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Biomolluscicidal Activity of Tobacco Solid Waste against Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata)

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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
For health and environment protection, organic farming is becoming popular
and demand for organically produced farm products is increasing around the globe.
Organic crop producer however is confronted by the problem of controlling usual pest
in the crops which tempt them to use commercial pesticides. There is therefore a need
to provide farmers with alternative materials that may not be as harmful as synthetic
chemical pesticides.
In the Philippines, one of the serious problems of organic rice producers is the
proliferation of Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) invading almost all rice
fields in the lowlands including rice terraces in the uplands. Another serious problem
of organic rice producers, is the Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata)
infestation, which are destructive not only significantly reducing organic rice
production yield. Many farmers result to the use of synthetic molluscicides in
controlling the pest that are expensive and broad spectrum, affecting non-target
organisms including human beings. People had been looking for better alternatives to
the commercial molluscicides.
The Golden Apple Snail (GAS) (P. canaliculata) is the dominant aquatic
gastropod and a major rice pest in many Asian countries the GAS is a freshwater
gastropod native to South Africa. Pirate entrepreneurs and government agencies
introduced GAS (also referred to as Golden Kuhol) in the Philippines as means of
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livelihood and to enrich the protein source in the human diet (Mochida, 1978;
Madamba and Camaya, 1987; Rejesus et.al. 1988).
However, a few years after its introduction, GAS became an aquatic species in
confined environment. Eventually, GAS became freak when it escaped to creeks,
rivers, streams, irrigation systems and rice fields it is now considered a major pest in
all rice ecosystems of the Philippines including the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Ifugao Rice Terraces (Dancel and
Joshi, 2000; Joshi, et. al. 2000; Joshi, et. al. 2001). GAS or the Golden Kuhol
infestation poses several problems in rice farming systems. They damage young rice
seedlings, causes poor crop stand, yield losses, additional expenses, and lethal0 effects
of synthetic commercial molluscicides including the unaccounted environmental costs
where bodies of water are the main recipients of the runoff of various formulations of
nonspecific molluscicides (Daniel and Joshi, 2000). Filipino farmers became aware of
the GAS as pest of rice.
Considering the fact that not all farmers can afford to buy expensive
commercial molluscicide, the toxin coming from Tobacco Solid Waste could essential
to them. Considering that Filipino farmers are offered with high-priced, highly
processed and environmentally destructive molluscicide, Tobacco Solid Waste is a
very promising alternative.
Tobacco waste has been found to be used also as a fertilizer. Tobacco-waste
obtained from Tokat cigarette factory was applied at different rates to see the effect of
tobacco waste on the growth and N content of wheat crop. Increasing rates of tobaccowaste together with nitrogen fertilization increased the dry matter yield of wheat crop
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from 8.78 to 14.01 grams/pot (40 tons/ha) (A. Reşit Brohi, A. Aydeniz and M. R.
Karaman, 1996). Which made us think that tobacco waste may have more uses other
than just landfill or waste.
Tobacco waste is a cheaper alternative to the expensive commercial
molluscicide available today. In addition, unlike commercial molluscicides it does not
have any bad side effects to any nearby life that is not the focus of the treatment. As
also said by Tangkoonboribun, Rochana & Suriya, Sassanarakkit (2009). Tobacco
waste affected to increased electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand,
chemical oxygen demand in water but decreased water pH and dissolved oxygen.
Otherwise, tobacco waste can be supplied soil fertility with high organic matter,
available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium. Tobacco
waste can be increased rice growth and yield without nicotine and acute toxicity
inspected.
Tobacco waste then would be essential to solve this problem specially; Ilocos
Sur is one of the major contributors of cigarette since there is a wide plantation of
tobacco. In the making of cigarettes not all the raw materials turn into cigarettes, some
of tobacco goes to waste. Tobacco waste could be lethal to humans, else to smaller
organisms. Thus, it could be used to control the population of invasive organisms like
the golden kuhol. According to several studies, there are chemicals that leach from
tobacco production waste that can be acutely toxic to aquatic organisms such as the
nicotine, phenol and acetone present in the tobacco that can control the population of
the golden kuhol.
