Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank UNITED STATES HISTROY 121 FINAL EXAM REVIEW Chapter 1: New World Encounters, Preconquest – 1608 1) The most significant factor that allowed large numbers of nomadic hunters to enter the heart of North America was __________. a. the domestication of horses b. global warming c. population growth d. the search for new food supplies 2) Which of the following revolutionized early Native American cultures? a. the discovery of hunting b. the development of agriculture c. tribal political alliances d. emergence of a written language 3) The single greatest factor that caused the destruction of Native Americans after contact with Europeans was __________. a. warfare b. planned genocide c. disease d. forced conversions to Christianity 4) In the Columbian Exchange, the Old World and the New exchanged __________. a. animal, plant, and microbial life forms b. technologies c. religious beliefs d. political systems e. scientific theories 5) The Portuguese explored West Africa __________. a. to convert natives to Christianity b. as tests of their new navigational technology c. to establish colonies in Africa and find a new route to India d. searching for slaves and gold 6) Columbus originally was determined to prove that __________. a. a westward water route to China existed b. the world was not flat c. the continents of North and South America existed d. the lost continent of Atlantis was actually part of South America 7) The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 resulted in __________. a. a division of territory between Spain and Portugal b. Portuguese control of Brazil c. English control of Canada d. French control of Martinique 1 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 8) The men largely responsible for Spain’s conquest of the New World were known as __________. a. conquistadores b. coureurs de bois c. “Sea Dogs” d. condottiere 9) From its beginnings, Spain regarded her New World domain as primarily a(n) __________. a. source of gold and silver b. place to send exiled Moors and Jews c. opportunity to further promote the Catholic faith d. supplier of cheap Native American labor to be used on Spanish estates 10) The first English French explorers were __________. a. interested in finding the mythical “northwest passage” to China b. determined to find gold and silver c. eager to Christianize the Native Americans d. ruthless and exploitive of the native peoples 11) In their relations with the Native Americans, the French __________. a. were as obsessed with Christian conversion as the Spanish b. tended to cultivate good relations because of the Native Americans’ knowledge of fur trapping c. were ruthless in their treatment of the Native Americans d. drove them from their land in order to set up plantations 12) What sixteenth-century European upheaval had a profound impact upon England’s settlement of the New World? a. the Crusades b. the War of the Roses c. the Reformation d. the Hundred Years’ War 13) Which identifies the most important result of the domestication of maize (corn), beans, and squash by some Native American groups? a. People gained greater control over their environments. b. People stopped hunting mammals. c. People evolved into a single continental cultural unit. d. People were able to continue a wandering, hunting lifestyle. 14) What was the main result of the deadly diseases brought to the New World by Europeans? a. an extremely high mortality rate among the natives, destroying the culture of many tribes b. a diminution of these diseases throughout Europe c. some deaths, but a low number compared to those caused by warfare between Native Americans and Europeans d. a death rate high only where Native Americans lived in low concentrations 2 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 15) Why was the wealth that Spain acquired from the New World considered to be a mixed blessing? a. Spain was forced to send a large proportion of its population to the New World to help ship gold and silver back to Spain. b. The Spanish got wealthy from silver and gold in the New World, but lost most of their army and navy in battles with Native Americans. c. Spain only used the New World as a source of wealth; it did not consider establishing real settlements there. d. Great inflation for ordinary Spaniards resulted from Spain’s quick acquisition of its wealth. 16) Which of the following identifies the main catalyst for the Protestant Reformation in England in the 1500s? a. Henry VII’s severing of all ties with the pope b. the Act of Supremacy c. the death of Edward VI d. Henry VIII’s wish to dissolve his marriage to Catherine of Aragon 17) Who supported the first colonization efforts undertaken by the English in the New World? a. the English king b. Italians acting for the English monarch c. Parliament d. joint stock companies 18) Which of the following is incorrectly matched with its colony? a. France – Canada b. Portugal – Brazil c. Spain – Puerto Rico d. England – Cuba 19) What was the key difference between the English and Spanish colonial systems? a. The English crown totally funded the colonies, while the Spanish Crown offered little aid to its colonizers. b. The English efforts were private, and the Spanish colonies were supported by the Crown. c. The English settled the interior lands, while the Spanish settled primarily in coastal regions. d. Religion played a central role in all the English colonies, but had little or no impact in New Spain. 20)English explorers like Cabot, Frobisher, and Hudson were searching for a. the seven golden cities. b. the Great Migration. c. a Northwest Passage. d. a land route to California. Chapter 2: England’s New World Experiments, 1607 - 1732 1) English settlers in seventeenth-century America could be characterized best in terms of their __________. a. striking social diversity b. similarity to French and Spanish migrants of the same period c. unity of purpose and motivation d. desire to help each other 3 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 2) Upon arriving in the New World, English settlers __________. a. quickly abandoned English beliefs and values b. generally adapted old beliefs to the new environment c. rarely were forced to significantly change their old English ways d. usually adopted the customs of the local Indian tribes as a way to survive 3) The __________ Company was responsible for the settlement of Jamestown in Virginia. a. New England b. Royal African c. Virginia d. American 4) Religious reasons were least important in the founding of which colony? a. Massachusetts b. Rhode Island c. Maryland d. Virginia 5) Jamestown might have gone the way of Roanoke had it not been for the perseverance of __________. a. John Winthrop b. Captain John Smith c. Pocahontas d. Richard Hakluyt 6) Jamestown’s prosperity was ensured by __________. a. the discovery of gold b. the development of fur trading c. royal financial support d. tobacco cultivation 7) Under the “headright” system in Virginia, __________. a. every adult male could vote b. every child was guaranteed a primary education c. all new arrivals received 50-acre land grants after they had paid for their passage d. new immigrants were guaranteed a year’s provisions 8) In which colony was the death rate for the early colonists most severe? a. Massachusetts b. New York c. Rhode Island d. Virginia 9) In 1624, Virginia became __________. a. an independent commonwealth b. a proprietary colony c. a royal colony d. part of Maryland 4 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 10) Initially, Lord Baltimore intended that Maryland be a haven for __________. a. Quakers b. Puritans c. Catholics d. Baptists 11) The document in which the Pilgrims established a civil government for their Plymouth Colony has become known as the __________. a. Bill of Rights b. Mayflower Compact c. Statement of Principles d. Cambridge Agreement 12) To its founding leaders, __________ would be a “City on a Hill.” a. Rhode Island b. Connecticut c. Maryland d. Massachusetts 13) Because of its policy of religious toleration, __________ attracted unusual numbers of independentminded people. a. Maryland b. Connecticut c. New York d. Rhode Island 14) The colony of Pennsylvania was established as a religious sanctuary for __________. a. Puritans b. Catholics c. Baptists d. Quakers 15) What was a major factor stimulating English migration to the New World? a. a desire to establish a democratic form of government b. the discovery of mineral resources c. escape from the plague d. a desire for land ownership 16) What eventually solved the economic problems of seventeenth-century Virginia? a. cultivation of tobacco b. reorganization of the joint-stock company c. a successful agreement with the Native Americans d. trading with Barbados 17) Indentured servants __________. a. were working off the cost of their passage to America b. served the same number of years regardless of age or experience c. had no more legal rights than slaves d. received grants of land when their terms were up 5 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 18) Which identifies why the Mayflower Compact is considered an important historical document? a. It was the first example of colonists describing the hardships endured on a voyage to the New World. b. It was a legal document that authenticated the Pilgrims’ right to settle in New England. c. It included a list of the passengers on the Mayflower who became the first New England colonists. d. It was the first example of colonists forming a basic government in North America. 19) Which best describes how the colony of New York was settled? a. New York was originally settled by the Duke of York and subsequently became Dutch. b. New York was originally settled by the Dutch and then taken by force by the English. c. New York was settled exclusively by the Dutch without African Americans or any other group. d. New York was settled originally by African Americans who were later pushed out by the English. 20) The lives of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson provide strong evidence that __________. a. Puritans seldom disagreed on matters of theology b. Massachusetts Bay officials insisted on freedom of religious thought and expression c. Massachusetts Bay faced difficulties in creating the perfect society in America d. Massachusetts Bay Colony sent preachers to frontiers as missionaries to the Indians Chapter 3 – Putting Down Roots – Opportunity and Oppression in Colonial Society 1) The explanation for the tremendous population growth of seventeenth-century New England can be found in the __________. a. extraordinary fertility of New England women b. emphasis Puritans placed on having large families c. fact that local Native American tribes were remarkably friendly d. long lives of New England settlers 2) The society created by Puritans in New England __________. a. copied the social order they had left behind in England b. was modeled on contemporary Dutch society c. represented a near-total rejection of traditional English ways d. was quite similar to that of the Chesapeake region 3) Compared to New England, Chesapeake society __________. a. was more democratic b. was characterized by small farms c. possessed fewer families d. had a more demographically concentrated population 4) Of the estimated 11 million African slaves carried to America, the great majority were sent to __________. a. The Caribbean b. British North America c. Chile d. Argentina 6 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 5) In the early seventeenth century, when the colony was first settled, Virginia's blacks __________. a. were encouraged to marry white women b. occasionally served in the House of Burgesses c. were sometimes indentured servants d. greatly outnumbered whites 6) During the colonial period, most of the slaves sent to the North American colonies were supplied by the __________. a. Dutch b. Americans c. Portuguese d. British 7) The most serious slave rebellion of the colonial period was __________. a. the Stono Uprising b. the Denmark Vesey Conspiracy c. Nat Turner's Rebellion d. the Jamestown Massacre 8) British authorities based their colonial commercial policies on the theory of __________. a. feudalism b. monopolism c. mercantilism d. federalism 