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Operating Systems Course Keyword List

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Operating System Paradigms:
Unit 1: O/S Structure
central processing unit (CPU)
memory and RAM (and DRAM)
firmware and ROM (or EEPROM)
input/output (I/O) devices
instruction-execution cycle
instruction register
storage device hierarchy
small computer-systems interface (SCSI)
direct memory access (DMA)
device driver
multiprocessor system (parallel systems)
symmetric multi-processing (SMP)
uniform memory access (UMA)
non-uniform memory access (NUMA)
multiple computing cores
blade server
clustered system
Beowulf clusters
storage-area networks (SANs)
multiprogramming
job pool and job scheduling
time sharing or multitasking
interactive (hands-on) computer system
response time
process
virtual memory
swapping
interrupt driven
trap or exception
dual-mode
user mode
kernel mode
privileged instructions
timer
process management
program counter
memory management
instruction-fetch cycle
data-fetch cycle
file
mass-storage
caching
cache management
I/O subsystem
protection
security
network operating system
real-time operating systems
handheld system
multimedia system
client-server
peer-to-peer
open-source operating system
Linux
BSD UNIX
Solaris
system call
microkernel
performance tuning
operating system generation
system boot
system and application programs
operating system services helpful to users
graphical user interface (GUI)
command interpreter
program execution
I/O operations
file-system manipulation
communications
error detection
operating-system functions that ensure the
efficient operation of the system itself
recourse allocation
accounting
protection and security
system calls
system-call interface
types of system calls
application programming interface (API)
systems programs
file manager programs and text editors
logging, registry, system information viewer
compilers, interpreters, assemblers, and
debuggers
communication programs such as Web browser
operating system structure
layered approach
kernel
microkernel approach
mach
modular kernels
virtual machine and virtualization
para-virtualization
zones or containers
simulation
VMware architecture
Java virtual machine
just-in-time (JIT) compiler
operating-system design: goals, mechanisms, and
policies
operating-system implementation: language issue
operating-system debugging
debugger
core dump
crash dump
operating-system performance tuning
profiling
operating-system generation
system boot
boot block
GRUB
Unit 2: Process
Management
process cooperation
interprocess communication (IPC)
shared-memory
message passing
producer-consumer problem
bounded and unbounded buffer
direct and indirect communication
naming
mailbox or port
synchronization
buffering
zero, bounded, and unbounded capacity
POSIX shared memory
message passing in Mach
local procedure calls in Windows
communication in client-server systems
sockets
remote procedure calls (RPCs)
port
stub
matchmaker
ACK message
pipe
named pipe
thread
multithreaded programming
multithreaded process and single-threaded process
multicore programming
multithreading models
many-to-one model
one-to-one model
many-to-many model
two-level model
user threads
kernel threads
thread libraries
Pthreads
Java threads
Windows threads
thread cancellation
signal handling in multithreaded programs
thread pool
lightweight process (LWP)
thread-specific data
scheduler activations
fork(), exec(), and clone()
threads implementation in operating systems
Linux threads
Windows threads
ynchronization
race condition
critical-section and critical-section problem
mutual exclusion
progress
bounded waiting
Peterson’s solution
hardware instructions executed atomically
swap()
testandset()
semaphores
wait(S)
signal(S)
mutex locks or binary semaphore
counting semaphore
spinlock
busy waiting
CPU scheduling
process scheduling
thread scheduling
CPU burst and I/O burst
CPU scheduler or short-term scheduler
pre-emptive scheduling
non-pre-emptive or cooperative scheduling
dispatcher
dispatcher latency
scheduling criteria
CPU utilization
throughput
turnaround time
waiting time
response time
Gantt chart
scheduling algorithms
first-come, first-served (FAFS)
shortest-job-first (SJF)
shortest-next-CPU-burst
shortest-remaining-time-first
priority scheduling
aging
starvation of indefinite blocking
round-robin (RR) scheduling
multilevel queue scheduling
multilevel feedback queue scheduling
thread scheduling
process-contention scope (PCS)
system-contention scope (SCS)
Pthread scheduling
multiple-processor scheduling
asymmetric multiprocessing
symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
processor affinity
soft affinity
hard affinity
load balancing
multicore processor scheduling
scheduling in virtual machines
Linux scheduling
Windows scheduling
Solaris scheduling
scheduling algorithm evaluation
deterministic modeling
queueing model
Little’s formula
queueing-network analysis
block() and wakeup(P)
deadlocks
starvation or indefinite blocking
priority inversion
classic problems of synchronization
bounded-buffer problem
readers-writers problem
dining-philosophers problem
monitors