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Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to eradicate the population of golden apple snail by using the
tobacco solid waste, specifically; it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the level of effectiveness of using tobacco solid waste in eradicating
the golden apple snail?
2. What is the mortality rate when tobacco solid waste is used in eradicating
golden apple snail in terms of;
a. mortality rate, and
b. time after application of treatments?
3. Is there a significant difference between tobacco solid waste and the
commercial one in eradicating the golden apple snail?
Hypotheses
Based on the statement of the problem, the following hypotheses were
formulated:
1. There is a significant difference between the effectiveness of tobacco solid
waste biomolluscicide and the commercial molluscicide in eradicating golden apple
snail.
2. There is no significant biomolluscicidal activity of tobacco solid waste in
eradicating golden apple snail.
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Significance of the study
The study yielded important information about the use of tobacco solid waste.
This study is useful for the farmers and it can be helpful in proper waste management.
Hence, this will let the rice and other crops grow freely and full of nutrients. Tobacco
waste as molluscicide for Golden Apple Snail will then promote a chemical free drops,
it will motivate the farmers to use it instead of spraying chemicals in their crops. Thus,
it will be possible to reduce chemical import and organic waste pollutions.
Community. In the vicinity of Vigan, planting crops is one of their livelihood,
this study can help to increase their crops and their income become higher. In terms of
its significance to the community, the parasitic golden apple snail will be eradicated.
Thus, it will increase the production of crops. In addition, the people in the community
will be benefited because there are no more shortage of food and in the economic status
of the community.
Students. The product of the study which is a powdered tobacco solid waste
as biomolluscicide could help the students to promote using biomolluscicides instead
of chemicals in eradicating the golden apple snail. Further, it can also help students
who have farmer relatives who couldn’t afford buying commercial molluscicides in
the market.
Scope and Limitations
This study was intended in analyzing the biomolluscicidal activity of tobacco
solid waste against golden apple snail. The acceptability of the solid waste in terms of
its effectiveness in reducing golden apple snail that is pestering rice fields.
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This study was conducted at Ayusan Norte in Vigan city on school year 2017
– 2018.
Operational Definition of Terms
For classification purposes the following terms was defined for a better
understanding of the study.
Biomolluscicide. A natural and safe agent that destroys mollusks.
Tobacco. The plant to where to get material used against golden apple snail
Solid waste. The segregated waste materials to pulverize used against golden
apple snail.
Golden Apple Snail. A species of snail in the Philippines that destroy crops.
Drying. It is mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or
another solvent by evaporation from solid, semi-solid to solid.
Pulverized. To diminish to very small particles by grinding the segregated
waste materials from tobacco.
Conceptual Framework
To illustrate the study, a paradigm was used to determine the biomolluscicidal
activity of tobacco solid waste against golden apple snail.
INPUT
P Tobacco solid
waste
PROCESS
OUTPUT
P Drying and
pulverizing
u
Biomolluscicide
P
Powder
u
l
l
Figure 1.v The Research Paradigm
v
e
e
r
r
i
i
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This study used the independent and dependent variable model. The input
variable is the tobacco solid waste; the process is drying and pulverizing the tobacco
solid waste; and the output variable is biomolluscicide powder.
In addition, the relationship of the following variables will be determined; the
input variable to the process; and the process to the output variable.
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Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This section will provide an in-depth comprehension and substance to the
overall content of the study. The research proponents undertake research on available
literatures and studies pertaining on the biomolluscicide activity of tobacco solid waste
against golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).
On Tobacco Solid Waste
Tobacco is a plant of the nightshade family. Dried tobacco leaves are often
smoked in cigarettes and pipes, but can also be chewed in the mouth or sniffed in the
nose. Tobacco contains a very powerful addictive chemical called nicotine which
makes it harmful for organisms.
Tobacco solid waste contains nicotine and carcinogens which are toxic, hence,
it should be separated from other waste. Tobacco solid waste is one of the
environmental problems as the components of tobacco waste are harmful and toxic.
Solid waste generated by tobacco industry poses an important environmental
problem as some main components of tobacco waste are harmful and toxic. Nicotine,
the principal alkaloid of tobacco, is both toxic and harmful to health (Buerge, 2008).
