Uploaded by Mark Louie Flores Abello


First lecture/activity
Objectives of the topic
 Realize the social forces that shape your choices and
 Understand the impact of failing to comprehend these
social forces
 Appreciate the contributions of sociology in
undertaking both the self and the group life
What are the social forces that
affect your behavior, choices and
 Family
 Peers
 Fashion
 Icons
 Religion
 Education
 Events (identify)
Materials needed
 Manila paper
 Pentel pen
 Masking tape
 Divide the class into 4 or 5 groups
 For each group, choose your leader, rapporteur and
 Distribution of springboard questions
 Each member of the group shares his/her responses to
the questions
 The leader guides the flow of the discussion as the
secretary jots down important responses
 After everybody has finished sharing their responses,
the rapporteur presents the collated answers of the
group to the class
 The facilitator(teacher) summarizes the responses of
the groups and draws trends in order to come up with
appropriate conclusions
 Processing/integration
Processing: cognitive
 What have you discovered about social forces and your
choices and decisions?
 Do you understand the dynamics of social conditions
and how they affect our social lives?
 Can you identify your behavior, which is a product of
interacting social forces?
 Do you feel better now that you have identified the
social forces that influenced your behavior?
 Has your discovery lessened or heightened your
feelings of helplessness about the prevailing strong
social forces?
 Do you now see the value of understanding the
sociological perspectives of behavior?
Questions to answer
 The moment you wake up in the morning, enumerate
the choices, decisions and actions you have which are
influenced by people and events around you as well as
the roles and duties and demands pressed on you by
social conditions.
 How do you feel about being pressured by these
conditions? Do you feel happy in carrying out the
demands or do you feel irritated or frustrated because
you can hardly cope with them?
 How do these social forces jibe with your own choices
and decisions?
Personal reactions
 No man is an island
 Man is not only a rational and political being.
 Man is basically a gregarious social being!
 The individual is the society, and the society is the
Lecture/ activity 2
 Definition and nature of sociology
 How can you adequately understand human behavior?
 Look into the relationship of man with other members
of the society?
 Who/what is man?
 A biological and rational being
 A social being from the cradle to the grave
 Always in the company of others and never in isolation
from birth to death
 Associates and interacts with others in different social
settings in order to satisfy his varied needs
 How and why he behaves in a certain way is greatly
influenced by the norms, values, ethos, expectations,
prescriptions and proscription of the social groups to
which he belongs
 The science that deals with the study of society and the
social interactions taking place therein.
 It is concerned with the study of human societies and
of human behavior in social settings
 As a discipline, it undertakes a scientific study of man’s
behavior as a consequence of his being a member of a
social group.
Etymological definition
 Socius (Latin) = companion or associate
 Logos (Greek) = study
 Thus, sociology is the study of association, group,
society and social interaction
 Begins with the idea that humans are to be understood
in the context of their social life, that we are social
animals influenced by interaction, social patterns and
Essential characteristics of
 It is neutral. It seeks knowledge for the sake of
knowledge. It describes society as it is and not what it
ought to be, nor biased, nor one sided. It is ethically
neutral and maintains a value-free position.
 It is concerned with the study of human social life.
 It is a science. It utilizes methods and techniques to
develop a body of organized, systematized and
verifiable knowledge about human societies.
Areas of sociology
 Social organization: social groups, institutions,
stratification and mobility, ethnic relations and
 Social psychology: study of human nature as the
outcome of group life, personality formation and
collective behavior
 Social change: social organization and
disorganization, change in culture and problems
 Human ecology: studies the behavior of a given
population and its relationship to the group’s social
institutions and natural resources
 Population studies: population size, composition,
change, and quality as they influence the economic,
political, social systems and vice versa
 Sociological theory and research: discovery,
development and replication of research tools that test
the applicability of the principles of group life for the
regulation of the social environment
 Applied sociology: application and findings of pure
sociological research to such various fields as
marriage, family, criminology, penology, social work,
education and industrial relations.
Pioneers/forerunners of
 Early practitioners:
Henri Saint-Simon(17601825) wrote his ideas on
the science of society
based on the assumption
that the law of human
behavior could be
determined in the same
manner that the law of
nature had been arrived
at by natural scientist.
2. Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
was a French philosopher
who advocated the idea of
“positivism” or the use of
empirical investigation to
understand society and
social phenomena. He
coined the word sociology
and is considered the
father of sociology.
Herbert Spencer (18301903)
philosopher-scientist who
argued that human societies
go through an evolutionary
process and who coined the
concept of “survival of the
fittest.” His theory of social
evolution espoused the idea
that societies develop from
relative homogeneity and
simplicity to heterogeneity
and complexity.
4. Karl Marx (1818-1883) a
German philosopher who
believed that the misery and
exploitation of the working
lower classes in society was
caused by capitalism –the
existing industrial order. That
conflict between the two
struggling classes will always
exist because of inequality.
That the relationship of
people is based on economics
and its elements: production,
distribution, consumption
5. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) a
French sociologist who
focused on characteristics of
social groups, particularly that
of religion. He advanced his
theory with the social
methodology on the classic
study of suicide as it was
influenced by social forces:
social integration, religion,
marital status and
6. Max Weber (1864-1920) a
German economist-lawyer
whose works dwelt on the
significance of subjective
meanings people give to their
interactions with others. He
pointed out the importance of
“verstehen” – an emphatic
understanding of what people
are thinking and feeling of the
people's subjective experience.