The Rise and Fall of Napoleon How did Napoleon gain and eventually lose his empire? I. Napoleon Takes Power A. War continues, Royalists try to take over the French Assembly B. 1795: Napoleon Bonaparte leads troops against Royalists 1. Easy win – seen as hero & appointed General of the Army C. 1796: leads troops to win over Austria but loses to British in Egypt D. 1799: people losing confidence in the Assembly E. Nov: Napoleon seizes power in a coup d’état F. Jan 1800: Plebiscite (vote of the people) approves a new constitution 1. New constitution gives unlimited power to Napoleon = II. Napoleon Changes France A. Napoleon begins public schools (Lycée) B. Removes corrupt government officials C. Creates new laws called Napoleonic Code 1. Code gave France “uniform” laws & eliminated injustices 2. limited freedoms gained in the revolution & restored slavery * 1802: All wars in Europe end D. 1803: Napoleon loses slave revolt in St. Domingue & sells Louisiana Terr. to US, happy to gain $ from sale and make US a power E. 1804: Napoleon is crowned Emperor of France – people approve III. Napoleonic Wars A. 1804: Napoleon uses US money to establish an Empire in Europe 1. Annexes some Italian States, Netherlands, Illyrian Provinces B. 1805: Napoleon tries to cut off British supplies 1. Fights British Navy & loses Battle of Trafalgar C. 1808: Invades Spain and puts his brother Joseph on the throne 1. Spanish use “guerilla warfare” during Peninsular War D. Countries that lose forced to sign peace treaties with France Battle of Austerlitz Battle of Trafalgar Peninsular War E. Napoleon tries to Blockade Britain – Continental System F. US may help Napoleon- nope! 1.Britain & US fight War of 1812 IV. Napoleon’s Empire Collapsing A. Russian Czar against Continental System B. June 1812: France invades Russia 1. Czar Alexander uses “scorched-earth policy” 2. Dec 1812: Cold Russian winter then sets in, Russians start attacking Napoleon’s tired & hungry army (422K to start – 28K left to retreat) V. Napoleon’s Final Chapter A. 1814: Napoleon defeated in Napoleonic Wars & is exiled to Elba B. Louis XVIII (Louis XVI brother) takes the throne, becomes Absolute Monarch, people upset C. 1815: Napoleon escapes from Elba and returns to France D. People happy, Napoleon quickly recruits an army and retakes France starting the 100 Days E. Britain & Prussia form alliance to stop Napoleon F. Napoleon’s forces fight the British army at Battle of Waterloo 1. Britain holds Napoleon’s army until arrival of Prussia’s army G. Napoleon is defeated and the British send him to a remote island (St. Helena) in the South Atlantic Ocean 1. On the island, Napoleon lives alone and dies of a stomach ailment in 1821 Voices from the Past: Napoleon’s Mysterious End 1. What was the original diagnosis about Napoleon's death? 2. What is the new theory of Napoleon’s death? How do we know this information? 3. Who are the suspects in Napoleon’s death? (four answers) 4. Which theory do you believe and why?