Also, tobacco industry wastewater contains some toxic contaminants.
A hazardous solid waste is accumulated during the processing of tobacco for
the manufacture of cigarettes. Its main characteristics are the high nicotine content as
the only toxic compound, and the powdery structure that does not permit recycling. A
biotechnological process is proposed to detoxify these powdery tobacco residues. The
toxic compound, nicotine, is transferred from the solid phase to an aqueous solution
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through efficient percolation (Civilini, Domenis, Sebastianutto, de Bertoldi, 2007).
Solid waste generated by tobacco industry contains mostly tobacco particles and
flavoring agents. Its main characteristics are high contents of nicotine, which is toxic,
and total organic carbon in the aqueous extract. Therefore, tobacco waste must be
separated from urban waste (Briški, Gomzi, Horgas, & Vuković, 2007).
Moreover, efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters
among which physical-chemical properties of the composting substrate play the keyrole. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a
substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process (Kopčić, Domanovac,
Kučić, & Briški, 2013).
Tobacco waste has no immediate use and cigarette companies have to pay for
its disposal. The majority of the waste is destroyed by burning. Tobacco solid waste is
classified as agro-industrial waste. Because of the high organic matter and low toxic
element content, it has potential use as a soil amendment (Okur, Kayikcio, Del, 2007).
According to the study of Tangkoonboribun and Suriya (2009), Tobacco waste
can be molluscicide for Golden Apple snail control in paddy field as trialed laboratory,
green house and field trial. In greenhouse and field trial were found rate of tobacco
waste could kill golden apple snail in two days. Tobacco waste affected to increased
electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand in water
but decreased water pH and dissolved oxygen. Otherwise, tobacco waste can be
supplied soil fertility with high organic matter, available phosphorus, exchangeable
potassium, calcium and magnesium. Tobacco waste can be increased rice growth and
yield without nicotine and acute toxicity inspected.
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Further, using tobacco solid waste by means of biomolluscicide can help both
the community and the environment. It will then help the farmers to have an alternative
molluscicide as they can save money for not buying the commercial ones. The crops
will grow with much nutrients as the golden apple snails that takes it away will be
eradicated. Also, the waste that harm both humans and the environment will be lessen
as the tobacco solid waste will be converted to a bio molluscicde.
On Golden Apple Snail
Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail restricted to wetland areas that are
flooded for at least part of the year. It generally occurs in relatively still water in
marshes, swamps, ditches, irrigation canals, ponds and lakes lined with vegetation and
generally with muddy bottoms. It is thus well suited for living in rice paddies, taro
patches and similar artificial habitats.
Pomacea canaliculata, commonly known as Golden Apple Snails, are highly
invasive and cause damage to rice crops. They were introduced to Asia, from South
America, in the 1980s as potential food for people, but it unfortunately became a major
pest of rice.
Pomacea canaliculata was initially introduced into Asia and Hawaii with a
view to its development and sale to both local people as a food resource as well as to
the gourmet restaurant trade locally and internationally. In addition to its use as a food
resource, Pomacea canaliculata has also been used or recommended to a limited
degree for biological control of weeds in rice paddies (Joshi et al., 2007). However, its
use for this purpose is not widespread as it is a voracious feeder on rice shoots until
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they are a few weeks old, and as a result is a major pest of rice (Joshi and Sebastian,
2007).
Further, the distribution of Pomacea canaliculata has been steadily increasing
since its introduction to Asia, primarily as a human food resource but perhaps also by
the aquarium trade, beginning around 1979 or 1980 (Joshi and Sebastian, 2007). Once
introduced to an area, it spreads rapidly through bodies of water such as canals and
rivers and during floods.
Moreover, the primary mode of spread of Pomacea canaliculata has been
deliberate introduction to new areas by people who see it as a potential source of food.
Although usually confined initially to aquaculture facilities, the snails either escape or
are deliberately released into agricultural or natural wetlands. This has happened
despite knowledge of its serious pest status in areas already invaded.
