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THE AMERICAN PEOPLE
CREATING A NATION AND A SOCIETY
NASH  JEFFREY
HOWE  FREDERICK  DAVIS  WINKLER  MIRES  PESTANA
7th Edition
Chapter 31: The Post-Cold War World,
1992-2005
Pearson Education, Inc, publishing as Longman © 2006
THE CHANGING FACE OF THE
AMERICAN PEOPLE
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The continuing influx of new immigrants after 1990
reshaped demographic patters
The overall population, as reported in the 2000
census, grew more rapidly than it had in the past
several decades
THE NEW PILGRIMS

17.5 million immigrants entered the U.S. between 1981 and 2000 with
10 million in the 1990s alone
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One third of population growth in the 1990s came from immigrants
Most immigrants settled on the West Coast
One third of all immigrants, legal and illegal, came from Central America and
just over one-quarter came from Asia
Faltering economies in their native countries brought most immigrants to
America
Africans also came to the U.S. for many of the same reasons
Illegal immigration remained a problem
Influx of new immigrants was spurred by the Immigration Act of 1965
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1986 Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act, aimed at
curbing illegal immigration while offering amnesty to aliens living in the U.S.
prior to 1982
Immigration Act of 1990 raised immigration quotas while cutting back on
restrictions that had previously limited entry and provided for swift
deportation for aliens who committed crimes
Two other measures in 1992 expanded eligibility
THE NEW PILGRIMS

The scarcity of good jobs and fears of cultural dilution brought
increasing resistance from established Americans
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1992 Californians passed Proposition 187, denying illegal aliens
access to public education and medical clinics though a federal
judge issued an injunction to prevent its implementation
1996 Congress passed legislation barring illegal immigrants from
receiving food stamps and disability assistance from the federal
government
At the end of the decade, California ended its support for bilingual
education
Economic improvement at the end of the 1990s led to pressure
to increase the number of visas for high-tech workers while a
coalition of business groups and immigrant-rights organizations
pressed for admitting more unskilled workers who could take
unfilled jobs in the service sector
INS received criticism for returning Elian Gonzales and for its
policies in the wake of the September 11 attacks
THE CENSUS OF 2000

2000 Census reported a 13 percent increase in the
nation’s population for a total of 281.4 million people
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Rate of growth accelerated in the 1990s as a result of
immigration and longer life expectancy with the total US
population reaching 190.8 million in 2003
Growth was greatest in the West
U.S. remained 69 percent white, 12 percent African American
and 11 percent Latino
Nationally the Asian and Pacific Islander population
increased by 43 percent while whites were no longer the
majority in California
Many Americans in the 2000 Census wanted to
identify themselves as multiracial
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGE

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American economy improved dramatically in
the 1990s yet many Americans remained poor
and homelessness became an increasingly
visible problem
Groups pushing for equality made gains but
still faced resistance
BOOM AND BUST

American economic growth during the 1990s was not as
remarkable as it was during the 1950s but was still impressive
given the context of economic failures in other countries
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Stock market soared with some 50 percent of the population
owning stocks
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Promotion of big business during the Reagan era spurred investment
an led to significant economic expansion as large firms grew larger
and more involved in the global economy
Lowering of interest rates led to increased consumer spending
Productivity rose steadily and national economic growth rate began to
rise even as unemployment declined
A lot of investment was in high tech
There was a dramatic reduction in the budget deficit though the
national debt remained high
American companies embarked on a wave of mergers that often
resulted in worker layoffs
BOOM AND BUST

In 2000 the stock market began to slide and by 2002 many people
had lost their paper gains
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Nation’s overall growth rate began to slow as investment declined
A recession began in 2000 as a tax cut further undermined economic
stability by rewarding the rich but doing nothing for anyone else
By early 2001, it was clear the economy was slumping as
manufacturing fell to its lowest point in 10 years and unemployment
rose
Outsourcing increased at an alarming rate
Reports of corporate greed and managerial fraud further undermined
confidence in the economy
Overall union membership continued to fall though there was an
increase in public employee union membership
POVERTY AND HOMELESSNESS

In 1997, 35.6 million people in the U.S. lived below the poverty
line
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Figure equaled one out of every three working Americans
In 2004, Department of Agriculture reported that 12 million American
farmers struggled to feed themselves
Record number of Americans lacked health insurance
Urban Americans had the toughest time as people moved to the
suburbs and the tax base declined leaving cities without the funds to
meet service needs
Gap between rich and poor increased significantly in the 1980s
and 1990s
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Minorities and women continued to lose ground faster than the rest
of the population even as the wealthy increased their overall share
especially as the new century started
Number of homeless quadrupled in the 1980s and increasingly there
seemed no way out
AGING AND ILLNESS


The population of America continued to live longer and healthier
lives as the century concluded
Many older Americans objected to mandatory retirement rules
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1978: retirement age was raised from 65 to 70
1986: amendments to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act
prohibited mandatory retirement on the basis of age
2005 Supreme Court ruling held that a worker suing to reverse age
discrimination did not have to prove the employer acted intentionally
As the population aged, there were increasing problems keeping
the social security system solvent
Alzheimers increasingly affected the aging population while AIDS
struck all ages and all countries, especially in Africa
–
In 2003 President Bush committed the United States to triple its
commitment over the next 5 years to try to counter AIDS in Africa
MINORITIES AND WOMEN FACE
THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

