Uploaded by Ahmed El Khateeb

ch06

advertisement
6-1
CHAPTER6
Inventories
6-2
PreviewofCHAPTER6
6-3
Classifying Inventory
Merchandising
Company
One Classification:

Inventory
Manufacturing
Company
Three Classifications:

Raw Materials

Work in Process

Finished Goods
Regardless of the classification, companies report all inventories under
Current Assets on the balance sheet.
6-4
6-5
Determining Inventory Quantities
Physical Inventory taken for two reasons:
Perpetual System
1. Check accuracy of inventory records.
2. Determine amount of inventory lost (wasted raw
materials, shoplifting, or employee theft).
Periodic System
1. Determine the inventory on hand.
2. Determine the cost of goods sold for the period.
6-6
SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
Determining Inventory Quantities
Taking a Physical Inventory
Involves counting, weighing, or measuring each kind of
inventory on hand.
Taken,
6-7

when the business is closed or business is slow.

at end of the accounting period.
SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
6-8
Determining Inventory Quantities
Determining Ownership of Goods
Goods in Transit

Purchased goods not yet received.

Sold goods not yet delivered.
Goods in transit should be included in the inventory of the
company that has legal title to the goods. Legal title is
determined by the terms of sale.
6-9
SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
Determining Inventory Quantities
Goods in Transit
Illustration 6-1
Terms of sale
Ownership of the goods
passes to the buyer when the
public carrier accepts the
goods from the seller.
Ownership of the goods
remains with the seller until
the goods reach the buyer.
6-10
Determining Inventory Quantities
Question
Goods in transit should be included in the inventory of the
buyer when the:
a. public carrier accepts the goods from the seller.
b. goods reach the buyer.
c. terms of sale are FOB destination.
d. terms of sale are FOB shipping point.
6-11
SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
Determining Inventory Quantities
Determining Ownership of Goods
Consigned Goods
6-12

Goods held for sale by one party.

Ownership of the goods is retained by another
party.
SO 1 Describe the steps in determining inventory quantities.
6-13
Inventory Costing
Unit costs can be applied to quantities on hand using
the following costing methods:
6-14

Specific Identification

First-in, first-out (FIFO)

Last-in, first-out (LIFO)

Average-cost
Cost Flow
Assumptions
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Illustration: Assume that Crivitz TV Company purchases
three identical 50-inch TVs on different dates at costs of $700,
$750, and $800. During the year Crivitz sold two sets at $1,200
each. These facts are summarized below.
Illustration 6-2
6-15
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Specific Identification
If Crivitz sold the TVs it purchased on February 3 and May 22,
then its cost of goods sold is $1,500 ($700 + $800), and its
ending inventory is $750.
Illustration 6-3
6-16
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Specific Identification
Actual physical flow costing method in which items still in
inventory are specifically costed to arrive at the total cost of
the ending inventory.

Practice is relatively rare.

Most companies make assumptions (Cost Flow
Assumptions) about which units were sold.
6-17
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Cost Flow
Assumptions
do not need to match the
physical movement of
goods
Illustration 6-11
Use of cost flow methods in
major U.S. companies
6-18
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Illustration: Data for Houston Electronics’ Astro
condensers.
Illustration 6-4
(Beginning Inventory + Purchases) - Ending Inventory = Cost of Goods Sold
6-19
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
First-In-First-Out (FIFO)

Earliest goods purchased are first to be sold.

Often parallels actual physical flow of merchandise.

Generally good business practice to sell oldest units
first.
6-20
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
First-In-First-Out (FIFO)
Illustration 6-5
6-21
SO 2
Inventory Costing
First-In-First-Out (FIFO)
Illustration 6-5
6-22
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Last-In-First-Out (FIFO)

Latest goods purchased are first to be sold.

Seldom coincides with actual physical flow of
merchandise.

6-23
Includes goods stored in piles, such as coal or hay.
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Last-In-First-Out (FIFO)
Illustration 6-7
6-24
SO 2
Inventory Costing
Last-In-First-Out (FIFO)
Illustration 6-7
6-25
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Average Cost

Allocates cost of goods available for sale on the basis
of weighted-average unit cost incurred.

Assumes goods are similar in nature.

Applies weighted-average unit cost to the units on
hand to determine cost of the ending inventory.
6-26
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Average Cost
Illustration 6-10
6-27
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Average Cost
Illustration 6-10
6-28
SO 2 Explain the basis of accounting for inventories
and apply the inventory cost flow methods.
Inventory Costing
Financial Statement and Tax Effects
Illustration 6-12
6-29
SO 3 Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions.
Inventory Costing
Question
The cost flow method that often parallels the actual
physical flow of merchandise is the:
a. FIFO method.
b. LIFO method.
c. average cost method.
d. gross profit method.
6-30
SO 3 Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions.
Inventory Costing
Question
In a period of inflation, the cost flow method that results
in the lowest income taxes is the:
a. FIFO method.
b. LIFO method.
c. average cost method.
d. gross profit method.
6-31
SO 3 Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions.
6-32
Inventory Costing
Using Cost Flow Methods Consistently

Method should be used consistently, enhances
comparability.

