LEGUMES FOR A HEALTHY METABOLISM Maria Fernanda Vasconez NUID: 001670025 Northeastern University College of Professional Studies Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism Objectives ■ Describe what are legumes and what types of legumes are available for the human diet. ■ Understand the role of legumes in improving the metabolism of certain nutrients and in overall health. ■ Understand what are antinutrients. ■ Describe bioactive substances found in legumes and what are their benefits on health and nutrition. ■ Explain the recommended intake of legumes on a regular diet. ■ Identify what are the diseases that may benefit of a diet rich in legumes. Background Information ■ Members of a family of flowering plants Leguminosae ■ Three subfamilies: Papilionoidae, Caesalpinioidae and Mimosoidae ■ Soybean one of the oldest cultivated crops ■ Research studies in Asia concluded that soy consumption is associated with a decrease of 5% on LDL levels and 16% on CVD risk. ■ 1999 FDA permitted food manufacturers to claim that foods containing soy protein help lower heart disease risk. Trends in consumption around the world Figure 42: Change in per capita protein consumption from cereals and pulses as a percentage of total dietary protein consumed, 1994-96 to 2006-08 Source: Calculated by authors based on FAOSTAT data For cereals, the picture is more or less the same when it comes to its contribution to total per capita protein intake (Figure 42). All the regions of the worl d have seen the share of cereals in per capital protein consumption decline over the last 14 years. As against this, the contribution of pulse crops to total per capita protein consumption in developing regions has been mixed—it has increased in MENA, SEA and CA, remained steady in SSA and LAC, and declined in SA and EA, the two regions that have seen rapid economic growth in the last 15 years (led by India and China). 47 Source: Calculated by authors based on FAOSTAT data Types of legumes Peanut Lentils ■ All forms of beans and peas. Peas ■ Pulses; dried seed of legumes. Chickpeas Beans Lupins Peas Nutrition Information of Legumes ■ Dietary source of good quality protein (twice the content of whole grain foods). Nutrient Content (1 cup) ■ Low fat. Carbohydrates 40g ■ Rich in energy from Carbohydrates (low GI). Protein 18g ■ Good source of Vitamin B group and minerals. Fat 0g Fiber 16g ■ Low in sodium. Iron 37% RDA ■ Abundant in fiber. Folate 90% RDA ■ Phytonutrients. Magnesium 18% RDA Potassium 21% RDA Lentils http://www.glnc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/GLNC-NutrientComposition-of-Legumes.pdf Legumes and Fiber • Source of all three recognized forms of dietary fiber; soluble, insoluble and resistant starch. • Varies between 3-6g per 75g serve of cooked legumes. • Many protective effects. Reference: Grains and legumes Nutrition Council/legumes/Legumes and Nutrition Glycemic Index of Legumes • Carbohydrate from legumes = Low GI. • Many health benefits Source: Glycemic Index foundation http://www.gisymbol.com/about/glycemicindex/ Antinutrients ■ Series of compounds associated with plants. ■ Interfere the assimilation of some nutrients. ■ Toxic or cause of undesired physiological effects vs many health benefits. ■ Important in plant defense or as energy stores. Antinutrients = Bioactive Compounds Proteins Protease and amylase Inhibitors Lectins Growth depressor Anticarcinogenic Hormonal imbalance Reduced posprandial glucose and insulin Stimulate gut function Small intestine damage Glycosides α- galactosides Vicine/convicin e Saponins Flatulence Intestinal permeability, blood lipids and glucose. Others Phytates Alkaloids Polyphenols Mineal bioavailability Growth depressor Antioxidant Protein Digestibility Lentils, common beans, faba beans, lupins, peas, soybean, grasspea. Legumes and Health • Reduced LDL LEGUMES AND cholesterol. • CARDIOVASCULAR Increased HDL DISEASE cholesterol. • Lower BP. • Promote satiety. AND • LEGUMES Delayed gastric WEIGHT emptying. • MANAGEMENT Delayed absorption of nutrients. • Short term BG control. • Improvements LEGUMES ANDon HbA1c. DIABETES • Reduced fasting BG and insulin levels. AND • LEGUMES Antioxidants. CANCER • SCFA • Source of food for healthy gut LEGUMES bacteria. AND • Adjust FLATULENCE after some time. Dietary Guidelines • Legumes are part of two food groups: meats and proteins and starchy vegetables. • 3 cups per week as part of a healthy diet. • 1 serving = 1/2 cup (1 starch exchange + 1 very lean meat protein exchange). RESEARCH FINDINGS The Effects of Legumes on Metabolic Features, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Function Tests in Women with Central Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial9 Effects of legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer: a randomised, double-blind, crossover human intervention trial.10 ■ Randomized controlled trial. ■ ■ 42 premenopausal women with central obesity. Double blind, controlled, randomized, crossover trial. ■ ■ 2 groups: hypocaloric diet with and without legumes. 