9) The Navigation Acts established the principle that __________. a. certain American products could be sold only in England or in English colonies b. only English merchants could engage in colonial trade c. all colonial goods sold in England had to be shipped in American vessels d. only colonial merchants could engage in colonial trade 10) The intention of the Navigation Acts was to __________. a. allow England to monopolize American trade b. promote English industrial development c. keep the American colonies weak and dependent d. stimulate colonial economic diversification 11) One of the major causes of __________ was the lack of protection and support of landless freemen by the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1670. a. Bacon's Rebellion b. Coode's Rebellion c. Leisler's Rebellion d. the Stono Uprising 12) The peaceful ousting of James II by Parliament, the incarnation of William and Mary, and the ratification of the Bill of Rights in 1688 was known as __________. a. King James' War b. the Restoration c. Parliament's Rebellion d. the Glorious Revolution 7 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 13) Why were New England colonists more likely to maintain English customs than those who migrated to Virginia and Maryland? a. The New England colonists came from higher social ranks than those in the other colonies, and were more familiar with traditional English customs. b. The New England colonists brought more English goods with them to America, which helped keep the traditions alive. c. The New England colonists tended to migrate as families and thus were able to keep family and other traditions in the New World. d. The New England colonists generally came to America as single men and women and found that preserving their English customs comforted them. 14) What role did women have in the New England colonies? a. They generally had no independence at all from men. b. They had the same legal rights as men, but could not vote. c. They made no decisions and simply followed the orders of men. d. They were respected for their work but were not considered equal to men. 15) How would late-seventeenth-century Virginia best be described? a. a plantation society, dominated by a slaveholding aristocracy b. a diversified society and economy, with minimal social stratification c. a society of small farmers, committed to multicrop agriculture d. a successful commercial enterprise that returned large profits to the crown 16) What hindered the development of towns in the Chesapeake region? a. hostility between different ethnic groups b. the absence of navigable rivers c. the absence of a vibrant middle class d. the dependence on a one-crop economy based on tobacco 17) Why did colonial lawmakers create strict slave codes in the late 1600s? a. Lawmakers wanted slaves to be treated fairly. b. Lawmakers feared an uprising because the African population had increased greatly. c. Lawmakers wanted to prevent an influx of additional Africans into America. d. Lawmakers wanted African Americans to be treated the same as indentured servants. 18) Which provides the strongest evidence that eighteenth-century slavery was based on racist views? a. The status of a person as a slave depended entirely on the amount of money a person had, and blacks had little money. b. The status of a person as a slave depended on where the person was born, and being born in Africa made a person a slave. c. The status of a person as a slave depended entirely on skin color. d. The status of a person as a slave depended partly on skin color and partly on intelligence. 19) Which statement best describes a mercantilist economic system? a. Trade benefits all trading partners equally. b. Trade benefits only the weak nations. c. One nation's success in commerce has no effect on other nations. d. The mother countries success in commerce was due to the depletion of the colonies. 8 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 20) Why did the Virginia tobacco planters oppose the Navigation Acts? a. Trading with the Dutch made the price of tobacco decrease. b. Virginians wanted to be able to import goods from France. c. They wanted tobacco to be transshipped through England first. d. The cost of ships reduced the profits they made from tobacco. 21) Nathaniel Bacon __________. a. resented the elite leaders of Jamestown because he knew he would never be accepted into their ruling clique b. started a rebellion to prevent Governor Berkeley from waging a war against the Susquehannock Indians c. was perceived as a hero by the common people of Virginia d. was executed by the forces of Charles II for his rebellion 22) Which issue led directly to Bacon's Rebellion? a. the inability of the governor to effectively control the Indians on the frontier b. the unfair trial of colonial smugglers by British admiralty courts c. Parliament's decision to appoint the governor rather than allow popular elections d. the attempt to move the capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg 23) What was a difference between the rights of women in the Chesapeake region and those of women in New England? a. Women in both regions had few rights compared to their fathers and husbands. b. Women in New England had more rights because there were more women there and they had greater strength as a community. c. Women in New England had fewer rights because the colonists there came from stricter and more traditional backgrounds. d. Women in the Chesapeake region tended to have fewer rights because the planter class had more restrictions on the roles of women in society. Chapter 4 - Experience of Empire 18th-Century America 1680–1763 1) The factor most responsible for the growth of the colonial population between 1700 and 1770 was the __________. a. natural reproduction of colonial families b. program of forced migration instituted by the monarchy c. dramatic upsurge in the importation of slaves d. intermarriage between settlers and Native Americans 2) The largest group of white, non-English immigrants to the colonies was the __________. a. Germans b. Swedish c. Scots-Irish d. French 3) The first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States was __________. a. Jamestown b. Boston c. St. Augustine d. Plymouth 9 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 4) Which region was considered part of the eighteenth-century Spanish borderlands? a. Georgia b. western Pennsylvania c. the Shenandoah Valley d. Florida 5) For many Americans, the main appeal of the Enlightenment was its focus on __________. a. searching for useful, practical knowledge b. reviving interest in classical education c. defending traditional Christian beliefs d. pure scientific research 6) The one American who, more than anyone else, symbolized the spirit of the Enlightenment was __________. a. Jonathan Edwards b. George Washington c. Cotton Mather d. Benjamin Franklin 7) The two most important leaders of the Great Awakening in colonial America were __________. a. Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield b. John Winthrop and Jonathan Edwards c. John Locke and Benjamin Franklin d. Thomas Gordon and John Trenchard 8) A major source of political information in the colonies came in the form of __________. a. official dispatches b. weekly journals and pamphlets c. public debates d. daily newspapers 9) The leading figure at the Albany Congress, and designer of the Albany Plan, was __________. a. Thomas Jefferson b. George Washington c. William Pitt d. Benjamin Franklin 10) Which war between England and France had the greatest political and economic impact on colonial America? a. King William's War b. Queen Anne's War c. King George's War d. the Seven Years' War 11) What territorial change resulted from the Peace of Paris (1763), which ended the Seven Years' War? a. France retained Louisiana. b. Spain gained Florida. c. France retained Quebec in Canada. d. Britain gained Canada. 10 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 12) Which identifies the strongest influence on eighteenth-century colonial Americans? a. They still confronted the "howling wilderness" that previous generations had encountered. b. They still lived in geographic isolation as in the seventeenth century. c. They could not escape the economic and cultural influence of Britain. d. They had completely escaped the economic and cultural influence of Britain. 13) Which best summarizes the basic philosophy of the Enlightenment? a. Reason could help humans achieve perfection in this world. b. Knowledge was of little use when confined to speculation. c. Faith and tolerance could help humans achieve perfection in this world. d. Absolutist governments must be replaced by representative governments. 14) As a product of the Enlightenment thinking, Benjamin Franklin __________. a. turned to organized religion for meaning in his life b. devoted his life to his own personal religious views c. rejected the practical pursuits of life in favor of contemplation, meditation, and intellectual inquiry d. pursued his curiosities until they yielded useful scientific ideas and ingenious material inventions 15) What happened as a result of the growth of the eighteenth-century colonial economy? a. The population grew even faster and per capita income declined. b. Enforcement of the Navigation Acts sowed the seeds of a lingering bitterness against Britain. c. The colonies developed a strong industrial base. d. British consumers stimulated production of American sugar and tobacco. 16) Why did tension arise between colonial congregations of the 1740s and 1750s? a. Evangelical preachers began to challenge traditional preaching. b. Colonial preachers no longer wanted to be controlled by the English clergy. c. Some preachers wanted to prevent colonists from joining their congregations. d. Many preachers tried to convert Native Americans to evangelical Christianity. 17) Colonial legislators saw their primary function as __________. a. improving the lives of their constituents b. preventing encroachments on the people's rights c. implementing the governor's policies d. mediating between the royal governor and the people 18) Which was a major concern of members of colonial assemblies? a. dealing with Native American violence on the frontier b. preventing the rise of an aristocracy in the colonies c. working closely with the colonial governors d. maintaining what they saw as their rights as Englishmen 19) By the mid-1700s, the colonial assemblies __________. a. had surrendered most powers to royal assemblies b. were gaining steadily in power c. were able to elect the colonial governors d. were completely independent in their actions from the mother country 11 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 20) What was a major consequence of the Seven Years' War? a. The war led to the creation of several new French colonies. b. The colonies began working toward independence from Britain. c. Britain admired the contributions of the colonists to their own defense. d. The war made colonists more aware of America and its land. 21) What did the Great Awakening, intercolonial trade, and the rise of the colonial assemblies have in common? a. They created disdain for England. b. They created a rebellious spirit in America. c. They contributed to a growing sense of shared identity. d. They helped create imperial rivalry between England and France. Chapter 5: The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763-1783 1) At the end of the Seven Years' War, American colonists could be characterized best as __________. a. cooperative toward the British b. optimistic about the future with the native Americans c. questioning the colonial-British relations d. eager for independence from Great Britain 2) George III believed __________. a. Parliament should run the empire b. the monarch should make policies for the empire c. the monarch should be a figurehead d. qualified men should run the government 3) In the 1760s and 1770s, colonists viewed the political struggle with Britain in terms of __________. a. haves against have-nots b. democracy against aristocracy c. government authority verses personal rights d. West against East 4) The English political philosopher most often cited by American rebels was __________. a. Thomas Paine b. Edmund Burke c. William Pitt