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Legumes and metabolism

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LEGUMES FOR A
HEALTHY METABOLISM
Maria Fernanda Vasconez
NUID: 001670025
Northeastern University
College of Professional Studies
Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism
Objectives
■ Describe what are legumes and what types of legumes are available
for the human diet.
■ Understand the role of legumes in improving the metabolism of
certain nutrients and in overall health.
■ Understand what are antinutrients.
■ Describe bioactive substances found in legumes and what are their
benefits on health and nutrition.
■ Explain the recommended intake of legumes on a regular diet.
■ Identify what are the diseases that may benefit of a diet rich in
legumes.
Background Information
■ Members of a family of flowering plants  Leguminosae
■ Three subfamilies: Papilionoidae, Caesalpinioidae and Mimosoidae
■ Soybean one of the oldest cultivated crops
■ Research studies in Asia concluded that soy consumption is
associated with a decrease of 5% on LDL levels and 16% on CVD risk.
■ 1999 FDA permitted food manufacturers to claim that foods
containing soy protein help lower heart disease risk.
Trends in consumption around the world
Figure 42: Change in per capita protein consumption from cereals and pulses as a percentage of
total dietary protein consumed, 1994-96 to 2006-08
Source: Calculated by authors based on FAOSTAT data
For cereals, the picture is more or less the same when it comes to its contribution to total per capita
protein intake (Figure 42). All the regions of the worl d have seen the share of cereals in per capital protein
consumption decline over the last 14 years. As against this, the contribution of pulse crops to total per
capita protein consumption in developing regions has been mixed—it has increased in MENA, SEA and
CA, remained steady in SSA and LAC, and declined in SA and EA, the two regions that have seen rapid
economic growth in the last 15 years (led by India and China).
47
Source: Calculated by authors based on FAOSTAT data
Types of legumes
Peanut
Lentils
■ All forms of beans and peas.
Peas
■ Pulses; dried seed of legumes.
Chickpeas
Beans
Lupins
Peas
Nutrition Information of Legumes
■ Dietary source of good quality protein
(twice the content of whole grain
foods).
Nutrient
Content (1 cup)
■ Low fat.
Carbohydrates
40g
■ Rich in energy from Carbohydrates
(low GI).
Protein
18g
■ Good source of Vitamin B group and
minerals.
Fat
0g
Fiber
16g
■ Low in sodium.
Iron
37% RDA
■ Abundant in fiber.
Folate
90% RDA
■ Phytonutrients.
Magnesium
18% RDA
Potassium
21% RDA
Lentils
http://www.glnc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/GLNC-NutrientComposition-of-Legumes.pdf
Legumes and
Fiber
• Source of all three recognized
forms of dietary fiber; soluble,
insoluble and resistant starch.
• Varies between 3-6g per 75g
serve of cooked legumes.
• Many protective effects.
Reference: Grains and legumes Nutrition
Council/legumes/Legumes and Nutrition
Glycemic Index of Legumes
• Carbohydrate from legumes = Low GI.
• Many health benefits
Source: Glycemic Index
foundation http://www.gisymbol.com/about/glycemicindex/
Antinutrients
■ Series of compounds associated with plants.
■ Interfere the assimilation of some nutrients.
■ Toxic or cause of undesired physiological effects vs many health benefits.
■ Important in plant defense or as energy stores.
Antinutrients = Bioactive Compounds
Proteins
Protease
and amylase
Inhibitors
Lectins
Growth depressor
Anticarcinogenic
Hormonal imbalance
Reduced posprandial
glucose and insulin
Stimulate gut
function
Small intestine
damage
Glycosides
α- galactosides
Vicine/convicin
e
Saponins
Flatulence
Intestinal
permeability,
blood lipids
and glucose.
Others
Phytates
Alkaloids
Polyphenols
Mineal
bioavailability
Growth
depressor
Antioxidant
Protein
Digestibility
Lentils, common beans, faba beans, lupins, peas, soybean, grasspea.
Legumes and Health
• Reduced LDL
LEGUMES
AND
cholesterol.
• CARDIOVASCULAR
Increased HDL
DISEASE
cholesterol.
• Lower BP.
• Promote satiety.
AND
• LEGUMES
Delayed gastric
WEIGHT
emptying.
• MANAGEMENT
Delayed
absorption of
nutrients.
• Short term BG
control.
• Improvements
LEGUMES ANDon
HbA1c.
DIABETES
• Reduced fasting
BG and insulin
levels.
