Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________ Student Exploration: Identifying Nutrients Vocabulary: carbohydrate, disaccharide, lipid, monosaccharide, polysaccharide, protein, starch Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. What are the major types of nutrients you can get from food? ________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. How are these nutrients used by your body? _____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Gizmo Warm-up Have you ever wondered what is in your food? Scientists use a variety of tests to determine the nutritional content of food. You will learn four of those tests with the Identifying Nutrients Gizmo™. 1. Below the Food samples label, drag tube A into the Food sample holder. Below the Benedict test, click the Test button. What is done in the Benedict test? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 2. The Benedict test is a test for monosaccharides; simple sugars like glucose or fructose (fruit sugar). In contact with monosaccharides, the Benedict solution turns from blue to pink. Does Sample A contain monosaccharides? _________ Note: Disaccharides such as sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) are more complex than monosaccharides. The Benedict test does not detect disaccharides directly. Activity A: Identifying nutrients Get the Gizmo ready: Click Reset. Drag Sample A into the Food sample holder. Introduction: Most food is composed of three types of molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Carbohydrates such as starches and sugars are major source of energy. Simple sugars are found in sweets and fruits. Starches are found in potatoes, cereal, pasta, flour, and other plant products. Proteins are used in body structures such as muscles, skin, and hair. Rich sources of proteins include meats, dairy products, and beans. Lipids (fats and oils) are used for energy, insulation, and as an essential building block of cells. Meats, dairy products, and oily plants such as olives are rich in lipids. Question: How do you test for carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids? 1. Test: Under the Benedict test, click Test. Does sample A contain monosaccharides? _____ (Recall that a pink color is a positive test for monosaccharides.) 2. Test: The Lugol test uses iodine to test for starch, a polysaccharide (complex sugar). Iodine turns dark purple in the presence of starch. Under Lugol test, click Test. Does sample A contain starch? _____ 3. Test: The Biuret test uses a solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) to test for protein. The Biuret solution turns purple when proteins are present. Under Biuret test, click Test. Does sample A contain proteins? _____ 4. Test: The Sudan Red test uses a fat-soluble dye, Sudan Red, to indicate the presence of lipids. When lipids are present, the dye will be absorbed into the lipids, and will appear as concentrated spots of color in the test tube. (No spots indicates that lipids are not present.) Under Sudan Red test, click Test. Does sample A contain lipids? _____ 5. Summarize: What nutrients does sample A contain? _______________________________ 6. Analyze: What kind of food is sample A most likely to be? (Circle your choice) A. Apple juice B. Baked beans C. Oatmeal D. Scrambled eggs Activity B: Get the Gizmo ready: Nutrients and food types Click Reset. Question: What nutrients does each food sample contain? 1. Collect data: Use the four available tests to find the nutritional content of samples E, G, and M. (Sample A has been done for you as an example.) Record results on the table below. – Monosaccharides Test results – are these nutrients present? Yes Lipids – Sudan Red test Biuret test Lugol test – Lipids Test Proteins + Protein Test Starches A Benedict test Food sample Carbohydrate Tests No No No E G M 2. Analyze: Look at the results for samples A, E, G, and M. A. Is sample E most likely to be steak, bread, or butter? Justify your answer. ___________________________________________________________________ B. Is sample G most likely to be table sugar, pasta, or olive oil? Justify your answer. ___________________________________________________________________ C. Is sample M most likely to be chicken, rice, a mango, or butter? Justify your answer. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Draw conclusions: Why is it important to understand the nutritional content of food? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ (Activity B continued on next page) Activity B (continued from previous page) 4. Practice: Determine the nutritional content of the remaining food samples. Lipids Proteins Starches Test results – are these nutrients present? Monosaccharides Lipids Test Sudan Red test Protein Test Biuret test Lugol test Benedict test Food sample Carbohydrate Tests B C D F H I J K L N O P Q R S 5. Think and discuss: If possible, discuss these food samples with your classmates and teacher. Try to come up with a type of food that corresponds to each sample. 6. Extend your thinking: In general, a balanced diet contains relatively even amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Too much sugar (monosaccharides and other simple sugars) is unhealthy. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of vitamins and minerals. Do you consider your diet balanced and healthy? Why or why not? ____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Vocabulary: Identifying Nutrients Vocabulary Carbohydrate – an organic molecule containing hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. o Carbohydrates are produced by plants during photosynthesis. o Carbohydrates include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. o Carbohydrates are a major source of energy in the diet. Disaccharide – a sugar formed when two monosaccharide molecules are joined. o Sucrose, or table sugar, is a disaccharide. Other examples are lactose (milk sugar) and maltose. o None of the tests available in the Identifying Nutrients Gizmo can identify disaccharides. Lipid – a fat. o A lipid molecule usually consists of three fatty acids bonded to a “backbone” of glycerol. o Lipids are used as an energy source and as a building material for cells. o In the presence of lipids, Sudan Red solution will show concentrated spots of color. Monosaccharide – a simple sugar such as glucose or fructose. o A monosaccharide molecule usually consists of a ring of five or six carbon atoms that are bonded to hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups. o In the presence of monosaccharides, Benedict solution will turn from blue to pink. Polysaccharide – a complex carbohydrate such as starch or cellulose. o Polysaccharides are chains or branching structures composed of 40 or more monosaccharide molecules. Protein – a molecule composed of a chain of amino acids. o Proteins are an essential building block of muscles, skin, bone, hair, and most other body structures. o In the presence of proteins, Biuret solution will turn from blue to bright purple. Starch – a type of polysaccharide found in potatoes, rice, pasta, bread, and other plantbased foods. o In the presence of starch, Lugol’s solution (iodine) will turn from yellow-brown to dark purple.