Uploaded by Abel Goboze

ENMA 715 Module Questions

System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Old Dominion University
Module Questions and Answer
Goboze N. Abel
ENMA 715 (System Analysis)
Van E. Brewer, Ph. D.
June 2019
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Modules Questions and Answer.
Module 2
Select a system from a personal experience. Identify why it can be classified as a system.
As defined, “System Analysis is the analysis of an activity, procedure, method,
technique, or business to determined what must be accomplished and how the necessary
operations must be accomplished. Aviation maintenance is a process, or an activity, procedure,
method or an operation to keep aircraft airworthy. Aircraft is a complex system with many
problems that contains systems designs with specialized software that supports the important
work of aircraft operations and maintenance. Aircraft maintenance is the performance of tasks
required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft or aircraft part. In the military, the
procedure of keeping aircraft worthiness is in three levels. First, organizational level which
involves operational and servicing including the replacement of aircraft parts. Secondly,
intermediate level of aircraft maintenance which is known as supporting activities. This level of
maintenance involves in-depth operations and repairable of aeronautical equipment enhancing
operational readiness of the organizational activities. The third level of maintenance involve
performing maintenance in an industrial facility in a centralized location. All level of
maintenance is to keep military aircraft airworthiness.
System analysis is considering a problem and helping to find a way of alleviating the
problem. Aircraft maintenance entails a lot of problem that need a continues way of making the
system better. System analysis can be used in Aviation maintenance as a Fact-finding measure,
designed to ascertain the requirements of the system's end-users typically involving interviews,
questionnaires, or visual observations of work on the existing system.
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
How can you describe system analysis to a colleague?
System analysis is defined as a process of studying a procedure or a business in order to
identify its goal and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve then in an
efficient way. Is a problem solving technique that breaks down system into its component pieces
for the purpose of the studying how well those components parts work and interact to accomplish
their purposes. For example, aircraft comprises is many components that work together in order
to achieve the goal of flying and landing. Failure to any of the components can result in
malfunction and crashes. Studying various component and improvement can result in the
efficient performance of the system.
In the field of system engineering, analysis is basically a procedure of focuses on how
complex engineering projects should be design and managed. It breaks down system components
and how those components are managed in order to make the system work.
Module Three
Identify what are the situation characteristics where System Analysis would not be
appropriate for application?
system analysis will not be appropriate for application in the situation whereby an organization is trying to
solve a problem in a system that does not exist or trying to solve a problem that does not exist. It will not be
appropriate for an organization to efficiently solve the wrong problem by performing TYPE III error. Additionally,
it will also not be appropriate to engage a problem situation with incompatible or divergent philosophical
perspectives knowns as TYPE IV error.
Module Four
What is the systemic perspective?
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Systemic perspective is looking at an entire organism of an operation, entity or business
in relationship to its environment. For example, a plant is made of roots, stem, leaves, flowers
and seeds. Each part is a vital necessity for the plant to survive. That survival depends on the
surrounding environment as well as its own parts. Systemic thinking, or a systemic perspective,
is reviewing not just a problem or challenge in isolation, but in the context of its surroundings
A company has limited resources in time, staffing and financing. Traditional management
pits different product lines, departments and functions against each other. The winner, those
departments or products that have the best performance, are rewarded with resources. A systemic
perspective in business leads to the conclusion that the company is better off if all departments
work together rather than in competition with other. The interrelationships between the staff, the
departments, senior management, customers and vendors produce patterns of behavior. The
company performance improves when the results of these patterns are analyzed and the optimum
A systemic perspective allows a meta-view of own life context and issues.
This allows the therapist to see and acknowledge their own personal issues that need to be
worked on. Becoming aware of blind spots ultimately enriches the quality of personal presence,
of being there for the client.
Module Five
The lack of a feedback between system components can be just as influential as positive or
negative feedbacks to system resilience and sustainability. Feedbacks represent relationships
between system elements and as such are nonlinearly associated with the constraints that drive
behavior. While structural changes in system feedbacks change the universe of possible system
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
behaviors, under a given feedback structure, there can be a diversity of system behaviors
resulting from changes in feedback intensity as well
Module Six
Complementarity is an important concept in organizational analysis because it
offers an approach to explaining patterns of organizational practices, how they fit with
business strategies, and why different organizations choose different patterns
and strategies. The formal analysis of complementarity is based on studying the
interactions among pairs of inter-related decisions. For example, consider a company
that is evaluating a triple of decisions: 1) Whether to adopt a strategy that requires
implementing frequent changes in its technology, 2) Whether to invest in a flexibly
trained workforce, and 3) Whether to give workers more discretion in the organization of
their work. Suppose that more flexibly trained workers can make better use of discretion
and that more flexibly trained, and more autonomous workers make it easier to implement
new technologies effectively, because workers are more likely to know what to do and
how to solve problems. Then, there is a complementarity between several pairs of
decisions, which is characteristic of a system of complements.
