English Grammar Review for ASL Notes Notes Key: Blue = Subject Pink= Verb Rose= Predicate Orange = Direct object Green= Indirect object Identifying Subjects + Predicates -------------------------------------------Subject: Noun or a pronoun that performs a verb in a sentence. Noun or pronoun that is doing the action. (Verb isn’t always an action. "am" is a verb [ex: I am happy] Predicate: the verb and it's pals. (the verb and the rest of the sentence.) Example: I bought a crate of goblin hats. Verb= bought … who bought? Subject= I did. So I is the subject. Predicate= What did I buy? crate of goblin hats. So the predicate is Bought a crate of goblin hats. P= V+ Rest of the sentence. Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object --------------------------------------------------Direct object: is the main thing in the sentence that is being acted upon. (what the verb is referencing). Example: Chis ate cereal. V= What is being done? eating S= Who is doing the eating? Chris D.O= What is the subject eating? Cereal Indirect object: another thing in a sentence that is being acted upon ( the recipient of the direct object. [think like in a giving way].) Example: Althea threw me a frisbee. Verb= Threw (what is being done) Subject= Althea (who threw) Direct Object= Frisbee Indirect object= me ( who received the D.O.) Wanda gave Louie a gift card. S= Wanda V= Gave D.O = gift card Indirect Object= Louie (recipient of the gift card.) Indirect objects should be able to be moved to the end of a sentence and still make sense. Phrases & Clauses ------------------------Phrases and Clauses are both a group of words. Phrases: are a group of words that act like a single part of speech. But is not and never will be a full sentence. *** Because, phrases don’t have both a subject and verb***. They just behave like other things. DON’T HAVE A SUBJECT AND VERB. Examples: My best friend (behaves like a noun) With the blue shirt (behaves like a adjective) For twenty days (behaves like an adverb) Clause: CAN BE A SENTENCE (not always), because they have both a subject & verb. Two types of Clauses: Dependent Clause: Is not a sentence because it cant stand on its own. Ex: The wizard who casts a spell Can't be a sentence but has a lot going on. Independent: Is a sentence and a clause. Ex: The falcon soared majestically. (Independent Clause because verb and the falcon making it a sentence. ) Examples: While my guitar gently weeps. Because while is in the front it can't be a sentence so it is a dependent clause. The best ham sandwich in Oklahoma. Phrase because we don't have a verb. Under the ocean blue. Phrase because there is no verb ( direction and place with no action) I could eat a peanut butter sandwich for every meal. Phrase because it is acting like a noun. Dependent and Independent Clauses -------------------------------------------------Clauses = a collection of phrases with S+V. Independent Clause= a sentence. Dependent Clause = CAN’T be a sentence, because it begins with a subordinating conjunction. *** INDICATES SOMETHING ELSE IS GOING ON**** ( S.C ex: Because, while, that, unless etc.). It provides background information to something else that is happening. Independent Clause= S+V = Sentence Dependent Clause = S.C + S + V ≠ sentence ( due to subordinating conjunction.) Relative Clause --------------------Relative Clause = A dependent clause, that starts with a relative pronoun. Relative pronouns= who, that, which, whose, where. (substitutes in for another par of the sentence.) Example: The boy who lived. A relative clause is the pronoun and what follows it. The Eight Parts of Speech ----------------------------------1. NOUN= is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun is a word for a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are often used with an article (the, a, an), but not always. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter; common nouns do not. Nouns can be singular or plural, concrete or abstract. Nouns show possession by adding 's. Nouns can function in different roles within a sentence; for example, a noun can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement, or object of a preposition. 2. PRONOUN= is a word used in place of a noun. Ex: She... we... they... it A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. A pronoun is usually substituted for a specific noun, which is called its antecedent. In the sentence above, the antecedent for the pronoun she is the girl. Pronouns are further defined by type: personal pronouns refer to specific persons or things; possessive pronouns indicate ownership; reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize another noun or pronoun; relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause; and demonstrative pronouns identify, point to, or refer to nouns. 3. VERB= expresses action or being. Ex: jump... is... write... become The verb in a sentence expresses action or being. There is a main verb and sometimes one or more helping verbs. ("She can sing." Sing is the main verb; can is the helping verb.) A verb must agree with its subject in number (both are singular or both are plural). Verbs also take different forms to express tense. 4. ADJECTIVE= modifies or describes a noun or pronoun. (descriptor) Ex: pretty... old... blue... smart An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a noun or a pronoun. It usually answers the question of which one, what kind, or how many. (Articles [a, an, the] are usually classified as adjectives.) 5. ADVERB= modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Ex: gently... extremely... carefully... well An adverb describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, but never a noun. It usually answers the questions of when, where, how, why, under what conditions, or to what degree. Adverbs often end in -ly. 6. PREPOSITION = is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. Ex: by... with.... about... until (by the tree, with our friends, about the book, until tomorrow) A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. Therefore a preposition is always part of a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase almost always functions as an adjective or as an adverb. The following list includes the most common prepositions: The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! 7. CONJUNCTION= joins words, phrases, or clauses. and... but... or... while... Because (think conjunction junction what's your function? hooking up words, phases, and clauses.) A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses, and indicates the relationship between the elements joined. Coordinating conjunctions connect grammatically equal elements: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet. Subordinating conjunctions connect clauses that are not equal: because, although, while, since, etc. There are other types of conjunctions as well. 8. INTERJECTION= is a word used to express emotion. Oh!... Wow!... Oops! An interjection is a word used to express emotion. It is often followed by an exclamation point. Gerunds ------------Every gerund, without exception, ends in ing. The problem is that all present participles also end in ing. What is the difference? Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects, subject complements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. Present participles, on the other hand, complete progressive verbs or act as modifiers. examples of gerunds: Since Francisco was five years old, swimming has been his passion. Swimming = subject of the verb has been. Francisco's first love is swimming. Swimming = subject complement of the verb is. Francisco enjoys swimming more than spending time with his girlfriend Diana. Swimming = direct object of the verb enjoys. Francisco gives swimming all of his energy and time. Swimming = indirect object of the verb gives. When Francisco wore dive fins to class, everyone knew that he was devoted to swimming. Swimming = object of the preposition to. These ing words are examples of present participles: One day last summer, Francisco and his coach were swimming at Daytona Beach. Swimming = present participle completing the past progressive verb were swimming. A Great White shark ate Francisco's swimming coach. Swimming = present participle modifying coach. Now Francisco practices his sport in safe swimming pools. Swimming = present participle modifying pools.