Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ Siddhartha: Study Guide PART ONE: Chapter 1: The Son of the Brahman NOTE: Read this chapter with the First Noble Truth in mind: Existence is suffering. Vocabulary 1. aberration – deviation 2. ablutions – baths 3. ascetics – those who practice self-denial for spiritual reasons 4. avaricious – greedy 5. configuration – shape 6. contemplation – the act of considering or thinking about something for a long period of time 7. demeanor – conduct 8. dispel – scatter 9. emaciated – extremely thin 10. expiatory – serving to satisfy 11. exploits – noble or heroic acts 12. functionary – official 13. gait – the way in which a person walks 14. germinate – sprout; begin to develop 15. indignation – anger, especially in response to injustice 16. invocation – a prayer that is usually given at the beginning of a religious service or formal ceremony 17. malicious – in the manner of wanting to cause injury or to distress someone 18. mendicant – begging 19. molten – melted 20. oratorical – in the manner of a person who can speak well before a group 21. parched – shriveled with heat 22. penitents – people who feel sorrow for committing their sins 23. plantain – banana 24. propriety – socially acceptable conduct 25. protruded – stuck out 26. purification – the act of becoming innocent or free from sin 27. sages – wise people 28. sate – satisfy 29. sojourn – a brief stay 30. solitude – the state of being alone 31. venerable – deserving of being adored or worshipped 32. wafted – caused to move lightly as if by the wind Questions 1. Define Brahmanism. What religion are Brahmans? 2. Siddhartha and his family practice Hinduism. Describe four activities related to Hinduism that Siddhartha engages in while living at home with his father. 3. Who is Siddhartha? Using the chart below, record textual evidence that answers this question. List details about his personality and physical appearance. Also show how other characters feel about Siddhartha. Textual Evidence (page #) Personality Physical Appearance Father’s View What do we learn about Siddhartha? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ Mother’s View Girls’ Views Govinda’s View Other 4. List the Epithets given for Siddhartha and Govinda. 5. Who are the Samanas? Why does Siddhartha join their group? 6. Describe how Siddhartha convince his father to give him permission to leave home and join the Samanas? 7. How does Govinda react when he learns about Siddhartha’s determination to leave home and join the Samanas? 8. Using textual evidence (and the page number,) Support the following statement: Siddhartha’s father has not found true bliss as a Brahman following the teachings of Hinduism. (Hint: You will find the textual evidence when he gives Siddhartha permission to leave.) 9. The first Noble Truths is “Existence is suffering.” How has Siddhartha suffered in this chapter? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART ONE: Chapter 2: With the Samanas NOTE: Read this chapter with the Second Noble Truth in mind: Suffering arises from desire. Vocabulary 1. abscesses – infected areas 2. assiduous – diligent 3. beatified – blessed by heaven 4. befitting – suitable for 5. brambles – bushes that have thorns or are otherwise prickly 6. castigation – punishment or severe criticism 7. consolations – ways to soothe grief 8. delusion – something that is misleading or deceptive 9. doctrine – teachings held by a group 10. emanated – originated 11. hearkened – listened 12. inclination – liking; desire to do something 13. laden – loaded; burdened 14. lamenting – mourning loudly; wailing 15. mantle – a loose, sleeveless garment worn over other clothes 16. meditate – to think about or consider 17. mortified – self-inflicted suffering (an ascetic life) 18. pious – sacred; religious 19. questing – searching 20. realms – domains; kingdoms 21. repose – rest; peace 22. retention –holding 23. revilement – verbal abuse 24. secular – not sacred or related to religion 25. succumbed – gave in to a superior or overpowering force 26. whit – bit Questions 10. What religion are the Samanas? 11. Why does Siddhartha fast, abstain from sex, and withdraw completely from anything that provides him comfort? 12. List two ways Siddhartha learns to lose the Self while studying with the Samanas. 13. What epithet is used to describe Govinda? What important characteristic about Govinda is Hesse helping the reader remember and understand with this epithet? 14. Why does Siddhartha feel that he cannot find the path to happiness by studying and learning from books or from the lessons of the old masters? 