Module Seven-1
Complex systems are systems whose behavior is intrinsically difficult to model due to the
dependencies, competitions, relationships, or other types of interactions between their parts or
between a given system and its environment. Systems that are "complex" have distinct properties
that arise from these relationships, such as nonlinearity, emergence, spontaneous order,
adaptation, and feedback loops, among others. Because such systems appear in a wide variety of
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
fields, the commonalities among them have become the topic of their own independent area of
Module Seven-2
Four types of complexity include
Organized simplicity, Disorganized Complexity, Dynamic complexity, and Relativistic
organized complexity.
Module Eight-1
Military fighter jet can be classified as a complex system. I identified as a complex
system because it contains many systems components that function. For example, the systems
contain airframe assembly, engines, auxiliary power units, environmental control systems,
generator converter units, fuel systems, bleed air systems, and airframes and accessory drive.
This system performs different functions but the goal for the combination of the systems is for
the aircraft to fly and perform the design mission.
Module Eight-2
Misclassification of a complex system as simple system problematic because a complex
system is not well defined. The system is been affected by behavioral influences either to make
the system works. A complex system can be problematic if resources to make the system work in
uncertain, ill define problems, and wicked problems and messes.
Module Nine-1
Isomorphism is a very general concept that appears in several areas of mathematics. The
word derives from the Greek iso, meaning "equal," and morphosis, meaning "to form" or "to
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
shape." An isomorphism between algebraic structures of the same type is commonly defined as
a bijective homomorphism. In the more general context of category theory, an isomorphism is
defined as a morphism, which has an inverse that is also a morphism. ... If A and B have
underlying sets, and has an inverse g, then f is bijective.
The implication of this to system analysis is that it contains mathematic context and
emergent patterns. Its interpretation and representation are relevance to systems analysis.
Module 10
Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of
interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research
questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. The data collection component of research is
common to all fields of study including physical and social sciences, humanities, business, etc.
While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on ensuring accurate and honest collection
remains the same.
Uncertainty about the timing, methods, and identify of person(s) responsible for
reviewing data
Partial listing of items to be collected
Vague description of data collection instruments to be used in lieu of rigorous step-bystep instructions on administering tests
Failure to identify specific content and strategies for training or retraining staff members
responsible for data collection
Obscure instructions for using, making adjustments to, and calibrating data collection
equipment (if appropriate)
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
No identified mechanism to document changes in procedures that may evolve over the
course of the investigation.
Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as
part of a research effort. There are two major issues that will be considered here. First, one must
understand the fundamental ideas involved in measuring. Here we consider two of major
measurement concepts. In Levels of Measurement, there are four major levels of measurement:
nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Then we move on to the reliability of measurement,
including consideration of true score theory and a variety of reliability estimators. Second, one
must understand the different types of measures that one might use in social research. We
consider four broad categories of measurements. Survey research includes the design and
implementation of interviews and questionnaires. Scaling involves consideration of the major
methods of developing and implementing a scale. Qualitative research provides an overview of
the broad range of non-numerical measurement approaches. And unobtrusive measures presents
a variety of measurement methods that don't intrude on or interfere with the context of the
Module 10-2
In order to understand where the differences and the connections between data, information
and knowledge are, it is necessary to define the terms at first. Data are understood differently in
different sectors. In the basic form, data are different symbols and characters who's meaning only
becomes clear when they connect with context. Collecting and measuring observations generates
data. Usually machines sent, receive and process data. The confusion between data and
information often arises because information is made out of data. In addition, data often gets
interpreted as facts in the context of the colloquial meaning and are therefore regarded as
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
information. Data reaches a more complex level and becomes information by integrating them to
a context. Information provides expertise about facts or persons. Example of information: The
information about a date of birth still has very little value when it is unknown to which person it
belongs. By adding more information like the name, the linked information creates knowledge
about a person. Knowledge thus describes the collected information that is available about a
particular fact or a person. The knowledge of this situation makes it possible to make informed
decisions and solve problems. Thus, knowledge influences the thinking and actions of people.
