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Solar Energy in Canada: Challenges and Opportunities

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Running head: SOLAR ENERGY IN CANADA
3321 Critical Reading and Writing A01
Solar Energy in Canada:
Challenges and Opportunities
Prepared for
Ms. Katherine A. Woodward
Instructor
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
Prepared by
Jane (Hoi-Yan) Siu
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
Jun 11, 2019
SOLAR ENERGY IN CANADA
3321 Critical Reading and Writing A01
Jane Siu
10001 100 Ave
Edmonton, AB T5A 4N4
Jun 11, 2019
Ms. Katherine A. Woodward, Instructor
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
11762 - 106 Street Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T5G 2R1
Dear Ms. Woodward:
In this document you will find the research report for the class 3321 Critical Reading and
Writing A01. I have summarized key information and made recommendations on challenges and
opportunities for solar energy in Canada. As we are located in Alberta, the main focus will be
Alberta accompanied by other facts nationwide.
This analysis is based on the current situation available on open sources such as Alberta
government official websites and also on my personal work experience in this field. Although
my experiences were mainly in Asia and Europe other than North America, the features in this
industry are rather similar and still worth of referring to.
Due to limitation of resources and time constraints, this report was mainly based on written
information instead of field studies or personal contacts. For those interested in investment
opportunities in Alberta, further analysis will be highly recommended as business regulations
and government incentives may change from time to time.
Thank you for your time. If you have any further questions about the research or
recommendation please contact me at 587-974-5238, [email protected]
Best Regards,
Jane Siu
Jane Siu
Northern Alberta Institute of Technology
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3321 Critical Reading and Writing A01
Table of Contents
Letter of Transmittal…………………………………………………………………...
i
Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………
iv
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….
Purpose and Scope……………………………………………………………
Assumptions………………………………………………………………….
Methods………………………………………………………………………
Limitations……………………………………………………………………
Definitions……………………………………………………………………
1
1
1
1
1
1
Background…………………………………………………………………………….
1
Government…………………………………………………………………………….
National Policy………………………………………………………………..
Provincial Policy in Alberta…………………………………………………..
Business Environment under Government Policy……………………………
Taxes………………………………………………………………………….
Government Incentives……………………………………………………….
2
2
3
4
4
5
Natural Environment and Constraints………………………………………………….
Natural Environment in Canada………………………………………………
Natural Constraints in Canada………………………………………………..
Summary……………………………………………………………………...
5
5
6
6
Financial Analysis & Opportunities……………………………………………………
Pay-back Period and Return on Investment…………………………………..
Geographic difference in Returns on Investment…………………………….
Summary……………………………………………………………………...
6
6
7
8
Local Applications and Public Engagement…………………………………………...
Energy Management in the Community……………………………………...
Decision in Technology – Solar, Wind, Biomass or More?.............................
Knowledge and Public Engagement………………………………………….
8
8
8
9
Challenges and Opportunities………………………………………………………….
9
Conclusions and Recommendations…………………………………………………...
10
References……………………………………………………………………………... 11
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List of Illustrations
Figure 1 Some of the Largest Solar Farms in Canada (>=20MW)…………………….. 3
Figure 2 Alberta Solar Systems Map…………………………………………………... 4
Figure 3 Cost of Power Generation from 2009 to 2018……………………………….. 7
Table 1 Energy Efficiency Alberta’s Residential and Commercial Solar Program……. 5
Table 2 Payback Period under 3 Types of Renewable Energies………………………. 6
Table 3 Different IRR based on different levels of incentives………………………… 8
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Executive Summary
Switching from fossil fuel to renewable energy has come to consensus among Canadians in
recent years due to obvious impacts from climate change such as wild fire in the Rocky
Mountain areas. Nevertheless, what to do and how to harvest from it making it sustainable for
the future generations are still vague for most Canadians. Even in the professional sector, the
idea of renewable energy, either solar, wind and many others, is still in progress as to which type
to invest would be the best interest for investors. As for the general public, knowledge and
engagement are growing but still need time to prosper.
Alberta is a perfect place for solar energy due to its natural environment – long sunny days with
high irradiance and low temperatures during half of the year which creates better performance in
solar panels. Moreover, Alberta government has launched numerous incentive programs with an
eye to its goal “30 BY 30”, to achieve 30% of electricity being generated from renewable
resources by 2030. This is a promising outlook for investors, both institutional and general home
owners, particularly when the province is undergoing its downturn in the energy sector.