monitor type
conditions
synchronization
in Solaris
in Windows
in Linux
atomic transaction
commit, abort, and roll back
write-ahead logging
log-based recovery
checkpoints
concurrent atomic transactions
serializability
serial schedule
nonserial schedule
conflicting operations
conflict serializable
locking protocol
two-phase locking protocol (2PL)
timestamp-based protocol
deadlock
necessary conditions for a deadlock to arise
mutual exclusion
hold and wait
no pre-emption
circular wait
resource-allocation graph
deadlock prevention
deadlock avoidance
safe state
safe sequence
resource-allocation-graph algorithm
Banker’s algorithm
safety algorithm
resource-request algorithm
deadlock detection
wait-for graph
detection algorithm
recovery from deadlock
Unit 3: Storage
Management
address binding
compile time binding
execution time binding
load time binding
logical address
virtual address
memory management unit (MMU)
dynamic loading
static and dynamic linking
swapping
contiguous allocation
partitioning
variable-partition scheme
fragmentation
external fragmentation
internal fragmentation
compaction
paging
page
frame
page table
frame table
page-table base register (PTBR)
translation look-aside buffer (TLB)
hit-ratio
frame protection
multilevel paging
hash-page table
inverted page table
segment
segment table
segmentation
segmentation with paging
local descriptor table (LDT)
global descriptor table (GDT)
basic file system
logical file system
file-control block
mount table
virtual file systems
dynamic storage allocation
external fragmentation
file allocation table (FAT)
index block
linked allocation
combined index
backup
recovery
consistency checking
device drivers
bus structure
memory-mapped I/O
registers for I/O ports
busy-waiting or polling
interrupt-driven I/O
programmed I/O (PIO)
DMA
block and character devices
blocking and nonblocking I/O
kernel I/O subsystem
I/O scheduling
buffering
caching
spooling
virtual memory
demand paging
lazy swapper
pager
page fault
locality of reference
page fault rate
copy-on-write
page replacement
reference string
first-in first-out page replacement
optimal page replacement
Belady’s anomaly
least-recently-used page replacement
page-buffering algorithm
frame allocation
global page replacement
local page replacement
thrashing
working-set model
memory-mapped files and I/O
shared memory
prepaging
I/O interlock
open file table
file organization
file structure
packing
internal fragmentation, files
access method
sequential access
relative access
logical record
random access
indexed
indexed sequential access
relative block number
directory
tree structured directory
subdirectory
device directory
acyclic graph directory
symbolic link
mount point
immutable shared files
access control list
magnetic disk and tape
logical block
constant linear velocity (CLV)
constant angular velocity (CAV)
host-attached and network-attached storage
SCSI
fiber channel (FC)
storage-area network
disk scheduling
seek time
rotational latency
bandwidth
first-come, first-served (FCFS)
shortest-seek-time-first (SSTF)
scan scheduling (SCAN) or elevator algorithm
circular SCAN (C-SCAN)
look scheduling (LOOK)
disk formatting
logical formatting
physical formatting
Unit 4: Protection &
Security
protection policies and mechanisms
protection domain
domain switching
access matrix
access list
capability list
lock-key scheme
access control
capacity-based protection
language-based protection
boot block
master boot record (MBR)
bad blocks
swap-space management
redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs)
data striping
bit-level striping
block-level striping
RAID levels
stable-storage implementation
tertiary-storage structure
removable media
denial-of-service (DOS)
replay attack
man-in-the-middle attack
session hijacking
phishing
dumpster diving
back-door demon
Trojan horse
spyware
covert channels
trap door
logic bomb
virus
worm
zombie system
distributed DOS
cryptography
decryption
encryption
symmetric encryption
data encryption standard (DES)
advanced encryption standard (AES)
asymmetric encryption
RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman)
public key
private key
authentication
message-authentication code (MAC)
digital-signature
digital certificate
certificate authorities
SSL
session key
user authentication
security through obscurity
auditing, accounting, and logging
computer-security classification
Unit 5: Distributed,
Real-time, Datadriven Systems
distributed system
network operating system
distributed operating system
data migration
computation migration
process migration
network structure
communication structure
naming
name resolution
routing
connection
contention
communication protocols
distributed file system (DFS)
naming structures
name scheme
remote file access
file replication
virtual machines
virtual machine manager (VMM)
hypervisor
Paravirtualization
Emulators
Disk partitioning
Xen
VMware
Live migration
Cloud computing
Virtual CPU (VCPU)
Page tables
Virtual machine control structure
Control partition
Java virtual machine (JVM)
Memory overcommitment
Network address translation (NAT)
Bytecode
Garbage collection
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