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1.0
COMPANY VERIFICATION STATEMENT
I hereby declared that Norazreen binti Sazuki and 1615942, student of department Physics,
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) has successfully completed her Sciences
Industrial Training from 4 February 2019 at Pejabat Meteorology Pahang. This report is prepared
by the above mentioned student as a partial fulfillment of this training. All information given in
this report is true and does not contain any confidential information or classified data that might
in a way or another abuse the company’s policies.
Endorsed by
______________________
(Puan Suzalina Kamaruddin)
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2.0
2.1
ABSTRACT
ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES
Pahang Meteorological Office is located at Kuantan Pahang, and one of the
meteorological stations under Malaysian Meteorological Department which are known as
METMalaysia. It is an agency under the Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment
and Climate Change (MESTECC). This agency responsible for providing various
meteorological, climate and geophysical services for wellbeing, safety and sustainable
development. Hence, their product outcomes are issuing weather forecast, giving advice and
alarming on weather hazard. They need to monitor the sea, onshore and air weather condition
continuously throughout the country so they could provide climate analysis, earthquake and
tsunami alerts to reduce the disaster’s risk. Besides, they are also providing an aviation
meteorological services for aircraft operation. Thus, Pahang Meteorological Officers need to do
several tasks to fulfill those services such as doing surface level observation, upper level
observation and weather hazard warning.
2.2
SUMMARY OF REPORT
This internship report stresses on the work experience I have gathered as an intern in
Pejabat Meteorological Pahang at Kuantan, Pahang from 4th February 2019 till 19th July 2019. In
this report, I mainly have incorporated my participation on doing instrument calibration, weather
observation, administration work and more on analyzing elements on weather data which
completely related to my study in physics. The inception of this organization in Kuantan is
important not only for supplying weather forecast to general people but are also important in
aviation meteorology hence they are following the standard of International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) and World Meteorological Organization. This report consists of experience
on every event held by this organization during my internship period. I also have included my
study on analyzing temperature data which have been recorded for every hour by this office over
five years from 2014 to 2015. The project’s objective is to understand the importance of air
temperature data in routine observation which are crucial for aviation meteorology.
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2.3
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
In this past 24 weeks, I had undergone my industrial training in Pahang Meteorological
Office located in Kunatan, Pahang. Hence, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the
Almighty for giving me the strength and good health in my journey to complete my industrial
training for 24 weeks and successfully writing my report within the given time.
Next, my deepest thank you to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Azni binti Abdul Aziz, my industrial
training coordinator who give me support and guidance from the very beginning of applying this
internship placement till the end of my internship period. The opportunity I had at Pejabat
Meteorological Pahang was great as I had the chance to understand Physics in meteorological
department and to develop professional work ethics.
Above all, I would like to express my appreciation to Puan Suzalina binti Kamaruddin,
my supervisor which are also the Chief Assistant Director of Pahang Meteorological Office who
in spite being busy with her duties, took time out to hear and guide and keep me in the correct
path during my internship period. I have been given a research project by Encik Khairul Najib
bin Ibrahim, the Director of Pahang Meteorological Office. Puan Suzalina’s encouragement and
suggestion had gave me insight on how to complete the project.
Lastly, I am thankful for Encik Khairul Najib bin Ibrahim, the Director of Pahang
Meteorological Office, and all the staff of Pahang Meteorological Office that make me feel
welcomed and treat me nicely. It is an honour to be given a chance in doing intern here.
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3.0
OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of industrial training for students is to give them working experience
with specific task and responsibilities. This is relevant by giving 6 months of internship period at
selected organization because most of students did not have the chance to experience in Physics
working field. Therefore, with the existence of this subject, student can get the image on working
in field that they have learnt.
Pahang Meteorological Office is a service based industry which provide weather forecast
to the nation. Thus, the second objectives are to relates the importance of physics in
meteorological industry. This in advance will increase their knowledges and skills of application
of physics especially in atmospheric physics which cannot be learnt in classroom. Currently,
industries are more welcoming for new employment with job experience for they can ease their
work in training new employees. Thus, industrial training would give added value for students in
job application.
Other than that, the purpose of industrial training is to develop soft skill and professional
work ethics such as integrity, responsibility, and self-confidence. Students need to follow all
ethical values and good working practices. In advance, student will learn about the safety
practices and regulations inside the industry and apply a good teamwork spirit and built good
relationship between students and employees. This will prepare the students so that they will
easily fit in and fulfill the demands of their profession after fulfilling their course.
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4.0
4.1
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF ORGANIZATION
Figure 1: Logo of the Malaysian Meteorological Department
Pahang Meteorological Office is an office under the Malaysian Meteorological
Department which formerly known as MMD and now as METMalaysia. It is an agency under
the Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment and Climate Change (MESTECC).
Pahang Meteorological Office is located at Kuantan, Pahang and was officially established in
October 2013. Historically, the responsibility had been here in Kuantan since 1968 with the
name “Stesen Kajicuaca Kuantan” before changed to “Pejabat Kajicuaca Kuantan” in 1980. This
office equipped with radar, satellite image, and upper air observation and surface level
observation instruments. The establishment of this office is to meet the need of METMalaysia’s
vision and mission which is to be among the best of meteorological, climatological and
geophysical service center.
4.2
VISION AND MISSION
➢ VISION
To be a leading meteorological, climatological and geophysical service center by 2030.
➢ MISION
To meet national needs in meteorological, climatological and geophysical services for
societal wellbeing, safety and sustainable development.
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4.3
STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION
Figure 2: Organization chart of Pahang Meteorological Office
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4.4
SUPERVISOR
Name
: Puan Suzalina binti Kamaruddin
Position
: Senior Assistant Director Pahang Meteorological Office
Job description
:
•
Responsible to coordinate security control of physical protection, documents and office
personnel
•
Proposing and providing planning for maintenance of buildings, quarters and other
infrastructures to have a conducive office and environment
•
Preparing annual expenditure reports, budget proposals and procurement as well as
managing government assets in offices subject to director's instructions
•
Reviewing the process of production and distribution of products/services to meet
customers' expectations and KPI targets. Thereby, giving advice to the officer in charge if
applicable
•
Provide weather reports / surveys and submit meteorological briefings at state / district /
agency level subject to director’s instructions
•
Responsible as a liaison officer between the office of Pahang Meteorological Office with
the stakeholders and undertakes the task of meeting the meeting if necessary
•
Plan and make a divisional assignment among assistant directors and supervisors as best
suited as possible
•
Responsible as a document’s manager and the “Urusetia Jawatankuasa Penilaian Risiko”
for quality management system of MS ISO 9001: 2015 at the departmental level.
