Uploaded by sol song

23 clicker questions

advertisement
CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS
URRY • CAIN • WASSERMAN • MINORSKY • REECE
23
Broad Patterns of
Evolution
Questions prepared by
Douglas Darnowski, Indiana University Southeast
James Langeland, Kalamazoo College
Murty S. Kambhampati, Southern University at New Orleans
Roberta Batorsky, Temple University
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
SECOND EDITION
Which of the following is a rich source for the earliest
prokaryote fossils?
A.
B.
C.
D.
sedimentary rock
metamorphic rock
coral reefs
stromatolites
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is a rich source for the earliest
prokaryote fossils?
A.
B.
C.
D.
sedimentary rock
metamorphic rock
coral reefs
stromatolites
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Radiometric dating _____.
A. can be used to directly date fossils in sedimentary rock
B. relies on the fact that the daughter isotope decays to
the parent isotope at a constant rate
C. allows us to indirectly date fossils up to billions of
years old based on minerals in surrounding volcanic
strata
D. works only on rocks younger than 75,000 years
E. allows us to determine an absolute, errorless date
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Radiometric dating _____.
A. can be used to directly date fossils in sedimentary rock
B. relies on the fact that the daughter isotope decays to
the parent isotope at a constant rate
C. allows us to indirectly date fossils up to billions of
years old based on minerals in surrounding
volcanic strata
D. works only on rocks younger than 75,000 years
E. allows us to determine an absolute, errorless date
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
You discover three fossil organisms and want to
determine their dates. You measure the percentage of
carbon-14 (half-life of 5,730 years) remaining in the
fossils. Which of the following correctly places them in
order from oldest to youngest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A, B, C
B, C, A
C, A, B
A, C, B
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fossil
% 14C
A
38.7
B
77.0
C
52.1
You discover three fossil organisms and want to
determine their dates. You measure the percentage of
carbon-14 (half-life of 5,730 years) remaining in the
fossils. Which of the following correctly places them in
order from oldest to youngest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A, B, C
B, C, A
C, A, B
A, C, B
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fossil
% 14C
A
38.7
B
77.0
C
52.1
You discover a series of fossil organisms and want to
determine their dates. You decide to use carbon-14 dating
(half-life of 5,730 years). Based on the table below, about
how old are fossils A and B?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57,300 years
5,730 years
2,865 years
1,432 years
other
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sample
14C
to 12C ratio
Normal
1 to 1 million
Fossil A
0.74 to 1 million
Fossil B
0.76 to 1 million
You discover a series of fossil organisms and want to
determine their dates. You decide to use carbon-14 dating
(half-life of 5,730 years). Based on the table below, about
how old are fossils A and B?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
57,300 years
5,730 years
2,865 years
1,432 years
other
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sample
14C
to 12C ratio
Normal
1 to 1 million
Fossil A
0.74 to 1 million
Fossil B
0.76 to 1 million
When did the first prokaryotes arise, according to the
fossil record?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.5 billion years ago
4 million years ago
3.5 billion years ago
2,000 years ago
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
When did the first prokaryotes arise, according to the
fossil record?
A.
B.
C.
D.
2.5 billion years ago
4 million years ago
3.5 billion years ago
2,000 years ago
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
One species of finch colonizes an island and, over a
relatively short period of time, speciates into several
different finch species. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
adaptive radiation.
sympatric speciation.
allopatric speciation.
symbiosis.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
One species of finch colonizes an island and, over a
relatively short period of time, speciates into several
different finch species. This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
adaptive radiation.
sympatric speciation.
allopatric speciation.
symbiosis.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Potassium-40 is a commonly used isotope for radiometric
dating. It decays to argon-40, with a half-life of 1.3 billion
years. A volcanic rock is found to have 1/8 as much
potassium-40 as liquid lava. How old is the rock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
162 million years
1.3 billion years
3.9 billion years
10.4 billion years
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Potassium-40 is a commonly used isotope for radiometric
dating. It decays to argon-40, with a half-life of 1.3 billion
years. A volcanic rock is found to have 1/8 as much
potassium-40 as liquid lava. How old is the rock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
162 million years
1.3 billion years
3.9 billion years
10.4 billion years
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Cambrian explosion marks the relatively “sudden”
appearance of many animal phyla approximately 542
million years ago. Approximately what percentage of
Earth’s history has occurred since the appearance of
animals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1%
13%
50%
87%
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Cambrian explosion marks the relatively “sudden”
appearance of many animal phyla approximately 542
million years ago. Approximately what percentage of
Earth’s history has occurred since the appearance of
animals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1%
13%
50%
87%
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is a reasonable prediction
concerning plate tectonics and continental drift?