Pomacea canaliculata is dioeciously (has separate sexes), internally fertilizing
and oviparous. Females tend to be larger than males. Eggs are laid in clutches above
water on the exposed parts of vegetation, rocks, etc., perhaps to avoid aquatic predators
or in response to low oxygen tension in their often near-stagnant aquatic habitats
(Dreon et al., 2010).
Furthermore, in its natural range, Pomacea canaliculata has been considered
‘harmless and useless’, as it is neither an important crop pest nor human health hazard
and it is not used as a human food or for any other purpose (Cazzaniga, 2007).
However, where it has been introduced, it has caused serious economic harm, has
become a human health problem in some regions, and has the potential to have serious
environmental and biodiversity impacts.
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The status of Pomacea canaliculata as a rice pest differs among countries and
regions. Because germinating seeds are much more susceptible to the snail than
transplanted seedlings. Pomacea canaliculata is a more important rice pest in
countries where direct seeding is widely practiced, such as in the Philippines, Thailand
and Vietnam.
Pomacea canaliculata can infest paddy crops including rice (Oryza sativa). In
particular, snail damage to rice is a major problem in South-east and East Asian
countries. In the Philippines, farmers have considered Pomacea canaliculata to be the
most serious pest of rice. Pomacea canaliculata is a more important rice pest in
countries where direct seeding is widely practiced, such as in the Philippines, Thailand
and Vietnam. It is well controlled after transplanting by keeping paddy water shallow
if the fields are well levelled.
In wetland rice the first symptom of damage by Pomacea canaliculata is a
reduced plant stand where the snails have severed the plant stalks below the water
level. The tillers are cut first and then the leaves and stems are consumed under water.
The crop is highly vulnerable at the early seedling stage.
In the temperate regions where Pomacea canaliculata is native, it only breeds
during summer. Locally, variation in reproductive regime may be related to local
climatic variation, especially availability of water. In their introduced humid tropical
Southeast Asian range and the controlled environment of a rice paddy, Pomacea
canaliculata can grow and breed year round as long as sufficient water is present. In
Hong Kong, it reaches full size in four to six months and reproduction occurs almost
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year round, although with some variation in snail biomass and density related to water
temperature (Kwong et al., 2010).
Short term dispersal activity does not necessarily translate into long term, long
distance dispersal. Pomacea canaliculata may spread naturally predominantly by
floating downstream, although crawling upstream is also possible, unless the flow rate
is too great (Ranamukhaarachchi and Wikramasinghe, 2007).
Loss of rice seedlings due to Pomacea canaliculata is influenced by the size
and density of the snail and by plant age. Snails larger than 16 mm cause damage to
transplanted seedlings. Snails with a shell height of 29, 39, 48 and 57 mm consumed
4.5, 6.3, 12.6 and 23.5 seedlings (2.5-leaf stage) per day, respectively.
The economic impacts of Pomacea canaliculata have major impacts on the
livelihoods of the individual farmers affected. Pomacea canaliculata also has other
important direct impacts on human wellbeing, notably its impact on human health.
In addition, some areas of the Philippines, farmers' traditional practice of crop
husbandry is to apply basal soil complete fertilizer combined with urea at the final
harrowing and levelling. This practice resulted in the apple snails becoming inactive
and half of them died. The dead apple snails in fertilizer-treated plots had open
opercula whereas those in molluscicide-treated fields had closed opercula.
Ploughing and harrowing during the off-season increase the mortality of dormant
snails in the soil. Therefore, land preparation for a non-rice crop in the off-season
decreases the snail population, particularly if the community carries it out. Flooding
the land before planting revives dormant snails, which are then crushed by mechanized
land preparation carried out by hydro tiller. Other control methods include levelling
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the field to facilitate drainage and to remove small refuges used by the snails. Planting
crops at high densities, burning straw and planting on ridges above the water line also
control the numbers of snails.
On Biomolluscicide
Molluscicides, also known as snail baits and snail pellets, are pesticides against
mollusks, which are usually used in agriculture or gardening, in order to control
gastropod pests specifically slugs and snails which damage crops or other valued
plants by feeding on them.