d. John Locke 5) A major source of information for the colonists was __________. a. newspapers b. books c. church meetings d. the marketplace 6) Which parliamentary act prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains? a. Navigation Act of 1772 b. Proclamation of 1763 c. Stamp Act of 1765 d. Townshend Acts of 1767 12 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 7) The radical American group that first emerged during the Stamp Act crisis was known as __________. a. the Loyalists b. the Sons of Liberty c. the Democratic Republicans d. the Federalists 8) The Stamp Act of 1765 affected __________. a. only businessmen and merchants b. primarily colonial manufacturers c. ordinary people, as well as the elite d. only those in direct trade with Great Britain 9) The boycott movement against the Stamp Act __________. a. had little effect on Great Britain b. mobilized colonial men and women to action c. ultimately hurt American businessmen more than British d. was opposed by New England businessmen 10) Which of the following acts stated Parliament's belief in its own sovereignty? a. Townshend Acts b. Declaratory Act c. Coercive Acts d. Stamp Act 11) The fundamental issue leading to the Boston Massacre in 1770 was the __________. a. British attempt to enforce the Tea Act b. Boston Tea Party c. passage of the Townshend Acts d. presence of so many British troops in American cities 12) The Boston Massacre __________. a. proved the importance of the British army in the colonies b. proved that if colonist wanted independence, they would have to fight c. had little effect on Anglo-colonial relations d. had little support from colonial leaders 13) England passed the Coercive Acts in response to the __________. a. colonial boycott of the Stamp Act b. Boston Tea Party c. American victory at Saratoga d. Declaratory Act 14) The author of the Declaration of Independence was __________. a. George Washington b. Benjamin Franklin c. Samuel Adams d. Thomas Jefferson 13 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 15) The Declaration of Independence __________. a. stated that all power came from the people and monarchs who ruled by force surrender their claim to obedience b. had little immediate impact c. was unanimously approved with no alterations d. was adopted by the First Continental Congress on July 4th, 1776 16) The American victory that led to the French alliance occurred at __________. a. Saratoga b. Yorktown c. Breed's Hill d. Philadelphia 17) How did ordinary colonists respond after the wealthy elite had initiated the American rebellion? a. They rejected the lead of their "betters." b. They lost rights gained during the colonial period. c. They turned an elite movement into a mass movement. d. They fought for a social-economic revolution against the gentry. 18) Which of the following linked religious ideas to the practice of government? a. colonial newspapers b. the Great Awakening c. theories of the Earl of Bute d. ideas from the Commonwealth men 19) What was the most significant consequence of the Seven Years' War? a. its virtual destruction of American Indians b. Britain's staggering war debt c. the remaining French toehold in Quebec d. the assassination of George II 20) How did the Sugar Act differ from earlier regulations, such as the Navigation Acts? a. Its purpose was to show the colonists that they were not in control. b. Its purpose was to show the colonists that they were autonomous. c. It taxed sugar for the specific benefit of the East India Company. d. Its purpose was to collect revenue from the Americans. 21) Which of the following occurred as part of the Stamp Act crisis? a. Newspapers throughout the colonies denounced the Virginia Resolves. b. Colonial leaders from different regions gathered in New York City to petition the king in protest. c. Calls for women to stay out of the political sphere increased. d. Massachusetts reacted so bitterly that the British imposed the Coercive Acts. 22) Which list places events in the correct order? a. Townshend duties, Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, Coercive Acts b. Townshend duties, Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party, Coercive Acts c. Boston Tea Party, Coercive Acts, Boston Massacre, Townshend duties d. Coercive Acts, Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, Townshend duties 14 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 23) What was the most important responsibility facing the Second Continental Congress? a. to convince the colonists of the necessity for war b. to win loyalty from the Indians c. to organize the colonies for war d. to find a strong political leader for the nation 24) What was the significance of Thomas Paine's Common Sense? a. It provided the colonists with a rationale for revolution. b. It acknowledged the sovereignty of the monarch. c. It persuaded colonial elites to sever their ties with Great Britain. d. It had little immediate popularity among the colonists. 25) Which event marked the end of the military phase of the war? a. the capture of New York City by French forces b. Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga c. the British evacuation of Boston d. Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown 26) What was the significance of the Treaty of Paris of 1783? a. It established the American borders at the Appalachian Mountains. b. It ensured Loyalists would not be compensated for their lands. c. It did not provide a favorable conclusion to the war. d. It allowed Americans the opportunity for an independent nation. 27) What was the most significant outcome of the Boston Massacre? a. It demonstrated to the colonists that British troops were largely symbolic and the British would back down in the face of organized resistance. b. It demonstrated to the colonists that British troops had no effective way to restore order in the colonies. c. It showed that the colonists had a better organized army than the British and would be difficult to defeat. d. It demonstrated to the colonists that British troops would resort to violence to restore order in the colonies. 28) Which statement best explains why the Boston Tea Party became a famous symbol of the American Revolution? a. The Boston Tea Party was one of the most destructive acts in the entire war. b. The Boston Tea Party was the final action before the first shots that led to the actual war. c. The Boston Tea Party showed that the colonists had lost their respect for the British monarchy. d. The Boston Tea Party not only killed many soldiers, but it also destroyed property worth millions of dollars. Chapter 6: The Republican Experiment, 1783-1788 1) As understood in the late 1700s, a republic was a system in which ultimate political authority is vested in __________. a. a constitutional monarchy b. the people c. the chosen few d. the rich and powerful 15 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 2) __________ caused the most important changes in voting patterns in the immediate postwar years. a. The tremendous loss of male lives b. Western migration c. The dramatically increased standard of living d. The Articles of Confederation 3) An important fact about the Americans who wrote the first state constitutions was that they __________. a. totally rejected British traditions and ideas in creating them b. demanded written documents c. refused to include bills of rights d. made the constitutions vague and imprecise where basic rights were concerned 4) Most new state constitutions after the American Revolution __________. a. strengthened the power of the governor b. weakened the power of the legislature c. were agreed-upon rather than written d. included declarations of rights 5) The Articles of Confederation __________. a. gave too much power to the central government b. provided for state representation by population c. guarded state sovereignty at the expense of national power d. created a powerful presidency 6) The most important accomplishment of Congress under the Articles of Confederation was its __________. a. disposition of the Florida border problem with Spain b. passage of ordinances organizing the Northwest Territory c. management of the nation's financial affairs d. rejection of British demands for territory along the country's borders with Canada 7) The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 __________. a. defined the process by which a territory became a state b. provided for the surveying of the Northwest Territory c. ignored the basic rights of settlers in the region d. specifically allowed slavery to exist in the region 8) The most important result of the Annapolis Meeting of 1786 was __________. a. that it added support for the Articles of Confederation b. the establishment of new, more efficient trade regulations for the United States c. the settlement of problems involving Spain's control of the Mississippi River d. the nationalists' recommendation to Congress for a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation 9) Shays's Rebellion involved __________. a. discontented New England merchants b. western settlers demanding Indian territory c. supporters of freer trade with Great Britain d. discontented farmers in Massachusetts 16 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 10) An important procedural decision approved at the opening of the Constitutional Convention involved __________. a. publicizing the convention's meetings and debates b. its refusal to allow the small states to present their plans for constitutional revisions c. the decision to keep deliberations as secret as possible d. the election of James Madison as chairman 11) The compromise that resolved the dispute between the large and the small states included __________. a. the states would be equally represented in the lower house b. all bills pertaining to taxation or spending would begin in the upper house c. the states would be proportionally represented according to population in the upper house d. slave-holding states could count 60 percent of their slaves for purposes of representation 12) The three-fifths rule concerned the issue of __________. a. whether to count slaves as part of the population b. the number of branches in the national government c. checks and balances d. presidential power 13) The proposed new Constitution of 1787 called for the election of a president by __________. a. a direct vote of the people b. the state legislatures c. an electoral college d. the federal congress 14) The Federalist was a series of essays written by __________. a. Washington and Adams b. Thomas Jefferson c. Madison, Hamilton, and Jay d. Randolph and Franklin 15) What was the effect of the Revolutionary War on slavery? a. At the end of the war, slavery was abolished in northern states. b. The war set a time limit to end slavery in the South. c. Initially, the war had little effect on slavery at all. d. Initially, the war led to African Americans' gaining freedom. 16) How was slavery an obvious contradiction to the principles of the American republic? a. Slavery showed how poorly treated black women were. b. Americans claimed to be fighting for freedom, but still enslaved others. c. Slavery funded much of the Revolution, so it was part of the new republic. d. Slavery was a British institution and had no place in an independent America. 17) Why did most first state constitutions include a bill of rights? a. to remind future rulers of the exact limits of their authority b. to establish that only white male landowners had rights c. to create a stronger central federal government d. to prevent a stronger central federal government 17 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 18) Why did the Articles of Confederation give states more power than the central government? a. The delegates believed that powerful state governments were dangerous. b. The delegates were mostly state governors, so they wanted to preserve their own power. c. The new central government had proven itself unworthy of power with corrupt officials and systematic abuses. d. The delegates believed that powerful central governments were dangerous. 