+ The Rhetorical Diagram “Jolliffe” Model Please take notes on your copy of the “Jolliffe” diagram & in your Rhetorical Lenses packet. + Rhetorical Lens #1: THE RHETORICAL SITUATION The Rhetorical Situation addresses the position of the speaker and the central claim of the text. + EXIGENCE: Exigence is the tension or urgency behind the claim. This is the SO WHAT!? It’s the element of the argument that REALLY GETS UNDER THE SPEAKER’s SKIN. + AUDIENCE: WHO is this text for??? *Who is included or left out in the originally intended audience? *Does the intended audience include you? *If not, how can you put yourself in their shoes? + PURPOSE: What does the writer want the audience TO DO??? *Is there a call to action? *What position does the author expect or want you to take? + Text Analysis: “Open Letter to Urban Outfitters on Columbus Day” Re-read the letter and identify each component of the RHETORICAL SITUATION. Annotate parts of the text where you discover each component. + Rhetorical Lens #2: APPEALS text writer audience The Rhetorical APPEALS focus on the WRITERREADER relationship—a conversation between the two. + LOGOS: The appeal to argument and organization of evidence Guiding Questions: What claim(s) does the author make? What logical proofs and evidence are provided for the claim?? Be wary of assumptions NOT backed by evidence!!! + ETHOS: Credibility of the Author/Speaker Guiding Questions: How does the speaker demonstrate that he has GOOD SENSE, GOOD CHARACTER, and GOOD WILL? Where does the speaker demonstrate consideration of multiple view points and counterargument? Is the speaker and authority on the subject? Does she cite authorities and show that she is informed and educated? Why do this speakers words matter on this topic? + PATHOS: Appeal to the audience’s emotions and interests Guiding Questions: What illustrative examples illicit an emotional reaction from the reader/audience? What is the result of this audience reaction? How does the author show consideration of the audience’s specific interests? + Application… Which appeal is most emphasized in the open letter? (Ethos/Logos/Pathos) Which appeal is the most effective for Sasha’s audience? Why? + Rhetorical Lens #3: ARRANGEMENT The author’s ARRANGEMENT concerns the actual order and organization of sentences and paragraphs and information. Good writers are INTENTIONAL with their arrangement!! + What comes after what? … and why??? An author has made intentional decisions about the order and sequence of information provided. He or she COULD have arranged it differently… maybe a hundred different ways. But didn’t. WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HOW IT IS ARRANGED HERE, and WHAT IS THE EFFECT THIS HAS ON THE PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE???? + Arrangement: Guiding Questions What is the purpose or function of each paragraph?? (makes a claim, addresses the counterargument, gives and example, etc.) What is the effect of the beginning, middle or ending of a passage?? What patterns or repeated sequences do you notice in the text? Are these patterns effective? + Rhetorical Lens #4: STYLE Enhances the writer’s ethos and voice Appeals to the pathos and interests of the audience Style is an expansive category of techniques that a writer or speaker uses to establish a voice and tone as well as create vivid imagery to appeal to the audience. + Diction: Word Choice An author’s choice of words affects the tone and mood of the text, and hence, its effect on the audience. A good writer carefully considers the connotation of words chosen: WHATS THE DIFFERENCE? 1. The guy was really mad. 2. The gentleman was considerably irritated. + SYNTAX: Sentence structure—how words are arranged Example: Active vs. Passive Voice: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?? 1. The big blue sky beckoned her. 2. She was beckoned by the big blue sky. + Diction and Syntax are moves the author makes with words… Diction and Syntax BOTH say a lot about the speaker’s ETHOS… + IMAGERY: Mental pictures conjured by specific words Examples: Descriptive language, powerful sensory words. Metaphors, Similes, Personification, etc all appeal to the senses + FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: Language that makes an imaginative comparison Examples: Similes, Metaphors, Symbols… WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?? 1. You’ve earned your wings! 2. You’ve succeeded! + Figurative Language & Imagery BOTH create vivid pictures with words…. …. And often incite an emotional reaction from the audience. Which APPEAL does this respond to? + QUESTIONS??? + Application: Annotation & Rhetorical Response 1. Annotate the “Letter to Urban Outfitters” a. Underline or highlight text that responds to each element of the JOLLIFFE DIAGRAM. b. Label what you have underlined by putting key terms in the margins. 2. EXTENSION (Writing Sample): Identify something that really GETS UNDER YOUR SKIN. Write a ONE PAGE Letter to a target audience making a clear argument that identifies your position and calls the audience to action. Use the open letter as a model.