Uploaded by Molly Stewart

TCI 9091 Wideband HF COMINT System

9091 Wideband HF COMINT System
The TCI Model 9091 employs a flexible clientserver architecture that provides a complete set
of tools to carry out HF radio surveillance.
The system rapidly acquires and describes
any traditional or modern HF signal activity,
and subsequently performs detailed analysis of
specific signals of interest. The 9091 can carry
out this analysis manually or automatically in
real time or in delayed (post-facto) mode. The
analysis includes detection, location, collection,
classification and archiving of signal activities.
Under typical conditions the 9091 system
rapidly searches the HF spectrum using extremely
fine resolution. When RF energy is detected, the
system automatically determines the direction
of the energy source and all other important
signal parameters. This information is then
automatically archived for future analysis and can
be simultaneously passed in real time to operator
client workstations. The operator at a client
workstation tasks the system to find a particular
Signal of Interest (SOI) with specific parameters.
The system then processes archived or realtime data to find the SOI and its geographic
position or location and presents this information
to the operator.
The foundation of the 9091 system is highspeed signal search, combined with detection
and direction finding obtained by simultaneous,
parallel processing of multiple, 2 MHz-wide
channels connected to an antenna array. With
automatic noise and co-channel interference
suppression, the 9091 is capable of performing
automatic real-time DF analysis on any type of
HF signal. The DF analysis provides transmitter
parameters including frequency, direction and/
or location, bandwidth, and time of transmission.
9091 Wideband HF COMINT System
Depend on the field-proven solution
for surveillance of traditional and modern
HF signals.
k E y F E At U r E S
❯ Manual and automatic HF signal detection, location, collection,
analysis and archiving.
❯ 0.25 – 30 MHz frequency range with 2 MHz real-time bandwidth,
expandable to 12 MHz.
❯ N-channel architecture, one receiver per antenna, is unsurpassed
for dealing with the HF signal environment.
❯ TCI DF First™ signal-acquisition technology provides exceptional
DF accuracy and speed.
❯ High dynamic range and excellent co-channel frequency resolution.
❯ Signal search and filtering by signal frequency, direction, location,
duration, bandwidth and type.
❯ Modular and scalable architecture for multi-user and/or multi-site
applications operating 24/7.
❯ Field-proven direction-finding algorithms using TCI and non-TCI antenna arrays.
❯ Archiving of measurement results including signal spectral activity, direction and
location data in “raw data” database.
❯ Tools for analysis of raw data results and archiving of emitter reports.
❯ Local and remote control, including full network operation.
❯ Software interface libraries available for full integration with existing
❯ Ionospheric sounder for real-time Single Site Location (SSL) processing.
System Details 9091
The 9091 system consists of the following
❯ DF/Monitoring Antenna Array and RF
❯ Wideband N-channel Signal Acquisition and
DF Processor
Antenna Array and
RF Distribution
❯ 20-element TCI 402 log-periodic antenna (C)
❯ 24-element TCI 410 log-periodic antenna (C)
❯ FRD-10 (C) (non-TCI)
❯ FLR-9 (C) (non-TCI)
For direction finding, the 9091 can be configured
to operate with a variety of interferometer (I) and
circular (C) antenna-array configurations using
either TCI or non-TCI antennas:
❯ 9-element array of TCI 632 whip antennas (I)
❯ Signal Acquisition and DF Controller
❯ Raw and Emitter Results Database Server
❯ Workstations for system tasking and manual
real-time and post-facto signal analysis
❯ Multi-site and external system interface
❯ 9-element array of TCI 612 loop antennas (I)
❯ 12-element array of TCI 632 whip antennas (C)
❯ 24-element array of TCI 632 whip antennas (C)
❯ 24-element array of TCI 638 whip antennas (C)
❯ 12-element array of TCI 625 loop antennas (C)
❯ FRD-13 “Pusher” (singlet and doublet) (C)
❯ Turnstile (crossed-loops + whip) (C) (non-TCI)
Depending on the array type and its antennaelement count, either all or a subset of elements
is used to achieve the optimal DF performance.
The ‘N’ selected antenna elements (N varies
between 8 and 14) are connected to a Signal
Acquisition and DF Processor(s). For all array
configurations an RF distribution subsystem
ensures that the same antennas are used for both
signal acquisition and DF processing.