15. Why do the rumors about Gotama the Illustrious, the Buddha, captivate Siddhartha? 16. Define Nirvana. 17. Why does Siddhartha hypnotizes the old samana? What does this incident tell us about Siddhartha? 18. The second of the Noble Truths is “Suffering arises from desire.” What did Siddhartha learn from his suffering? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART ONE: Chapter 3: Gotama NOTE: Read this chapter with the Third Noble Truth in mind: Suffering ends when desire ends. Questions: 1. Describe the Buddha. Describe how Siddhartha views him. 2. List the epithets given to Gotama, the Buddha 3. How does the Buddha’s appearance show that he has reached total peace? 4. Part way through this chapter, Govinda stops being Siddhartha’s follower and begins to follow his own path or destiny. Why does Govinda do this? 5. Explain why Siddhartha is happy for Govinda. 6. What kind of salvation is the Buddha offering his followers through his teaching? Why does Siddhartha question the idea of salvation as part of the Buddha’s lessons? 7. Siddhartha refuses to tell his friend why he does not join as one of Buddha’s followers. Why does Siddhartha do this? 8. Many critics believe the Buddha breaks away from his peaceful serenity when he says to Siddhartha: “You are wise, oh Samana…You know how to talk wisely, my friend. Be wary of too much wisdom!” (Pg. 35) Support or refute the idea that Siddhartha is able to pierce the Buddha’s peaceful countenance. 9. In this chapter Siddhartha learned the third of the Noble Truths: “Suffering ends when desire ends.” Explain how/why he has learned this lesson. Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART ONE: Chapter 4: Awakening NOTE: Read this chapter with the Fourth Noble Truth in mind: The way to end desire is to follow the Eight-Fold Path. Vocabulary 1. ascertained – learned with certainty 2. contemptible – despicable 3. despondency – hopelessness 4. diffuse – widely spread 5. forlorn – hopeless; wretched 6. illusion – being deceived 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. multiplicity – a great number or variety obtuse – unintelligent reside – live sundered – severed throe – spasm or attack Questions 1. In order to awaken and find new experiences, Siddhartha must leave behind his “old” life. What aspect of his life does Siddhartha leave behind? 2. What does Siddhartha intend to study? 3. What is the Hindi (Brahmin and Samana) teaching of nature? Why does Siddhartha abandon this teaching? 4. After awakening, Siddhartha thinks he is like a newborn child and should return to his father. Why doesn’t he go home? What part of himself is Siddhartha leaving behind? 5. What does Siddhartha realize gives him a “profound feeling of awakening from long dreams…”? (Pg. 22-3) 6. What epithet does Hesse use for Siddhartha after this awakening? 7. The fourth and last Noble Truth is “The way to end desire is to follow the Eight-Fold Path?” Read the last sentence of this chapter. Explain how the last sentence supports this teaching. Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 5: Kamala NOTE: The second part of this book has eight chapters, just like the Eight-fold Path has eight parts. When you read each chapter, try to determine if Siddhartha discovers his “right” path all eight times. The first Eight-Fold Path is Right Belief. Vocabulary 1. anointed – applied with oil as part of a religious ceremony 2. beseeching – begging; pleading 3. cistern – underground water tank 4. courtesan – a prostitute associated with men of wealth 5. disheveled – carelessly dressed 6. eddies – whirlpools 7. engulfed – enclosed 8. entrust – confide 9. essence – fundamental nature 10. imparts – gives ineffable – indescribable jocular – to joke ken – range of understanding omen – a sign or warning of a future occurrence resounded – echoed sedan chair – a covered chair on poles which is carried by several men 17. toilsome – difficult; laborious; fatiguing; tiresome 18. transcendent – supreme; superlative 19. transitory – temporary 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Questions 1. Support the following statement with a quotation from the book: After his awakening, Siddhartha becomes reborn, is childlike, and appreciates the beauty of the natural world with childlike wonder. 2. How does Siddhartha plan to emulate Gotama’s way of finding enlightenment? 3. What view of life can be found in the conversation between the ferryman and Siddhartha? 