Uploaded by Meredith Edelen

Major Concepts of foundations of family therapy

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Foundations (Major concepts)
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1.
Alliance
- all unified/together for this one cause
2.
All-or-Nothing
Thinking
Thinking in absolutes such as "always",
"never", or "every". "I
never do a good enough job on anything."
3.
Boundaries are
the "lines of demarcation" who is in and
who is out of system
4.
Boundary
Ambiguity
- Uncertainty about who is in and who is
out of the system
- Very common at times of transition
Catastrophizing:
5.
17.
Enactments
occur when a therapist
stimulates a family to
demonstrate how
they handle problems
-Therapists guides the family
how to modify the enactment,
creating new behavior
sequences
18.
Enmeshed boundaries
Seeing only the worst possible outcomes
of a situation.
promotes dependence & limits
contact with others outside the
family system
19.
Enmeshed
families....Boundaries are
_____and Family members
become __________ on one
another
diffuse and dependent
20.
Entropy
The natural tendency of
systems to dissipate.
(disappear)
21.
Epigenesis
Whatever we do early in our
lives and our relationships has
a significant impact on what
happens later in our lives.
22.
Equifinality
many beginnings can lead to
the same outcome
23.
Equipotentiality
the same beginnings can lead
to different outcomes
24.
Family is more than a
collection of individuals; it
is ____________________
an organized network of
relationships
25.
A family system is a
_____________ made up of a
set of
people related by blood
or intention.
social and/or biological
construction
26.
Feedback loops
how a system gets information
necessary to maintain a steady
state
(Introduced by Gregory
Bateson)
27.
first order change
Temporary or superficial
changes within a system that
do not alter the basic
organization of the system
itself.
28.
Fortune Telling
The expectation that a situation
will turn out badly without
adequate evidence.
6.
change vs.
stability
- Family systems are stable in their chaos
and
orderly in their disorder . . .
- Families are predictable in general,
unpredictable in detail.
7.
Coalition
negative connotation; one subsystem
against another
8.
Context
what the client is saying
9.
Contingency
contracting
parents will make changes once they see
changes in
children
10.
Covert
Unspoken
11.
Diffuse
boundaries
Offer heightened amounts of mutual
support, But at the expense of
independence
resulting in enmeshment
12.
directives
interventions aimed at targeting and
changing specific behaviors
13.
Disqualifying
the Positive:
Recognizing only the negative aspects of a
situation while
ignoring the positive. One might receive
many compliments on an evaluation, but
focus on the single piece of negative
feedback
14.
Double bind
a situation in which an individual is given
two different and inconsistent messages.
i love you then pushes you physically
15.
Egalitarian
- Both partners maintain or attempt to
maintain an
equal relationship
- Difficult to maintain, if focus is on total
equality, in
every way
16.
Emotional
Reasoning:
The assumption that emotions reflect the
way things really are.
"I feel like a bad friend, therefor I must be
a bad friend."
29.
30.
Four types of
destructive
communication can
smother feelings
Function of the
symptom:
1. blaming
2. placating
3. being irrelevant
4. being ultra reasonable, promoting
inauthentic communication rooted in
low self-esteem
the idea that symptoms are often ways
to distract or otherwise protect family
members from something else
(EX: there is some reason they are
doing this.)
31.
Hierarchies
One Up/ One Down - Superior/Inferior
AND
Egalitarian
32.
Homeostasis
The tendency of a system to return to a
state of equilibrium
33.
How is homeostasis
counteracted
by the need for change in a living
system (or the natural
state of change in living system)
34.
Interaction
the interplay between members
35.
• Isomorphism
- a phenomenon in which two or more
systems or subsystems exhibit similar
or parallel structures.
36.
Jumping to
Conclusions
Interpreting the meaning of a situation
with little or no
evidence.
Linear vs. Circular
Causality
Linear = a causes b
37.
Circular = cycle of behavior - a
bounces off b and bounces off c
38.
39.
Magical Thinking
Magnification and
Minimization
The belief that acts will influence
unrelated situations. "I am a good
person—bad things shouldn't happen
to me."
Exaggerating or minimizing the
importance of events. One might
believe their own achievements are
unimportant, or that their
mistakes are excessively important.