•
Responsible as “Ahli Jawatankuasa Kumpulan Kerja Teknikal” CAAM-MMD-TUDM
•
Responsible as “Ahli Jawatankuasa Pelaksana” for Information Security Management
System (ISMS), ISO / IEC 27001: 2013
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•
Assisting the Director coordinate exhibition/ awareness program on disaster risk related
to phenomena of earthquake and tsunami
•
Carry out other task tasks as directed by the director or top management metmalaysia
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5.0
SUMMARY OF DUTIES
February 2019
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday Thursday
Friday
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Sunday
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4th Feb – 8th Feb
: Ice breaking session with all staff in Pahang Meteorological Office and
the trainees had learnt about the organization. I also had been asked to
download My Cuaca apps and understand the features of the apps. Been
briefed about upper air balloon.
11th Feb – 16th Feb
: Learnt about Wind Runway Visual Range (WRVR) and briefed about the
instruments at MET Farm Pahang Meteorological Office. Besides, the
officers and interns went to visit “Pangkalan Tentera Udara Diraja
Malaysia” and tried the aircraft simulator. In addition, the trainees divided
works for games and learnt aerobic dance step for Family Day on
16th February 2019 so that everything flow smoothly.
18th Feb – 22nd Feb
: Planned a visit to “Agensi Remote Sensing Malaysia (ARSM)” at
Mentakab Pahang. Been briefed about the product of PM Pahang. I had
observed and learnt on how to change AC/DC converter in WRVR
instrument. Besides that, I had learned about radiosonde and tephigram.
Went to Kuantan radar station and learnt on how the radar monitor the
weather. Lastly, learnt on how to change filter paper of High Volume Air
Sampler (HVAS)
25th Feb – 1st March : Given a task to present about Dasar Keselamtan ICT (DKICT). I had
learned more about WRVR. Joined the first meeting with the director of
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Pahang Meteorological Office. Next, attended a health talk from Jabatan
Kesihatan Kuantan.
Remarks
:
5th Feb – 6th Feb
: Chinese New Year’s Celebration
16th Feb
: Family day of Pahang Meteorological Office
March 2019
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
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4th Mar – 8th Mar
: I had been briefed on how to observe the cloud. Then, consults with
supervisor on DKICT slides. Besides, I had received reading materials to
ease the understanding about meteorology. Continued preparing slide for
DKICT presentation. Lastly, cleaned and rearranged books in library.
11th Mar – 15th Mar
: I had learnt about atmosphere and clouds. I had been given main project
for my internship from director of Pahang Meteorological Office. Besides,
the trainee got task to draw plan of Pahang Meteorological Office. In
addition, learned about aviation meteorology for internship project.
18th Mar – 22nd Mar : Visit to airport tower and 4 Briged Mekanize. Then, visit the sirens
system at Teluk Chempedak, Kuantan, Pahang. Starts to do cloud
observation with help from Experimental Officer (EO). Learned type of
reports that need to be sent by EO. Lastly, planned flow for internship
project.
25th Mar – 29th Mar
: Aerodrome Routinely Weather Report (METAR) need to be sent every
hour. Hence, observation is done every hour. Cloud observation includes
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type of cloud and cloud cover (okta). In addition, EO also gave the
trainees reading materials to increase knowledge in meteorology. In
advance, experienced to read weather forecast for Pahang FM. Continued
sorting out data for internship project.
April 2019
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
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1st Apr– 5th Apr
: Every hour following EO to do cloud observation to find out type of
cloud and cloud cover. Learned about precipitation, thunderstorm and
downburst. I had been given a task to tabulate data and to illustrate graph
of operating system failure for Automated Weather System (AWS),
WRVR, Radar and e-MET. After that, I had to do analysis on the plotted
graph. Lastly, find out about heat wave and the level of heat wave since
this country are facing precautionary level of heat wave.
8th Apr – 12th Apr
: Starting the day learning about visibility which consist of type of fog. In
advance, learnt about ice formation, apogee and perigee. Next, every hour
following EO to do cloud observation to find out type of cloud and cloud
cover. Furthermore, learned about the forces that generate wind. Lastly,
joined and helped for farewell event for five officers and an intern.
15th Apr – 19th Apr
: I had learnt on how to use and apply pivot table for internship project.
Next, I had been given a task for tabulate data for highest and lowest value
of monthly rainfall and temperature for climatological records. In addition,
continued plotting graph for internship project. Learned from EO to
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observe cloud type, cloud cover and visibility. Lastly, learned about cloud
formation process.
22nd Apr – 26th Apr
: Starting the day with illustrating graph for internship project. Next,
followed EO to check on High Volume Air Sampler (HVAS) since it did
not function well. The blower needs to be maintained. Learned about
HVAS from EO. Then, discussed visit to headquarters of Malaysia
Meteorological Department at Petaling Jaya. Then, the trainees visited HQ
METMalaysia. Lastly, following EO to do cloud observation to find out
type of cloud, cloud cover and horizontal visibility.
May 2019
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
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29th Apr – 3rd May
: Following EO to do observation on cloud type, cloud cover and
horizontal visibility. Next, learned about pressure system which can build
weather on places. I studied about Earth’s slanting and type of monsoon
experienced by Malaysia.
6th May – 10th May
: I continued to study about sea breeze and land breeze since it is the basic
to understand monsoon. Furthermore, find related videos that ease
understanding on formation of monsoon. I asked help from Meteorological
Officer (MO) about temperature data for internship project. In advance,
increased my knowledge on standard day term to aid the project.
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13th May – 17th May : Consulted with MO on duty to check my understanding on temperature
and pressure. Learned about Earth – Atmosphere heat balance. Next,
studied about altimeter setting and terminology, cooling process and
adiabatic process which related to internship project.
20th May – 24th May : Studied about aviation meteorology. Next, I had followed EO to do
observation on cloud type, cloud cover and horizontal visibility. Lastly,
made video to welcomes and congrats the new general director. Made
“Hari Raya” video for Pahang Meteorological Office.
