Uploaded by Shakirah Md Din

Listening skills

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English For Academic
Purposes
TSLB3023
Pn Hjh Shakirah Md Din
Rationale for the inclusion of the course/module
in the programme
• This course is essential for student teachers of English as a Second
Language as it provides an understanding of the fundamentals of
using English for academic purposes in all the four skills. This course
also provides a platform for student teachers to cope with the
demands of writing an academic research report. The course also
equips student teachers to be more adept in paper presentation,
reading academic materials and writing their research report.
Semester and Year offered
• Semester 1 Year 1
Credit Value : 3
Total Student Learning Time (SLT)
• Face to Face
• Non Face To Face
Total Guided and
Independent Learning
Lecture Tutorial
30
15
30
30
Assessment
3.5
17.5
126
Course Learning Outcomes (CLO)
At the end of this course students will be able to:
1. Demonstrate competency in listening to discussions, lectures and
seminars.(C3, P5, A3 PLO1, PLO3)
2. Analyse academic papers using appropriate reading skills from a
variety of sources. (C4, PLO1, PLO3, PLO6)
3. Discuss articles read in a reading circle group. (C2, A2, PLO3, PLO4, PLO5,
PLO6)
4. Write an academic paper using appropriate conventions. (C6, P7, A2,
PLO2, PLO3)
5. Present an academic paper using appropriate presentation skills. (C6, P7,
A2, PLO2, PLO3, PLO4,PLO5, PLO6)
Transferable Skills
• Critical thinking skills
• communication skills
• teamwork and managing information skills
Teaching-learning and assessment strategy
Teaching-learning strategies:
1. Lecture
2. Tutorial
3. Question and answer
Assessment strategies:
1. Continuous assessment is carried out to ensure the students have attained and
achieved the expected level of the prescribed course learning outcomes. The set
coursework will contribute 60% to the final grade for the course.
2. Summative assessment consists of a written examination consisting of shortresponse and essay questions to assess students’ performance. The examination
questions will be set by the course lecturer and the examination will be held at a
scheduled time. The examination will also contribute 40% to the final grade for the
course.
Synopsis
• This course focusses on listening skills, speaking skills, reading skills
and strategies and academic writing skills.
Mode of Delivery
• Lecture, tutorial
Assessment Methods and Types
• Coursework:
Reading circle
Oral Presentation
Academic Essay
• Examination:
60%
20%
10%
30%
40%
2
4
Tutorial
4
Lecture
1. Listening Skills
Listening to lectures/ seminars/ presentations
- comprehensive/active listening
- informative listening
- discriminative listening
- critical/analytical listening
- Identifying main ideas and supporting ideas
- Note-taking skills
Non Face-to SLT
face
Interaction
Tutorial
Face-to-face
Interaction
Lecture
Content outline of the course and the total SLT per topic
4
14
3
6
SLT
Tutorial
6
Lecture
2. Speaking Skills
• Expressing views in discussions and seminars
•
Establishing & supporting opinions
• Presenting opposite views
• Presentation skills – presenting an academic paper (informative,
persuasive and argumentative)
• Non-verbal and verbal features
Non Face-to
face
Interaction
Tutorial
Face-to-face
Interaction
Lecture
Content outline of the course and the total SLT per topic
6
21
2
4
SLT
Tutorial
4
Lecture
3. Reading Skills and Strategies
• Reading comprehension skills
- skimming and scanning
- identifying main ideas & supporting details
- - inferencing
- - predicting
- - drawing conclusions
- - sequencing
- - cause and effect
- - synthesising
- - summarising
- - evaluating
• Reading strategies
- SQ4R (Survey-Question-Read- Recite-Reflect-Review)
- speed reading
- Knowledge-Write-Learn (KWL)
- signposting/cohesive markers
Non Face-to
face Interaction
Tutorial
Face-to-face
Interaction
Lecture
Content outline of the course and the total SLT per topic
4
14
1
2
SLT
Tutorial
2
Lecture
4. Reading Skills
• Identifying and evaluating reliable sources
(printed and non printed) for academic purposes
- facts versus opinions
- strong and weak evidence
Non Face-to
face
Interaction
Tutorial
Face-to-face
Interaction
Lecture
Content outline of the course and the total SLT per topic
2
7
2
4
Tutorial
4
Lecture
5. Reading skills
• Summarising skills
• Critical and synthesising skills
Non Face-to SLT
face
