International Intelligence Cooperation more is needed and the case of cyber security. Christopher Biermann Outline I. II. Introduction Review of the Related Literature on Intelligence Cooperation III. Background on sharing efforts A. B. UK-Britain in WWII 1. Atlantic Charter 2. BRUSA Agreement (1946) NATO intelligence sharing IV. Contemporary Intelligence Cooperation - 9/11 and on A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Club of Berne Counter Terrorist Group Special Committee of NATO Middle European COnference FBI has liason offices in EU Agreement on Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance PNR Kilowatt Group ( just came across this) V. Why Cooperate? Challenges VI. Bilateral to Multilateral sharing VII. Cybersecurity-need for cooperation VIII. Conclusion Why cooperate? ● ● ● ● ● Threats are no longer limited to national borders - they are transnational; especially Terrorism and Cyber Need to address these threats together Sharing resources We are allies after all… We need to move from unilateral/bilateral efforts to multilateral cooperation and security arrangements: ○ ○ Why? Because the threat no longer just impacts one state ■ I.e.: WannCry and NotPetya ● Even Stuxnet! Difficulties in Cooperating ● ● ● ● Trust National interest Perception of the threat and foreign policy objectives Distribution of power can be different ○ ● ● US has 17 agencies...UK has 3 main ones Legal issues Unintentional consequences of sharing intelligence Cybersecurity cooperation - building on models for counterterrorism ● ● ● Cooperation through the EU on common cybersecurity/defense strategies Cooperation through NATO on Cyber Defense by introducing standards US model of Fusion Centers in national, state and local levels. Conclusion ● Where do you feel theories of IR might fit? Suggestions? ● I’ve thought of alliance theory and institutionalist theory ● General thoughts? Questions?