27th May – 31st May : Learned about meteorological hazard. Next, finding related articles for
internship project. Besides, I had learnt on how to draw wind flow at
850hPa with satellite image aid. Lastly, following EO to do observation on
cloud type, cloud cover and horizontal visibility.
Remarks
:
1st May
: Labour Day
22nd May
: Wesak Day
23rd May
: Pahang State Holiday
June 2019
Monday
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Wednesday Thursday
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3rd Jun – 7th Jun
: Hari Raya Aidilfitri holiday with permission by Pahang Meteorological
Office, comeback from holiday I continue to study back about my project
which to study about temperature data.
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10th Jun – 14th Jun
: I had listed out the maximum temperature of the day throughout five
years to ease the analysis. Tabled the frequency of the maximum
temperature happens during the period for every month. I also had
compared the most frequentness year that recorded highest temperature of
the month with Ocean Nino Index (ONI). Next, listened to other trainee
project presentation. Lastly, learnt about El-Nino Southern Oscillation.
17th Jun – 21st Jun
: Starting the day with revising about partial pressure and relative
humidity. I also listed out date of which have warning issuance from eMET and compared to temperature graph. Continued analyze graph. On
Thursday, we had Gotong Royong of Pahang Meteorological Office. The
next day, the trainees help to clean up the Uninterruptible Power Supply
room and help EO dissemble Wet Only Rain Water Sampler.
24th Jun – 28th Jun
: Starting the day with revising on how to read upper air observation from
EO. Then, cleaned the evaporation pan. Next, the trainees helped
supervisor of meteorological instrument to check Pahang Meteorological
Office ICT asset. On Wednesday, the trainees present DKICT. While, on
Thursday, the office had ISMS audit. Lastly, the trainees had joined Hari
Raya Aidilfitri celebration of the office.
Remarks
:
5th Jun – 6th Jun
: Hari Raya Aidilfitri
July 2019
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
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1st July – 5th July
: Following EO to do observation on cloud type, cloud cover and
horizontal visibility. Prepared for slide presentation. Next, learn about
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ARFOR, AD Warning and MET warning and continued to write main
report.
8th July – 12th July
: Following EO to do observation on cloud type, cloud cover and
horizontal visibility. Next, releasing weather balloon during day and night
shift. Lastly, attend meeting of Pahang Meteorology Office No. 1.
15th July – 19th July
: This is the final week of internship, I had to present my internship project
to the director and my supervisor. Finalizing internship report.
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6.0
PROJECT
Project title: Analysis of temperature data for 5 years and the impact on aviation meteorology.
6.1
INTRODUCTION
Weather observation is a crucial work that need to be done every hour at meteorological
station. Weather phenomenon is a thermodynamic process where transformation of energy in a
system (earth) and between the system and environment (ground). Hence, it involved in every
atmospheric process, from the large scale of general circulation to the local transfer of radiative
sensible and latent heat between the surface and the atmosphere and the microphysical processes
that produce clouds. This topic is too broad to be discussed, hence this project main goal is
implication of thermodynamic effect which focus on temperature as one of the weather elements
that being observed to aviation meteorology. An overview on how daily temperature change will
be given. The ideal gas law will be introduced, together with the interpretation of fundamental
atmospheric processes.
6.1.1
OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this paper are
a) to illustrate graph of hourly changes in temperature in Kuantan,
b) to analyze the graph of hourly changes in temperature in Kuantan,
c) to study the effect of monsoon on temperature,
d) and to study the effect of temperature changes in aviation.
6.1.2
AIR TEMPERATURE
A measure of average kinetic energy of air molecules of a substance is called air
temperature. As air temperature increase, molecule of substance moves in higher speed, thus they
are slightly apart from each other and become less dense. In contrast, a decrease in air
temperature makes the molecule closely packed to each other and become denser. Temperature
16
should not be confused with heat. Heat is a type of energy that are being transferred because of
temperature difference between one substance to another (Ahrens, 2007).
According to International System of Unit (SI Unit), Kelvin (K) is the base unit of
temperature. However, there are other common scale of temperature which are Celsius (°C) and
Fahrenheit (°F). Temperature of a substance can be the lowest at absolute zero – 0 K, which is
equal to 273.15 °C and −459.67 °F.
6.1.2.1
HOW TEMPERATURE IS RECORDED
Temperature measurements are affected by the surroundings, covered vegetation, the
presence of buildings and other objects, land type, soil moisture, humidity and cloudiness.
Special instruments are used to record temperature which is a liquid-in-glass thermometer which
is a glass tube filled with liquid which are often mercury or alcohol that expands or contracts
with air temperature respectively. Alcohol has a freezing point of -112°C, thus are usually use
for recording minimum temperature. While mercury has a freezing point of -39°C hence it is
used to record the ambience and maximum temperature.
The basic concept of a liquid in glass thermometer is thermal expansion. Liquid molecule
in thermometer get excited and expand when heated. Therefore, an increase in level thermometer
scale. While, it will lose energy and compress when it is cooling.
In addition, the position of thermometer is important as temperature should be recorded
as a representation of air condition surrounding the station. It should be place at meteorological
station over large possible area at a height within 1.2m and 2.0m above ground level. The
position of thermometer should freely be exposed to sunshine, wind, and not shielded by or close
to trees buildings or any obstruction. Hence, temperature that are recorded on top of building are
not preferable since it may be affected by variable vertical temperature gradient and the effect of
the building. In 1864, Thomas Stevenson, a civil engineer had design and build a shelter for
thermometer that specify requirement to get reliable temperature. This thermometer is then
connected to an Automated Weather System (AWS) to be recorded in computer.
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Figure 3: Thermometer
Figure 4: Stevenson screen
6.1.2.2
THE CONTROLS OF TEMPERATURE
The main cause of the variations of temperature from one place to another are
a) Latitude
Latitude is the measurement of the distance of a location on Earth from the equator.
Every part of earth receives difference intensity of sun rays due to their respective
latitude. Aside from that, the highest intensity of light rays is when sun rays strike the
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earth at a right angle. This affect the seasonal patterns of the world which are obvious as
a location is closer to the pole.
b) Land and Water Distribution
Land has different thermal properties than water resulting in differences in temperature.