78 participants between 20-45 years of age and in good physical health. ■ 3 groups: blue lupin, white lupin and soy. ■ 6 weeks. ■ Each group: half participants received 25g of legume fiber and the other half 25g of citrus fiber. ■ 4 periods: 2 weeks each. ■ Blue lupin kernel fiber improved colonic function and showed beneficial effects over colorectal cancer. ■ Conclusions: Enhancing dietary fiber intake through blue lupin can be recommended. ■ Both diets reduced waist circumference significantly. ■ Diet enriched in legumes significantly reduced Systolic blood pressure, tryglicerides and ALT and AST. ■ Conclusions: legumes have health benefits over blood pressure, metabolic features and hepatic function. Summary ■ Legumes are members of flowering plants called leguminosae. ■ Legumes available for human diet are; beans, peas, lentils, chikpeas and lupins. ■ Legumes have a high nutritional value, especially for their content in protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals. ■ Many health benefits are associated to legumes, mainly due to their bioactive compounds and high fiber content. ■ There are many findings that show that the consumption of legumes as part of a healthy diet may help in reducing the incidence of diabetes, CVD, some types of cancer and aid in weight management. ■ The intake of legumes is recommended on a frequency of 1 cup 3 days per week, to avoid collateral effects of antinutrients. References 1. Morris B. Legume facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about legume.Encyclopediacom. 2015. Available at: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/legume.aspx. Accessed November 12, 2015. 2. Grain and Legumes Nutrition Council. The grains and legumes health report. 2015. Available at: http://www.glnc.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/GGHN-2010-Grainsand-Legumes-Health-Report.pdf. Accessed November 12, 2015. 3. Zhan S, Ho S. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on the lipid profile.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005;81(2):397-408. Available at: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/2/397.full. Accessed November 12, 2015. 4. Akibode S, Maredia M. Global and Regional Trends in Production, Trade and Consumption of Food Legume Crops. 2011. Available at: http://impact.cgiar.org/sites/default/files/images/Legumetrendsv2.pdf. Accessed November 12, 2015. . References 5. Flapse R. Dry Bean Consumption in the U.S. « Bean Institute. Beaninstitutecom. 2015. Available at: http://beaninstitute.com/dry-bean-consumption-in-the-us/. Accessed November 12, 2015. 6. Glnc.org.au. Types of Legumes | Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council. 2015. Available at: http://www.glnc.org.au/legumes/types-of-legumes/. Accessed November 12, 2015. 7. Leech J. Legumes: Good or Bad?. Authority Nutrition. 2014. Available at: http://authoritynutrition.com/legumes-good-or-bad/. Accessed November 12, 2015. 8. Muzquiz M, Varela A, Burbano C, Cuadrado C, Guillamón E, Pedrosa M. Bioactive compounds in legumes: pronutritive and antinutritive actions. Implications for nutrition and health. Phytochem Rev. 2012;11(2-3):227-244. doi:10.1007/s11101-012-9233-9. 9. Mohammad Alizadeh B. The Effects of Legumes on Metabolic Features, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Function Tests in Women with Central Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014;5(6):710. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4085923/. Accessed November 13, 2015. 10. Fechner A, Fenske K, Jahreis G. Effects of legume kernel fibres and citrus fibre on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer: a randomised, double-blind, crossover human intervention trial.Nutrition Journal. 2013;12(1):101. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-101.