The generally accepted method of the golden apple snail control over the years
has been chemical insecticides. Most farmers resort to short-term solutions by using
synthetic molluscicides that have negative impacts on the environment. Due to the
toxic hazards of the synthetic insecticides, biological controls through botanical
pesticides are the best alternative for reducing the golden apple snail's damage in
paddy fields. Many plants are known to possess molluscicidal properties against a
wide population of mollusks, one is tobacco.
Several of the molluscicides that have been used against Pomacea
canaliculata, such as organotin compounds, copper sulfate, calcium cyanimide and
sodium pentachlorphenolate, pose great environmental risks. A number of insecticides
have been used against snails, for example isapophos, cartap and bensultap. Dipping
seedlings in cartap or bensultap before planting gave protection against Pomacea
canaliculata for 2 weeks. Use of the most toxic products has been prohibited in many
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countries for some time (Schnorbach et al., 2007), but many chemicals are still used
illegally.
The problem with molluscicides applied as sprays or dips is that rain readily
washes them away, making reapplication necessary. Furthermore, in any pesticide
treatment directed at the snails in the water, even if the snails are killed, eggs laid
above water will not be affected and will go on to hatch after the pesticide has
dissipated. A second application, perhaps a month after the first, is then necessary to
kill the newly hatched snails before they grow to reproductive maturity (Cowie, 2007).
Further, a number of plants have been shown to have molluscicidal properties,
but they are not long lasting and some are toxic to fish and have equally serious
environmental and human health effects as synthetic pesticides, especially if deployed
persistently over wide areas and in high concentrations.
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Chapter III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter shows the research methodology for the study. It includes the
experimental design, the materials and equipment used, the general procedures and the
evaluation and test methods.
A. Experimental Design
Preparation of the Materials
Preparation of the Treatments
Application of Treatments
Gathering of Data
Evaluation and Test Methods
B. Materials/Equipment
This study used 1000 grams of tobacco solid waste that were gathered from the
processing of the tobacco plant. Forty snails were used. In addition, a commercial
molluscicide was also used in comparison to the product of the study.
The study made used of a clean blender in pulverizing the tobacco solid waste.
In addition, containers, a basin and a weighing scale was used in the conduct of the
study.
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C. General Procedure/Treatment
C.1 Preparation of Materials
The 1000 grams of tobacco solid waste that were gathered from the
processing plant were segregated into the usable material and the unwanted materials.
Then the tobacco solid waste was put in the basin and dried.
C.2 Preparation of the Treatments
The dried tobacco solid waste was pulverized into a powder using a
blender. Four (4) treatments were used in the conduct of the study.
Treatment 1 – 2.5 grams of biomolluscicide
Treatment 2 – 5 grams of biomolluscicide
Treatment 3 – 7.5 grams of biomolluscicide
Treatment 4 – 2.5 of commercial molluscicide
C.3 Application of Treatment
There were four (4) treatments in the experiment. Each treatment is
given to an assigned container, all the same size and the same population of snails
inside. The treatments were left to take full effect for fifty (50) seconds to five (5)
minutes and was observed throughout the conduct of the experiment. The progress and
how fast was the treatments taking effect on the subjects. The mortality rate was
computed at the end of the experiment.
C4. Gathering of Data
After the conduct of the experiment and the recording of data, the mortality
rate of each population of snails would be computed and compared.
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D. Evaluation and Test Methods
Preliminary Phase
The researchers of the study made used of the same number of golden
apple snails in each container to be fair. The researchers added a control
experiment as a comparison for the product of the study.
Evaluation
Throughout the conduct of the experiment, the researchers checked the
total population golden apple snails in each container to determine their
mortality rate.
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Chapter IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the findings from the data gathered to eradicate the
population of golden apple snail by using the tobacco solid waste.
Problem 1. What is the level of effectiveness of using tobacco solid waste in
eradicating the golden apple snail?
Table 1
Golden Apple Snail Mortalities in different Treatments and Dosages
Treatments (Grams)
Mortality of Golden Apple Snail
Tobacco Solid Waste
2.5
10
5
10
7.5
10
Commercial Molluscicide
2.5
10
Table 1 shows the percentage of golden apple snail mortalities and recorded
time to get killed when the area infested by tobacco powder. For proportional
purposes, 2.5 commercial molluscicidal was preferred, it took .57 seconds as it expose
to the treated water and the snail never get recovered and recorded as 100% of
mortality rate. However, the different dosages have the same mortality rate, but differs
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from the time it took to kill the Golden Apple Snail. The higher the dosages, the more
effective is the treatment since.