This characteristic is directly related to specific heat. Specific heat is the amount of heat
per unit mass required to raise the temperature by 1°C. The specific heat of land is much
lower than the water. Hence, the rate of absorbing and releasing heat is higher than the
sea. Since Kuantan located nearby east coast, land and sea breeze plays a big role in
temperatures between days and nights.
c) Ocean Current
Along the margin of continents, ocean currents often influence air temperatures. For
instance, along the eastern margins, warm ocean currents transport warm water poleward,
while, along the western margins, they transport cold water equatorward. This happens as
they tend to achieve thermal equilibrium.
d) Elevation
Elevation is simply related to altitude. Location with higher altitude are cooler than at
lower altitude. At similar latitude, mountain areas experience lower air temperature than
locations near sea level.
6.1.3.1
EQUATION OF STATE
One of the primitive equations that form the basis of all weather’s prediction models, is
the equation of state. Temperature, volume and pressure are homogeneous substance that are
connected by this equation. While, all gasses in some condition can be approximated into ideal
gas law equation which is
𝑝𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇
(1)
Where 𝑝 is pressure (Pa), V is volume (m3), n is number of moles 𝑛 = 𝑀/𝑚 where m is mass
(kg) M is gas molecular weight, T is temperature (K) and R is the universal gas constant. Ludwig
Boltzmann, an Austrian physicist established the kinetic theory of gases which perfect gas is
modelled as a collection of rigid spheres move in random direction and undergo perfectly elastic
collision with each other, but otherwise do not interact. This lack interaction leads to derive the
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internal energy of the gas 𝑈, that is the sum of all the kinetic energies 𝐾𝐸 of the rigid spheres, as
proportional to its temperature 𝑇 such,
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𝑈 = 𝐾𝐸 = 2 𝑛𝑅𝑇
(2)
A second consequence is that for a mixture of different gases, for each component 𝑖, a
partial pressure 𝑝𝑖 as the pressure that it would have if it was alone, at the same temperature and
occupying the same volume. Similarly, we can define the partial volume 𝑉𝑖 as that occupied by
the same mass at the same pressure and temperature, holding Dalton’s law for a mixture of gases
𝑖,
𝑝 = ∑ 𝑝𝑖
(3)
𝑝𝑖 𝑉 = 𝑛𝑖 𝑅𝑇
(4)
Where for each gas, it holds
The value of gas constant for the particular gas under consideration depends on its molecular
weight,
𝑅
𝑅𝑔𝑎𝑠 = 𝑀
(5)
𝑔𝑎𝑠
R= 8314.3 J kg-1K-1
The atmosphere is composed by a mixture of gases, water substance in any of its three physical
states and solid or liquid suspended particles (aerosol). The main components of dry atmospheric
air are listed in Table 1.
TABLE 1. Main component of dry atmospheric air.
GAS
MOLAR
MASS
SPECIFIC GAS CONSTANT
FRACTION
FRACTION
(Rgas) (J Kg-1 K-1)
Nitrogen (N2)
0.7809
0.7552
296.80
Oxygen (O2)
0.2095
0.2315
259.83
Argon (Ar)
0.0093
0.0128
208.13
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
0.0003
0.0005
188.92
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Since, water plays a vital role in weather and climate, it is preferable to treat it separately from
other air component and thus consider atmosphere as a mixture of dry gasses and water.
6.1.3.2
HYDROSTATIC BALANCE
The atmosphere is under the action of a gravitational field, so at any given level the
downward force per unit area is due to the weight of all the air above. Although the air is
permanently in motion, we can often assume that the upward force acting on a slab of air at
any level equals the downward gravitational force.
Figure 5: Forces on lab of air
This hydrostatic balance approximation is valid under all but the most extreme meteorological
conditions, since the vertical acceleration of air parcels is generally much smaller than the
gravitational one. Consider an horizontal slab of air between z and 𝑧 + ∆𝑧, of unit horizontal
surface. If 𝜌 is the air density at z, the downward force acting on this slab due to gravity is
𝑔𝜌 ∆𝑧. Let p be the pressure at z, and 𝑝 + ∆𝑝 the pressure at 𝑧 + ∆𝑧. We consider as negative,
since we know that pressure decreases with height. The hydrostatic balance of forces along the
vertical leads to
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−∆𝑝 = 𝑔𝜌∆𝑧
(6)
Hence, in the limit of infinitesimal thickness, the hydrostatic equation holds:
𝜕𝑝
= −𝑔𝜌
(7)
𝑝 = 𝜌𝑅𝑇
(8)
𝜕𝑧
While, ideal gas law can be altered into,
The hydrostatic equation becomes,
𝑝
𝜕𝑝 = − 𝑅𝑇 𝑔𝜕𝑧
(9)
and
𝜕𝑝
𝑝
𝑔
= − 𝑅𝑇 𝜕𝑧
(10)
into
𝑔𝑧
𝑝 = 𝑝𝑠 exp(− 𝑅𝑇)
(11)
and
𝑧
𝑝 = 𝑝𝑠 exp (− 𝐻)
(12)
H is scale high which
𝐻=
𝑅𝑇
𝑀𝑔
(13)
This scale shows that higher temperature leads to larger scale high.
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Figure 6: Illustration on hydrostatic balance
Hydrostatic balance shows to us that the pressure decrease with height is dependent with
temperature inside the vertical column.
6.1.3.3
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMIC AND AIR PARCEL SYSTEM
According the First Law of Thermodynamic, energy cannot be created or destroyed
which given by
𝑑𝑈 = 𝑑𝑄 + 𝑑𝑊
(14)
In atmospheric thermodynamic, the term “air parcel” which is an imaginary volume of air
is often used and be considered as closed system. A closed system can exchange energy (as heat
or work) but not matter. An air parcel can exchange heat with its surroundings through diffusion
or thermal conduction or radiative heating or cooling. Moreover, evaporation or condensation of
water and subsequent removal of the condensate is an exchange of latent heat. If a system
evolves without exchanging any heat with its surroundings, it is said to perform an adiabatic
transformation. Processes which are not adiabatic ultimately lead the atmospheric behaviours.
However, for timescales of motion shorter than one day, and disregarding cloud processes, it is
often a good approximation to treat air motion as adiabatic.
23
6.1.3.4
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY
The relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the amount of actual water vapor in the air to
the maximum amount of water vapor required for saturation at some value of temperature and
pressure. RH are calculated into percentage and in certain condition can be changed by changing
the air’s water vapor content and by changing the air temperature. Increasing the water vapor
without the change in temperature, will increase the probability vapor molecule to condense and
reach saturation, thus increasing percentage of RH. Next, by increasing temperature without
changing the water vapor will decrease the RH percentage. High temperature means high
average kinetic energy, the vapor molecule will be more excited and move far away from each
other thus less probability in going through condensation process. Besides, hot air can hold more
water vapor than cold air.