19) Why didn't William Paterson's New Jersey Plan appeal to most delegates of the Philadelphia Convention? a. It proposed a unicameral Congress in which the states would be represented equally, giving the states too much power. b. It proposed a two-house national legislature, giving the federal government too much power. c. It only represented the wishes of the larger states, excluding the smaller states. d. It was strongly supported by Madison and his colleagues, so most delegates rejected it on that basis alone. 20) How did the question of slavery impact the Constitutional Convention? a. It caused few real problems. b. Generally northerners were willing to support southern concerns. c. It threatened to disrupt and destroy the work of the convention and bring division. d. Southern delegates were eager to compromise on most significant arguments. 21) How did the Constitutional Convention affect slavery? a. It allowed the slave trade to continue indefinitely. b. It permitted Congress to outlaw the importation of slaves in 1808. c. It provided for an immediate end to the importation of African slaves. d. It declared slavery to be illegal as of 1808. 22) How did the Philadelphia Convention delegates ensure ratification of the Constitution? a. They called for electing thirteen state conventions, requiring the assent of only nine state legislatures to ratify it. b. They decided that a unanimous vote among the general public of all the states would ratify it. c. They decided that a unanimous vote among the state congresses would ratify it. d. They called for electing James Madison president so he could ratify it instead of Congress. 23) Why did those who campaigned actively for ratification of the Constitution call themselves "Federalists"? a. The term "Nationalists" had been used during the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and was now negatively viewed. b. The term suggested that they stood for a confederation of states and not for a supreme national authority. c. They wanted the public to know that they supported strong state governments that controlled the federal government. d. The term "Antifederalists" was perceived as negative because of the root "anti." 18 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 24) Why were Antifederalists concerned about the new Constitution? a. They worried that public officials would scheme to increase their power. b. They knew that preservation of liberty required no vigilance. c. They saw that smaller republics were prone to political corruption. d. They were concerned that the new government gave too much power to the central government and not protect the rights of the citizens. 25) How did the Bill of Rights of 1789 protect only some individual freedoms? a. It did not allow for freedoms of speech, religion, press, or trial. b. It excluded foreigners and poor Americans. c. It protected the freedoms of speech, religion, press, trial, bearing arms, and searches but did not grant rights to nonwhite males. d. It granted the states more power than the federal government. Chapter 7: Democracy and Dissent: The Violence of Party Politics, 1788-1800 1) Members of the Federalist party __________. a. advocated states' rights b. supported the French Revolution c. wanted Thomas Jefferson to be president d. supported a strong national government 2) For many Americans, George Washington was __________. a. a symbol of the new government b. a routine, typical political leader c. not a popular leader d. a threat to proclaim himself king 3) The Judiciary Act of 1789 __________. a. was primarily the work of Oliver Ellsworth b. set up one chief justice and five associate justices of the Supreme Court and created the courts below the Supreme Court c. defined the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court d. provided that the chief justice would be chosen by the Senate 4) By the end of Washington's first term of office, __________. a. political harmony had unified the cabinet b. political parties had started squabbling and had divided the government c. political parties had not yet formed d. the machinery of government had been brought to a standstill 5) The greatest challenge facing the first Washington administration was __________. a. foreign affairs b. waging war with Native Americans c. setting the government's finances in order d. territorial expansion 19 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 6) James Madison opposed Hamilton's proposal for the public debt because __________. a. he feared Hamilton's growing political power b. the powers of state government would be reduced c. he believed that it would not benefit all of the people of the United States. d. it did not foster the government of the Revolution 7) Opposition to Hamilton's proposed national bank __________. a. was based on "loose construction" of the Constitution b. reflected the fears of private bankers c. was justified because his plans so clearly favored a few "monied interests" d. involved issues relating to Congress's constitutional powers 8) The Bank of the United States was based on the doctrine of __________. a. strict construction b. states' rights c. implied powers d. judicial review 9) During Washington's second term in office, __________. a. foreign affairs became a much more important focus b. relations with Great Britain and France improved dramatically c. Hamilton and Jefferson resolved their differences over domestic policy d. Hamilton ceased to be a force in American politics 10) Thomas Jefferson felt it was important that the new government __________. a. foster strong ties with Great Britain b. support business and industrial development c. decrease the role agriculture played in the American economy d. lean toward France in the event it clashed with Britain 11) Jay's Treaty succeeded in __________. a. getting British troops to withdraw from the northwest forts b. opening New Orleans to U.S. commerce c. pacifying southerners who had lost slaves during the war d. humiliating the French 12) The Whiskey Rebellion __________. a. took place in western Virginia b. resulted in the capture and execution of several rebellion leaders c. involved an attempt to prohibit the consumption of whiskey and other alcoholic beverages d. increased Republican electoral strength 13) Washington's Farewell Address __________. a. warned against creating a strong military b. attempted to bring harmony to the political system c. supported the political ideology of Jefferson and Madison d. advised against alliances with nations that were not promoting American security 20 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 14) During the Adams administration, __________. a. Great Britain continued support the United States b. domestic problems occupied the president's full attention c. France reacted negatively to the terms of Jay's Treaty d. few Americans seemed concerned with foreign affairs 15) According to the Kentucky Resolutions, __________. a. ultimate power always remained with the federal government b. states had the right to nullify federal law under certain circumstances c. the Sedition Act was worthy of enforcement by the states d. Kentucky chose to remain neutral in the contest between Hamilton and Jefferson 16) The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution __________. a. changed the process of electing the president and vice president b. decreased presidential power c. heightened the potential for further political conflict d. stopped the African slave trade 17) In the election of 1800, __________. a. the Twelfth Amendment was used to choose the vice president b. Alexander Hamilton supported the candidacy of fellow Federalist John Adams c. the electoral college chose Thomas Jefferson to be the third president d. controversy led to changes in the presidential electoral process 18) How was Washington's election to the presidency different from that of every president since? a. He was unanimously elected by the electoral college. b. He was elected by the public, as there was no electoral college yet. c. He was not "elected" but rather appointed by Congress. d. He is the only army general to have become president. 19) How were political parties formed in the United States? a. Each congressman voted on possible party affiliations. b. They grew naturally out of Federalist and Antifederalist groups. c. Opponents who had disagreed on finances began to disagree on which country to support in the European war. d. First Hamilton and then Jefferson met with their proponents and formally named their groups as political parties. 20) Initially, why did Americans want to remain neutral when war broke out in Europe? a. The British and the French treated the young American nation arrogantly. b. Most Americans believed only in nonviolent solutions to conflicts. c. Most Americans did not care about a war a whole ocean away. d. Americans were tired of fighting, as they had just finished the Revolution. 21 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 21) Why did Washington view the Whiskey Rebellion as a serious threat? a. The rebellious farmers elicited the help of Native Americans, creating a quasi-civil war. b. Because the governor refused to suppress the rebellion, Washington saw it as a state's refusal to pay taxes and as a violent protest against the United States government. c. Because Britain supplied the rebellious farmers with money and arms, Washington assumed that they were siding with the enemy. d. Because France was having its own revolutionary war, Washington worried the violence would lead to civil war. 22) How are the Quasi-War and the XYZ Affair related? a. The XYZ Affair was the most significant "battle" in the Quasi-War between the United States and France. b. The XYZ Affair led to the Quasi-War between the United States and France. c. They XYZ Affair and the Quasi-War are both examples of European countries mistreating the United States. d. The XYZ Affair ended the Quasi-War between the United States and France. 23) How did the XYZ Affair affect U.S. politics? a. Adams declared war on France. b. France suffered diplomatic humiliation at the hands of the United States. c. Hamilton resisted the idea of a strong army. d. Federalists used the tensions it created as an excuse for military expansion. 24) The Sedition Act distressed many Americans because it __________. a. threatened their political right to disagree with and speak out against the government b. gave the Federalists too much power and reduced the Republicans' power c. suspended free elections, depriving all white males of their voting rights d. expanded the powers of Congress, which meant bigger government 25) Why did Jefferson and Madison oppose the Alien and Sedition Acts? a. The acts excluded poor farmers from their voting and civil rights. b. The acts suppressed the states' power to govern themselves. c. Jefferson and Madison opposed all of Hamilton's acts on principle. d. The acts did not support a strong central government. 26) How was the election of 1800 a peaceful revolution? a. The public marched in the streets, chanting and holding signs in support of their candidates. b. There was only one candidate for president, so he won without political battle. c. The House and the Senate disagreed about who should be president, so they created the electoral college—a revolutionary but peaceful solution. d. Although politicians passionately disagreed about who should be president, they voted and revoted rather than use violence and demonstrated that power could be transferred peacefully. 22 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank Chapter 8: Republican Ascendancy: The Jeffersonian Vision, 1800-1814 1) The large increase in the national population reflected in the 1810 census resulted mainly from __________. a. the assimilation of whole tribes of Native Americans into the general population b. natural biological increase c. a huge increase in the importation of slaves from Africa d. the immigration of many thousands of Europeans fleeing the Napoleonic wars 2) Upon arriving in the West, many settlers __________. a. created friendly relationships with local Indian groups b. imported new technology to aid in western industrial growth c. returned home, disappointed in the lack of economic opportunities d. were able to develop their own distinct culture. 