4. What prediction does the ferryman make that foreshadows a future relationship between himself and Siddhartha? 5. What do you think Siddhartha means when he says, “All I meet on my path are like Govinda”? (Pg. 27) 6. Support the following statement: Siddhartha listens to his inner voice, which tells him to explore his sexuality, and then guides him to that goal. 7. What does Kamala want Siddhartha to accomplish before she accepts him as a pupil? 8. How does Siddhartha respond to her requirements? 9. What is inferred, but not actually stated, in the following quotation? “But tell me, beautiful Kamala, do you not have any fear of the Samana from the forest who has come here to learn love?… he’s strong, the Samana, and he fears nothing. He could force you, beautiful girl. He could abduct you. He could hurt you.” (Pg. 31) 10. List the three accomplishments Siddhartha gains from his time as a Samana. 11. What advice does Kamala give Siddhartha in his relationship with the merchant Kamaswami? 12. The first goal of the Eight-Fold Path defined by Buddha is “right belief.” What do you think is the “right belief” Siddhartha pursues in this chapter? Explain Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 6: With the Child-People NOTE: Determine if Siddhartha accomplishes the second part of the Eight-Fold Path: Right Resolve. Vocabulary: 1. besieged – attacked 2. betokened – gave evidence to 3. compel – drive or urge with force 4. copious – abundant 5. corpus – body 6. follies – foolish acts or ideas 7. insatiably - not being satisfied 8. nullified – made valueless 9. privations – acts lacking in what is needed to survive 10. prudent – cautious, sensible 11. rebuked – sharply reprimanded 12. stylus – a pointed instrument used for writing in wax 13. subordinated – placed in a lower rank 14. supple – flexible 15. vexation – irritation, annoyance 16. vouchsafed – granted as a privilege or special favor Questions: 1. The following conversation occurs between Siddhartha and the merchant Kamaswami: He handed him a piece of paper and a pen, and Siddhartha wrote and returned the paper. Kamaswami read: “Writing is good, thinking is better. Intelligence is good, but patience is better.” (Pg. 35) What does this tell us about Siddhartha? 2. Support the following statement: Siddhartha is a good businessman, even though he seems to be only playing the game of business. 3. Using the Venn diagram below, show the similarities and differences between Siddhartha, Kamala and Gotama. Siddhartha Kamala Kamaswami 4. How does Siddhartha treat individuals (rich vs. poor, etc.) 5. What prediction about the future does Kamala make? 6. What does Siddhartha mean when he says that Kamala is like him and cannot feel love? 7. The second goal of the Eight-Fold Path is “right resolve.” What do you think is the “right resolve” that Siddhartha pursues in this chapter? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 7: Samsara NOTE: Read this chapter and determine if Siddhartha accomplishes the third part of the Eight-Fold Path–Right Speech. Vocabulary 1. ardent – passionate 2. avarice – insatiable greed 3. aversion – a desire to avoid something 4. covetousness – the act of enviously wanting 5. discernment – recognition 6. disputations – arguments 7. elicited – evoked 8. foretaste – an indication 9. incited – aroused to action 10. indolence – laziness 11. lulling – soothing 12. malady – disease or disorder 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. peevish – fretful or huffy permeating – seeping through the pores of pliant – easily influenced ravenous – voracious; extremely hungry sloth – laziness squander – to spend wastefully or foolishly surfeited – excessively indulged taciturn – reserved; not inclined to talk tepid – halfhearted titillating – exciting pleasurably vis-à-vis – in comparison to wellspring – a continual source Questions 1. What habits has Siddhartha retained from his home life and early experiences? 2. What qualities of the child-like people did Siddhartha take-on? (Give specific examples.) 3. Even while Siddhartha gains wealth and lives a life of pleasure, what is the undercurrent that causes him to be different from other people? (Think about why he envies ordinary people.) 4. What is the “sloth [that] had entered Siddhartha’s soul”? (Pg. 42) What is the cause of this “sickness?” 5. How has Siddhartha’s attitude toward other people changed? 6. Why does Siddhartha enjoy gambling so much? 7. How is Siddhartha’s attempt to show his disapproval for riches an example of irony? 