6.1.4
METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES TO AVIATION
Meteorology plays important part in aviation operation. Meteorologist will provide
weather information to the airport tower because weather has significant impact in aircraft
operation. Hence, the integration of aviation meteorology with air traffic management is
crucially important. There are special requirements set by an agency named International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) to standardize rule for safe flight operation. While, World
Meteorological Organization (WMO) had establish ways for meteorologist to meet the
requirements. Meteorologist need to send an airfield weather observation which need to be done
routinely using Aerodrome Routine Weather Report (METAR). Besides, if weather change
significantly, they need to send an Aerodrome Special Weather Report (SPECI). These reports
will be sent to Air Traffic Control (ATC) operation officer. In addition, “TREND” forecast is
attached in METAR and is reliable within two hours. All codes for METAR, SPECI and TREND
are following to WMO. Furthermore, there are also others warning supplied to ATC operation
officer which are Aerodrome (AD) Warning and Meteorological (MET) Warning.
24
6.1.4.1
AERODROME WARNING (AD WARNING)
Aerodrome warning is one of the services supplied by meteorological office to operator
aerodrome in service. AD Warning is a clear information about weather condition that will affect
aircraft on the ground. According to Annex 3 – Meteorological Services for International Air
Navigation, AD Warning should be issued if there are occurrence or expected occurrence of one
or more of the following phenomena which are tropical cyclone, thunderstorm, hail, snow,
freezing precipitation, hoar frost or rime, sandstorm, rising sand or dust, strong surface wind or
gusts, squall, frost, volcanic ash, tsunami, volcanic ash deposition, toxic chemicals and others
phenomenon that are agreed locally. The forecast warning needs to be sent at least before 10
minutes and are important for flight landing and takeoff of commercial flight operation.
6.1.4.2
METEOROLOGICAL WARNING (MET WARNING)
Meteorological Warning or MET Warning is an important warning that should be issued
when meteorologist is expecting an upcoming weather. According to ICAO this warning needs
to be issued at least 30 minutes before the weather is expected to occur. This is a crucial warning
for militaries aircraft because they fly at low altitude compared to commercial aircraft.
6.2
6.2.1
METHODOLOGY
QUANTITATIVE ANALYZING
Step 1: Data validation
This project is an analysis of a dataset of five years temperature data from 2014 to 2018
in Kuantan. Hence, it is easier to collect METAR data which being recorded for every hour.
METAR is a routinely weather observation recorded by experimental officers. Among the
component that being observe is temperature, pressure, wind speed and wind direction. This set
of hourly data are given by Cik Siti Khadijah binti Ramli which collected from Pusat Iklim
Nasional (PIN), headquarters of METMalaysia. Hence, the data collected is reliable. In total
there are about 43825 temperature recorded for every hour from 2014 to 2018.
25
2015
2014
40
Temperature
Temperature
40
30
20
10
30
20
10
0
0
2017
40
40
30
30
Temperature
Temperature
2016
20
10
20
10
0
0
2018
Temperature
40
30
20
10
0
Figure 7: Dataset of Kuantan temperature from 2014 to 2018
Location of the given data is located at the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia namely
Kuantan, Pahang. Kuantan is located at the coastal region faces South China Sea.
26
Figure 8: Location of Kuantan on map
Thermometer which are called dry bulb and wet bulb is used to collect the hourly data. It
is kept inside a Stevenson screen to protect it from direct radiation and wind.
Figure 9: Dry bulb and wet bulb
Step 2: Data Editing
There are few outliers that are important such as on 29 February, which only once
recorded in 2016 and not any other years because of leap year. Hence, it is chosen to be one of
the samples to be analyze. There are no missing data during the collection of temperature data.
27
Step 3: Data Coding
The data is classified into dry temperature for every hour of the day. It is easier to
simplify the given data into pivot table. Thus, there is approximately about 360 graphs. Besides
by using pivot table, the maximum temperature value of the day also been opted out. Table
below show how the data being separated.
Figure 10: Data sortation
6.2.2
QUALITATIVE ANALYZING
Step 1: Getting Familiar with the Data
All the data given are numbers thus, line graph is the most suitable product to analyze the
data. Observing the pattern of graph with the aid of how and why question would help in the
interpretation.
28
Step 2: Revisiting Research Objectives
Revisiting the research objectives and identifies the question that can be answered
through the collected data and graph produced such.
Step 3: Identifying Patterns and Connection
Once the data is classified, graph which have significant patterns are sort out. Another method is
making up a relative humidity against temperature graph to know the connection between low or
high temperature with water vapour content inside the air,
Step 4: Narrative Analysis
This method is used to analyze content from various source such as from observation and
experiences shared by the meteorological officer and experimental officer.
Step 5: Grounded Theory
This is the most helping method in analyzing the data. This refers to using qualitative data to
explain why certain phenomenon occurred. Studying various similar cases, facts on
meteorological books and thermodynamic books.
29
6.3
6.3.1
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
FAIR WEATHER
29 Feb 2016
Temperature (°C)
32
30
28
26
24
22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Hour
Figure 11: Hourly temperature on 29 February 2016
In the early morning, as the sun rise, sunlight warms the ground hence the graph soar
upward and reach the maximum around 3PM to 4PM. Few processes of heat transfer take place
which are conduction, convection and advection. Conduction is a process where heat is
transferred from molecule to molecule. As sun strikes the earth surface, it heats the ground and
the ground transfer heat to air molecule. However, air is extremely poor conductor of heat that
make it affect air molecule that are only a few centimeters above the ground. The heat is the
transferred vertically upward by convection. The heated air expands and become less dense than
the surrounding cooler air. This warm air parcel rise and are called thermals. As the heated air
parcel rise, cooler and denser air flows towards the surface replacing the rising warm air and the
cycle repeats. This repeated cycle is called convective circulation.
30
Figure 12: Heat transfer
Any air that rise will expands and any air that sinks will compress. This is scientifically
an adiabatic expansion and compression process. Adiabatic expansion is a process where no heat
exchange between air parcel and surrounding. As air parcel rises to upper altitude, pressure is
low hence internal energy is only relied on work makes the air parcel expands and cools. This
also prove that in higher elevation, the air density is low.