AND
• LEGUMES
Antioxidants.
CANCER
• SCFA
• Source of food
for healthy gut
LEGUMES
bacteria. AND
• Adjust
FLATULENCE
after
some time.
Dietary
Guidelines
• Legumes are part of two food
groups: meats and proteins
and starchy vegetables.
• 3 cups per week as part of a
healthy diet.
• 1 serving = 1/2 cup (1 starch
exchange + 1 very lean meat
protein exchange).
RESEARCH
FINDINGS
The Effects of Legumes on Metabolic
Features, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic
Function Tests in Women with Central
Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial9
Effects of legume kernel fibres and citrus
fibre on putative risk factors for colorectal
cancer: a randomised, double-blind,
crossover human intervention trial.10
■ Randomized controlled trial.
■
■ 42 premenopausal women with
central obesity.
Double blind, controlled, randomized,
crossover trial.
■
■ 2 groups: hypocaloric diet with and
without legumes.
78 participants between 20-45 years of
age and in good physical health.
■
3 groups: blue lupin, white lupin and soy.
■ 6 weeks.
■
Each group: half participants received 25g
of legume fiber and the other half 25g of
citrus fiber.
■
4 periods: 2 weeks each.
■
Blue lupin kernel fiber improved colonic
function and showed beneficial effects
over colorectal cancer.
■
Conclusions: Enhancing dietary fiber
intake through blue lupin can be
recommended.
■ Both diets reduced waist
circumference significantly.
■ Diet enriched in legumes significantly
reduced Systolic blood pressure,
tryglicerides and ALT and AST.
■ Conclusions: legumes have health
benefits over blood pressure,
metabolic features and hepatic
function.
Summary
■ Legumes are members of flowering plants called leguminosae.
■ Legumes available for human diet are; beans, peas, lentils, chikpeas and lupins.
■ Legumes have a high nutritional value, especially for their content in protein,
carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals.
■ Many health benefits are associated to legumes, mainly due to their bioactive
compounds and high fiber content.
■ There are many findings that show that the consumption of legumes as part of a healthy
diet may help in reducing the incidence of diabetes, CVD, some types of cancer and aid
in weight management.
■ The intake of legumes is recommended on a frequency of 1 cup 3 days per week, to
avoid collateral effects of antinutrients.
References
1. Morris B. Legume facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about
legume.Encyclopediacom. 2015. Available at:
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/legume.aspx. Accessed November 12, 2015.
2. Grain and Legumes Nutrition Council. The grains and legumes health report. 2015.
Available at: http://www.glnc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/GGHN-2010-Grainsand-Legumes-Health-Report.pdf. Accessed November 12, 2015.
3. Zhan S, Ho S. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on the
lipid profile.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005;81(2):397-408. Available at:
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/2/397.full. Accessed November 12, 2015.
4. Akibode S, Maredia M. Global and Regional Trends in Production, Trade and
Consumption of Food Legume Crops. 2011. Available at:
http://impact.cgiar.org/sites/default/files/images/Legumetrendsv2.pdf. Accessed
November 12, 2015.
.
References
5. Flapse R. Dry Bean Consumption in the U.S. « Bean Institute. Beaninstitutecom. 2015. Available at:
http://beaninstitute.com/dry-bean-consumption-in-the-us/. Accessed November 12, 2015.
6. Glnc.org.au. Types of Legumes | Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council. 2015. Available at:
http://www.glnc.org.au/legumes/types-of-legumes/. Accessed November 12, 2015.
7. Leech J. Legumes: Good or Bad?. Authority Nutrition. 2014. Available at:
http://authoritynutrition.com/legumes-good-or-bad/. Accessed November 12, 2015.
8. Muzquiz M, Varela A, Burbano C, Cuadrado C, Guillamón E, Pedrosa M. Bioactive compounds in
legumes: pronutritive and antinutritive actions. Implications for nutrition and health. Phytochem Rev.
2012;11(2-3):227-244. doi:10.1007/s11101-012-9233-9.
9. Mohammad Alizadeh B. The Effects of Legumes on Metabolic Features, Insulin Resistance and
Hepatic Function Tests in Women with Central Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.International
Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;5(6):710. Available at:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4085923/. Accessed November 13, 2015.
10. Fechner A, Fenske K, Jahreis G. Effects of legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on putative risk
factors for colorectal cancer: a randomised, double-blind, crossover human intervention trial.Nutrition
Journal. 2013;12(1):101. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-101.