Opportunities are always accompanied by challenges. While recognizing the challenges and
opportunities to be detailed in this report, here are some recommendations for investors
interested in the solar energy sector
in Alberta:



Take the opportunity in investing solar energy system, either residential or commercial,
by using government incentives and other finance tools such as loans backed up by the
authorities. Although return on investments may differ depending on the level of
incentives and on the location of installation, comparing to other investment tools now
available in Canada with similar risk level, solar energy is still a rather good option.
Solar energy are long-term investments which require continuous maintenance and future
disposal. Those who are interested should take into consideration the labor required
during the whole investment period. Just like owning any property, labor is essential and
basic knowledge of technology is a must. Owners may have to shovel snow on the roof in
winter time. Safety is an issue.
Home owners may also take future selling opportunity into consideration. Is a house
installed with solar energy a plus for potential buyers? The answer is still vague. Just as
any other additional upgrades on a house may not reflect on its sale price due to many
reasons, house with solar energy installations might also be a question. Home owners
might be asked to disassembly the system before closing the deal. The potential cost
might ruin the originally set return target.
Further financial analysis for each specific investment opportunity is highly recommended as
return on investments may change due to changes in government incentives. Nevertheless,
Alberta is highly recommended for solar project investments.
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Introduction
Canada has been long time taking advantage of its natural resources such as oil and gas not only
for its own use but also for exporting internationally. In 2017, energy trade accounts for $112.6
billion, 22% of total Canadian goods exports, whereas oil and gas totalled over $97 billion, 86%
of the total exports (Natural Resources Canada, 2018, p. 6). Canada’s economy relies on the
energy sector substantially. As the new trend in energy, renewable energy has come to the
spotlight in recent years. Renewable energy comprises solar, wind, biomass and many others,
while solar due to its nature is better understood by the general public.
Purpose and Scope
This report aims at discovering the current situation of solar energy in Alberta and thus exploring
the challenges and opportunities beneath. As one type of renewable energy, solar energy is
usually bundled with other types such as wind, thermo, biomass and more. In this report,
renewable energy refers to all types of renewable energy whereas solar energy is the main focus.
Assumptions
The recommendations in this report are based on the assumption that Alberta will remain the
same strategy for renewable energy under the Renewable Electricity Act. In case of future
amendment, investment decisions should revise accordingly.
Methods
The information in this report comes from online sources, academic articles, and official
websites. The intention of this report is to find official and rigorous information as much as
possible. News articles are restricted to well known Canadian media only.
Limitations
The information in this report was limited to written sources only. Field survey and personal
contacts were not allowed due to time restriction.
Definitions
Solar energy refers to energy produced from solar panels, or photovoltaic (PV). Renewable
energy refers to energy from a source that is not depleted when used, such as wind or solar
power (Oxford Dictionary, n.d.) Clean energy boasts the same definition of renewable energy
and is used interchangeably in this report.
Background
The importance and urgency of climate change impacts have been emphasized frequently.
Alberta, the province which used to heavily rely on fossil fuels, has passed the Renewable
Electricity Act in August 1, 2018. The aim is to meet the goal of 30 percent of Alberta’s
electricity being generated from renewable resources by 2030, the so-called “30 BY 30” (AESO,
2016). Renewable energy comprises solar, wind, biomass and many more, whereas solar energy
is the easier one for understanding and adopting due to its nature. For this reason, this report
aims at focusing on solar energy in Alberta with reference on other types of energy or area in
Canada.
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It is estimated that Alberta solar market values at $4.1 billion with 3,261 MW between 2019 and
2030. (Solas, 2018, p. 5). However, currently in Alberta, only 42.7 MW has been deployed
(Solas, 2018, p. 14), a rather preliminary stage implying huge potential for growth. This report is
thus to discover the challenges and opportunities beneath.
Government
National Policy
Canada is a unique political and economic institution. Under the rules of the federation, the
provinces control the energy resources within their political boundaries while the federal
government is responsible for authorizing infrastructure between them, such as pipelines.
(Moore, 2015, p. 2). As a country, Canada controls some of the most extensive energy reserves
anywhere in the world. Energy is a critical basis of the overall economy, affecting every sector
and providing as much as eleven per cent of the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
(Moore, 2015, p. 2).
Arguably, we do not have a guiding strategy or vision on which to base the myriad of competing,
time-sensitive proposals or economic development projects that underpin our energy industry.
(Moore, 2015, p. 3). Despite of the above fact, there is still certain programs run by the Natural
Resources Canada (NRCan), under federal government, with regards to clean energy.