While, the horizontal part of the circulation is called advection. An air flows that ‘pick
up’ water vapor from the evaporating surface and bring it somewhere in the atmosphere. If the
air cools, the water vapor may condense into cloud droplets and release latent heat.
In the early morning, in between 6am to 7am, temperature will usually be the lowest.
This is due to the cooling process that occurs throughout the night. This cooling process occurs
start during sunset, where the earth surface and the air above start to lose heat. Radiational
cooling process take place as the sun is set, where the land cools off rapidly than air. The warmer
upper air transfer heat downward, a slow process as the air is a poor thermal conductivity. By
late night, the air near ground are slightly cooler than the air above. This radiational cooling
process– temperature increase with height during night is call radiation inversion. The cooling
31
process continue and become colder until the sun shines again. Hence, the lowest temperature in
a clear day is between 6am to 7am.
100
95
90
RH (%)
85
80
75
70
65
60
22
24
26
28
30
32
Temperature (°C)
Figure 13: RH against Temperature on 29 February 2016
The above graph shows RH against temperature on 29 February 2016 from 7 am to 7pm.
Most RH values are low.
32
6.3.2
PRECIPITATION
8 December 2016
Temperature (°C )
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Hour
Figure 14: Hourly temperature on 8 December 2016
Illustration above shows variation of temperature on 8 December 2016. There are two
obvious peaks for that day in the afternoon. After 1pm, temperature decline by 2.5°C till 2pm. It
then rises again before fall down greatly to 24.5°C at 5pm. Factors that this event to happen are:
1. Precipitation because of convection between molecules are processed rapidly,
2. Precipitation because wind brings convective clouds to Kuantan area.
Table 2.
Dry (air temperature), QFE and RH values on 8 December 2016
HOUR
DRY
DEWPT
MSLP (QFE)
RH (%)
1
25.8
24.8
1009.2
94.2
2
26.1
24.7
1008.5
92
3
25.1
24.5
1007.3
96.5
4
24.7
24.2
1007
97
5
24.7
24.2
1007.1
97
6
24.6
24.1
1007.2
97
7
24.2
23.8
1007.8
97.6
8
24.5
23.8
1008.1
95.9
9
26.6
25.2
1008.8
92
10
28
25.8
1008.8
87.9
33
11
30.3
27.2
1008.6
83.5
12
30.9
26.9
1008.1
79.3
13
31.9
27.5
1007.5
77.6
14
29.4
27.2
1006.4
88
15
30
27.4
1005.5
86
16
30.4
27.6
1005.4
85
17
24.5
24
1006.7
97
18
24.8
24.4
1006.3
97.6
19
25
24.5
1007.5
97.1
20
25.3
24.8
1008.6
97.1
21
25.1
24.3
1009.8
95.3
22
25
24.3
1010.3
95.9
23
24.9
24.4
1010.6
97.1
24
24.6
23.9
1009.9
95.9
Table above shows RH value on 8 December 2018. From the table above we can see that
at 2pm, RH percentage increased up till night.
100
95
RH (%)
90
85
80
75
70
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
Temperature (°C)
Figure 15: RH against temperature on 8 December 2016
34
The plotted graph above are set of RH against temperature between 7am to 7pm on 8
December 2016. This shows that as temperature increase, RH value will decrease and vice versa.
Hence, supports the hypothesis – when temperature drops, precipitation occurs.
6.3.3
LOW TEMPERATURE
11 January 2018
25
Temperature
24.5
24
23.5
23
22.5
22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Hour
Figure 16: Hourly temperature on 11 January 2018
The line graph above depicts the temperature value for every hour for 11 January 2018.
This graph shows that air temperature values are not more than 25°C. The possibilities are:
1. Sun are hidden by clouds
2. Precipitation happens throughout the day.
35
98
97
RH (%)
96
95
94
93
92
91
23
23.2
23.4
23.6
23.8
24
24.2
24.4
24.6
Temperature (°C)
Figure 17: RH against temperature on 11 January 2018
Graph above shows RH value against temperature for 7am to 7pm on 11 January 2018.
Most RH value scattered above 90%. It is humid throughout the day. Besides, METMalaysia had
issued heavy rain warning on 12:19pm that day which prove the hypothesis (refer appendix).
6.3.4
MONSOON
Monsoon is a seasonal reversal in wind direction, causing dry and rainy season in
Malaysia. The primary cause of monsoon is difference temperature between land and sea.
6.3.4.1
SOUTHWEST MONSOON
As the sun’s zenith moves north, the land masses of northern Indian subcontinent, the
Tibetean Plateau, and the Thar desert heat up considerably, hence resulting in low pressure area.
This cause air over Indian Ocean to flows towards the land. This air current movement is called
southwest wind in Asia. This wind causes dry and warm weather over east coast Peninsular
Malaysia. Southwest monsoon usually happens from May to October.
36
Figure 18: Southwest monsoon flow
July 2017
Temperature(°C)
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Hour
Figure 19: Hourly temperature on July 2017
Graph above shows that most of the days in July have obvious peak around 32°C. There
are less fluctuations which can be considered as clear weather. While the following graph below
are few examples of temperature graph during August 2016.
37
16 Aug 2016
15 Aug 2016
40
Temperature(°C)
Temperature(°C)
40
30
20
10
0
1
3
5
7
30
20
10
0
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1
3
5
7
Hour
Hour
18 Aug 2016
17 Aug 2016
40
Temperature (°C)
40
30
20
10
30
20
10
0
0
1
3
5
7
1
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
3
5
7
Hour
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
19 Aug 2016
40
35
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°C)
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Figure 20: Hourly temperature on few dates in August 2016
38
6.3.4.2
NORTHEAST MONSOON
During winter, land mass region such in Mongolia, Siberia and Northern China cools off
rapidly thus hereby creating high pressure area. This cause cold air over Asian Inland to flows
towards the Indian Ocean which have lower air pressure. This air current movement is called
Northeast wind in Asia. This wind causes rainy weather over east coast Peninsular Malaysia. The
onset of Northeast monsoon in Malaysia are usually are on November and it offset are on March.
Figure 21: Northeast monsoon flow
January 2017
34
Temperature (°C)
32
30
28
26
24
22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Hour
Figure 22: Hourly temperature on January 2017
39
Graph above shows compilation of everyday temperature on January 2017. It shows that
there are many days where air temperature fluctuates and did not have one obvious peak.