DF/Monitoring Antenna Array
rF DiStriBUtion
r Aw & E M i t t E r
D AtA S t o r A g E
w o r k S tAt i o n S
Fo r SySt E M
tA S k i n g ,
r E A l- t i M E A n D
P o S t- FA C t o
S i g n A l A n A ly S i S
CliEnt SiDE,
nArrowBAn D DF
SignAl ACqUiSition
o P t i o n A l ly
E X PA n D A B l E
to 12 M h z
gigABit EthErn Et
M U lt i - S i t E
SySt E M
i n t E r FA C E
9091 System Details
N-Channel Signal
Acquisition and
DF Processor
Governing the operation of the Signal Acquisition
and DF Processor(s), this controller is a
collection of software components running on a
separate computer. It communicates with the DF
processor and clients over a network interface.
Controller software functions include:
DF Processor Boot
A / D , D S P, D D r
A / D , D S P, D D r
A / D , D S P, D D r
Client Access
The Controller manages clients’ access to the
DF processor(s). Management functions include
consolidation of client tasking requests consisting
of frequency ranges, signal detection and DF
setup parameters.
Data Archiving
The Controller records all of the raw
measurement results, consisting of spectral,
signal activity and DF data, in a private local raw
database. The raw database is sized to hold
at least three days of raw data collected at the
highest DF throughput rate. While raw data is
archived, multiple clients can simultaneously
retrieve already-saved raw data. Raw data query
results, filtered according to the client-specified
criteria, are returned to client for emitter analysis.
2 Mhz ConVErtEr
During the system startup the Controller
provides boot data to the DF processor,
which subsequently manages DF processor
resources. The Controller can control up to
six DF processors with the total instantaneous
bandwidth of 12 MHz.
A / D , D S P, D D r
g i g A B i t Sw i tC h
The Model 9091’s Wideband Signal Acquisition
and DF processor uses N-channel architecture
and 2 MHz instantaneous bandwidth for highspeed simultaneous new-signal detection
and direction finding. This field-proven, DF
FirstTM technology optimizes signal-processing
performance, regardless of signal types or signal
propagation conditions.
High instantaneous dynamic range and
frequency selectivity (adjacent channel rejection)
complement the N-channel architecture.
Each processing channel is composed of
two TCI model 8084 wideband HF receiver
converters, a dual-channel high-speed digitizer
and a digital signal processor (DSP). A single
VME-based, 19-inch rack mount unit contains
all these subassemblies. A common 8084
synthesizer drives all of the 8084 receiver
The 8084 converts a 2 MHz-wide portion of
the HF band to a lowband IF frequency that is
fed to one of the digitizers. The 8084 synthesizer
tunes to any frequency within the 1.5 - 30
MHz band with 200 or 250 kHz resolution, and
generates low phase noise L.O.s specifically for
wideband HF receiving applications. Similarly,
the 8084 converter provides very wide dynamic
range performance with high input and output
IMD intercepts and low noise figure. For
frequencies below 1.5 MHz the 8084 is bypassed
and the digitizer connects directly to the antenna.
The high-speed digitizers supply data to the
PowerPC processors, which analyze all channels
to a programmable frequency resolution of 100,
125, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 2500, 5000 or
10000 Hz. The processors simultaneously detect
signal activity in each channel and perform DF
processing for channels that have activity. These
raw measurement results, including spectral,
signal activity and DF data, are sent to the
controller for further processing.
Signal Acquisition &
DF Processor
Signal Acquisition
and DF Controller
2 Mhz ConVErtEr
2 Mhz ConVErtEr
2 Mhz ConVErtEr
Data Distribution
The Controller manages real-time distribution of
raw data among the requesting clients. Based on
client requests, relevant data is sent via a network
Signal Analysis
The Controller also maintains a signal-activity list
based on the raw data information. Updated in
real time, this activity list is available to any client
on the network.
Raw and
Emitter Results
Database Server
The results of emitter analysis are saved in
the SQL-based emitter (processed raw data)
database. The Emitter Database Server is hosted
on a separate computer, which in a typical 9091
configuration also hosts the Signal Acquisition
and DF Controller application.