The effectiveness of tobacco solid waste in exterminating the golden apple
snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is comparable to the commercially available
molluscicides in the market today. However, based from the results of the experiment
conducted with the same dosage, the tobacco solid waste took up eight times longer
than the commercial molluscicide. Further, the effectiveness of the tobacco solid waste
treatment was as effective as the commercial treatment when the dosage was three
times as much as the commercial one.
According to the study of Tangkoonboribun and Suriya (2009), tobacco waste
can be molluscicide for Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) control in paddy
field. The application of tobacco waste to also reduced rice damaged by golden apple
snail about 14% for it increases pH, electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand,
chemical oxygen and nicotine in water.
Problem 2. What is the mortality rate when tobacco solid waste is used in eradicating
golden apple snail in terms of;
a. mortality rate, and
b. time after application of treatments?
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Table 2
Golden Apple Snail Mortalities and number of recorded time it takes to get
killed
Treatments (Grams)
Time (Minutes)
Mortality
of
Golden
Apple Snail
Tobacco Solid Waste
2.5
4.8
10
5
2.49
10
7.5
1.22
10
.57
10
Commercial
Molluscicide
2.5
Table 2 shows the average time it takes golden apple snail to get killed by
dosages of tobacco solid waste on golden apple snail. Between dosages, the 2.5 g of
tobacco solid waste resulted to an average mortality time of 4.8 minutes. The 5 g and
7.5 g dosages resulted to an average mortality time of 2.49 and 1.22 minutes,
respectively. All the dosages used were found to be effective in controlling golden
apple snail but differs significantly in terms of mortality time. For comparative
purposes, 2.5 grams of commercial molluscicide was used, all the golden apple snails
died after .57 seconds of exposure in the treatment. No snails were able to recover
from the treated basin indicating 100% mortality. Result from the study revealed that
the tobacco solid waste materials used were effective in controlling golden apple snail
and increasing the dosages demonstrated greater effectiveness as indicated by
significantly lower mortality time.
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Data analysis revealed that the interaction effect of the dosages was
significantly different which is due mainly to difference in magnitude of response. The
higher dosage of tobacco solid waste gave significantly higher mortality time
compared to lower dosage.
In all the treatments, observations revealed that upon application of dosage, the
golden apple snail quickly responded by moving. After a few seconds, the snails
appeared to be weakened and tend to move slowly, and showed some slight movement
at some time interval, and finally stop moving after 50 seconds to 5 minutes depending
on the treatment. When transferred to a basin with clean water, the snail did not
recover, indicating that that they were dead.
The results of the present study supported the findings of Ngaloy and Andrada
2005, Taguiling and Buyucan 2008, and Taguiling and Ngabit, 2010. The
effectiveness of the species above was also similar to the findings of Ndamba , J. &
S.K. Chandiwanan (1990) in which the application of Tobacco in rice fields were
effective in suppressing snails in Zimbabwe.
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Problem 3. Is there a significant difference between tobacco solid waste and the
commercial one in eradicating the golden apple snail?
Table 3.
Average time (in minutes) it Golden Apple Snail to get killed by dosages of per
treatment.
Treatments (Grams)
Time (Minutes)
Tobacco Solid Waste
2.5
4.8
5
2.49
7.5
1.22
Commercial Molluscicide
2.5
.57
Table 3 indicates the average time it takes Golden Apple Snail to get killed by
dosages of solid waste extracts of tobacco on Golden Apple Snail. Between dosages,
the 2.5,5 and 7.5 grams’ concentration resulted to an average mortality time of 4.8,
2.49, and 1.22 minutes, respectively. All the dosages used were found to be effective
in controlling Golden Apple Snail but differs significantly in terms of mortality time.
End result from the study shown that tobacco powder used were effective in
controlling Golden Apple Snail and increasing the dosages demonstrated greater
effectiveness as indicated by significantly lower mortality time.