Temperature are mostly low during Northeast monsoon. Whilst, graph below shows few
examples on temperature graph in January 2017.
2 January 2017
40
Temperature(°C)
Temperature (°C)
1 January 2017
30
20
10
0
40
30
20
10
0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
4 January 2017
40
Temperature (°C)
26
25.5
25
24.5
24
23.5
23
30
20
10
0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
5 January 2017
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°C)
3 January 2017
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Figure 23: Hourly temperature on few dates in January 2017
40
6.3.5
IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE IN AVIATION
Aviation is a mode of transportation that are greatly affected by weather. Analysis
temperature changes above does not give impact to takeoff and landing flight directly because
temperature in Kuantan does not varies extremely. However, in a hot sunny day the aircraft need
more runway and extra engine work and it have poor climb rate. While, low air temperature
which associated with high humidity, the power engine of aircraft is reduced because less air
available compared to water vapour. In addition, when temperature low, relative humidity is high
and approaching 100%, visibility will be low and impact flight takeoff and landing. However,
extreme temperature in different places on earth surface also can generate adverse weather such
heavy rain and thunderstorm which will impact aircraft operation.
6.4
PROJECT CONCLUSION
In conclusion, Kuantan temperature does not vary extremely throughout the day. The
coolest air temperature usually between 6am to 7am. However, this are not always the case.
When precipitation happened, it may be colder than the early morning temperature. Furthermore,
temperature is slightly infected during monsoon season. Northeast monsoon makes temperature
in Kuantan lower than any usual day. While, during Southwest monsoon, most of days has one
obvious peak of air temperature. Lastly, aircraft operation might be affected when air
temperature is low. The analysis show that low air temperature in Kuantan means low visibility
and the occurrence of precipitation.
41
7.0
WORKING AND LEARNING EXPERIENCE
On 4th February 2019, I went to Pahang Meteorological Office to report on duty. Cik Siti
Khadijah binti Ramli, the meteorological officer on duty had welcomed me and other trainees.
Then, Puan Suzalina binti Kamaruddin, my supervisor briefs us about the office and Malaysia
Meteorological Department. For 24 weeks, I have been learning on the task of experimental
officer and meteorological officer and the relation of meteorology in physics field.
7.1
TECHNICAL
➢ RELEASING UPPER AIR BALLOON
•
I learnt how to release upper air balloon to get upper air observation. This balloon
needs be released every 12 hours at 2331 UTC and 1131 UTC. The balloon is
filled up with hydrogen gas and attached with a radiosonde. Radiosonde is used to
detect the upper level atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind
speed and wind direction. This balloon will last up to approximately two hours at
the sky before it burst. Using Grawmet Software, it will then translate data from
transmitter into codes that are easy to read.
Figure 24: Set up upper air balloon
42
Figure 25: Releasing upper air balloon
Figure 26: Radiosonde
Figure 27: Radiosonde
43
➢ CHANGING HIGH VOLUME AIR SAMPLER FILTER PAPER
•
I learnt on how to change the filter paper of HVAS. This filter paper needs to be
changed every week on Tuesday. It filters 24 hours air molecule and need to be
takeoff from the instrument the next day.
Figure 28: Replacing filter paper
➢ CALIBRATING HIGH VOLUME AIR SAMPLER (HVAS)
•
I learnt the function of High Volume Air Sampler (HVAS) which is to filter the
air molecule. It can filter molecule which size up to 10 nanometers. HVAS needs
to be calibrated for every 3 months. Among the equipment needed to do this
calibration are water manometer, calibration orifice, clean filter paper, mass flow
probe and transducer.
Figure 29: HVAS with calibration orifice
44
➢ SERVICE WIND RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE
•
I learnt how to replace AC/DC in wind runway visual range (WRVR) instrument.
WRVR is an instrument that determine the landing and takeoff condition for
aircraft pilot. It is used to monitor wind speed, wind direction and the surface
visibility along the runway.
Figure 30: Officers and trainees with WRVR instrument
➢ TAKE OFF THE SEA CAMERA AT TELUK CHEMPEDAK, KUANTAN
•
I learnt on the function of sea camera. The sea camera is used to monitor the sea
wave.
Figure31: Sea Camera
45
➢ SERVICES SIREN SYSTEM AT TELUK CHEMPEDAK, KUANTAN
•
I learnt about siren system near the sea. Alarm system is important to warn the
people near the sea if there are strong winds or strong wave coming.
Figure 32: Sirens system
➢ REPLACING NEW EVAPORATION PAN
•
The other trainee and I clean the evaporation pan. It needs to be cleaned when it is
dirty. After that, we need to refill the new pan with water till it reach certain value
for initial reading.
•
I also learnt on how to read the volume of water in the evaporation pan. The
reading needs to be taken for every 24 hours to records the amount of water that
evaporates.
Figure 33: Pouring out water from dirty pan
46
7.2
COMPUTER SKILL
➢ ILLUSTRATE PIVOT GRAPH
•
Using Microsoft Excel, I am able to do pivot table and pivot graph. This had ease
me analyzing my temperature data.
➢ MAKING VIDEOS
•
I had increased my knowledge in making videos since the trainees are assigned to
make video of Family Day of Pahang Meteorological Office.
➢ DRAWING PLAN
•
I had learnt on how to use Adobe Illustrator when I had been assigned to draw
Wind Calibration Lab of Pahang Meteorological Office. Before, I never had used
this creative software, I take this task as opportunity to learn on using this
software.
Figure 34: Wind calibration lab plan
7.3
TEAMWORK
➢ I had learnt this throughout my internship period. Communication and sharing experience
are important in reaching the organization’s goals. I observed that every tasks of officers
are interrelated with each other. Hence, they need to remind and share their knowledge so
products quality is well maintained. Besides, the trainees had been given several tasks
such as in charge in games and aerobic session during Family Day, presentation of
47
“Dasar Keselamatan ICT”, drawing plans of Pahang Meteorological Office, tabulate data
of instruments and system down, tabulate climate data and preparation for Hari Raya
celebration. All these tasks need to be divided equally, so the task can be submitted on
time.
7.4 COMMUNICATION SKILL
➢ This skill is important to make a good teamwork skill besides to have a good relationship
between employees. In the end of my internship period, I realized that I had improved my
self-confidence and my communication skill. I could confidently ask for help from the
officers when I had problem in understanding task given. This help me a lot while I am
doing my internship project.