According to the news recently released by Mission Innovation, a global initiative of 24
countries including Canada, established in 2015 under the Paris Agreement, the government of
Canada has announced an investment of up to $30 million for a new initiative called
Breakthrough Energy Solutions Canada (BESC) that will foster cutting-edge companies to
deliver game-changing clean energy innovations to the market (Mission Innovation, 2019, para.
2). This initiative is under a new stream of NRCan’s Energy Innovation Program which targeted
at accelerating new technologies in improving clean energy efficiencies (Natural Resources
Canada, n.d.).
Solar farms’ scale differs from small size for residential use (1 – 5KW) to large size for solar
farms (20 MW and more). Currently, there are more than 100 solar farms with a capacity of at
least 1 MW, totalling over 1700 MW.
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Figure 1: Some of the Largest Solar Farms in Canada (>=20MW)
(Source: Energy Fact Book, 2018 – 2019)
Provincial Policy in Alberta
Alberta ranks number one in terms of production of crude oil in Canada (Natural Resources
Canada, p. 49). Under the Electric Utilities Act, Alberta’s electricity transmission and
distribution systems are fully regulated. Retail sales of electricity in the province are partly
deregulated. Consumers can shop for electricity to choose a retail electricity provider that best
meets their needs (Alberta.ca, 2019).
As for renewable energy, about 10 percent of Alberta’s electricity was generated from it in 2018,
according to Alberta official website (https://www.alberta.ca/renewable-energy-legislation-andreporting.aspx). A more aggressive target has been set by the Ministry of Energy in February
2019 – 30 percent renewable electricity by 2030.
In order to achieve this target, Alberta has established the Clean Energy Improvement Program
aiming at financing municipalities and property owners on renewable energy projects. Property
owners are financed through tax benefits and loans guaranteed by Energy Efficiency Alberta, the
province’s arm on energy efficiency (https://www.efficiencyalberta.ca/).
In terms of solar energy, currently Alberta is still in its infancy, with 42.7 MW deployed as of
June 2018 (Solas, 2018, p. 14) as compared to 2911 MW in 2017 nationally (Energy Fact Book
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2018, p. 103). Currently, Alberta is encouraging both small size and large size projects through
different programs. Below shows solar farms of all types currently registered in Alberta.
Figure 2: Alberta Solar Systems Map
(Source: https://solaralberta.ca/case-studies)
Business Environment under Government Policy
However, the recent change in government in Alberta (the United Conservative Party headed by
Jason Kenney won a majority) is creating a lot of uncertainty about the future of the incentive
program as one of Kenney’s campaign goal is to cut wind and solar subsidies (Pike, 2019, para.
1) https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/jason-kenney-renewable-energy-ucp-election-promise1.5026194
Although not finally decided yet, the new government’s move will affect industry players’
motives on whether to invest in Alberta and how much to invest. Return on investments in large
scale projects like wind and solar require extensive finance stability and long-term assurance.
Even though industry big players look positively at this moment, uncertainty still lurks
threatening Alberta’s already weak job market. (Stephenson, 2019, para. 1)
Taxes
Parallel to the above policies is the tax benefit business owners who install renewable energy
systems can enjoy each year through business income tax incentives. (Natural Resources Canada,
2019a)
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Under Classes 43.1 and 43.2 in Schedule II of the Income Tax Regulations, certain capital costs
of systems that produce energy by using renewable energy sources or fuels from waste, or
conserve energy by using fuel more efficiently are eligible for accelerated capital cost allowance.