Interaction
Tutorial
Face-to-face
Interaction
Lecture
Content outline of the course and the total SLT per topic
4
14
3
6
Tutorial
6
Lecture
6. Academic writing skills
• Identifying nature and purposes of writing - audience and
style - writing to argue - writing to inform, explain and
describe
• Styles of writing - compare and contrast - cause and effect arguments and discussion
Non Face-to SLT
face
Interaction
Tutorial
Face-to-face
Interaction
Lecture
Content outline of the course and the total SLT per topic
6
21
2
4
Tutorial
4
Lecture
7. Academic writing skills
• Avoiding plagiarism: incorporating the work of others:
- direct quotation/citation,
- paraphrasing,
- summarising skills
- critical and synthesising skills
- referencing skills Report writing
- incorporating data & illustrations
Non Face-to SLT
face
Interaction
Tutorial
Face-to-face
Interaction
Lecture
Content outline of the course and the total SLT per topic
4
14
Main references
• Bailey, S. (2011). Academic writing: a handbook for international students.
London: Routledge.
• De Chazal, E. (2014). English for Academic Purposes: Oxford handbooks for
language teachers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
• Williams, A. (2013). Research: improve your reading and referencing. Glasgow:
Harper Collins Publisher
Additional references
• Bell, D. (2014). Passport to academic presentations - revised edition - student's
book with audio cd. Reading: Garnet Education
• Burton, C. (2013). Presenting: deliver presentations with confidence. Glasgow:
Harper Collins Publisher.
• Craig, J. L. (2013). Integrating writing strategies in EFL/ESL University contexts.
New York: Routledge.
• Graff, G. Birkenstein, C. Durst, R. (2011). “They say / I say" : the moves that
matter in academic writing with readings (2nd ed.). New York: Norton, W. &
Company, Inc.
• Swales, J. M. , Feak, C. B. (2012). Academic writing for graduate students, 3rd
edition: essential tasks and skills. Michigan: Michigan University Press
• Sword, H. (2012). Stylish academic writing. Series in English for academic &
professional purposes. Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press.
• Van Geyte, E. (2013). Writing: learning to write better English. Glasgow: Collins.
Listening Skills
• Listening to Lectures, Seminars/ Presentations
 What are listening genres?
 What are Communicative Events?
 What is the difference between
listening and hearing?
 Who are academic listeners?
21
22
Lectures
Lectures highlight
• reinforce essential knowledge in particular disciplines
• guide your reading and research
• stimulate your interest in the subject.
Lecture is like giving a presentation to a large group, except that you are
unlikely to have a microphone.
23
Some useful strategies for listening to lectures:
Strategy 1
Before you listen to a lecture:
• it is very helpful to do some preparation; think about what you
already know about the topic, and read about it if you can.
•You may be given a recommendation by the lecturer about what
to read.
• You can also try and predict what you think the lecture might
cover.
•If you are given a lecture reading, this can be very helpful in
setting the context of the lecture
24
Strategy 2
Focus very carefully on the introduction to the lecture.
•In this part the lecturer will often outline the content of the lecture.
•It may include background information about the person who is giving the
lecture, or background information about the topic area.
•It can also give you the opportunity to get used to the accent of the lecturer
and how they speak, as they often give information about themselves
25
Strategy 3
Listen for signpost expressions
These are key phrases or works which help guide you through different
sections of the lecture. These will help you identify which parts of the
lecture are important.
Signpost expressions
In this lecture I will..............
First of all...........
And then..............
Finally..............
I will look at 3
26
Lectures are expected to last the full duration of the session, with little or no
designated question time.
The duration of the session will be set by the institution, but is often one or two hours.
This means that some sort of visual aid is probably going to be essential to keep your
students’ attention.
27
Seminar
• a class at which a group of students and a teacher/lecturer
discuss a topic
• Seminars may also be called study groups, workgroups, or discussion
groups.