Machines can also make decisions based on new knowledge generated by information. In order
to gain knowledge, it is necessary to process information. The definitions reveal the differences
and a process can be identified that transforms data to information to knowledge through
appropriate processing steps. Data transforms into information by assigning a meaning or context
to a date. Furthermore, the accumulation of a data bundle or the linking of various data can also
represent information. The moment the information is processed, linked and stored, whether by a
machine or a human being, it becomes knowledge. If you trace the path back, the data represents
the knowledge and information at a formal level.
Module 11
The primary concerns for constructing an analytic strategy include Ambiguous strategy,
inflexible strategy, degree of predefinition, holistic treatment, triangulation, problem defines
technique, and satisficing data.
Module 12
Advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative data
Qualitative data advantages
Quantitative data advantages
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Subject material can be evaluated with detail
Research method can be fluid and based on
incoming or available data
Research is based on human experience and
Data complexities can be incorporated to a
generated conclusion
The research is an open-ended process
Smaller sample size is used, and which can
save research cost.
The qualitative research method can create
industry-specific insight.
Module 13
Quality of data collected is highly subjective
The data rigidity is more difficult to assess
and demonstrate
Data collection can be time consuming
Qualitative research provides data that are
valuable but are difficult to present.
Data created through qualitative research are
not always accepted
Researcher influences can have a negative
impact on the data collected.
Difficult decision may require repetitive
qualitative research period
Defining Design perspective is the creative, iterative and often open-ended process of
conceiving and developing components, systems and processes. Traditional design thinking are
sequential, objective process, and rational systematic. In sequential linear process, problem are
identified and constraints are defined. Potential alternatives are developed, selected, analyze and
refine to find the best alternative solution to the problem at hand. Solutions are implemented,
feedback are reviewed. The objective process is analytically dominated and rational systematic is
Module 14
The ilities are desired properties of systems, such as flexibility or maintainability that
often manifest themselves after a system has been put to its initial use. These properties are not
the primary functional requirements of a system’s performance, but typically concern wider
system impacts with respect to time and stakeholders than are embodied in those primary
functional requirements. The ilities do not include factors that are always present, including size
and weight. Some of the role of ilities in complex system includes quality, usability, reliability
and durability.
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Module 15
The development of a systems approach to problem solving and operational
management, including the differentiation between hard and soft systems. Argues that,
given the occurrence in most problem situations of both technical and human dimensions, a
hybrid of scientific, hard systems and soft systems methodologies will give the best
solution. The soft systems approach will ensure that the human dimension is incorporated at
an early stage in the process and that all groups of people are involved in developing a
solution. Within this soft systems overview, hard systems and scientific techniques ca n be
used to optimize aspects of the solution.
Module 16
Complex systems are systems whose behavior is intrinsically difficult to model due to the
dependencies, competitions, relationships, or other types of interactions between their parts or
between a given system and its environment. Systems that are "complex" have distinct properties
that arise from these relationships, such as nonlinearity, emergence, spontaneous order,
adaptation, and feedback loops, among others. Because such systems appear in a wide variety of
fields, the commonalities among them have become the topic of their own independent area of
research. In many cases it is useful to represent such a system as a network where the nodes
represent the components and the links their interactions.
Module 18
Hard system involves objects in a dynamic system and data measures are quantitative
while soft system involves dynamic system and data measures may be quantitative or qualitative.
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Soft system involves objects with tangible attributes while soft system involves objects with
tangible and intangible attributes.
Module 35-1
Intervention is purposeful action by an agent to create a change on the other hand,
systemic intervention is purposeful action by an agent to create change in relation to reflection
boundaries. Systemic intervention includes boundary critique, theoretical and mythological
pluralism, and action for improvement.
Module 36-1
The elements of complex systems transformation include the followings: grounded
methodologies, transformation environment that provides for facilitation and channeling of
expertise through the methodology, and the production of a truly systemic transformation
strategy. In the complex system elements, it contains the complex system problem domain, the
transformation environment, and transformation strategy. Transformation must be dynamic,
adjusting to changing conditions, emergence, and new system knowledge.
Module 36-2
The significance of the statement “Holistic transformation is an illusion” means it is
essential to provide a greater understanding of the philosophy, methodologies, and supporting
methods necessary to support more effective transformation of complex systems. For practice,
consideration of different domains of concern such as human, technical,
managerial/organizational, policy, political are suggested to broaden the effectiveness of
complex system transformation.