Under Class 43.1, eligible equipment may be written-off at 30 percent per year on a declining
balance basis. In general, equipment that is eligible for Class 43.1 but is acquired after February
22, 2005 and before year 2025 may be written-off at 50 percent per year on a declining balance
basis under Class 43.2. Without these accelerated write-offs, many of these assets would be
depreciated for income tax purposes at annual rates between 4 and 20 percent (Natural Resources
Canada, 2019a)
Government Incentives
As energy policies are under provincial control, in Canada each province develops its own
incentive programs, the so-called feed-in-tariff (FIT) for solar energy. In the case of Alberta,
incentives differ depending on its location, scale, and type of user (residential, commercial and
institutional, and not-for-profit). Below table shows the most common incentive program now
available in Alberta. Other incentive programs are listed here https://solaralberta.ca/grants-andincentives
Table 1: Energy Efficiency Alberta’s Residential and Commercial Solar Program
(Source: https://www.efficiencyalberta.ca/solar/)
Natural Environment and Constraints
Natural Environment in Canada
Canada, with its large landmass and diversified geography, has substantial renewable resources
that can be used to produce energy; these resources include moving water, wind, biomass, solar,
geothermal, and ocean energy. Canada is a world leader in the production and use of energy from
renewable resources. Renewable energy sources currently provide about 18.9 per cent of
Canada’s total primary energy supply. Among these renewable energy sources, wind and solar
photovoltaic energy are the fastest growing sources of electricity in Canada (Natural Resources
Canada, 2019b)
Solar energy infrastructures are mainly produced in flat panels. Although other shapes also exist,
flat panels are the mostly used nowadays. It requires large and flat area for installations, ranging
from a common household rooftop to as large as a dessert. In addition to flat and large spaces,
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solar energy requires zero or low shadow environment as shadow on the panels will reduce the
energy production performance (Alberta Infrastructure, 2017). Canada, due to its wide and flat
landscape, is a desirable place for solar energy installations compared to other mountainous
countries.
Natural Constraints in Canada
However, there are still some constraints in Canada. As solar energy performance is based on
solar irradiance, the longer hours of radiance the better performance in energy production. The
main concern in Canada is the long and snowy winter which might affect the performance.
Another constraint is the distance between solar energy infrastructure and the grid, the system in
which solar energy is preserved and transmitted just the same as any other type of energy.
For the first constraint, as irradiance include those directly coming from the sun and also those
indirectly reflected from the snow, snowy but sunny weather is actually good as long as panels as
well cleaned and maintained. Moreover, like most electronics, solar panels function more
efficiently in cold conditions than in hot. As such, this constraint is solvable (Energy sage, 2018).
As for the second constraint, the solution depends on the scale of the infrastructure. In the case of
small scales (10 – 100 KW), to build an off-grid or stand-alone system is a good choice as it
requires small batteries for energy preservation only (Thompson & Duggirala, 2009, p. 2741). In
the case of large scales, it requires a more complex design which links to the power grid just like
any other type of energy. Government involvement is then needed as it involves integration of
different energy solutions (MacDougall, Tomosk & Wright, 2018, p. 504)
Summary
Although being under certain environmental constraints, Canada is still a desirable place for
solar energy due to its wide and flat landscape, and its long, sunny and snowy winter.
Financial Analysis & Opportunities
Pay-back Period and Return on Investment
According to the research conducted by Thompson and Duggirala, biomass was the most
competitive at cost and payback period comparing to wind and solar. Below table shows the
comparison for generating 100 kW of electricity by three types of renewable energy. The key
point here is the payback period as this is one of the key points for investment decisions.
(Thompson, 2009, p. 1)
Type of energy
Biomass
Wind
Solar
Cost per unit
Payback period
Capital cost
$0.8 per liter
4.1 years
$1800/kW
$0.8 per liter
6.1 years
$3300/kW
$0.8 per liter
13.5 years
$9100/kW
Table 2: Payback Period under 3 Types of Renewable Energies
(Source: Thompson, 2009, p. 1)
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Fortunately, due to new development on technologies and mass production, costs of solar and
wind energies have become relatively lower. While wind has gone down to 1/3 from 2009 to
2018, solar has even gone down deeper to 1/7 (Berman & McCarthy, 2019). Although the above
payback period is relatively older information, it is still worth of consideration for those in
remote area not accessible to grids and require off-grid energy system. For those home owners
who can take government incentives into pay-back period calculations, the above figures serve as
the cap as to how much in maximum a system should be considered reasonable and worth of
investing.
Figure 3: Cost of Power Generation from 2009 to 2018
(Source: The Globe and Mail)
Geographic Difference in Returns on Investment
The economics of solar power varies geographically, depending not only on irradiance but also
on the dollar value of the electricity generated (MacDougall, 2018, p. 497). According to the
research done by MacDougall, Tomosk, and Wright, in three Canadian provinces with the
highest solar irradiance, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, irradiance and temperature vary
considerably from the south to the north. Meanwhile, return on investments vary depending on
government incentives. The higher the incentives the higher return on investments, the key factor
for investment decisions for residential home owners and commercial investors as well. Below
table shows different IRR (internal rate of return) based on different level of incentives.