African Americans saw home ownership and employment figures rise
while the number of murders and other violent crimes involving blacks fell
and a record 40 percent attended college
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School segregation remained a problem
Incidents such as Rodney King made people wonder how much progress had
really been achieved
Police still stopped African Americans and Latinos more than other groups
Faced a backlash in affirmative action with both legislation such as California’s
Proposition 209 and Supreme Court rulings
Booming job market in the 1990s was the most important factor in fostering
better race relations
Women were increasingly involved in academic programs and
professions though in almost all areas there was still resistance to women
holding the top jobs
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Abortion remained a polarizing issue with opponents receiving more support
under the Bush administration
Women increasingly disassociated themselves from the feminist label though
the movement continued especially in Europe
MINORITIES AND WOMEN FACE
THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Latinos population spread further and faster than any previous
immigrant wave
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In 2000, 46 percent of Latinos owned their own home, an increase
of 4 percent since 1990 but still below the national average of 66
percent
In 2003, Latinos became the nation’s largest minority group
The emergence of a sturdy middle class gave Latinos a greater
voice in social and political affairs with Latino political figures
becoming more numerous and visible
The Latino unemployment rate varied with the economic health of
the country though it remained higher than the average and caused
more hardship since many unemployed Latinos did not qualify for
benefits
Median household income fell, eve as it rose for other groups
Latinos had a growing impact on American culture
MINORITIES AND WOMEN FACE
THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Native Americans found they had less influence, in part because of their
smaller numbers
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Continued their legal efforts to regain lost land and pressed successfully for
the return of their ancestors skeletal remains with the aid of the Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990
Indians remained underrepresented at many universities though with the
proper support new opportunities did become available
Native American women became increasingly active in the larger reform
effort
Many Native Americans still felt a sense of dislocation
In the last months of the Clinton Administration, the head of the BIA
apologized for the nation’s repressive treatment of Indians
Asian Americans enjoyed real success in the 1990s
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Asian children enjoyed remarkable academic success and made up a
disproportionate share of the students at the most prestigious universities
While they had a higher median income than white, newcomers still faced
serious economic problems and racial stereotypes
MINORITIES AND WOMEN FACE
THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

The struggle for gay rights continued and in 2000 GM,
Ford and Chrysler announced health-care benefits for
partners of gay employees and Vermont recognized
same-sex relationships through civil unions
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2002: American Academy of Pediatricians announced its
support of the right of gay men and women to adopt the
children of their partners as gay activism helped broaden the
definition of family
Resistance to gays playing a more visible role in society
persisted and the Supreme Court ruled that Boy Scouts could
bar gay troop leaders
The issue of gay marriage was among the most polarizing
DEMOCRATIC REVIVAL

1990s saw a Democratic revival in politics as
they reformulated their message and learned
to use the media
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Reflected similar shifts in the rest of the world
Bitter partisan fighting resulted from
Democratic control of the White House and
Republican control of Congress
DEMOCRATIC VICTORY

A youthful Bill Clinton stood in stark contrast to incumbent
President George H.W. Bush in 1992
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H. Ross Perot ran as a third party candidate
Campaign was fought on television and resulted in a Clinton victory
with 43 percent of the popular vote and 357 electoral votes
Clinton wanted to check Americans’ cynicism about government
and appointed a cabinet with four women, four African
Americans and two Latinos
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Gained ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) in November 1993
Secured passage of a crime bill banning the manufacture, sale or
possession of assault weapons
Failed to win approval of health-care reform efforts
REPUBLICAN RESURGENCE

In the midterm elections of 1994, Republicans argued that
government regulations were hampering business and costing
too much while also challenging the notion that the federal
government was primarily responsible for health care and other
services
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Swept both houses of Congress and did well in a number of states
Election marked the end of the commitment to the welfare state
as Congress moved to scale back the role of the federal
government, eliminate environmental regulations, cut funding for
educational programs, reduce taxes and balance the budget
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Gutted the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National
Endowment for the Arts and the Public Broadcasting System
While conflict over the budget led to the temporary shut down of the
government and while the House passed most measures, the
Senate balked on a number of them and Clinton vetoed others so
that only a few actually became law
A SECOND TERM FOR CLINTON
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In 1996, Bill Clinton ran for a second term
against Bob Dole
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Clinton reshaped his image and announced the
end of “big government,” coopting Republican
issues, pledging to balance the budget, and
signing a welfare reform bill that slashed benefits
and removed millions of people from the rolls even
as he posed as the protector of Medicare and other
programs threatened by the Republicans
Won a resounding victory over Dole though the
Republicans retained control of Congress
PARTISAN POLITICS AND
INDEPENDENCE

