagittal (Median) plane:
Segments the body into right and left halves; as well
as medial (towards the middle of the trunk) and
lateral (away from the middle of the trunk)
Transverse (Horizontal) plane:
A horizontal cut that divides the body into upper and
lower parts
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Human Anatomy – Directional Terms (1/2)
Anterior
Medial
Posterior
Lateral
Superior
Proximal
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Inferior
Distal
(Source: McKinley
et. al., 2015, p. 13)
Human Anatomy – Directional Terms (2/2)
Direction
Term & Meaning
Relative to front
Anterior: In front of; toward front surface
(belly side) or back Posterior: In back of; toward back surface
of body
Relative to head or Superior: Closer to the head
tail of body
Inferior: Closer to the feet
Relative to
midline/centre of
body
Medial: Toward midline of body
Lateral: Away from midline of body
Superficial: On the outside
Deep: On the inside, underneath another
structure
Relative to point of
attachment of the
appendage
Proximal: Closest to point of attachment to trunk
Distal: Furthest from point of attachment to trunk
(Source: McKinley et. al., 2015, p. 12)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Movements in the Coronal Plane
Radial
deviation
Ulnar
deviation
Abduction Eversion
Lateral
flexion to
the right
Adduction
Inversion
Lateral
flexion to
the left
Frontal plane joint actions at
the shoulder, hip, wrist, and
ankle, trunk and neck
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Movements in the Sagittal Plane
Wrist
Shoulder
Hip
Flexion
Flexion
Extension
Flexion
Extension
Extension
Extension
Extension
Hyperextension
Hyperextension
Hyperextension
Flexion
Extension
Extension
Flexion
Neck
Knee
Flexion
Flexion
Trunk
Ankle
Extension
Sagittal plane joint actions at the, elbow,
shoulder, hip, knee, trunk, and neck and ankle
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
DorsiFlexion
Plantar
Flexion
Movements in the Transverse Plane
External
rotation
Internal
.
rotation
External
rotation
Horizontal
adduction
Internal
rotation
Rotation to
the right
Supination
Pronation
Horizontal
abduction
Horizontal
abduction
Horizontal
adduction
Rotation
to the left
Rotation
to the left
Rotation
to the
right
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Anatomy of the
Human Skeleton
Video
Human Body-Skeletal System (0 - 11’30”):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NP29ejPrOPE
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Anatomy of the Human Skeleton
Axial skeleton includes bones of
the head, back, and chest. Bones
in appendicular skeleton are
related to movement of the limbs.
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Anatomy of the Human Skeleton - Functions
Axial
Appendicular
• Comprises
• skull
• vertebral column
• rib cage
• Support, stabilise and protect vital
organs
• Comprises
• pectoral (shoulder) girdle
• pelvic (hip) girdle
Appended from
• upper limbs (arms)
the girdles
• lower limbs (legs)
• Long bones create large movements
• Short bones create more complex and
fine movements
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Anatomy of the Human Skeleton
Bones are classified
according to shape.
Long bone
(humerus)
Type of
Bone
Examples
Short
Bones in wrist &
ankles
Long
Bones of upper arm
& thigh
Flat
Bones of skull &
scapula
Irregular
Bones in face &
spine
Sesamoid
Bones embedded
in tendons, i.e.