System Details 9091
Workstations for
system tasking and
manual real-time
and post-facto
signal analysis
A Master Client running on a workstation sets up
initial tasking in terms of signal search criteria and
frequency ranges of interest. Additional clients
can set up their own frequency ranges according
to their mission requirements. Once the signalsearch criteria and frequency ranges are set, the
9091 system automatically produces raw-data
results (spectral, activity and DF data).
Clients can analyze raw data either in real-time
or post-facto mode. Real-time mode processes
data as it is created by the DF processor(s);
post-facto mode retrieves raw data from the
raw database. In both modes, the client has a
large number of tools at his disposal, including
spectrograms, azimuthalgrams, azimuth vs.
frequency displays, azimuth and elevation
histograms, map displays, timeline and azimuth/
elevation-versus-frequency displays.
The emitter database serves as storage for
newly created emitter reports, and also supports
emitter reports analysis.
Multi-site and
external system
The data volume produced by a single Acquisition
and DF Processor can exceed 10 Mb/s when raw
data archiving is active. In a multi-site environment
it would be difficult to deploy a network to support
these data rates, so the system architecture
provides alternative solutions.
The 9091 automatically processes raw data
to dramatically reduce data flow between sites.
For example using automatically generated
summaries, rather than raw data for real-time
multi-site triangulation processing, effectively
reduces data traffic by a factor of a hundred.
However, when it is absolutely necessary to
transfer raw data across a limited-bandwidth
network,. data can be retrieved from the database
or storage servers, rather than sent in real time.
This allows adjusting the data-transfer rate to the
network bandwidth at the expense of the datatransfer time.
The 9091 can interface with external systems
by provision of software interface libraries that
allow access to system control, real-time and
post-facto data. Again, based on required data
rates, these interface clients can reside on the
9091 high-speed network, or operate over a
multi-site network.
System Operation
The master client workstation that configures
signal-search criteria initiates 9091 system
operation. The criteria include required signalto-noise ratio for the detection, frequency
resolution and type of DF processing. Once the
search parameters are set, all client workstations
can set up frequency ranges of interest.
Frequency ranges from multiple workstations
are consolidated by the Acquisition and DF
Controller, which then tasks the Acquisition and
System Data Flow
r Aw D AtA
ACqUiSition An D
M A S t E r w o r k S tAt i o n
ACqUiSition An D DF ControllEr
o P E r At o r w o r k S tAt i o n S
r E A l- t i M E r Aw D AtA
tA S k i n g D AtA
A r C h i V E D r Aw D AtA
E M i t t E r r E S U lt S
9091 System Details
DF Processor(s). Depending on the consolidated
frequency range and number of DF Processors
available, the DF Controller determines whether
the individual DF processor needs to process
more than 2 MHz of spectrum. For example,
a 9091 configured with a single DF processor
and tasked to search 4 – 12 MHz will cover the
frequency range by sequentially tuning to 5,
7, 9 and 11 MHz. However, if the 9091 system
is configured with four DF processors (with
total instantaneous bandwidth of 8 MHz) each
processor will remain on a single tune frequency.
With its criteria and frequency range set, the
Acquisition and DF Processor(s) continuously
perform signal detection and DF. The raw
measurement results are sent to the Acquisition
and DF Controller, which automatically sends
data to the raw database. Raw data also is sent to
those workstations that have requested it. This
real-time raw data is separately processed by
workstations for tasks ranging from displaying
a real-time spectrogram to generating an alert
when specific signal types are detected.
Both workstations and applets can also
perform post-facto analysis by retrieving raw data
from the database. The retrieval supports multiparameter query criteria, and retrieved data is
processed either by the operators using various
displays, or automatically by the applets.
Raw-data processing results are stored in the
emitter database. The emitter results also can be
retrieved using multi-parameter query criteria for
review and analysis.