8. Using textual evidence, support the idea that the songbird in the golden cage that Siddhartha dreams about is a symbol for Siddhartha’s soul. 9. Samsara is the Hindu word for the idea that the world is constantly repeating itself. What is Siddhartha saying about reincarnation in the following passage? “Weren’t they playing a game that had no end? Was it necessary to live for this? No, it was not necessary! The name of this game was Samsara, a game for children, which was enjoyable to play perhaps once, twice, or ten times–but again and again for ever and ever? Siddhartha then knew that the game was over and that he cold no longer play it. He felt shivers run over his body inside him something had died.” (Pg. 45) 8. What does Kamala do when she learns of Siddhartha’s disappearance? 9. The third teaching of the Eight-Fold Path to end desire is Right-Speech. What does Siddhartha learn in this chapter that helps him progress toward this goal? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 8: By the River NOTE: Read this chapter and determine if Siddhartha accomplishes the fourth part of the Eight-Fold Path–Right Conduct. Vocabulary 1. disconsolateness – sadness 2. dismal – depressing 3. flaccid – limp; lacking sturdiness 4. fortified – strengthened 5. gourmands – people who love to eat and drink 6. hindered – held back 7. imbibed – absorbed 8. imbued – penetrated 9. incarnation – embodiment of a spirit 10. invincible – incapable of being conquered loathing – extreme disgust malevolent – spiteful oblivion – a state of being completely unaware rejuvenated – refreshed surfeiting – an excessive amount transitory – lasting only a short time; temporary voluptuaries – people whose main goal in life is to indulge their sensual appetites 18. yearning – longing; wanting 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Questions 1. How does Siddhartha feel at the beginning of this chapter? Why does he feel this way? 2. Define “om.” a. b. 3. How does the word “om” save Siddhartha’s life? 4. How does the sleep by the river help Siddhartha? 5. What do you think is the significance of Govinda’s reemergence in Siddhartha’s life at this point in the story? 6. State a generalization about life found in the following passage: “…you have run across just such a wanderer, in such shoes, in such a garment. Remember, my dear friend: the world of created forms is transitory; transitory…are are garments, and the way we do our hair, and our hair and body themselves.” (Pg. 50) (Hint: the word “transitory” is extremely important to understanding this quote’s meaning.) 7. Why does Siddhartha believe that “now he had truly become a child-person.”? (Pg. 51) 8. What does he think about becoming a child again when he is old enough to have gray hair? 9. One of the characteristics of oral tradition is the repetition of stories and ideas to help the listener remember important details. Find an example of repetition in this chapter which supports the fact that the novel Siddhartha is written with the same techniques used in ancient storytelling. 10. List the reasons Siddhartha was unable to get rid of his Self when he was a Brahman. 11. Explain the meaning of the river. What do you think it symbolizes for Siddhartha? (Remember that he crosses the river as a young man to experience a life of the senses and leaves behind a life of meditation.) 12. The fourth of the Eight-Fold Path to end desire is right conduct. What is the “right conduct” that Siddhartha pursues in this chapter? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 9: The Ferryman NOTE: Read this chapter and determine if Siddhartha accomplishes the fifth part of the Eight-Fold Path–Right Occupation. Vocabulary 1. admonished – warned 2. constitute – make up or compose 3. countenance – face 4. crystalline – very clean and sparkling 5. ensued – followed 6. piteous – arousing pity 7. precocious – early in development 8. premonition – a feeling that something is about to happen 9. pyre – a combustible heap used for the ritualistic burning of a body 10. recount – tell in detail 11. redoubled – made twice as great in amount Questions 1. What does Siddhartha’s inner voice tell him about the river? 2. Why is Vasudeva a good listener? 3. What has Siddhartha already learned from the river? Find an example of foreshadowing in Vasudeva’s conversation with Siddhartha. 4. One of the major themes of this novel is that “there is no such thing as time” (58). Support the belief that Siddhartha comes to understand that life is a complete entity, like the river, and not a series of events broken up by time. 5. What overall theme is stated in the following passage? “No, there were no teachings that a person who truly sought and wanted to find could accept. But the one who had already found could approve of any teachings, every path and goal…” (Pg. 60) 6. What does Siddhartha gain by Kamala’s death? 