7.5
CRITICAL AND ANALYTICAL THINKING
➢ It is important for us to organize our tasks and assignment, so it can be done on time. I
had applied this skill while doing my internship project. Analyzing data is much easier
when I listed type of graph I might need to illustrate. This makes my works flow
smoothly.
48
8.0
CONCLUSION
Overall, this internship I had at Pahang Meteorological Office was very beneficial for me.
This whole internship period had given me real experience working in physics field. I had met
lots of new people who welcomed and treat me nicely which allowed me with full opportunities
to learn and know myself as a worker. All the staffs whose expert on weather physics are willing
to share their knowledge to me, hence help me to build a good relationship with them. Every task
included my internship project given also had been submitted successfully when we collaborate
ideas to settle the works. Although I also had received criticism and advice but this whole
experience brought out my strength and the areas I need to make up.
Throughout my internship period, I had managed to relate and apply the theoretical
knowledge from university into practice through many activities and tasks given. Weather
observation which had been done every hour is the among the important thing in meteorological
world. At first, it was not easy to observe weather, but with the help from experimental and
meteorological officers, I had managed to understand how to observe weather and to understand
the formation of weather. Every concept on formation of weather are related to physics. Hence,
the second objective of this internship is achieved.
Another important thing I had gain in span of 24 weeks are improving my skills on using
Microsoft Excel, Adobe Creative software, and communication skill. In conclusion, all the
activities being done during internship period had prepared me to face the challenging of real
working environment. Pahang Meteorological Office should be one of student preference when
they apply for internship program. This is because, this organization is truly the real working
place where physics student could apply what they learn in classroom. Besides, it would be best
if the logbook given by the university are in coil-binding book rather than standard book so that
student could give better care to the book.
49
9.0
REFERENCE
Ahrens, C. D. (2009). Meteorology today: An introduction to weather, climate, and the
environment. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub.
Cairo, F. (2011). Atmospheric Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics - Interaction Studies - Solids,
Liquids and Gases. doi:10.5772/19429
Fundamentals of Aviation Meteorology. (n.d.). Retrieved from
https://bmtc.moodle.com.au/course/view.php?id=136
Laman Web Rasmi Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.met.gov.my/
Noaa. (2001, January 01). NOAA's Climate Prediction Center. Retrieved from
https://origin.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensostuff/ONI_v5.php
50
10.0
APPENDIX
Figure 35: Pahang Meteorological Office
Figure 36: Visit to Pangkalan Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia
51
Figure 37: Terompah Gergasi game
Figure 38: Photography session Family Day of Pahang Meteorological Office
52
Figure 39: Visit to Radar Kuantan
Figure 40: Join "Mesyuarat Pengurusan Bil. 1"
53
Figure 41: Health talk by Jabatan Kesihatan Kuantan
Figure 42: Join medical checkup from Jabatan Kesihatan Kuantan
54
Figure 43: Visit to tower of Kuantan airport
Figure 44: Visit to 4 Briged Mekanize
55
Figure 45: Farewell event for Pahang Meteorological officer
Figure 46: Visit to headquarters of METMalaysia
56
Figure 47: Gotong royong of Pahang Meteorological Office
Figure 48: Opening audit ISMS
57
Figure 49: Hari Raya Aidilfitri celebration
58
11.0
ATTACHMENT
Hourly Temperature graph
Year: 2014
January 2014
February 2014
35
Temperature
Temperature
35
30
25
20
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
April 2014
35
40
30
35
Temperature
Temperature
March 2014
25
20
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
Jun 2014
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
May 2014
40
30
25
20
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
59
August 2014
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
July 2014
40
30
25
20
15
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
October 2014
35
40
30
35
Temperature
Temperature
September 2014
25
20
15
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
November 2014
December 2014
35
Temperature
Temperature
35
30
25
20
15
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
60
Hourly temperature graph
Year: 2015
February 2015
35
35
30
30
Temperature
Temperature
January 2015
25
20
15
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
April 2015
35
40
30
35
Temperature
Temperature
March 2015
25
20
15
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
Jun 2015
40
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
May 2015
30
25
20
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
61
August 2015
40
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
July 2015
30
25
20
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
October 2015
35
40
30
35
Temperature
Temperature
September 2015
25
20
30
25
20
15
1
3
5
7
15
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1
Hour
3
November 2015
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
December 2015
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
5
30
25
20
15
30
25
20
15
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
62
Hourly Temperature Graph
Year: 2016
January 2016
February 2016
35
30
30
Temperature
Temperature
35
25
20
25
20
15
15
1
3
5
7
1
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
3
5
40
30
35
Temperature
Temperature
April 2016
35
25
20
15
3
5
7
30
25
20
15
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1
Hour
3
5
40
40
35
35
30
25
15
15
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
25
20
5
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
30
20
3
7
Jun 2016
Temperature
Temperature
May 2016
1
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
March 2016
1
7
Hour
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
63
August 2016
40
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
July 2016
30
25
20
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
October 2016
40
35
35
30
Temperature
Temperature
September 2016
30
25
25
20
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
December 2016
35
35
30
30
Temperature
Temperature
November 2016
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
64
Hourly Temperature Graph
Year: 2017
January 2017
February 2017
32
Temperature
Temperature
34
30
28
26
24
22
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
March 2017
April 2017
40
35
Temperature
Temperature
30
25
20
35
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
Jun 2017
40
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
May 2017
30
25
20
15
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
65
July 2017
August 2017
34
35
Temperature
Temperature
32
30
28
26
24
22
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
September 2017
October 2017
40
Temperature
Temperature
35
30
25
20
35
30
25
20
15
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
November 2017
December 2017
35
Temperature
Temperature
40
35
30
25
20
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
66
Hourly Temperature Graph
Year: 2018
February 2018
35
35
30
30
Temperature
Temperature
January 2018
25
20
15
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
April 2018
35
40
30
35
Temperature
Temperature
March 2018
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
May 2018
Jun 2018
Temperature
Temperatue
40
35
30
25
20
40
35
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
67
August 2018
40
40
35
35
Temperature
Temperature
July 2018
30
25
20
15
30
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
October 2018
35
35
30
30
Temperature
Temperature
September 2018
25
20
15
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
December 2018
35
35
30
30
Temperature
Temperature
November 2018
25
20
15
25
20
15
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Hour
Hour
68
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