2019 Summer Camp Science CSIS How can you be a superhero? Are you fast? What makes you fast? Newton’s 3rd Law • Every action has an equal, opposite reaction. Energy • Potential Energy • Kinetic Energy • Potential energy is the energy stored within an object, due to the object's position, arrangement or state. • The kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. Objective • Build your own balloon cars. • Race and see who is the fastest. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jr3 BOE_EpOk RACE! Questions: • What law states that every action has an equal, opposite reaction? • What is energy stored in an object called? • What is the energy of motion called? Can you see secret messages? What is light? Light is a wave of energy • The electromagnetic spectrum How do black (ultraviolet) lights work? • A black light looks dark purple, but most of the light it emits is in the ultraviolet (UV) range of the spectrum, which is invisible to the human eye. Things that glow under a black light? • • • • • • Vinegar Tonic water Laundry detergent Highlighter Baking soda Petroleum Jelly (Vaseline) But why? • When UV light bounces off objects that contain special substances called phosphors, interesting things happen. Phosphors are substances that emit visible light in response to radiation. Phosphors hit by UV light become excited and naturally fluoresce, or in other words, glow. Things you can do: • Write a secret letter. • Draw on the desk. • Paint your face. • https://youtu.be/IPlKpmOEt3A Questions • Which color has the highest frequency wavelength and energy? Which color has the lowest? • What is the top color of a rainbow? Which is the bottom color? • What glows under ultraviolet light? Can we have super strength? Simple Machines • We use simple machines to increase our force and make life easier. Siege Weapons Make your own catapults! Can you make a magic wand? Can you make an electrical device? Electricity is the flow of electrons. • Electrons flow out of the positive end of the battery, around the circuit, to the negative end of the battery. LED lights • When electrons flow through a light emitting diode, electrical energy becomes light. How can you be a superhero? How can we help to clean the planet? The Boston Marathon • The key ingredient for this project is sodium alginate, a natural gelling powder derived from algae. The sodium alginate gels or polymerizes when reacted with calcium. How to Make an Edible Water Bottle • Materials and equipment: – Water – 1 gram sodium alginate – 5 grams of calcium lactate – Large bowl – Smaller bowl – Hand mixer – Spoon with a rounded bottom (soup spoon or round measuring spoon works great) https://www.thoughtco.com/make-an-ediblewater-bottle-607470 1. 2. 3. 4. In a small bowl, add 1 gram (1/4 teaspoon) of sodium alginate to 1 cup of water. Use the hand mixer to make sure the sodium alginate is combined with the water. Let the mixture sit for about 15 minutes to remove any air bubbles. The mixture will turn from a white liquid to a clear mixture. In a large bowl, stir 2.5 grams (1 teaspoon) of calcium lactate into 2 cups of water. Mix well to dissolve the calcium lactate. Use your rounded spoon to scoop up the sodium alginate solution. https://www.thoughtco.com/make-an-ediblewater-bottle-607470 1. 2. Gently drop the sodium alginate solution into the bowl containing the calcium lactate solution. It will immediately form a ball of water in the bowl. You can drop more spoonfuls of sodium alginate solution into the calcium lactate bath. Just be careful the water balls don't touch each other because they would stick together. Let the water balls sit in the calcium lactate solution for 3 minutes. You can gently stir around the calcium lactate solution if you like. (Note: the time determines the thickness of the polymer coating. Use less time for a thinner coating and more time for a thicker coating.) Use a slotted spoon to gently remove each water ball. Place each ball in a bowl of water to stop any further reaction. Now you can remove the edible water bottles and drink them. The inside of each ball is water. The bottle is edible too -- it's an algae-based polymer. Quiz Oobleck Man! States of Matter • Solid • Liquid • Gas How can we walk on “water”? • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-DZ0f0_NCA Can we move things without touching them? Magnets have magnetic fields Magnetic Slime • Step 1: Pour 1/4 cup of white PVA glue into your mixing bowl. You may have to use the spoon to scrape all the glue out of the measuring cup. • Step 2: Add 2 Tablespoons of iron oxide powder. Stir well. • Step 3: Pour in 1/8 cup of liquid starch. • Step 4: Stir the glue and starch mixture really well to make sure that it’s all mixed. As soon as you begin to stir, the starch will react with the glue and the slime will start to form. • Step 5: Knead the slime with your hands. Can we fly like Superman? Bravery Sprout Space Program! Rockets! Newton’s 3rd Law • Every action has an equal, opposite reaction. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7WshxUT8M 8 Real Rocket Fuel • The main chemical reaction that takes place in a liquid-propellant rocket's engine, such as the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) of a NASA rocket, is between Liquid Oxygen (LOx, or O₂) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH₂ or H₂). The product is that is produced in this reaction is water (H₂O). This reaction is a basic synthesis reaction. Our Rocket Fuel • The reaction between baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and vinegar (dilute acetic acid) generates carbon dioxide gas. Our Rocket Fuel Same as Volcano Models • First, use chopsticks and cardboard to make wings that allow the bottle to stand upside down. • Fill the rocket 1/3 full with vinegar • Put 1 tablespoon of baking soda in a long packet that can fit in the tube. • Do NOT put the baking soda and/or vinegar in the rocket until you are ready to shoot your rocket outside. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTlvkXWzfXk Make Rocket Fins! • https://sciencetoymaker.org/air-rockets/make-air-rockets/ Mars Landing • • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CAM3kGOAkcc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KyktvC7w7Js The Egg Drop Experiment Can we save an egg from breaking if we drop it?