3) Thomas Jefferson's attitude toward Native Americans showed that he __________. a. did not believe they should live in the same areas as Americans. b. believed their way of life to be worth protecting and preserving c. wanted to eliminate them d. respected them as people, and was impressed by their culture 4) American prosperity in the early 1800s was based on __________. a. an industrial economy b. manufacturing c. monetary supplies d. agriculture and commerce 5) President Thomas Jefferson __________. a. frequently vetoed acts of the Federalist-led Congress b. removed most Federalists from federal jobs c. hated the national debt d. wanted to increase government spending 6) What difficulty did Jefferson face in purchasing the Louisiana Territory? a. possible confrontation with Great Britain b. lack of support from the American people c. the constitutionality of his actions d. whether to accept foreign citizens on the land 7) The Lewis and Clark expedition __________. a. at last discovered the long-sought Northwest Passage b. traveled up the Missouri River to the Pacific Northwest c. explored the desert Southwest, including Pike's Peak and the Grand Canyon d. had to fight its way through the domains of several hostile Indian tribes 8) In the election of 1804, Thomas Jefferson defeated __________. a. John Quincy Adams b. Aaron Burr c. Charles Pinckney d. John Randolph 23 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 9) Chief Justice John Marshall believed in judicial review, which is __________. a. a professional journal read by lawyers and judges b. the power of the Court to determine the constitutionality of statutes c. a system whereby all legislation passed by Congress must be approved by the Supreme Court before it can take effect d. a job-performance appraisal system for federal judges 10) According to the policy of peaceable coercion, __________. a. a nation declares its neutrality b. a nation avoids all military confrontation c. peaceful relations should be sought through negotiations d. economic pressure is used as a diplomatic weapon 11) __________ believed it was imperative that the United States acquire Canada. a. War Hawks b. Status Quos c. Quids d. Federalists 12) At the Battle of New Orleans, __________. a. British forces retreated when they saw the strength of American defenses b. British forces won and forced the surrender of the city c. British forces were defeated by Andrew Jackson and his troops d. Andrew Jackson proved to be an ineffective political leader 13) The Treaty of Ghent __________. a. awarded part of Canada to the United States b. did little more than end hostilities and postpone issues for future negotiations c. gave the British navigation rights on the Mississippi River d. restored Quebec to France 14) Why was the American obsession with equality hypocritical? a. Americans believed in and reinforced class distinctions. b. America was the only country in the world to enforce equality. c. Through the institution of slavery, Americans denied liberty to African Americans. d. The government controlled and influenced most of the newspapers. 15) Why did people move to the Northwest Territory in the 1800s? a. The federal government required poor immigrants to settle in the West. b. The federal government gave large incentives to people who moved west. c. Valuable slave plantations could be established in the Ohio River Valley. d. People moved to create opportunities with farms on the rich soil. 16) Why did Thomas Jefferson decide to make the Louisiana Purchase? a. To control the port of New Orleans for American commerce. b. Great Britain invaded Cuba. c. The citizens of New Orleans petitioned him to do so. d. Napoleon sent troops to the Dominican Republic. 24 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 17) How can Jefferson's first term best be characterized? a. It was a failure in that he lead the country to war, increased taxes, and lost land in the North and West. b. It was a success in that he united Republican politicians and eradicated their competition, the Federalists. c. It was a failure in that he lost important trade rights with Europe and lost western land to Native American tribes. d. It was a success in that he reduced taxes, maintained peace, and expanded the United States. Answer: D 18) How does the Marbury v. Madison case influence the legislature today? a. It established the constitutionality of political parties and the limits on political contributions. b. It began the civil rights movement, determining that the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are for all people. c. It was the first unanimous ruling, demonstrating that even politically divided Supreme Court justices can work together. d. It established precedence for the Supreme Court to judge the constitutionality of congressional acts. 19) How was the U.S. Embargo Act of 1807 ineffective? a. It gained public support only in the Northeast. b. It only resulted in England respecting American trade rights; France still did not. c. It caused severe economic depression in France but had little effect on England. d. It caused economic mayhem in the United States and did little to affect France and England. 20) How can Jefferson's foreign policy best be characterized? a. It allowed Madison (the next president) to return to domestic concerns. b. It seriously damaged the British economy through conflict and embargoes. c. It fostered a valuable alliance with France. d. It did more harm than good for the United States. 21) In what ways was the War of 1812 strange? a. It was fought on U.S. territory but between France and Great Britain. b. The United States believed it could win with a decentralized government and little money or military power against the most powerful nation in the world. c. Great Britain was engaged in an expensive and taxing war with France but still found resources to engage the United States on land and by sea. d. It was a "paper" war of unenforced embargoes, wild rumors, and great lies. 22) Why did Great Britain engage in the War of 1812? a. It feared the vast U.S. military power and wanted to strike first. b. It wanted to regain control of the United States and its Caribbean territories. c. It hoped that war with the United States would show France its loyalty. d. It wanted to occupy New York City as an important northeastern port for commerce. 25 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 23) How was the war of 1812 both a success and a failure for Americans? a. The United States won all the battles but lost the war in that the Treaty of Ghent gave it only maritime rights and not impressment promises. b. The United States felt united as a nation and proud as a country, and yet it did not receive maritime rights or impressment promises. c. The United States lost all major battles, wasting lives and resources, but it gained maritime rights and impressment promises in the Treaty of Ghent. d. The United States lost valuable land in the West, but gained maritime rights and impressment promises. 24) By 1810, one-fifth of the American population was made up of __________. a. Indians b. immigrants c. blacks d. women Chapter 9: Nation Building and Nationalism, 1815-1825 1) The Adams-Onís Treaty __________. a. excluded Spain from the North American continent b. reduced British influence in Florida c. granted the Northwest Territory to the United States d. weakened the Spanish position in Latin America 2) After 1815, the United States __________. a. grew rapidly in size and population b. was threatened by foreign invasion c. revised its form of government d. was unable to expand its economy 3) Canals in early nineteenth-century America __________. a. linked the Atlantic coastal cities to the lakes and rivers of the interior b. were very profitable c. competed successfully with railroads d. were financed through federal and state government funds 4) The South became the world’s greatest producer of cotton because __________. a. railroads crisscrossed the south, providing needed transportation b. little competition arose in other locations of the world c. fertile land was available in the “green belts” of the South d. the cotton gin had a tremendous impact on production 5) Under the __________ system, manufacturers provided raw materials to people in their own homes and then picked up the finished products for distribution. a. finishing-off system b. mass production system c. piecework system d. putting-out system 26 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 6) Which of the following groups was initially a primary source of labor for the textile mills? a. young single women b. young single men c. children d. immigrants 7) Industrialization after 1815 altered the manufacturing system in the United States by __________. a. immediately creating a need for large factories with many workers b. increasing production in the factory and decreasing it in the home c. increasing the need for female labor d. eliminating the need for foreign equipment and technology 8) The president most closely identified with the "Era of Good Feeling" was __________. a. James Monroe b. James Madison c. John Quincy Adams d. Thomas Jefferson 9) The Missouri Compromise of 1820 involved __________. a. the criteria that no more slave states could be created south of the northern boundary of Missouri b. Missouri being admitted as a slave state on condition that slavery be phased out over a period of time c. Maine splitting off from Massachusetts and being admitted as a free state d. northern and southern congressmen splitting along partisan lines on the issue 10) As chief justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall __________. a. promoted the growth of state sovereignty b. supported the attainment of political and social equality c. emphasized the primacy of property, property rights, and the supremacy of the federal government d. abandoned his Federalist sympathies 11) McCulloch v. Maryland involved questions regarding __________. a. the national bank b. internal improvements c. the role of the U.S. Congress d. the chartering of private corporations 12) According to the decision of Gibbons v. Ogden, which branch of government would regulate interstate commerce? a. the executive branch b. Congress c. the Supreme Court d. the individual states 13) The main diplomatic challenge facing James Monroe in 1820 was __________. a. the continuing threat of English intervention in the United States b. the development of trading rights with Latin America c. establishing friendly relations with France d. responding to the revolt of Spain's Latin American colonies 27 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 14) In 1823, John Quincy Adams believed the nation should __________. a. form an alliance with the British b. avoid involvement in European affairs c. create an alliance with the newly independent Latin American nations d. control the affairs of the Western Hemisphere 25) The foreign policy initiative calling for an end to all European colonization efforts in the Western Hemisphere was known as the __________. a. Monroe Doctrine b. Adams-Onís Agreement c. Continental Treaty 1818 d. Webster-Ashburton Treaty 16) How were expansion and migration related in the United States after 1812? a. As populations expanded, people migrated to rural areas outside of populated cities, creating the first suburbs. b. As populations expanded, people migrated to and built up Eastern cities. c. As the United States expanded its borders, people migrated to these new areas. d. Expansion and migration were both direct results of improved water transportation after 1812. 17) What does it mean that Americans believed the United States had "manifest destiny"? a. It means that some Americans believed that the United States should control all of the North American continent. b. It means that some Americans believed that the United States should expand from the East coast to the West coast, controlling all the lands in between. c. It means that some Americans believed that the United States should support Latin American countries fighting for their independence. d. It means that some Americans believed that the United States should join with continental Europe to fight the British Empire. 