7. How does her death reinforce his belief that time does not exist? What does Kamala observe about Siddhartha before she dies? 8. Describe young Siddhartha. 8. The fifth teaching of the Eight-Fold Path to end desire is right occupation. What is the “right occupation” that Siddhartha pursues in this chapter? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 10: The Son NOTE: Read this chapter and determine if Siddhartha accomplishes the sixth part of the Eight-Fold Path–Right Effort. Vocabulary 1. atoned – made amends for 6. reciprocate – give back in return 2. averted – turned aside or away 7. ruse – trick 3. caprices – inclinations to do things impulsively and 8. sullying – soiling, defiling 9. vocation - a divine call to spirituality without forethought 4. forbearing – being patient 5. presumptuous – overstepping bounds Siddhartha Kamala Questions 1. Using the Venn diagram, show the similarities and differences between Siddhartha, Kamala and young Siddhartha. 2. What does Siddhartha experience for the first time after the arrival of his son? Young Siddhartha 3. What does the following message from the river tell Siddhartha? “Water wants to join water, youth wants to join youth…” (Pg. 64) 4. Why does he not listen to the message? 5. How is Siddhartha punishing his son? 6. Vasudeva knows that sons must learn from their own experiences, not from the experiences of their fathers. How does Vesudeva explain this to Siddhartha? 7. How does the presence of Siddhartha’s son help make Siddhartha “completely like ordinary people”? 8. Why does Siddhartha’s son leave? What does he take? 9. Why does Siddhartha continue his search for his son even after he realizes the boy is probably safe and does not need any help? 10. Why does Siddhartha eventually return to the river? 11. The sixth teaching of the Eight-Fold Path to end desire is right effort. What is the “right effort” that Siddhartha pursues in this chapter? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 11: Om NOTE: Read this chapter and determine if Siddhartha accomplishes the seventh part of the Eight-Fold Path–Right Contemplation. Vocabulary 1. accord – agreement 2. benevolence – kindness 3. fruition – realization; accomplishment 4. serene – quiet or calm 5. tenacity – toughness Questions 1. After Siddhartha loses his son, he becomes more sympathetic to ordinary people and their struggles in life. Explain. 2. What overall theme for this story is stated in Siddhartha’s analysis of what separates the “wise man” from ordinary people? (Pg. ____) 3. Describe the change Siddhartha notices in Vasudeva when he confesses to the old man how painful it is for him to see fathers and their sons together. 4. How does Siddhartha know that “his Self had merged into unity”? 5. What do you think is going to happen to Vasudeva when he goes into the woods for the “last” time? 6. The seventh teaching of the eight path is the “right contemplation.” What is the “right contemplation that Siddhartha pursues in this chapter? Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Date ____________ PART TWO: Chapter 12: Govinda NOTE: Read this chapter and determine if Siddhartha accomplishes the last part of the Eight-Fold Path–Right Ecstasy. Vocabulary 1. engendered – generated; produced 2. illusory – deceptive 3. impelled – urged forward 4. sanctity – sacredness; godliness Questions 1. What advice does Siddhartha offer Govinda about seeking? 2. Govinda asks Siddhartha for his thoughts or doctrine. What generalization about life does Siddhartha offer Govinda on the following topics? Wisdom – Truth – Time – 3. One of the major overall themes of this story is stated in Siddhartha’s love for the stone. Support Siddhartha’s belief that “love seems to me to be the most important thing of all.” (Pg. _____) 4. The teaching of Gotama forbids his followers from binding themselves to earthly love. It is a teaching of Christianity that God is loving. Siddhartha explains that love is the most important thing in the world. Explain how Siddhartha’s statement is not in contradiction to Gotama’s teaching. 5. What gift does Siddhartha give his childhood friend before Govinda continues on his way? 6. The eighth teaching of the eight-fold path is the “right ecstasy.” What is the “right ecstasy that Siddhartha shares with Govinda at the end of the novel?