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Rapidly advancing in all spheres of development, India’s persistent
attempts to ensure generation of energy through renewable
resources are propelling it toward reducing its current standing of
the fourth largest carbon-emitter in the world (2014). The
utilisation of rapids, precipitation, sun, biomass, geothermal, flora,
wind and other such finite resources that are abundantly available;
feasible, is termed “green energy”. As of 2018, 57.14% of energy
generation in India, was sourced from coal, dominating the mix;
the renewable energy sector comprised only of 20.32%. As
repeatedly proven, fossil fuels, gases and such alternatives are not
sustainable. Formation of fossils, which derive fuels, oil and gas,
can take centuries to form. The exploitation of this resource, in
ratio to how heavily dependant several countries, including India itself is, will be massively affected upon the
heightening of resource scarcity. In addition, the extracting, processing, transporting and consuming of fossils emit
greenhouse gases; thus, polluting the air, land and water around. Copious amounts of waste are produced in creating
space and generating energy from the power plants; unsheathing of fossils makes the soil infertile due to injection of
chemicals. Health and human-welfare is at risk, considering the pollution is directly linked to the resources consumed.
Miners and labourers at nuclear power-plants are subjected to diseases/fatality due to the risks of working around
explosives/radioactors. The lack of reliability and numerous ecological determinants make renewable energy idealistic
for environmental; humanitarian; economic sustenance.
As of March 2018, India’s installed capacity was 343.85 GW of energy. A sum of approximately 67% of this energy came
from coal; gas; nuclear; diesel. The remaining 33% was split amid hydropower; renewables. The 20% of renewable
energy was divided further into biomass; solar; wind; recycled; small hydro-plants which totalled to 69,022 MW. By 2022,
the government of India proposes to increase generation from renewables to 175 GW. Currently, wind accounts for
nearly 9.87%; solar accounts for 6.59%, India is working toward a “greener”
equation, by generating 100GW from solar power; 60 GW from wind power.
Installed capacity reports from 2017 indicate that the installed capacity are
12.3 and 32.3 respectively, indicating a large hike to achieve the goal. The
annual renewable capacity would have to nearly double from 11GW
generation, to 24GW in order to meet this short term goal. Still, projections
only signify 76% reliance on green energy till 2026. Although this surpasses
India’s global commitment to achieve 40% dependance by 2030, India’s
potential and integrity toward its goal proves a scope beyond its targets;
seemingly making it capable of achieving 100% dependance on renewable
energy in the years to come.
India: for several reasons, can succeed in its quest to sustainable and green energy. The country’s topographic
advantages include 300+ sunny days in several parts of the nation, from which ​5000 trillion kWh of solar energy can be
generated. In addition, the installment and enhancement of wind, tidal and biomass energy (as calculated by WWF)
India has the potential to generate 170 GW through wind turbines placed around 4660 miles of coastline within regional;
national perimeters. Considering the vast outreach of the land, its constantly changing climates and resources could be
used as an asset to achieve this goal by a set target: 2050. As of 2014, the estimated per capita energy consumption was
806,000 kWh. The county’s estimated annual increase in energy consumption is 4.2% - one of the fastest in the world.
Compounding the energy consumption of India, as of 2018, would be only 3 trillion at large. This figure, in itself, could
be sufficed by the country’s solar energy potential, further establishing the possibility. With a population of 1.3 billion,
the government has already taken measures to account for the odd 240 million people that don’t receive electricity. Not
only have the costs of renewable energy been reduced, but the storage for energy in forms of batteries and other facility
has been developed as well. Capital cost has deteriorated; banks have reduced interest rates on setting up green energy
generation facility. With such high encouragement, Indians are likely to be prosumers and suffice for their own
power-related needs through installation of solar panels and such at residences and localities. India’s current 62.8GW
generation is seemingly only 7% of its capacity, 897.15GW being its potential at this very point. By 2020, 302 GW of wind
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power can be generated, as well as increase its production to 67GW, making this goal easily procurable in
the next 30 odd years. With constant effort, India’s 22% climb in investment towards clean energy, the 7.4
billion USD, with its 6.6% economic growth per annum, proves its potential sooner than the timeframe
Unfortunately, the country still lacks several crucial qualities and
possessions to be able to attain this goal. In my opinion. With major
attention being drawn to solar and current energy, research suggests
only 0.04% of the renewable sector targets power generation through
waste recycling. These statistics remain appalling, considering that an
average of 62 million tonnes of waste are generated per annum. This
heavy amount (if not all, but most of it) can create nearly ​35017440 MWh
of energy (considering 2,200 tons can produce 1200 MWh). This concept
has several strengths to it, some of which include the fact that this idea is
environmentally friendly. When waste is dumped in landfills, it is
extracted and segregated as per its relevance and taken to power plants,
wherein it is burned to create steam that powers a turbine that generates energy. The ashes created from the burning of
waste are disposed separately or recycled. This not only ensures better waste-management, but reduces pollution in
totality. The second opportunity, especially in a country with a large population, industrial growth and waste
production, this concept is reliable and timely. Alongside efforts to curb the amount of wastage in the country, using
garbage for beneficiary use is only practical. Inevitably, waste will be created until mankind has learnt to live
completely on the basis of reduction and reuse; recycling the ample amounts available will provide loads of energy that
can contribute to meeting the country’s requirements. With an easy process and available, this problem may still have
some negatives. In some ways, the environment and labourers around the power-plant may be subject to certain risks.
The ashes produced by the procedure (fly and bottom ash) are composed of “hazardous elements” that make them
difficult to dispose or recycle. The high toxicity not only risks
labourers to inhale unhealthy air, but incorrect method of disposal
could contaminate resources around factories and power plants,
that eventually reach our doorsteps in the forms of food and other
resources, resulting in risks of harm to humans and the ecology. In
addition to this, the cost to produce a resource that can convert
1000 tonnes of waste is ​$100 million, making it less economically
viable, especially for a developing nation. Still, with the effective
use, this investment could be favourable in the long term.​ In
totality, however, the positives overpower the negatives; India must
focus more on waste-to-energy in addition to all the other measures
being taken, to achieve a 100% green energy goal in the near future.
In conclusion, the well recognised importance of producing and using of green energy for its several advantages to the
environment and humans is making it more popular amongst the world today. A country like India is consciously and
steadily looking to achieve its goals in the next couple of years; trying to increase dependency on green energy sources
(including solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biomass, and more). Reducing cost on renewable energy; expanding and
implementing facilities to make use of resources available within the borders of the land, India can achieve its targets in
a timely fashion. However, as suggested, more efforts and attention must also be channelised toward management of
waste through its use for production of energy, in order to have lessened, quicker and a definite environmental and
economical impact. With its current goals and parameters in place, the country has even shown potential of attaining
100% green energy reliance by a maximum time of 2050 (with its rate of development as of today).
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