18) Why was the "civilization" of Native Americans tragic? a. Some Native Americans refused to become civilized, so they were tragically murdered by white Americans. b. Many Native Americans tried to use civilized means like protests and boycotts to influence the U.S. government for their rights, but tragically failed. c. Few Native Americans wanted to become "civilized" because it meant tragically giving up their culture in exchange for land and citizenship. d. Some Native Americans sacrificed their culture to try to assimilate into white society, and still they were not accepted or granted rights. 19) How did transportation affect industry and agriculture in the early nineteenth century? a. Improved land and water transportation changed the United States from an agricultural to an industrial society. b. Improved land and water transportation allowed the United States to develop more industry and create a cash crop agricultural system. c. Developments in land and water transportation were slow, so the United States remained an agricultural society with virtually no industry. d. Because land transportation was so poor, water transportation caused industry and agriculture to be confined to the East coast. 28 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 20) The development of profitable commercial agriculture resulted from __________. a. improvements in agricultural technology b. the population growth in the Midwestern states c. rising need for agricultural products in the New England area d. European demands for American agricultural products 21) How did the Missouri Compromise impact slavery? a. It put a final time limit on the institution in the South. b. It demonstrated that the federal government did not care about slavery. c. It ensured that slavery would remain in the South indefinitely. d. It put a final end to the slave trade, if not the institution of slavery in the United States. 22) How did the Missouri Compromise impact the future of North-South relations in the United States? a. It put off major conflict to a future time. b. It resolved major North-South conflicts about slavery. c. It increased North-South conflict about slavery. d. It changed North-South conflict from diplomatic to violent conflict. 23) Which of John Marshall’s values influenced many of his court decisions? a. economic equality for all American citizens b. the need to balance state and federal powers c. the protection of individual liberty d. the supremacy of the judicial branch 24) Why did the Era of Good Feeling end? a. The United States could not sustain continued economic growth; financial institutions began to crumble. b. Nonpartisan cooperation could not be sustained through disagreements over how government should be involved in social and economic changes. c. The United States could not maintain peaceful relations with European countries intent on continuing colonial rule in Latin America. d. Poor road transportation made it difficult to unite the West with the East of the United States, causing poor communication and political divisions. 25) How does this statement from Monroe's inaugural address demonstrate American hypocrisy: "Their citizens individually have been happy and the nation prosperous"? a. Few people were truly happy in the United States during the first few decades of the nineteenth century. b. The nation was prosperous only because it exploited immigrants and weaker North American neighbors. c. Only those who were citizens (white males) were able to be happy and prosperous; Native Americans, African Americans, and women were denied these opportunities. d. Monroe was addressing politicians, the only truly happy citizens of the United States, and the only people allowed to contribute to its prosperity. 29 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank Chapter 10: The Triumph of White Men's Democracy, 1824-1840 1) American culture in the Jacksonian period __________. a. did not reflect the development of a more democratic society b. was based in support of elitism and privileges c. was primarily the concern of the upper class d. accurately reflected the rise of the democratic spirit 2) Which of the following individuals is matched with his art form? a. William Sidney Mount : novels b. Nathaniel Hawthorne : novels c. Herman Melville : painting d. Oliver Wendell Holmes : painting 3) The most obvious indicator of the supremacy of democracy in the United States was the __________. a. high percentages of people who voted b. widespread use of the "spoils system" c. absence of any kind of social or economic classes d. development of universal manhood suffrage 4) The major issues dominating politics in the 1820s and 1830s were __________ issues. a. constitutional b. sectional c. social d. economic 5) The "corrupt bargain" was __________. a. another name for the Missouri Compromise b. an alleged deal whereby Henry Clay threw the presidency to John Quincy Adams in the election of 1824 in return for being named Secretary of State c. President Jackson's policy of allowing the removal of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma in return for southern political support d. an agreement whereby President Jackson appointed Roger B. Taney to be Chief Justice in return for removing federal funds from the Bank of the United States 6) Which of the following men were true political and philosophical allies in the 1820s? a. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay b. Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson c. Andrew Jackson and John Marshall d. Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun 7) The main issue of John Quincy Adams's presidency was __________. a. forced relocation of Native Americans b. internal improvements c. foreign affairs d. tariffs (taxes) 30 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 8) Andrew Jackson's attitude toward Native Americans was that they should be __________. a. removed to areas beyond white expansion b. allowed to remain on their tribal lands c. assimilated into white society d. treated as equals to the white man 9) __________ denied states the right to take Native American tribal lands. a. McCulloch v. Maryland b. Southern legislatures c. Worcester v. Georgia d. Fletcher v. Peck 10) The Trail of Tears refers to __________. a. the destruction of the national bank b. passage of the "tariff of abominations" c. the forced relocation of the Cherokees to Oklahoma d. the nullification controversy 11) In the 1830s and 1840s, the main advocate of states' rights was __________. a. Daniel Webster b. Henry Clay c. John C. Calhoun d. Martin Van Buren 12) The nullification crisis of the early 1830s __________. a. had little impact outside South Carolina b. was of little significance for the future of the United States c. revealed the strength of the Constitution d. was an early indication of dangerous future divisions between the states 13) The Whig Party __________. a. generally supported Jackson's presidency b. grew from a coalition of Jackson's opponents c. refused the support of other, smaller parties d. represented political ideas unique to the American experience 14) Belief in a national bank, high tariffs, and federally financed internal improvements best describes the policies of which party in the 1830s? a. Democrats b. Republicans c. Masons d. Whigs 15) Typically, immigrants, Catholics, freethinkers, and backwoods farmers of the 1840s would be members of the __________. a. Democratic party b. Equal Rights party c. Whig party d. Republican party 31 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 16) In the 1840s, which of the following was most likely to identify with the Whig party? a. industrialists who wanted tariff protection b. immigrants who enjoyed traditional amusements c. a Catholic, Lutheran, or Episcopalian who attended a more ritualized service d. someone with mixed or negative feelings about a national market economy 17) In what ways was American democracy an illusion in the 1820s-1840s? a. Although all white men began life with equal opportunities, women and African and Native Americans did not. b. Despite the impression that people had equal opportunities, distinctions of dress and education persisted. c. Not only were women and African and Native Americans excluded, but even the idea that all white men began life with equal opportunities was false. d. Only landowners could vote, and as there were so few landowners in the United States, suffrage was not universal even among white men. 18) What theme ran through almost all cultural expression of the 1820s-1840s? a. prosperity b. expansion c. morality d. democracy 19) Why did voter participation in elections increase dramatically between 1824 and 1840? a. The population of the United States grew, so the number of voters increased. b. People who had been migrating were settled and could register and vote. c. African Americans in the North were given permission and encouragement to vote. d. Politicians changed campaigning practices and all white men could participate in elections 20) Why did South Carolinians protest the tariff of 1828? a. They feared its effect on the price of cotton. b. They saw it as an unfair "northern" law. c. They thought it threatened the institution of slavery. d. Tariffs determined the prices that southerners paid for manufactured goods. Chapter 11: Slaves and Masters, 1793-1861 1) The leader of the 1831 slave uprising in Southampton County, Virginia, was __________. a. Denmark Vesey b. Hinton R. Helper c. George Fitzhugh d. Nat Turner 2) The majority of slaves worked __________. a. in industry b. as skilled tradesmen c. as house servants d. as field workers 32 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 3) What did the young children of plantation slaves do while their parents worked? a. They often accompanied their parents and were cared for by older children. b. They often went to segregated schools before they were old enough to work. c. They were often cared for at home by their mothers. d. They were often sent to nurseries where other slaves cared for them. 4) The typical runaway slave was __________. a. a married man b. a young, unmarried man c. a married woman d. a young, unmarried woman 5) What was the Underground Railroad? a. a train line that many white southerners used when hunting for escaped slaves b. a formal, nonprofit organization that helped return fugitive slaves to their masters c. a formal, nonprofit organization that helped fugitive slaves escape to Mexico d. an informal network of people that helped fugitive slaves make their way to the North 6) The typical way for most slaves to express discontent was __________. a. political protest b. open, armed rebellion c. passive resistance d. participation in conspiracies 7) If a former slave could not prove he or she had been legally freed, then he or she was likely to be __________. a. reenslaved b. deported c. arrested d. fined 8) At the time of the Civil War, __________. a. almost all southerners owned at least one slave b. most white southerners owned three or more slaves c. there were few slaves in the fields, but most white households had a house slave d. one-quarter of white southerners owned slaves 9) Most southern whites __________. a. owned at least one slave b. were non-slaveholding yeoman farmers c. were poor people who sympathized with the slaves d. owned at least five slaves 10) Who was the typical small slaveholder? a. an urban merchant b. a wealthy landowner c. a small business owner d. a farmer 33 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 11) The yeoman farmers of the South __________. a. were typically slaveowners b. did not own the land they worked c. were located primarily in the backcountry d. were clustered around the large plantations 12) As southern opinion about the morality of slavery changed during the 1830s, people began to describe slavery as __________. a. a positive good b. a necessary evil c. an inevitable institution d. a neutral business arrangement 13) The most profitable commodity bought and sold in the upper tier of southern states was __________. a. tobacco b. cotton c. human beings d. wheat 14) The internal slave trade in the Unites States ran from the __________. a. West to the Upper South b. Upper South to the West c. Upper South to the Lower South d. Lower South to the Upper South 15) The institution of slavery became even more entrenched in the South because of the increasing importance of __________. a. rice b. indigo c. Sugar d. Cotton 16) The invention that permitted the great expansion of cotton cultivation was the __________. a. railroad b. cotton gin c. cotton reaper d. steel plow 17) Who profited most from the union of slavery and cotton production? a. inventors and entrepreneurs b. small business owners c. small slaveholders d. large plantation owners 18) Which identifies an important effect of the violent slave rebellion of 1831? a. White southerners became more committed to quashing antislavery ideas. b. Many slaves were freed because their masters were afraid to remain in the system. c. Organized, violent rebellions began happening with more frequency. d. White southerners began to question the legitimacy of slavery. 