knee
Flat bone
(sternum)
Irregular bone vertebra)
Short bone
(trapezoid, wrist
bone)
Sesamoid bone (patella)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Types of Bones – Axial Skeleton
Most bones in
axial skeleton are
either irregular or
flat
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Types of Bones – Appendicular Skeleton
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Joints – The Articular System (1/3)
Type of
Joint
Example
Description
Types of
movements
Ball-andsocket
Hip and shoulder Ball-like convex surface
joints
that fits into a concave
socket
Permits 3 degrees of
motion
Condyloid
Between
metacarpals and
phalanges
Concave of one joint is
allowed to slide on the
convex of the other
Permits 2 degrees of
motion; rotational
movement not
possible
Plane
Intercarpal joints
Articulating surfaces are
nearly flat or slightly
curve
Permits gliding
between 2 joints
(Source: Adapted from Norkin & Levangie, 1992)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Joints – The Articular System (2/3)
Type of
Joint
Example
Description
Types of
movements
Hinge
Joints in elbow and
phalanges
The convex surface of one Permits 1 degree
bone fits into a concave
freedom of
surface of another
motion
Pivot
Joint between
1) proximal end of
radius and ulna; and
2) anterior arch of
atlas and dens of axis
The cylindrical surface of
one bone rotates within a
ring formed of bone and
ligament
Permits 1 degree
freedom of
motion
Saddle
Joint between carpal
(trapezium) and
metacarpal of thumb
Each joint surface is both
convex in one plane and
concave in the other
Permits 2
degrees of
motion
(Source: Adapted from Norkin & Levangie, 1992)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Joints – The Articular System (3/3)
How Bones Work
Types of Joints
Pivot
Ball & Socket
Hinge
Saddle
Plane
Condyloid
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Anatomy of the
Muscular System
Responsibilities of the Muscular System
Body movement
Body form and shape, to
maintain posture
Body heat, to maintain
temperature
Storage and moving substances
through the body
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Major Types of Muscles
Cardiac Muscles
• Involuntary, found only in
the heart
Skeletal muscles
• Voluntary, formed the fleshy
body parts
Smooth muscles
• Involuntary, found in the
walls of the internal organs
(Source: http://www.picturesdepot.com/)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
How bones and muscles are connected (1/2)
Connective tissues
Cartilage (Hyaline, fibrocartilage & elastic cartilage)
• Provide firm but flexible support for the embryonic
skeleton and part of the adult skeleton
Ligaments - Dense fibrous tissue
• Strong, flexible bands which hold bones firmly
together at the joints
Tendons - Dense fibrous tissue
• White, glistening bands attaching skeletal muscles
to the bones
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
How bones and muscles are connected (2/2)
Cartilage
Tendon
Ligament
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Functions of Connective Tissues (1/2)
Bind the cells in various tissues, organs and systems
Support and hold organs in place
Provide stability and shock absorption in joints
Provide flexible links between bones in certain types of joints;
Provide smooth articulating surfaces between bones in other types
of joints
Transmit forces during muscular contractions
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Functions of Connective Tissues (2/2)
Cartilage
Ligaments
Tendons
• Capable of resisting • Connects one • Connects muscle
all types of loads,
bone to
bulk to the bone
especially bending
another bone • When muscle
and twisting
• Provides
contracts, the
• Lubrication & shock
stability to the
force is exerted
absorption
joint by
through the
• Distribution of loads
preventing
tendon, which
over joint surface
excessive
causes joint
• Improvement of fit of
sliding of joint
angles to either
articulating surfaces
surfaces
increase or
decrease
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Anatomical Structure &
Major Muscles Vertebral Column &
Thorax
Vertebral Column
Cervical
7 vertebrae (C1-C7)
Functions:
Thoracic
Anterior
view
12 vertebrae
(T1-T12)
Lumbar
5 vertebrae
(L1-L5)
• Structural support for the body
o Provide a base support for the
Right
body
lateral
view
o Transmits weight of trunk to lower
limbs
• Allows movements
• Surrounds and protects spinal cord
• Provide shock absorption for the body
Sacrum
5 fused vertebrae
Coccyx
(Source: Marieb & Hoehn, 2010, p. 217)
4 fused vertebrae
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Thoracic Cage
• Comprises
o Thoracic vertebrae
o Sternum
o Ribs & costal cartilages
• Functions
o Protects vital organs of
thoracic cavity
o Supports shoulder
girdle & upper limbs
o Attachment sites for
many muscles,
including intercostal
muscles used during
breathing
Anterior View
Sternum
True ribs
(1–7)
• Manubrium
• Body
• Xiphoid
process
False ribs
(8–12)
Floating ribs
(11, 12)
(Source: Marieb & Hoehn, 2010, p. 224)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Muscle Attachments
Origin
Insertion
Biceps brachii muscle originates on
the scapula and inserts on the radius.