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Table 3: Different IRR based on different levels of incentives
(Source: MacDougall, Toomosk, Wright, 2018, pp. 504)
Summary
From a financial point of view, payback period and return on investment are the two key points
worth of consideration. In the case of solar energy, as it belongs to long-term investment (more
than 10 years), it should be compared to other investment opportunities of similar term and risk
level. In Canada, the widely used comparison tool for long-term investment is Government of
Canada Marketable Bonds – over 10 years which yields at 1.67% as of Jun 3, 2019 (Bank of
Canada, 2019). By comparing the above table and the above bond, it is obvious that even in the
worst scenario where no incentive is issued from the government, the return on solar energy is
still higher than that of bond (1.8% and 3.2% compared to 1.67%). In a nutshell, solar energy
investments in Canada are considered safe and sound.
Local Applications and Public Engagement
Energy Management in the Community
Energy has traditionally been managed at the level of the individual customer or by
regional/national utilities. A recent trend is for communities to create plans to directly manage
their energy systems. These local initiatives are heralded as precursors to a future network of
distributed generation where large central generating stations are replaced with many dispersed
and smaller generation sources (Parkins, 2018, p. 1).
There are three areas in which communities can focus in order to improve their energy systems:
energy efficiency; energy conservation; and the switching of energy sources to renewables. To
manage energy involves ensuring both the demand and supply sides of the energy equation work
in balance. (Parkins, 2018, p. 2).
In other words, energy production and consumption require advanced planning ranging from
finance, installation, maintenance and even future disposal in the long run. How to manage the
energy is a crucial decision to be made in the community from a sustainable point of view. The
current trend in Canada is to move towards cleaner energy as opposed to traditionally used fossil
fuels. However, deciding on what technology to use, ensuring the long-run maintenance, and
most importantly, keeping a financially healthy investment, are not easy decisions for ones to
make.
Decision in Technology – Solar, Wind, Biomass or More?
According to current Alberta’s policy, both solar and wind are encouraged in the province under
different incentive programs (Alberta Government, 2019). Due to its nature, wind energy
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requires larger space and larger scale of investment in order to achieve cost efficiency, whereas
solar energy shows more flexibility in scale and cost for general public particularly when
accompanied by attractive incentives. Other types of renewable energy such as biomass and
thermo, due to its nature in production and maintenance, are not considered in general public at
this moment.
Knowledge and Public Engagement
While clean energy has become a more common understanding among Canadians, how to
engage it in the daily everyday life and how to realize it in the monthly bill are still to develop
over time. One thing is the sufficient knowledge about new technologies – which type suits the
best? Another is the will to adopt the technology at home without hesitation – how to manage it
in a safe way?
Scholars point to the need for public engagement on energy-related issues to increase
understanding, community support and sustainable pathways for a successful energy system
transition. The general claim here is that deeper levels of engagement in political life is desirable,
and is expressed through formal institutions (e.g. voting), as well as a myriad of informal
institutions (e.g. a public engagement) (Parkins, 2018, p. 116).
Currently, the government of Alberta has delegated different organizations to promote and
educate citizens on this issue through school, social media, and community activities. With an
eye to reaching the goal of “30 BY 30” (30 percent of energy produced within Alberta will be
from renewable resources and emissions from coal-generated electricity will be phased out),
public knowledge and engagement is crucial.
Challenges and Opportunities
The above research indicated two aspects in solar energy in Alberta: challenge and opportunities.
In terms of challenge, there are two points worth highlighting:
 Goal “30 BY 30”, a rather aggressive goal for a province which highly relies on fossil
fuels for decades, might not be achieved on time. Reasons included the still developing
public knowledge and consensus on switching to renewable energy and the potential
resistance in local communities as people might lose their jobs in this trend.
 Potential cut in incentives will affect widely on return on investments. From a financial
point of view, the certainty of returns is more important than the level of returns.
Investors tend to seek returns balanced with reasonable risks. If Alberta’s incentive
programs are not fully guaranteed by the new government and future governments, it will
be very negative for investors and thus harm the job market in Alberta.
On the other side, there are also opportunities worth of attention:

Room for growth: Alberta being one of the provinces with highest irradiance in Canada,
is a perfect place for solar energy. As the nature of power industry requires regulation
from the authorities rather than free competition like general consumer products, solar
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
energy industry in Alberta is still in its infancy. There is room for growth but needs the
government to provide incentives and promise its continuity.
Investment opportunities for both residential and commercial areas: solar energy
investments need not only irradiance to produce the power but also a healthy financial
environment where property owners can access sufficient funds for their investments and
expect an assured return on investments. This environment is currently existing in
Alberta and is set to grow as long as the whole industry, from manufacturing to
consumption to disposal, has enough time and support from the government to develop.