A. Continents should slowly stabilize their current
positions.
B. Continents will stabilize their positions once they are
as far apart as possible.
C. Continents should eventually re-aggregate into a
supercontinent before breaking up again.
D. No new mountain ranges should form.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is a reasonable prediction
concerning plate tectonics and continental drift?
A. Continents should slowly stabilize their current
positions.
B. Continents will stabilize their positions once they are
as far apart as possible.
C. Continents should eventually re-aggregate into a
supercontinent before breaking up again.
D. No new mountain ranges should form.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
A basic tenet of evolution by natural selection is that
species should continually become more fit for their
environment. What, then, can account for extinction?
A. Natural selection temporarily stops working.
B. New mutations decrease fitness.
C. The environment changes more rapidly than species
can adapt.
D. Species have fixed life spans.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
A basic tenet of evolution by natural selection is that
species should continually become more fit for their
environment. What, then, can account for extinction?
A. Natural selection temporarily stops working.
B. New mutations decrease fitness.
C. The environment changes more rapidly than
species can adapt.
D. Species have fixed life spans.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
When was the largest mass extinction in the history of
our planet?
A.
B.
C.
D.
542 million years ago
252 million years ago
65 million years ago
currently ongoing
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
When was the largest mass extinction in the history of
our planet?
A.
B.
C.
D.
542 million years ago
252 million years ago
65 million years ago
currently ongoing
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
The hundreds of varied fruit fly species on the Hawaiian
Islands arose through adaptive radiation. Which piece of
evidence would best support this claim?
A. The Hawaiian fruit fly species all physically resemble
one another more than they do non-Hawaiian fruit flies.
B. The Hawaiian fruit fly species are more closely related
to each other genetically than they are to nonHawaiian fruit flies.
C. The Hawaiian fruit fly species all occupy similar
ecological niches.
D. The Hawaiian fruit fly species are radioactive.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
The hundreds of varied fruit fly species on the Hawaiian
Islands arose through adaptive radiation. Which piece of
evidence would best support this claim?
A. The Hawaiian fruit fly species all physically resemble
one another more than they do non-Hawaiian fruit flies.
B. The Hawaiian fruit fly species are more closely
related to each other genetically than they are to
non-Hawaiian fruit flies.
C. The Hawaiian fruit fly species all occupy similar
ecological niches.
D. The Hawaiian fruit fly species are radioactive.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which statement concerning evolutionary novelties has
the least evidence to support it?
A. New evolutionary structures require new genes.
B. New evolutionary structures can arise from changes in
the expression of existing genes.
C. Complex structures can evolve in stepwise fashion.
D. Structures evolved in one context can be co-opted for
another function.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which statement concerning evolutionary novelties has
the least evidence to support it?
A. New evolutionary structures require new genes.
B. New evolutionary structures can arise from changes in
the expression of existing genes.
C. Complex structures can evolve in stepwise fashion.
D. Structures evolved in one context can be co-opted for
another function.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following evolutionary novelties is least
consistent with being facilitated by a Hox gene?
A.
B.
C.
D.
crustacean feeding appendages
paedomorphosis in salamanders
loss of limbs in snakes
wing number in insects
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following evolutionary novelties is least
consistent with being facilitated by a Hox gene?
A.
B.
C.
D.
crustacean feeding appendages
paedomorphosis in salamanders
loss of limbs in snakes
wing number in insects
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
The gene Pax6 is expressed and required in the
developing eye of both molluscs and vertebrates. What is
the simplest explanation for this?
A. Pax6 is a homeotic gene.
B. Pax6 was independently co-opted into the developing
eyes of both molluscs and vertebrates.
C. Mollusc eyes and vertebrate eyes both evolved from
simple photoreceptors present in a common ancestor
that used the Pax6 gene.
D. Mollusc eyes and vertebrate eyes have very similar
structure that requires the Pax6 gene.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
The gene Pax6 is expressed and required in the
developing eye of both molluscs and vertebrates. What is
the simplest explanation for this?
A. Pax6 is a homeotic gene.
B. Pax6 was independently co-opted into the developing
eyes of both molluscs and vertebrates.
C. Mollusc eyes and vertebrate eyes both evolved
from simple photoreceptors present in a common
ancestor that used the Pax6 gene.
D. Mollusc eyes and vertebrate eyes have very similar
structure that requires the Pax6 gene.
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.