Although consistency is preferred, a company may
change its inventory costing method.
Illustration 6-14
Disclosure of change in
cost flow method
6-33
SO 3 Explain the financial effects of the inventory cost flow assumptions.
Inventory Costing
Lower-of-Cost-or-Market
When the value of inventory is lower than its cost

Companies can “write down” the inventory to its market
value in the period in which the price decline occurs.
6-34

Market value = Replacement Cost

Example of conservatism.
SO 4 Explain the lower-of-cost-or-market basis of accounting for inventories.
Inventory Costing
Lower-of-Cost-or-Market
Illustration: Assume that Ken Tuckie TV has the following
lines of merchandise with costs and market values as
indicated.
Illustration 6-15
6-35
SO 4 Explain the lower-of-cost-or-market basis of accounting for inventories.
Inventory Errors
Common Cause:

Failure to count or price inventory correctly.

Not properly recognizing the transfer of legal title to
goods in transit.

Errors affect both the income statement and balance
sheet.
6-36
SO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
Inventory Costing
Income Statement Effects
Inventory errors affect the computation of cost of goods sold
and net income.
Illustration 6-16
Illustration 6-17
6-37
SO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
Inventory Costing
Income Statement Effects
Inventory errors affect the computation of cost of goods
sold and net income in two periods.
6-38

An error in ending inventory of the current period will have a
reverse effect on net income of the next accounting
period.

Over the two years, the total net income is correct because
the errors offset each other.

Ending inventory depends entirely on the accuracy of taking
and costing the inventory.
SO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
Inventory Costing
Illustration 6-18
Sales
2012
Incorrect
Correct
$
$
80,000
$
80,000
90,000
$
90,000
Beginning inventory
20,000
20,000
12,000
15,000
Cost of goods purchased
40,000
40,000
68,000
68,000
Cost of goods available
60,000
60,000
80,000
83,000
Ending inventory
12,000
15,000
23,000
23,000
Cost of good sold
48,000
45,000
57,000
60,000
Gross profit
32,000
35,000
33,000
30,000
Operating expenses
10,000
10,000
20,000
20,000
Net income
$
Combined income for
2-year period is correct.
6-39
2011
Incorrect
Correct
22,000
$
25,000
($3,000)
Net Income
understated
$
13,000
$
10,000
$3,000
Net Income
overstated
SO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
Inventory Costing
Question
Understating ending inventory will overstate:
a. assets.
b. cost of goods sold.
c. net income.
d. owner's equity.
6-40
SO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
Inventory Costing
Balance Sheet Effects
Effect of inventory errors on the balance sheet is determined
by using the basic accounting equation:.
Illustration 6-16
Illustration 6-19
6-41
SO 5 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the financial statements.
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Presentation
Balance Sheet - Inventory classified as current asset.
Income Statement - Cost of goods sold subtracted from
sales.
There also should be disclosure of
1) major inventory classifications,
2) basis of accounting (cost or LCM), and
3) costing method (FIFO, LIFO, or average).
6-42
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Analysis
Inventory management is a double-edged sword
1. High Inventory Levels - may incur high carrying costs
(e.g., investment, storage, insurance, obsolescence, and
damage).
2. Low Inventory Levels – may lead to stockouts and lost
sales.
6-43
SO 6 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Inventory turnover measures the number of times on
average the inventory is sold during the period.
Inventory
Turnover
Cost of Goods Sold
=
Average Inventory
Days in inventory measures the average number of days
inventory is held.
Days in
Inventory
6-44
Days in Year (365)
=
Inventory Turnover
SO 6 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Illustration: Wal-Mart reported in its 2010 annual report a beginning
inventory of $34,511 million, an ending inventory of $33,160 million, and
cost of goods sold for the year ended January 31, 2010, of $304,657
million. The inventory turnover formula and computation for Wal-Mart are
shown below.
Illustration 6-21
Days in Inventory: Inventory turnover of 9 times divided into 365 is
approximately 40.6 days. This is the approximate time that it takes a
company to sell the inventory.
6-45
SO 6 Compute and interpret the inventory turnover ratio.
6-46
APPENDIX6A
Perpetual Inventory Systems
Illustration 6A-1
Assuming the Perpetual Inventory System, compute Cost of Goods Sold
and Ending Inventory under FIFO, LIFO, and Average cost.
6-47
SO 7 Apply the inventory cost flow methods to perpetual inventory records.
Perpetual Inventory System
First-In-First-Out (FIFO)
Cost of Goods
Sold
6-48
Illustration 6A-2
Ending Inventory
SO 7 Apply the inventory cost flow methods to perpetual inventory records.
Perpetual Inventory System
Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)
Cost of Goods
Sold
6-49
Illustration 6A-3
Ending Inventory
SO 7 Apply the inventory cost flow methods to perpetual inventory records.
Perpetual Inventory System
Average-Cost
Illustration 6A-4
Cost of Goods
Sold
6-50
Ending Inventory
SO 7 Apply the inventory cost flow methods to perpetual inventory records.
APPENDIX6B
Estimating Inventories
Gross Profit Method
Estimates the cost of ending inventory by applying a gross profit
rate to net sales.
Illustration 6B-1
6-51
SO 8 Describe the two methods of estimating inventories.
Estimating Inventories
Illustration: Kishwaukee Company’s records for January show net
sales of $200,000, beginning inventory $40,000, and cost of goods
purchased $120,000. The company expects to earn a 30% gross
profit rate. Compute the estimated cost of the ending inventory at
January 31 under the gross profit method.
Illustration 6B-2
6-52
SO 8 Describe the two methods of estimating inventories.
Estimating Inventories
Retail Inventory Method
Company applies the cost-to-retail percentage to ending
inventory at retail prices to determine inventory at cost.
Illustration 6B-3
6-53
SO 8 Describe the two methods of estimating inventories.
Estimating Inventories
Illustration:
Illustration 6B-4
Note that it is not necessary to take a physical inventory to
determine the estimated cost of goods on hand at any given time.
6-54
SO 8 Describe the two methods of estimating inventories.
Key Points
6-55