40.
Mimesis
Get on the level of the child
Use language like the family or couple
41.
Mind Reading
Interpreting the thoughts and beliefs of
others without adequate
evidence. "She would not go on a date
with me. She probably thinks I'm ugly."
42.
• Morphogenesis
describes a system's tendency toward
growth, creativity, and
innovation; similar to amplifying or
positive feedback loops
43.
• Morphostasis
- describes a system's tendency
toward stability; Like negative
feedback loops that reduce deviation
from existing values or system goals
44.
Negative feedback
loop
A feedback loop in which a system
responds to a change by returning to
its original state, or by decreasing the
rate at which the change is occurring.
45.
Negative feedback
loop EX
getting out of the normal, then doing
something to bring it back to the norm
Ex: Distance in a couple, then the
feeling of disconnecting
negative feedback loop = date night
46.
Negentropy
Requires change (addition of energy to
systems) to occur in order for the
system to continue to exist
47.
One Up/ One
Down Superior/Inferior
- "Captain first mate"
- Captain makes decisions and first
mate carries them
out
48.
Overgeneralization:
Making broad interpretations from a
single or few events. "I felt
awkward during my job interview. I am
always so awkward."
49.
Overt
spoken
50.
Parent training is
based on
Operant conditioning
WHY? Enrich/ reinforce positive
behavior
51.
Permeability
- Ability to enter and exit the system
- Degree to which the system is open
52.
Personalization:
The belief that one is responsible for
events outside of their own
control. "My mom is always upset. She
would be fine if I did more to help
her."
53.
Positive
Connotation
reframing without blaming
54.
Positive feedback
loop
a feedback loop in which change in a
system is amplified
55.
Positive feedback
loop ex
turns into something
EX: Worse --> Don't do what you're
supposed to / gets punished/acts out
worse
Better --> Couple has a good lifestyle
/ almost has diabetes / works out and
loses the weight / so the other partner
makes the changes / eat healthy /
both are being positive
56.
Premack
Principle
Pair something I want done
70.
"Should" Statements:
The belief that things should be a
certain way. "I should always
be friendly."
71.
Structure
the arrangement of the interacting
components
72.
Systemic thinking
cycle, the big picture, everything
relies on everything to function,
interconnections
From parent to child
You don't get your dessert until you eat your
vegetables
You don't get to play video games until you
clean your room
57.
Process:
patterns of interaction OR how someone is
interacting with another in a family or couple
system
73.
A system is defined
as
__________________________
a whole made up of interacting parts.
58.
Psychology
of the absurd
taking clients statements to the extreme
74.
the system is more
than _____________
the sum of its parts
I cant stand my husband. Why don't you get
rid of him and get a boyfriend
75.
Token economies
point systems, rewards
76.
"unfreezing"
break up the group, get out of the
norm, break up the status quo
77.
What is in the black
box?
Emotion and cognition
Thinking and feeling
78.
Who coined the
word "conjoint
therapy"?
Don Jackson
59.
reciprocal
inhibition
pairing responses incompatible with anxiety
to the:
• Previously anxiety-arousing stimuli
(muscle relaxation, visual imagery, etc).
• Anxiety is acquired through classical
conditioning
60.
Reciprocity is
both parties influence each other as they
interact with each other
61.
•
Recursiveness
- refers to reciprocal or circular causality;
mutual interaction and
influence that occurs between people
62.
Reframing
the process of redefining events and
experiences from a different point of view
63.
Rigid
boundaries
-Overly restrictive and permit little contact
with other systems resulting in
disengagement
-Disengagement promotes independence
but limits warmth and affection
64.
Role playing
reenact scenes from childhood or present
65.
Roles are
a character or function one plays
66.
Sculpting
A psychodramatic technique used by Duhl,
Kantor, Satir, and others. One member,
acting as "director," places the family in a
tableau or enactment of an event, feeling, or
family structure in a therapy session. The
process reveals patterns of emotional
closeness and distance.
67.
Sculpting part
2
- Therapist asks a family member to
physically arrange the family to
represent:
• Family roles, rules, perceptions of family
members
68.
second order
change
basic/ big change in the structure and
functioning of a system
69.
Shaping
reinforcing change in small steps
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