There is a significant difference between the tobacco solid waste
biomolluscicide and the commercial one in exterminating the golden apple snail. The
significant difference is in terms of the rate wherein they exterminate the population
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of golden apple snail. The tobacco solid waste biomolluscicide performed close to the
performance of the commercial molluscicide. However, the biomolluscicide treatment
took more time to exterminate the whole population compared to the commercial one.
In addition, when comparing the dosages of the experimental setup and the control
setup, it takes up to three times more than the dosage of the control setup for it to reach
the level of effectiveness of the control setup results.
According to the study of Taguiling (2015), the tobacco activity varies
significantly according to the dosages. The application of dosages 5, 10, and 15 ml
resulted to significantly different mean mortality time of 7.8, 3.2, and 1.5 ml minutes
respectively. Toxicities of the said tobacco as indicated by the mortality time were
concentration dependent. When comparing the dosages of the experimental and
control set up, the effectiveness of the control set up was more efficient than the
experimental set up.
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Chapter V
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary, conclusions and recommendation of the
study.
Conclusions
After cautious analysis of the data, the following conclusions are hereby
presented:
1. The biomolluscicidal activity of tobacco solid waste biomolluscicide is
comparable to the commercially available molluscicides.
2. The entire experimental setups were found to be effective in controlling
golden apple snail but differs significantly in terms of mortality time.
3. Results from the study revealed that the tobacco solid waste materials used
were effective in controlling golden apple snail. In addition, increasing the dosages
demonstrated greater effectiveness as indicated by significantly lower mortality time.
4. There is a significant difference between the tobacco solid waste
biomolluscicide and the commercial one in exterminating the golden apple snail.
Recommendations
Based on the conclusions drawn, the following recommendations are
forwarded for consideration:
1. For further researches, it is recommended that other researchers should
conduct another study in the natural habitat to eliminate the factors that affects the
death of the golden apple snail.
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
26
2. It is recommended that proper equipment should be used during the conduct
of the experiment for the researchers to gather more accurate results for the study.
3. It is recommended that on the next study to be conducted, at least 3 trials
with different dosages will be done.
4. Since the Philippines is rich of various plants, further researches should use
other plants as biomolluscicide in eradicating golden apple snails to reduce the usage
of chemicals.
5. Another study should be conducted to find other uses of tobacco solid
waste to promote proper waste management which can help in improving public
health.
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
BIBLIOGRAPHY
27
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
28
Bibliography
Civilini M., Domenis C., Sebastianutto N. and Bertoldi M. (2007). “Nicotine
decontamination of tobacco agro-industrial waste and its degradation by
micro-organisms”.
Retrieved
from
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0734242X97900914 on
January 6, 2018.
Kopčić N., Vuković Domanovac M., Kučić D. and Briški F. (2013). “Evaluation of
laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste”.
Retrieve from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290970 on January 6,
2018.
Okur N., Kayikcioglu H.H., Okur B. and Delibacak S. (2007). “Organic Amendment
Based on Tobacco Waste Compost and Farmyard Manure: Influence on Soil
Biological Properties and Butter-Head Lettuce Yield”. Retrieved from
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.544.8446&rep=rep
1&type=pdf on January 6, 2018.
Tangkoonboriya R. and Suriya S. (2009). “Molluscicide from Tobacco Waste”.
Retrieved
from
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41940814_Molluscicide_from_Tob
acco_Waste on January 6, 2018.
Joshi R.C. and Sebastian L.C. (2007). “Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)”.
Retrieved from https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/68490 on January 13, 2018.
Dreon M.S. et al. (2010). “The role of the proteinase inhibitor ovorubin in apple snail
eggs resemble plant embryo defense against predation”. Retrieved from
https://www.cabi.org/isc/abstract/20113036880 on January 13, 2018.
Cazzaniga N.J. (2007). “Pomacea Canaliculata: harmless and useless”. Retrieved
from https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/68490 on January 13, 2018.
Kwong K.L. et al. (2009). “The potential of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata
as a predator of various life-stages of five species of freshwater snails”.
Retrieved from https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/68490 on January 13, 2018.