The requirements for accounting for and reporting
inventories are more principles-based under IFRS. That is,
GAAP provides more detailed guidelines in inventory
accounting.

The definitions for inventory are essentially similar under
IFRS and GAAP. Both define inventory as assets held-forsale in the ordinary course of business, in the process of
production for sale (work in process), or to be consumed in
the production of goods or services (e.g., raw materials).
Key Points
6-56

Who owns the goods—goods in transit or consigned
goods—as well as the costs to include in inventory, are
accounted for the same under IFRS and GAAP.

Both GAAP and IFRS permit specific identification where
appropriate. IFRS actually requires that the specific
identification method be used where the inventory items are
not interchangeable (i.e., can be specifically identified). If the
inventory items are not specifically identifiable, a cost flow
assumption is used. GAAP does not specify situations in
which specific identification must be used.
Key Points
6-57

A major difference between IFRS and GAAP relates to the
LIFO cost flow assumption. GAAP permits the use of LIFO
for inventory valuation. IFRS prohibits its use. FIFO and
average-cost are the only two acceptable cost flow
assumptions permitted under IFRS.

IFRS requires companies to use the same cost flow
assumption for all goods of a similar nature. GAAP has no
specific requirement in this area.
Key Points

6-58
In the lower-of-cost-or-market test for inventory valuation,
IFRS defines market as net realizable value. Net realizable
value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of
business, less the estimated costs of completion and
estimated selling expenses. In other words, net realizable
value is the best estimate of the net amounts that
inventories are expected to realize. GAAP, on the other hand,
defines market as essentially replacement cost.
Key Points

6-59
Under GAAP, if inventory is written down under the lower-ofcost-or-market valuation, the new value becomes its cost
basis. As a result, the inventory may not be written back up
to its original cost in a subsequent period. Under IFRS, the
write-down may be reversed in a subsequent period up to
the amount of the previous write-down. Both the write-down
and any subsequent reversal should be reported on the
income statement as an expense. An item-by-item approach
is generally followed under IFRS.
Key Points
6-60

Unlike property, plant, and equipment, IFRS does not permit
the option of valuing inventories at fair value. As indicated
above, IFRS requires inventory to be written down, but
inventory cannot be written up above its original cost.

Similar to GAAP, certain agricultural products and mineral
products can be reported at net realizable value using IFRS.
Looking to the Future
One convergence issue relates to the use of the LIFO cost flow
assumption. IFRS specifically prohibits its use. Conversely, the
LIFO cost flow assumption is widely used in the United States
because of its favorable tax advantages. With a new conceptual
framework being developed, it is highly probable that the use of
the concept of conservatism will be eliminated. Similarly, the
concept of “prudence” in the IASB literature will also be
eliminated. This may ultimately have implications for the
application of the lower-of-cost-or-net realizable value.
6-61
IFRS Self-Test Questions
Which of the following should not be included in the
inventory of a company using IFRS?
a)
Goods held on consignment from another company.
b) Goods shipped on consignment to another company.
c)
Goods in transit from another company shipped FOB
shipping point.
d) None of the above.
6-62
IFRS Self-Test Questions
Which method of inventory costing is prohibited under
IFRS?
a) Specific identification.
b) FIFO.
c) LIFO.
d) Average-cost.
6-63
IFRS Self-Test Questions
Specific identification:
a) must be used under IFRS if the inventory items are not
interchangeable.
b) cannot be used under IFRS.
c) cannot be used under GAAP.
d) must be used under IFRS if it would result in the most
conservative net income.
6-64
Copyright
“Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in
Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the
express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Request for further information should be addressed to the
Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser
may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for
distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for
errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these
programs or from the use of the information contained herein.”
6-65
Download