LISTEN FOR KEYWORDS Specific information • Names, time, numbers Form main idea • General idea • Repeated words • Word relations USE BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Content knowledge • • • • • Sample topic: environment Pollution Recycling Preservation Conservation USE CONTEXTUAL CLUES Clues Conversation setting Speakers’ voice tone Vocabulary used FOCUSED INFORMATION Specific information • • • • Birthday party Date Venue Time Functions Transitional Signals Add an idea in addition, furthermore, also, moreover, besides, another Time and sequence first, second, next, then, last, finally Contrast however, in contrast, on the other hand, nevertheless, whereas Result as a result, therefore, consequently, hence, thus Example for example, for instance, such as, in particular Emphasis in fact, indeed, certantly Generalize in general, in short, all in all Conclude in conclusion, in summary, in short PRONOUN REFERENTS Pronoun Types Personal Pronoun: I, you, he, she, it, we, they Function Replace nouns Example She ran all the way home. Reflexive Pronoun: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves Intensify antecedents Reflect antecedents Dr. Rayyan Elyas himself will be conducting the “Be Healthy” seminar. Relative Pronoun: who, whose, which, that Join two sentences Replace noun/pronoun Refer to antecedents The talk on self-confidence, that was, attended by many participants, was a huge success as compared to the year before. WORD STRESS longer Syllables clearer louder Word apple table happy suspect import insult Word Type Two-syllable nouns and adjectives Tendency Exceptions Stress on the first syllable Oo AP ple hotel Lagoon Noun – first syllable Oo “You are the SUSpect!” Words which can be used as both nouns and verbs hairbrush Compound nouns football The verb – second syllable oO “I susPECT you.” First part stronger stress Oo HAIRbrush respect witness Information marker • Information focus • Different stress, different meaning Example: • You play the violin? • You play the violin? CONTENT AND FUNCTION STRESSED CONTENT WORDS UNSTRESSED FUNCTION WORDS WORDS EXAMPLE WORDS EXAMPLE nouns kitchen, Peter Determiners the, a, some, a few (most) principle verbs visit, construct auxiliary verbs don’t, am, can, were adjectives beautiful, interesting prepositions before, next to, opposite adverbs often, carefully conjunctions but, while, as pronouns they, she, us CONTENT AND FUNCTION Example Will you CALL CALL my MOTHER MOTHER because I’ve LOST LOST my HANDPHONE HANDPHONE Rising intonation • • • • Express various information I am not sure if I can do /it. Aminah is /coming? I would really love to meet /you. Falling intonation • • • • Statements, commands, exclamatory sentences Eric does not own a \car. I haven’t read the \book. Sarimah does not feel like calling \him. INTONATION IN QUESTIONS “yes” or ”no” questions - Rises on last content words • Did you go to the /cinema? • Are you going to tell /Anusha? -wh words - Rising falling on last content words • What time will the show /\starts? • When is Sue’s /\birthday? FEELINGS AND ATTITUDE INTONATIONS DIVIDE TO GROUPS ROLEPLAY DIFFERENT EMOTIONS • HAPPY • SAD • DISAPPOINTED • ARROGANT • INDIFFERENT • BOSSY • ENTHUSIASTIC • SURPRISE TRANSITIONAL MARKERS Function Example Listing First, second, third First, furthermore, finally To begin with, to conclude, next Reinforcing Also Furthermore Moreover, What’s more In addition Besides Above all As well as In the same way Not only ___, but also ___ On top of that In fact Actually Highlighting In particular Particularly Especially Mainly Primarily Generalizing In general Generally On the whole As a rule For the most part In most cases Usually Now, as far as ___ is concerned Transition to new point With regards/reference to As for ___ It follows that Turning to SUPPORTING OPINION PHRASES Function Phrases For example… For instance… To elaborate Let me give you an example… Let me illustrate… To reason Because… Due to… Owing to the fact… As… Since… As a consequence/result… To explain So that… In my opinion, … As we know, … To reiterate First, … Second, … Finally, … In conclusion, … SOUNDS AND WORDS Receive and interpret messages Understood accurately Avoid communication breakdown READ AND GUESS SET A • • • • • • • CONTEXT / CONTEST HE / SHE BOOKS / HOOKS THEIR / THEY MAKES / MIX HIGH / HIDE THROW / THROUGH SET B • • • • • • • BAKING / MAKING RETORT / REPORT HASSLE / MUSSLE CUSTOMER / COSTUMER HEIGHT / WEIGHT LISTEN / LISTENS DOODLE / DOODLES STEP 1: FOCUSED LISTENING • WHAT WAS 2013’S MOST DOWNLOADED APPLICATION? • HOW MANY TIMES HAS THE APPLICATION BEEN DOWNLOADED? • WHAT APPLICATION EARNED THE MOST REVENUE? • HOW MANY TIMES DOES THE WOMAN PLAY THE APPLICATION IN A DAY? • WHAT IS THE OTHER TOP DOWNLOADED APPLICATION IN 2013? • WHAT KIND OF APPLICATION IS IT? STEP 2: SELECT AND REINFORCE INFORMATION • WHAT IS THE KEY REQUIREMENT FOR TOURISTS AND TRAVELERS? • WHY ARE MANY HOTEL GUESTS FED UP WITH HOTELS? • WHAT IS THE RANGE OF THE INTERNET ACCESS FEE CHARGED BY HOTELS? • HOW MANY TRAVELERS DID THE SURVEY ASK? • WHAT WAS THE BIGGEST COMPLAINT ABOUT STAYING IN A HOTEL? • WHAT WAS THE SECOND MOST COMMON COMPLAINT? STEP 3: SEQUENCE MARKERS • WRITE THE INSTRUCTIONS ON “HOW TO BE ON TIME” STRATEGY 1: TITLE/TOPIC SENTENCE Title • Gives idea about the whole passage Topic sentence • First sentence of a paragraph STRATEGY 2: LISTEN IN CHUNKS What Why Who How When Where STRATEGY 3: LANGUAGE SIGNALS Signals What I’m going to talk about today is … First, Furthermore, One reason, The main point is … In addition, The important thing here is … The purpose of my remarks is … STRATEGY 4: How could I be so stupid? • asked merely • no answer expected • obvious or immediately provided by the questioner Examples • "If practice makes perfect, and no one's perfect, then why practice?"