• The students are expecting, and expected, to interact with the tutor
and with each other.
Both lectures and seminars are frequently used in higher
and further education, and increasingly in schools too.
Although lectures, in particular, are very similar to giving
presentations, the term ‘lecture’ is uniquely used for some
kind of educational session.
29
Presentation
• a means of communication that can be adapted to various
speaking situations, such as
- talking to a group,
- addressing a meeting or
- briefing a team.
• It requires you to get a message across to the listeners and
will often contain a 'persuasive' element.
• It may, for example, be a talk about the positive work of your
organisation, what you could offer an employer, or why you
should receive additional funding for a project
The Key Elements of a Presentation
• Context
• Presenter
• Audience
The Instructor has prepared the concepts and techniques they will
present and discuss through a combination of :
-visual materials
-interactive tools or equipment and
- demonstrations.
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•This problem can be multiplied in a group
setting, like a classroom or business
meeting where numerous different
meanings can be derived from what has
been said.
Cont..
• Comprehensive listening is complimented by sub-messages from nonverbal communication, such as :
- the tone of voice
- gestures
- and other body language.
Cont..
• These non-verbal signals can greatly aid communication and
comprehension but can also confuse and potentially lead to
misunderstanding.
• In many listening situations it is vital to seek clarification and use
skills such as reflection aid comprehension.
Informative Listening
• Listener’s primary concern is to understand the message.
• Listeners are successful as the meaning they assign to
messages is as close as possible to that which the sender
intended.
Informative listening, or listening to understand, is found
in all areas of our lives. Much of our learning comes from
informative listening.
For example,
•we listen to lectures or instructions from teachers—and
what we learn depends on how well we listen.
•In the workplace,
we listen to understand new practices or procedures—
and how well we perform depends on how well we
listen.
•We listen to instructions, briefings, reports, and
speeches; if we listen poorly, we aren’t equipped with
the information we need.
There are three key variables related to informative
listening.
1. Vocabulary :
The precise relationship between vocabulary and
listening has never been determined, but it is clear
that increasing your vocabulary will increase your
potential for better understanding.
2.Concentration.
Concentration is difficult.
You can remember at times when another person was
not concentrating on what you were saying—and you
probably can remember at times when you were not
concentrating on something that someone was saying
to you.
3. Memory.
Memory is especially crucial variable to
informative listening;
• you cannot process information without
bringing memory into play.
• helps your informative listening in three ways.
a. It allows you to recall experiences and
information necessary to function in the world
around you. In other words, without memory
you would have no knowledge bank.
b. It establishes expectations concerning what you will
encounter.
You would be unable to drive in heavy traffic, react to
new situations, or make common decisions in life
without memory of your past experiences.
c. It allows you to understand what others say.
Without simple memory of the meaning of words, you
could not communicate with anyone else. Without
memory of concepts and ideas, you could not
understand the meaning of messages.
Informational listening may be mostly
concerned with receiving facts and/or
new information
Discriminative Listening:
•Listening to distinguish
between all the sounds in
your environment
Cont..
• Discriminative listening is the most basic type of listening, whereby
the difference between difference sounds is identified.
• If you cannot hear differences, then you cannot make sense of the
meaning that is expressed by such differences.
Cont..
We learn to discriminate between sounds within our own language
early, and later are unable to discriminate between the phonemes of
other languages.
Cont..
• This is one reason why a person from one country finds it difficult to
speak another language perfectly, as they are unable distinguish the
subtle sounds that are required in that language.
Cont..
• Likewise, a person who cannot hear the subtleties of emotional
variation in another person's voice will be less likely to be able to
discern the emotions the other person is experiencing.
Cont..
• Listening is a visual as well as auditory act, as we communicate much
through body language.
• We thus also need to be able to discriminate between muscle and
skeletal movements that signify different meanings.
Cont..
• Discriminative listening is when you look past the
words you hear to detect the underlying message.
• It might be one of the most important types of
listening for online marketers.
• This works best in person, as you can look to body
language, tone changes and volume to determine
what the speaker really thinks and feels.