Uploaded by Carol Gitau

1405 - Chapter 2 Vocab(2)

Caroline gitau
Chem 1405-33432
Vocabulary 1
1. 1.chemistry-the science which deals with composition and properties of
substances and various elementary forms of matter .
1. 2. matter.is a substance that has inertia and occupies physical space
2. 3.
three different levels of matter –liquid, solid and gases
1. 4.
model –a synthetic coordination entity that closely approaches the properties
of a metal ion in protein and yields useful information concerning biological
structure and function.
1. 5.
ball-and-stick model – are three-dimensional models where atoms are
represented by spheres of different colors and bonds are represented by sticks
between the spheres.
1. 6.
space-filling model –are similar to ball and stick models in that they are
three-dimensional models that represent atoms as colored spheres
1. 7.
symbol - is a notation of one or two letters representing a chemical element.
1. 8.State of matter
One of the four principal conditions in which matter exists-solid, liquid, gas, and pl
asma. Seealso phase phase transition .
1. 9.
kinetic molecular theory – A theory of the thermodynamic behavior of
matter, especially the relationships among pressure, volume, and temperature in
gases, based on the dependence of temperature on the kinetic energy of the rapidly
moving particles of a substance.
1. 10.gas – is defined as a state of matter consisting of particles that have neither a
defined volume nor defined shape
1. 11.liquid -is one of the states of matter
1. 12.solid – is a state of matter characterized by particles arranged such that their
shape and volume are relatively stable
1. 13.physical properties . is a characteristic of matter that may be observed and
measured without changing the chemical identity of a sample
1. 14. physical changes – Any change that occurs without altering the
chemical composition of a substance
2. 15. chemical change – Chemical changes occur when a substance combines
with another to form a new substance
16. Evidence of a chemical change -The following can indicate that a chemical
change has taken place, although this evidence is not conclusive: Change of
odor. Change of color (for example, silver to reddish-brown when iron rusts).
1. 17.homogeneous – mixture is a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same
proportions of its components throughout any given sample
1. 18.
solution – s a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or
more substances.
1. 19. heterogeneous – This is one which has a non-uniform composition.
Example A mixture of sand and water
1. 20. pure substance -is a material that has a constant composition (is
homogeneous) and has consistent properties throughout the sample.
mixture – Any substance that has a uniform and unchanging composition is
considered to be pure
1. 22. element – is a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons:
1. 23. compound – is a substance formed when two or more chemical elements
are chemically bonded together.
elemental symbol – is a notation of one or two letters representing a chemical
chemical formula – tells us the number of atoms of each element in a compound.
atom -is the smallest component of an element.
Law of Definite Composition – states that agiven chemical compound always
contains its component elements in fixed ratio (by mass) and does not depend on its
source and method of preparation.
force field – special case of energy functions or interatomic potentials;
1. 29.static electricity –is often created when two objects that are not
good electrical conductors are rubbed together, and electrons from one of the
objects rub off onto the other
1. 30.chemical equation – is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in
the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the
left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side
1. 31.
reactants - are the starting materials in a chemical reaction
1. 32. products – are the species formed from chemical reactions
33. exothermic reaction – is a chemical reaction that releases energy through light
or heat.
34. endothermic reaction – process is any process which requires or absorbs energy
from its surroundings ...
35. potential energy – the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative
to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors.
1. 36. kinetic energy – energy which a body possesses by virtue of being in
1. 37. Law of Conservation of Mass – is neither created nor destroyed in
chemical reactions. In other words, the mass of any one element at the beginning
of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of the reaction.
1. 38.
Law of Conservation of Energy – is one of the basic laws of physics and
therefore governs the microscopic motion of individual atoms in a chemical
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