34 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 19) Which statement best describes the "gang" labor that many slaves performed on large plantations? a. A group of white overseers pushed a small group of slaves to work around the clock. b. Large groups of slaves worked side by side with their masters. c. Large groups of slaves worked from sunrise to sunset under a white overseer. d. Slaves worked at their own pace with little supervision during an eight-hour day. 20) Which statement best describes the "task" labor that many slaves performed on large plantations? a. A group of white overseers pushed a small group of slaves to work around the clock. b. Large groups of slaves worked side by side with their masters. c. Large groups of slaves worked from sunrise to sunset under a white overseer. d. Slaves worked at their own pace with little supervision during an eight-hour day. 21) Free blacks in the South were __________. a. unable to own or operate small businesses b. required to carry documentation of their free status at all times c. given the same rights as free blacks in the North d. allowed to hold meetings or form organizations as long as they had a white sponsor 22) What was a major contradiction in the attitudes of southern yeoman farmers? a. They were staunch supporters of abolitionism even though they owned slaves. b. They listened sympathetically to abolitionist ideas but remained neutral. c. They paid little attention to the slave system even though it supported them. d. They were staunch supporters of slavery even though they rarely owned slaves. 23) Southern proslavery arguments included the belief that __________. a. slavery was wrong, but necessary for the Southern economy b. the Bible sanctioned slavery c. slavery was mandated by the U.S. Constitution d. sending slaves back to Africa would be too expensive 24) Why did many yeoman farmers feel resentment toward rich planters, yet still support the institution of slavery? a. These farmers feared that the government would give freed slaves their land if slavery were abolished. b. Many poor white farmers also worked as overseers on large plantations. c. Many rich planters gave poor white farmers slaves as gifts to maintain their good will. d. Having slavery gave poor white farmers a feeling of social superiority over blacks. 25) Which statement best describes a major disadvantage to the extensive cotton production that took place in the Deep South? a. The South lacked the infrastructure to transport all the cotton it produced, so planters were frequently forced to burn their crops. b. Such a large percentage of arable land was devoted to cotton that there were frequent food shortages in the South. c. The focus on a single industry that was profitable only to a small minority prevented industrial and commercial growth. d. The excessive profits of the industry led to unchecked price inflation in southern urban centers. 35 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank Chapter 12: The Pursuit of Perfection, 1800-1861 1) In the early nineteenth century, American Protestant denominations strengthened religious values and increased church membership through __________. a. orthodoxy b. secularism c. revivalism d. spiritualism 2) What was the Second Great Awakening? a. a wave of religious revivals b. a political movement to abolish slavery c. an early women's rights movement d. a reform movement to educate more American children 3) The Cult of Domesticity primarily affected the lives of __________. a. relatively affluent women b. middle-class men c. working-class women d. African American women 4) The most important function of the school in 1850 was seen as __________. a. intellectual training b. vocational training c. moral indoctrination d. child care 5) The most influential spokesman for the public school movement was __________. a. John Harward b. Lyman Beecher c. Henry James d. Horace Mann 6) In addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic, mid-nineteenth-century public schools taught __________. a. abolitionist ideals b. the Protestant ethic c. Catholicism d. the evils of industrialization 7) The radical abolitionist and cofounder of the American Anti-Slavery Society was __________. a. William Lloyd Garrison b. Theodore Weld c. Sojourner Truth d. Harriet Beecher Stowe 36 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 8) Abolitionism received its greatest support in the __________. a. border states b. small to medium-sized towns of the upper North c. large cities d. frontier territories 9) Which group was most active in the Underground Railroad? a. sympathetic plantation owners in the South b. freed slaves in the Southwest c. free blacks in the North d. affluent whites in the North 10) __________ became one of the most significant leaders of the women's rights movement. a. Elizabeth Cady Stanton b. Jane Addams c. Dorothea Dix d. Harriet Beecher Stowe 11) In 1848, at Seneca Falls, New York, __________. a. a major religious revival occurred b. the first national gathering of feminists took place c. eleven people were killed in an anti-Mormon riot d. the radical antislavery movement began 12) The temperance movement __________. a. was created to help unmarried women survive in the workforce b. was the least successful reform movement of the era c. was created to address alcohol consumption rates that were slightly less than modern rates d. addressed a very real social problem of the time 13) Temperance reformers opposed consumption of alcohol because of the belief that __________. a. water was a safer beverage b. alcohol was a threat to the family unit c. drinking was mainly a female vice d. consumption decreased business profits 14) The Cult of Domesticity __________. a. spread the message that women had no value in society b. saw women as guardians of virtue within the family c. idealized women who left their families for religious missions d. taught that women should help the economic stability of their families 15) Abolitionism served as a catalyst for the __________ movement. a. temperance b. women's rights c. utopian socialist d. transcendentalist 37 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 16) What was a major goal of the early women's rights activists? a. to free unmarried women from laws that did not allow them to work outside the home b. to free married women from laws that gave their husbands control of their property and children c. to enact laws that would require men to participate equally in household duties such as child-rearing d. to convince more women to run for public office 17) Which of the following individuals is matched with his or her reform movement? a. Horace Mann : abolition b. William Lloyd Garrison : abolition c. Lucretia Mott : prostitution d. Catharine E. Beecher: public schools 18) Preachers during the Second Great Awakening taught that a. Churches should be controlled by the wealthy. b. God can only be understood by highly educated people. c. Religion is for men only. d. Salvation is available to anyone, rich or poor. 19) Temperance societies worked to a. Eliminate the consumption of alcohol. b. Reform education. c. End slavery. d. Promote women’s suffrage. 20) Supporters of the abolitionist movement were divided over a. Whether slavery should be ended in the United States. b. Which enslaved African Americans should be freed. c. How great a role women should be allowed to take in the movement. d. Whether they should urge people to take a pledge to practice abstinence. Chapter 13: An Age of Expansionism, 1830-1861 1) What did the idea of Manifest Destiny encourage? a. converting recent immigrants to Protestantism b. the establishment of the factory system c. the inclusion of women in the workforce d. territorial expansion 2) Mexican territory in North America in 1821 included __________. a. Wyoming b. Oregon c. Idaho d. Nevada 38 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 3) After Mexico declared its independence from Spain, it lured American settlers to Texas with offers of __________. a. more freedoms for women b. religious freedom c. cheap, fertile land d. money 4) Which battle occurred just days after Texas declared itself a republic? a. Battle of the Nueces b. Battle of Matamoros c. battle of the Alamo d. Battle of Veracruz 5) Which 1844 presidential candidate ran on a platform calling for the simultaneous annexation of Texas and Oregon? a. Henry Clay b. James K. Polk c. Martin Van Buren d. John Tyler 6) What was an important premise of Manifest Destiny? a. American expansion should be throughout all of North America. b. Lands to the west belong to the Native Americans. c. American expansion should only incorporate areas where American inhabitants are the majority. d. Canada and Mexico are not to be targets of American expansion. 7) The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo __________. a. confirmed the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas b. required Mexico to pay the United States $15 million in cash for war damages c. guaranteed that slavery would not be allowed west of the Rio Grande d gave independence to California 8) The Wilmot Proviso was a proposal to __________. a. annex all of Mexico as U.S. territory b. prohibit slavery in any territories acquired from Mexico c. grant voting rights to women in the western territories d. encourage increased immigration from Mexico to the Unites States 9) Which mode of transportation transformed the American economy during the 1840s and 1850s? a. the clipper ship b. the canal system c. the covered wagon d. the railroad 10) In 1860, the main source of livelihood for individuals and the biggest contributor to the American economy was__________. a. ranching b. gold mining c. farming d. the textile industry 39 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 11) John Deere's steel plow allowed farmers to __________. a. plow up tough prairie soils b. purchase the less expensive steel plows c. plow loose soil in half the time of a cast-iron plow d. plow by hand without the aid of a farm animal 12) Between the 1830s and 1840s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from __________. a. the Far East b. western Europe c. Latin America d. China 13) The majority of immigrants became __________. a. yeoman farmers b. small business owners c. wage workers in factories d. skilled craftsmen 14) Why was there friction between the Mexican government and Anglo-American settlers in Texas? a. The Mexican government denied Anglo-American settlers the right to own land. b. The Mexican government did not grant women any rights. c. Many Anglo-American settlers refused to convert to their religion Catholicism. d. Many Anglo-American settlers refused to pay taxes. 15) How did the Jackson administration react when Texas became an independent republic in 1836? a. It tried to convince Texans to return to Mexican rule. b. It declared war on Mexico to defend Texas's revolt. c. It formally recognized Texas as a sovereign republic. d. It refused to recognize Texas as a republic. 