Model 9091
❯ Antenna Array
Nine element TCI 632 Array
5m monopole antenna
100x100 m deployment area
Nine element TCI 612 Array
2 m2 crossed loop antenna
100x100 m deployment area
Twelve element TCI 632 Array
Correlative Interferometer
Circular Array r = 50m
5 m monopole antenna
Twenty-four element TCI 632 Array
13 elements used
Correlative Interferometer
Circular Array r = 50m
5 m monopole antenna
Twenty-four element TCI 638 Array
13 elements used
Correlative Interferometer
Circular Array r = 50m
12 m monopole antenna
Twelve element TCI 625 Array
Correlative Interferometer
Circular Array r = 50m
10 m2 crossed loop antenna
Twenty element TCI 402 Array
10 elements used + omni directional beam
Correlative Interferometer
Circular Array r = 107.5m
Horizontal log-periodic antenna
Twenty four element TCI 410 Array
12 elements used + omni directional beam
Correlative Interferometer
Circular Array r = 175m
Horizontal log-periodic antenna
FRD-13 “Pusher”
12 elements used + omni directional beam
Correlative Interferometer
Two Circular Arrays r = 25/75m
5/12 m monopole/monopole
5/12 m monopole/doublet
❯ Acquisition and DF Processor
Frequency range
0.5 - 30 MHz typical (antenna dependent)
Frequency Resolution
1 Hz
Instantaneous bandwidth
0.5 or 2 MHz
Number of channels
8 to 14
Analysis bandwidth
100, 125, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 2500, 5000 and 10000 Hz
Signal Modulation
Signal acquisition and DF speed
2000 DFs/sec, typical
DF instrument accuracy
0.1° RMS
DF Accuracy, Ground wave
1° RMS
DF Accuracy, Skywave
2° RMS, 1.5 to 30 MHz
SSL range accuracy with
optional ionospheric sounder
12% RMS, 200 to 1000 km emitter range ±25 km,
0 to 200 km emitter range
50 Ω ± 10 %
DF bearing resolution
Summary Specifications 9091
DF azimuth coverage
DF elevation coverage
0-90° (antenna type dependent)
DF Sensitivity
-44 dBμV/m to -10 dBμV/m, antenna dependent
Receiver in-band dynamic range
>85 dB
Receiver 3rd order intercept
+32 dBm input
+45 dBm output
Receiver 2nd order intercept
+85 dBm input
+80 dBm output
Receiver preselector fi lters
8-band, sub-octave
Receiver IF bandwidths
2 MHz
500 kHz
Receiver frequency accuracy
0.1 Hz
90 dB
A/D resolution
14 bits
Operating Temperature
-10° to +55° C (Outdoor Equip)
95 % Ω ± 10 %
❯ Acquisition and DF Controller
(typical configuration, shared with the Database Server)
Dual Xeon
2 GBytes
RAID array, 250 GBytes
Operating System
Windows Server 2008
Gigabit Ethernet
Raw Data Storage Capacity
>72 hours of raw data results
❯ Raw and Emitter Database Server (typical configuration)
Dual Xeon
RAID array, 250 GBytes
Operating System
Windows Server 2008
Database Server
SQL Server 2008
Gigabit Ethernet
Emitter Report Storage Capacity
❯ Workstations (typical configuration)
Core i7 , 1 GByte RAM
80 GBytes
Gigabit Ethernet
Limited only by the network submask
Export of TCI International, Inc. systems and
products may be subject to U.S. export controls.
U.S. Export License may be required.
Specifications subject to change without
An SPX Company
Specialized Expertise in a Global Family
TCI International, Inc., a leading supplier of end-to-end, ITU-compliant RF spectrum
monitoring and management solutions, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of SPX Corporation.
Based in Charlotte, North Carolina, SPX Corporation (NYSE: SPW) is a global,
multi-industry manufacturing leader with approximately $5 billion in annual revenue,
operations in more than 35 countries and over 14,000 employees.
SPX team members collaborate across business segments and borders to
deliver greater efficiencies and better ideas for helping customers succeed and grow
their businesses.
At TCI, this commitment to innovation serves civilian spectrum regulatory
departments and provides COMINT, ISR, and DF solutions for Military, National Security
and Intelligence agencies.
TCI has developed high-performance RF and spectrum monitoring solutions
for more than 45 years. Our complete, in-house hardware and software engineering
capabilities include RF/analog equipment design, system engineering and integration,
digital Signal Processing (DSP) design and implementation and expert client-server
software design and development.
Company proprietary
Data and specifications subject to change without notification
TCI Model 9091 subject to export restrictions
Not for distribution without prior permission from
©2004-2014 TCI—All Rights Reserved