Sarah West CHA3U – AMERICAN HISTORY UNIT 3: Lesson Plan The Gettysburg Address and American Reconstruction (18631877) Duration: 75 minutes Key Learning and Objectives Students will… …Understand the long‐term significance of the Gettysburg Address and its importance and significance as one of the most important speeches in American history. …Understand that the North was anti‐slave and anti‐black. Although Lincoln’s primary objective was to win the Civil War, he realized that a Northern victory would not only preserve the Union, it would also end slavery. …Understand that social or economic equality for African‐Americans was never a Republican Party goal during Reconstruction. Male blacks were primarily allowed to vote to help keep the Republican Party in power. …Understand the “Civil War” amendments to the Constitution were an attempt by the Republican Party to maintain political power and to ensure the permanency of some of its social, political and economic objectives. …Understand that the Civil War devastated the South’s economy and weakened its national political influence through the early part of the 20th century. …Understand that Democrat Southern leaders were determined to keep economic and political control of their states and with the Compromise of 1877 they succeeded. Critical Challenge To attempt to redress the deficiency that The Gettysburg Address is of long‐term significance. Overall Expectations COV.01 · demonstrate an understanding of the interactions among diverse groups and communities in the United States throughout its history; COV.02 · explain the changing motives and developments involved in the expansion of the United States across the continent; COV.03 · analyse the nature and scope of the interactions between the United States and countries and communities beyond its borders. CCV.01 · demonstrate an understanding of the historical process of change in the context of the development of American history; CCV.02 · demonstrate an understanding of the historical process of continuity in the context of the development of American history; CCV.03 · demonstrate an understanding of the use and importance of chronology and cause and effect in analysing the history of the United States. CHV.01 · describe the influence of key individuals and groups in the development of American social and political identity; Specific Expectations CO2.03 – describe the conflicts and compromises between the United States and other North American nations (e.g., the War of 1812, Texas and Mexico, Canadian–American boundary disputes, disputed sovereignty over the Northwest Passage, disputes over fishing zones, ideological conflict with Cuba). CC1.01– describe the events that marked profound changes in American history (e.g., the battles of Lexington, Gettysburg, Little Big Horn, and Pearl Harbor; the elections of Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Roosevelt, and Richard Nixon; the development of the atomic bomb; the war in Vietnam); CC1.03– describe the roles played by key individuals in the process of change in American history (e.g., George Washington, Harriet Tubman, Geronimo, Theodore Roosevelt, George Wallace, Cesar Chavez). CC3.03 – explain how the study of cause and effect contributes to our understanding of change and continuity through the course of American history (e.g., westward pioneer migrations and conflict with Aboriginal peoples, abolitionism and the creation of new states leading to the Civil War, stock market speculation and economic cycles, electrification and the development of modern factories). Background Knowledge Students should be able to regurgitate the causes and effects of the Civil War. Students should have some introductory knowledge about Northern Radical Views, and Reconstruction. Dimension of Historical Thinking The lesson will deal with providing students with the full knowledge for Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, American Reconstruction, including Lincoln’s plan of Reconstruction, The Wade‐Davis Bill, The Johnson Plan of Reconstruction, Radical (Military) Reconstruction, The Civil War Amendments, and the Compromise of 1877. The lesson will be given lecture style in the format of a Powerpoint presentation. There will also be an activity to conclude the lesson, looking at The Gettysburg Address. Vocabulary ‐Reconstruction, Emancipation, Iron clad oath, Amnesty, Tenure of Office Act Preparation: Powerpoint presentation for The Gettysburg Address and American Reconstruction at the end of the Civil War. ‐The Civil War, PBS Series, DVD ‐The Gettysburg Address, speech Habit of Mind (10 minutes) ‐“What do you see?” The first slide of the Powerpoint presentation is a political cartoon featuring Abraham Lincoln. Students are to dissect the photo and make a list of everything they notice in the photo that relates to the Lincoln’s plan of reconstruction. Habit of Mind provides students with a visual introduction to the lesson about reconstruction and they have an opportunity to make predictions. Lecture (25‐30 minutes) (See break down for Powerpoint presentation as uploaded separately to the Wiki). Powerpoint Presentation Activity (25‐30 minutes) (1) The Civil War, PBS Series video clip viewing, (2) speech reading, and (3) class discussion (1) The section of Ken Burns’ PBS series The Civil War that deals with 1863 has a segment that explains the circumstances leading up to Lincoln’s speech. Near the end of the second segment, Kevin Costner renders a magnificent reading of the Address. The Address may be more meaningful to the students if the teacher can show them the portion of Burns’ film that deals with the Battle of Gettysburg. (2) *Read “The Gettysburg Address” to the students. (3) Explain to the class that they are going to spend a few minutes analyzing the significance of the Address. Prompts for discussion and Q and A: ‐“What year was “Four score and seven years” prior to 1863? (Answer: 1776) ‐Why is that date significant? ‐According to Lincoln, what was the new nation dedicated to? ‐What was the status of slavery in the Constitution of 1863? (Note: For “Aha” moments, students will realize it not only recognized slavery but allowed slave owners to recapture their run‐away slaves. Also, remind students that the Border States still had slaves. The students will understand that Lincoln had just changed the rules with the Gettysburg Address). ‐From November 19, 1863 onward, the United States is “dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal”. Discrimination, even if sanction by the Constitution, is no longer the American way. A discussion will be encouraged on this idea. End.