16) James Polk went to war with Mexico to __________. a. retaliate for the harsh Mexican treatment of Texans b. annex land in Texas, New Mexico, and California c. prevent a Mexican attempt to reacquire Texas d. distract Americans from other domestic issues 17) The major factor that pushed Irish immigrants to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s was the __________. a. oppression by the British government b. decline in the number of jobs in Ireland c. overpopulation of Ireland d. great potato famine 18) Most German immigrants came to the United States to escape __________. a. European wars b. economic and political oppression c. catastrophic famine d. religious persecution 40 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 19) An important result of the changing character of labor in the 1830s and 1840s was __________. a. greater cooperation between employer and employee b. improvement in working conditions and wages c. the paternalistic employer-employee relationship d. an upsurge of labor aggressiveness between employer and employee 20) Which statement best characterizes how the labor force changed during the 1800s? a. Male workers made the transition from being factory workers to being artisans. b. Male workers made the transition from being artisans to being factory workers. c. Married women were more likely than men to work in factories. d. Married women were more likely than unmarried women to work in factories. Chapter 14: The Sectional Crisis, 1846-1861 1) The Wilmot Proviso proposed to ban slavery __________. a. in the northern states b. in the southern states c. in territory acquired from Mexico d. in any future U.S. territories 2) According to the principle of popular sovereignty, __________ would determine whether a territory would have slavery. a. Congress b. territorial legislatures c. settlers living in the territory d. the Supreme Court 3) The key organizer of the Compromise of 1850 was __________. a. John C. Calhoun b. Henry Clay c. Lewis Cass d. Zachary Taylor 4) The Compromise of 1850 __________. a. temporarily restored sectional peace b. failed to pass Congress despite revisions c. prohibited slavery in the New Mexico territory d. made it easier for escaped slaves to hide in the West 5) The most outrageous component of the Compromise of 1850 was the __________. a. admission of California as a free state b. opening of New Mexico and Utah territories to slavery under popular sovereignty c. reduction of Texas to its present boundaries d. enactment of the new Fugitive Slave Law 41 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 6) In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Stephen Douglas attempted to set up territorial government on the basis of __________. a. the Compromise of 1850 b. Free-Soil ideology c. congressional approval or disapproval of slavery d. popular sovereignty 7) Nativists disliked Irish and German immigrants because so many of the immigrants were __________. a. communists b. illiterate c. Jewish d. Roman Catholic 8) A conflict over slavery, which foreshadowed the American Civil War, was fought in which territory during the late 1850s? a. Missouri b. Kansas c. South Carolina d. Tennessee 9) In the presidential election of 1856, which ideology did the Republican Party platform endorsed __________. a. popular sovereignty in the territories b. prohibiting the extension of slavery in the territories c. Fillmore, who opposed Buchanan d. secession from the United States 10) In the 1850s, the most important example of literary abolitionism was __________. a. Uncle Tom's Cabin b. The Impending Crisis of the South c. Tom Sawyer d. Up from Slavery 11) In the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, __________. a. a slave owner sued for damages because he was beaten severely by an abolitionist b. a slave owner sued for damages because abolitionists helped his slaves c. a slave sued for damages because he was beaten severely by a white owner d. a slave sued on the grounds that he had lived in a free state and so he should be a free man 12) John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, involved __________. a. white and black men seizing a federal arsenal in an unsuccessful attempt to start an uprising against slavery b. a slave rebellion that resulted in the deaths of 18 whites and all of the slaves c. a group of white men raiding a southern abolitionist office and killing five white and black antislavery protestors d. white men and women seizing 18 slaves in order to forcibly emancipate them in Mexico 42 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 13) During the 1840s, what was true of most northerners? a. They disliked slavery and detested abolitionism. b. They were fierce and loyal abolitionists. c. They supported the institution of slavery. d. They were apathetic about the slavery issue. 14) As a result of the revised Fugitive Slave Law in the Compromise of 1850, it became __________. a. easier for escaped slaves to stay free b. easier to kidnap and enslave free African Americans c. easier for slaves to sue for their freedom d. easier for slaves to purchase their freedom 15) What was an important result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act? a. It had disastrous effects on the sectional harmony with in the United States. b. It revived support for an expansionist foreign policy. c. It strengthened the political power of the Whig Party. d. It had little effect on sectional tensions. 16) The growing division between North and South during the 1840s and 1850s __________. a. was primarily expressed in political terms b. was entirely expressed in legal, constitutional terms c. had little impact on the common man d. was increasingly seen as cultural and sectional differences 17) In the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision, the court ruled that __________. a. an African American could not be a citizen of the United States b. Congress had the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories c. the Missouri Compromise was constitutional d. the Democratic platform was unconstitutional 18) John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry __________. a. increased southern fears of northern hostility b. was condemned by most northerners c. had little effect on sectional tensions d. united North and South in their condemnation of Brown 19) What did the South gain from the Compromise of 1850? a. A lower tariff. b. A stronger fugitive slave law. c. The right to bring slaves into all territories taken from Mexico. d. A slave code for the territories. 20) Which of the following statements about the Compromise of 1850 is correct a. it allowed the California voters to decide by popular vote whether to have slavery. b. Its passage was helped by Stephen Douglas's strategy of breaking up Clay's Omnibus bill into separate measures. c. It had the backing of John C. Calhoun and almost all southerners but was opposed by Daniel Webster and most northerners. d. It ended slavery in Washington, D.C. 43 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank Chapter 15: Secession and the Civil War, 1860-1865 1) What caused seven states to secede from the Union before any shots had been fired? a. the Compromise of 1850 b. John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry c. the election of President Lincoln d. the Emancipation Proclamation 2) Which of the following southern states was the first to secede from the Union? a. Kentucky b. Virginia c. Alabama d. South Carolina 3) As a war leader, Jefferson Davis __________. a. focused more on policymaking than controlling the military b. had an excellent relationship with his generals c. lacked military initiative and political leadership on the home front d. frequently used martial law to retain control 4) The first shots of the Civil War were fired at __________. a. Fort Pickens b. Fort Sumter c. Manassas Junction d. Fort Henry 5) In 1861, Lincoln declared martial law and suspended the __________ in the area between Philadelphia and Washington. a. Constitution b. writ of habeas corpus c. right to bear arms d. freedom of speech protections 6) The first major battle of the war, at Bull Run, resulted in __________. a. a Union victory b. a Confederate victory c. a bloody stalemate d. the capture of Washington, D.C. 7) The bloodiest one-day battle of the war was __________, which took place on September 17, 1862. a. Shiloh b. Bull Run c. Vicksburg d. Antietam 44 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 8) The Emancipation Proclamation freed __________. a. all slaves throughout the United States b. only slaves in the loyal border states c. only slaves in the western territories d. only slaves in the Confederate-controlled areas 9) The Confederate 1863 victory at Chancellorsville cost the Confederacy the life of __________. a. Jefferson Davis b. "Stonewall" Jackson c. Robert E. Lee d. William Tecumseh Sherman 10) The victory at __________ gave the Union control of the Mississippi River. a. Gettysburg b. Vicksburg c. Richmond d. Shiloh 11) Lincoln's opponent from the Democratic Party in the presidential election of 1864 was __________. a. Jefferson Davis b. Stephen Douglas c. Ulysses S. Grant d. George McClellan 12) Who surrendered to the Union army at Appomattox Court House in April of 1865? a. Confederate President Jefferson Davis b. General Robert E. Lee c. General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson d. General Ulysses S. Grant 13) Approximately __________ soldiers died in the Civil War. a. 50,000 b. 125,000 c. 620,000 d. 950,000 14) The attack on Fort Sumter __________. a. was a prolonged and exceptionally bloody battle b. weakened the secession movement c. caused increasing opposition to the war in the North d. united northern opinion against the rebellion 15) In the beginning, the Civil War was a __________. a. struggle to free the slaves b. struggle to preserve the Union c. personal struggle between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis d. struggle to preserve "King Cotton” 45 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 16) To secure the necessary troops for the war, both the North and the South __________. a. resorted to a draft b. forbade wealthy men to buy exemptions c. allowed women to join combat units d. hired mercenaries from Europe 17) Which statement best describes the disparity in resources between the North and the South during the Civil War? a. The North had more factories and industrial workers than the South. b. The value of industrial production was higher in the South. c. The South had more textiles and firearms factories. d. The South had more miles of railroad tracks than the North. 18) During the war, the Confederate economy __________. a. managed to produce a surplus of industrial goods b. easily evaded the effects of the northern blockade c. suffered from severe inflation d. actually benefited from the Emancipation Proclamation 19) How did the Emancipation Proclamation change how each side viewed the war? a. It made the South realize that slavery was not a sustainable system. b. It allowed both sides to focus exclusively on fighting. c. It made the South realize that it should reenter the United States and fight for slavery in Congress. d. It committed the North to abolishing slavery as a major aim of the war. 20) Which statement best characterizes Sherman's march through Georgia? a. Sherman defied Lincoln by refusing to implement a scorched-earth policy. b. Sherman destroyed almost anything of military or economic value in his path. c. Although he destroyed cities, Sherman was careful to do little damage to infrastructure. d. Sherman avoided major population centers in order to travel as quickly as possible. 21) Which of the following was an advantage the South had in the Civil War? a. larger army b. more miles of railroad c. greater number of factories d. more experienced generals 22) At the start of the war, the South’s basic strategy could be summarized as a. prepare and wait. b. rely on railroads. c. blockade the North. d. invade and attack. 23) Lee crossed into Pennsylvania because he wanted a a. rest from constant battle. b. chance to break the Union blockade. c. direct route into New England. d. victory on northern soil. 46 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Brands, American Stories 3e Test Bank 24) Passage of the Thirteenth Amendment showed that Congress accepted a. Lincoln’s stand against slavery. b. Lee’s terms for ending the war. c. its responsibility for the war. d. Sherman’s destruction of Atlanta. 25) In the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln a. condemned the use of total war. b. promised the nation a new birth of freedom. c. declared that slavery was moral. d. offered forgiveness to the South. 47 Copyright © 2014, 2012 & 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.