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Module 37-1
A successful project is one that meets or exceeds the expectations of the
stakeholders. The systems developed life cycle is the process of determining how an
information system can support business needs, designing the system, building it and
delivering it to users.
Module 38-1
Philosophical analysis is a method of inquiry in which one seeks to assess complex
systems of thought by ‘analyzing’ them into simpler elements whose relationships are thereby
brought into focus. Philosophy can help clarify the principles of thought that characterize
complexity science. Philosophy is significance to systems analysis because its underpinning by
bringing holism, emergence, boundaries, interrelationships, incredible uncertainty,
complementarity, incredible complexity, and transformation to system analysis.
Module 38-2
The implications of worldviews models to systems analysis:
Individuals worldviews are different. Complexity or simplicity of systems may be viewed
by individuals differently. What may be appropriate to someone may be inappropriate to another.
Things may be view base on compatibility, knowing world view, response, and influence.
1. Compatibility: are the worldviews sufficiently compatible?
2. Knowing worldviews: Can worldviews reasonably articulated?
3. Response: Can effective response possibly be developed?
4. Influence: what are the implications for design and execution?
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Base on the above worldviews with individual perspective, philosophy is significance to
systems analysis.
Module 39
Power is a tool used every day in organizations, and moreover organizations would
not exist without power relations. To have things done leaders need to influence others. This
means that power is a very important tool in achieving organizational goals and objectives.
Leaders must recognize their power, must know how to use it effectively and how to precede
its positive or negative effects. By learning how power operates in organizations, you will be
better able to use that knowledge to become a more effective leader (Lunenburg, 2012)
Leadership is the exercise of power; and leaders must develop the proper bases of
organizational power in order to use it effectively and efficiently in influencing others.
Legitimate/ Position Power; Expertise Power; Relationship Power; Informational Power;
Referent Power; Coercive Power; Reward Power.
Leaders in the workplace may reinforce their power through their own demeanor and
behavior, but they are ordained with their power by the organizational context (e.g., the authority
to control resources, followers assigned to work under them), which includes higher-ranking
small groups or strategic decision makers (Anderson and Briton) 2014.
Legitimate or Positional Power
Legitimate power is also known as positional power. It's derived from the position a person holds
in an organization’s hierarchy. Job descriptions, for example, require junior workers to report to
managers and give managers the power to assign duties to their juniors.
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
For positional power to be exercised effectively, the person wielding it must be deemed to have
earned it legitimately. An example of legitimate power is that held by a company's CEO.
Expert Power Derived from Possessing Knowledge
Knowledge is power. Expert power is derived from possessing knowledge or expertise in a
particular area. Such people are highly valued by organizations for their problem-solving skills.
People who have expert power perform critical tasks and are therefore deemed indispensable.
The opinions, ideas and decisions of people with expert power are held in high regard by other
employees and hence greatly influence their actions. Possession of expert power is normally a
stepping stone to other sources of power such as legitimate power. For example, a person who
holds expert power can be promoted to senior management, thereby giving him legitimate
Referent Power Derived from Interpersonal Relationships
Referent power is derived from the interpersonal relationships that a person cultivates with other
people in the organization. People possess reference power when others respect and like them.
Referent power arises from charisma, as the charismatic person influences others via the
admiration, respect and trust others have for her.
Referent power is also derived from personal connections that a person has with key people in
the organization's hierarchy, such as the CEO. It's the perception of the personal relationships
that she has that generates her power over others.
System Analysis Module Questions and Answers
Coercive Power Derived from Ability to Influence Others
Coercive power is derived from a person's ability to influence others via threats, punishments or
sanctions. A junior staff member may work late to meet a deadline to avoid disciplinary action
from his boss. Coercive power is, therefore, a person's ability to punish, fire or reprimand
another employee. Coercive power helps control the behavior of employees by ensuring that they
adhere to the organization's policies and norms.
Reward Power and Ability to Influence Allocation of Incentives
Reward power arises from the ability of a person to influence the allocation of incentives in an
organization. These incentives include salary increments, positive appraisals and promotions. In
an organization, people who wield reward power tend to influence the actions of other
Reward power, if used well, greatly motivates employees. But if it's applied through favoritism,
reward power can greatly demoralize employees and diminish their output.
Lunenburg, F.C. (2012). Power and Leadership: An Influence Process. International
Journal of Management, Business, and Administration. Vol. XV