Contraction of this muscle pulls the
forearm toward the shoulder.
• At the ends of a muscle,
connective tissue layers
merge to form a fibrous
tendon
• Most muscles cross at least
one mobile joint
• On contraction, one of the
bones moves; the other is
usually fixed
• Origin: less mobile attachment
• Insertion: more mobile
attachment
• Usually, muscle insertion is
pulled toward the origin
(Source: McKinley et. al., 2015, p. 291)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Muscles of Vertebral Column and Thorax for
Movement (1/2)
Facilitate head and trunk movements.
Anterior-Lateral
Neck:
• Sternocleidomastoid
Abdominal wall:
• Rectus abdominis
• External oblique
• Internal oblique
• Transverse abdominis
Back
Intrinsic muscles:
• Iliocostalis
Erector
• Longissimus
Spinae
• Spinalis
• Quadratus lumborum
• Multifidus
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Muscles of Neck and Vertebral Column for
Movement (2/2)
Facilitate head movements and trunk extension.
Neck flexion &
Rotation
Sternocleidomastoid
(Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St
ernocleidomastoid_muscle)
Extension of vertebral
column
Maintain erect posture
(Source: Marieb & Hoehn, 2010, p. 339)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Abdominal Muscles (1/2)
Muscles of anterolateral
abdominal wall
Transversus abdominis
(Compress abdominal content)
Lateral Flexion
& Compress
abdominal wall
Flexion &
Rotation of
vertebral
column
Internal
oblique
External
oblique
Rectus
abdominis
(Source: Marieb & Hoehn, 2010, p. 343)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Abdominal Muscles (2/2)
Lateral view of trunk
External
oblique
Rectus
abdominis
Internal
oblique
Transversus
abdominis
Transverse section through
anterolateral abdominal wall
(Source: Marieb & Hoehn, 2010, p. 343)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
References
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Floyd, R. T. (2007). Manual of Structural Kinesiology (6th ed.).
Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Klavora, P. (2008). Foundations of Kinesiology: Study Human
Movement and Health. Toronto, Canada: Sport Books Publisher.
Marieb, E. N., & Hoehn, K. (2010). Human Anatomy & Physiology
(8th ed.). Glenview, IL, USA: Pearson Education.
McGinnis, P. M. (1999). Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
McKinley, M. P., O’Louglin, V. D., Pennefather-O’Brien, E., E., &
Harris, R. T. (2015). Human Anatomy (4th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill.
Norkin C..C. & Kevangie P.K. (1992). Joint Structure & Function - A
Comprehensive Analysis. (2nd Ed.). USA: F.A. Davis Company.
The Skeletal and Muscular System.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NP29ejPrOPE
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
How Muscles are Named (1/2)
Supplementary
Information
• Location of the muscle
– Indicate body region (e.g., tibialis anterior)
• Shape of the muscle
– E.g., deltoid (triangular); trapezius (trapezoid)
• Relative size of muscle
– Maximus (largest), minimus (smallest), e.g., gluteus
maximus/minimus; longus (long), brevis (short), e.g.,
adductor longus/brevis
• Number of origins
– Biceps (2), triceps (3), quadriceps (4)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Supplementary Information –
How Muscles are Named (2/2)
Supplementary
Information
• Direction of muscle fibers
– Rectus (straight), e.g., rectus femoris; transversus
(right angles), e.g., transversus abdominis; oblique
(runs oblique), e.g., external/internal obliques
• Location of attachments
– Origin named first; e.g., sternocleidomastoid (dual
origin at sternum and clavicle) and insertion at the
mastoid process of temporal bone
• Action
– Flexor (e.g., flexor carpi ulnaris), extensor (e.g.,
extensor digitorum), adductor (e.g., adductor magnus)
Copyright © Republic Polytechnic
Download