Ranamukhaarachchi and Wikramasinghe (2006). “Pomacea canaliculata (golden
apple snail)”. Retrieved from https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/68490 on
January 13, 2018.
Cowie R.D. (2007). “Apple snails (Ampullariidae) as agricultural pests: Their
biology,
impacts
and
management”.
Retrieved
from
https://www.cabi.org/isc/abstract/20023046840 on January 13, 2018.
Taguiling N.K. (2015). “Effect of combined plant extracts on golfrn apple snail
(pomacea canaliculata) and giant earthworm (Pheretima sp)”. Retrieved from
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http//ijagsc.com/wpcontent/uploads/2015/01/55-60.pdf on March 12, 2018.
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Curriculum Vitae
29
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
30
CURRICULUM VITAE
Personal Profile
Name
:
WENDIE JANE DEL CASTILLO AMANO
Permanent Address
:
Capangdanan, Bantay, Ilocos Sur
Date of Birth
:
November 3, 1999
Civil Status
:
Single
Citizenship
:
Filipino
Religion
:
Roman Catholic
Parents
:
Father
:
Mr. Freddy R. Amano
Mother
:
Mrs. Rowena D. Amano
:
Capangdanan Elementary School
Educational Background
Elementary
Capangdanan, Bantay, Ilocos Sur
(2006-2012)
Salutatorian
Secondary
:
Junior High School
:
Ilocos Sur National High School
Gomez St., Brgy.VII, Vigan City
(2012-2016)
Senior High School
:
Ilocos Sur National High School
Gomez St., Brgy.VII, Vigan City
(2016-Present)
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
31
CURRICULUM VITAE
Personal Profile
Name
:
SUJEE AYTONA
Permanent Address
:
Ayusan Norte, Vigan City, Ilocos Sur
Date of Birth
:
February 28, 2000
Civil Status
:
Single
Citizenship
:
Filipino
Religion
:
Roman Catholic
Parents
:
Father
:
Mr. Julius R. Aytona
Mother
:
Mrs. Prescilla Q. Aytona
:
Burgos Memorial West School
Educational Background
Elementary
Gomez St., Brgy. VII, Vigan City, Ilocos Sur
(2006-2012)
Secondary
:
Junior High School
:
Vigan National High School West
Paratong, Vigan City
(2013-2016)
3rd Honorable Mention
Senior High School
:
Ilocos Sur National High School
Gomez St., Brgy.VII, Vigan City
(2016-Present)
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
CURRICULUM VITAE
Personal Profile
Name
:
ANGELICA BAYANI RABANG
Permanent Address
:
Tamorong, Sta. Catalina, Ilocos Sur
Date of Birth
:
June 20, 2000
Civil Status
:
Single
Citizenship
:
Filipino
Religion
:
Roman Catholic
Parents
:
Father
:
Mr. Jose Rabang
Mother
:
Mrs. Evangeline Rabang
:
Bernardo P. Ragasa Elementary School
Educational Background
Elementary
Tamorong, Sta. Catalina Ilocos Sur
(2006-2012)
Secondary
:
Junior High School
:
Ilocos Sur National High School
Gomez St., Brgy.VII, Vigan City
(2012-2016)
Senior High School
:
Ilocos Sur National High School
Gomez St., Brgy.VII, Vigan City
(2016-Present)
32
ILOCOS SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
CURRICULUM VITAE
Personal Profile
Name
:
JED HEFNER FLANDEZ RABANG
Permanent Address
:
Ayusan Norte, Vigan City
Date of Birth
:
July 23, 2000
Civil Status
:
Single
Citizenship
:
Filipino
Religion
:
Roman Catholic
Parents
:
Father
:
Mr. Froilan Jose A. Rabang
Mother
:
Mrs. Glenda F. Rabang
:
Divine Word College of Vigan
Educational Background
Elementary
Vigan City, Ilocos Sur
(2006-2012)
Secondary
:
Junior High School
:
Ilocos Sur National High School
Gomez St., Brgy.VII, Vigan City
(2012-2016)
Senior High School
:
Ilocos Sur National High School
Gomez St., Brgy.VII, Vigan City
(2016-Present)
33