Conclusions and Recommendations
This report mainly focused on the solar energy industry within Alberta. As the above mentioned,
Alberta is a perfect place for solar energy industry due to its nature environment. Moreover, as
Alberta has committed on the goal of “30 BY 30”, substantial incentive programs for renewable
energy have been developed and pushed by the government in recent years. Even though the new
government led by Jason Kenney implied a new modification on these subsidies, the main
direction that Alberta is set to switch from fossil fuel to clean energy is unbeatable. As such, as
one of the types of renewable energies, solar energy is set to grow in Alberta in the long run.
Recommendations for solar energy in Alberta are as follow:



Take the opportunity in investing solar energy system, either residential or commercial,
by using government incentives and other finance tools such as loans backed up by the
authorities. Although return on investments may differ depending on the level of
incentives and on the location of installation, comparing to other investment tools now
available in Canada with similar risk level, solar energy is still a rather good option.
Solar energy are long-term investments which require continuous maintenance and future
disposal. Those who are interested should take into consideration the labor required
during the whole investment period. Just like owning any property, labor is essential and
basic knowledge of technology is a must. Owners may have to shovel snow on the roof in
winter time. Safety is an issue.
Home owners may also take future selling opportunity into consideration. Is a house
installed with solar energy a plus for potential buyers? The answer is still vague. Just as
any other additional upgrades on a house may not reflect on its sale price due to many
reasons, house with solar energy installations might also be a question. Home owners
might be asked to disassembly the system before closing the deal. The potential cost
might ruin the originally set return target.
10
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References
AESO. (2016). About the program. Retrieved from https://www.aeso.ca/market/renewableelectricity-program/about-the-program/
Alberta Government. (2019). Alberta electricity overview. Retrieved from
https://www.alberta.ca/alberta-electricity-overview.aspx
Alberta Government. (2019). Alberta electricity program. Retrieved from
https://www.alberta.ca/renewable-electricity-program.aspx
Alberta Infrastructure. (2017, December) Solar photovoltaic guidelines: Planning and
installation for Alberta infrastructure projects. Retrieved from
http://www.infrastructure.alberta.ca/Content/docType486/Production/SolarPVGuide.pdf
Bank of Canada. (2019, Jun 7). Selected bond yields. Retrieved from
https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/interest-rates/canadian-bonds/
Berman, D., McCarthy, S. (2019, Apr 15). Power shift: Renewable energy is cheaper than ever,
and investors are taking notice. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/article-why-the-renewable-power-industryis-hitting-its-stride/
Energysage. (2018). Do solar panels work in the winter? Solar snow performance explained.
Retrieved from https://news.energysage.com/solar-panels-in-winter-weather-snow-affectpower-production/
Natural Resources Canada. (2018). Energy Fact Book 2018 – 2019. Retrieved from
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/sites/www.nrcan.gc.ca/files/energy/pdf/energy-factbook-oct22018%20(1).pdf
Natural Resources Canada. (2019a). Tax savings for industry. Retrieved from
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/funding/5147
Natural Resources Canada. (2019b). About renewable energy. Retrieved from
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/renewable-electricity/7295
MacDougall, H., Tomosk, S., Wright, D. (2018). Geographic maps of the impact of government
incentives on the economic viability of solar power. Renewable Energy,122, 497-506.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148117313204?via%3Dihub
Mission Innovation. (2019, May 28). Canada partners with Breakthrough Energy to launch
game-changing program to accelerate clean energy innovations. Retrieved from
http://mission-innovation.net/2019/05/28/canada-partners-with-breakthrough-energy-tolaunch-game-changing-program-to-accelerate-clean-energy-innovations/
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Moore, M. (2015). An energy strategy for Canada. Calgary, AB: Canadian Global Affairs
Institute
Natural Resources Canada. (n.d.) Energy innovation program. Retrieved from
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energyinnovation
Oxford Dictionary. (n.d.) Retrieved from
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/renewable_energy
Parkins, J. R., Rollins, C., Anders, S., Comeau, L. (2018). Predicting intention to adopt solar
technology in Canada: The role of knowledge, public engagement, and visibility. Energy
Policy, 114, 114-122.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421517307966?via%3Dihub
Pike, H. (2019, February 22). Kenney's pledge to end wind and solar subsidies would 'roll back
the clock,' says energy expert. CBC. Retrieved from
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