Clinton had been accused of having engaged in an improper
sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern
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Congress, nevertheless, continued its proceedings and
impeached the president on counts of perjury and obstruction of
justice
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Clinton initially denied the relationship but as additional evidence
surfaced, he admitted it
The Republican Congress considered impeachment and devoted
much energy to the process of removal even though most
Americans outside Washington approved his job performance even
while condemning his personal choices
In the midterm elections, Republicans maintained their margin in the
Senate but found it reduced in the House by 5 seats
In 1999 the case moved to the Senate where, after weeks of
testimony, Clinton was acquitted
Overall, Clinton was an enormously successful politician
THE SECOND BUSH PRESIDENCY

Republicans regained control of the White
House in 2000 with their candidate George W.
Bush who promised to return morality and
respect to the White House
THE ELECTION OF 2000

The campaign between Al Gore and George W. Bush revolved around
what the government should do with the federal budget surplus
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Election night results showed neither candidate had the 270 electoral votes
needed to win with the votes in Florida enough to tip the balance
The state became a battleground as a recount began and the sides argued
over what should be counted and how and accusations of racism surfaced
as Democrats charged that in certain areas African Americans had been
prevented from voting
The Supreme Court, in Bush v. Gore overturned the Florida court’s
decision to allow the recount to proceed and effectively handed the
victory to Bush by a 5-4 ruling despite Gore’s victory in the popular vote
The voting in congressional races was equally close resulting in an
evenly split Senate though the Republicans ran all the major committees
and retained control due to the vice president’s tie breaking vote
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Five months after the session began, Senator Jeff Jeffords left the
Republican party, throwing control to the Democrats
In the House, Republicans had a 9 seat majority
THE NEW LEADER

George W. Bush liked to provide the broad
outlines of policy while leaving the details to
others
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While his communication skills were not those of
Reagan, he did demonstrate a dogged
determinism
Bush used propaganda skillfully
PROMOTING THE PRIVATE
SECTOR

Bush had the interests of corporate America at heart and his first priority
was a tax cut which was enacted by mid-2001, lowering tax rates for
everyone, allowing more tax-free money for education and reducing
estate taxes though, in the end, it mainly benefited the wealthy
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Economy continued to falter and a full-blown recession ensued
Although Bush wanted to reduce the size of government and proposed to
slash health care spending, he actually proposed increasing defense
spending
Bush allowed road building in national forests, reversed bans on snow
mobiles in national parks, sought to shrink legal protections for
endangered species, eased environmental restrictions on the coal
industry and proposed looser standards for mercury emissions
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Dismissed reports that fossil fuel emissions contributed to global warming
Spring 2003 the Interior Department announced that no longer would 200
million acres of land be designated as wilderness and protected from
development
A SECOND TERM FOR BUSH

The 2004 election was bitter and contentious as Bush faced
John Kerry
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Both candidates raised huge amounts of money and engaged in
attack ads thought he Republicans were more successful
Bush won with 51 percent of the popular vote and a modest
electoral majority
Republicans added to majorities in both the House and the Senate
Bush moved quickly to reform the Social Security system by
allowing people to invest part of their retirement money in private
retirement accounts
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Members of both parties resisted the efforts which critics said would
leave millions of workers vulnerable to market fluctuations
Despite growing budget deficits, Bush’s proposed 2005 budget
contained additional tax cuts
FOREIGN POLICY IN THE POSTCOLD WAR WORLD
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Due to communication advances, the world
was more closely linked than ever
In the new atmosphere, new questions arose
about the role of the United States
THE BALKAN CRISIS

Ethnic and religious violence escalated in the Balkans in the
1990s
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In Bosnia, Bosnian Serbs liquidated opponents and engaged in
mass killings and rape
In mid-1995 a NATO bombing campaign forced the Bosnian Serbs
into negotiations and a peace conference at Dayton, Ohio, led to a
commitment of U.S. troops, along with soldiers from other countries,
to stabilize the area
In 1999, Kosovo descended into war as the Serbian leader
Slobadan Milosovic, attempted to squelch a movement for
autonomy
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NATO launched an American led bombing campaign and Milosevic
engaged in “ethnic cleansing” before succumbing
He was arrested in 2001 and brought to the Netherlands for trial
THE MIDDLE EAST IN FLAMES

On September 13, 1993, PLO leader Yasser Arafat and Israeli leader
Yitzhak Rabin signed a peace agreement that led to Palestinian self-rule
in the Gaza strip
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In 1995, signed a further agreement and the Israelis handed over control of
the West Bank of the Jordan River to the Palestinians
A treaty between Jordan and Israel brought peace on that front as well
1998 Clinton facilitated an agreement leading to the return of land in the
West Bank area to the Palestinians in return for peace between Arafat and
Benjamin Netanyahu, the Israeli prime minister following Rabin’s
assassination by extremists
The level of Middle East violence at the beginning of the twenty-first
century was worse than it was before
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Short-sighted Israeli policy of building settlements in occupied Arab lands
and the Palestinian unwillingness to compromise culminated in an escalation
of bloodshed
Bush was reluctant at first to intervene though was forced to do so as
violence became worse
Tended to side with Israel
Siege in the West Bank
AFRICAN STRUGGLES

Africa suffered a series of never-ending crises made
worse by the AIDS epidemic which ravaged the
continent
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Bill Clinton became the first American president to make an
extensive trip to Africa, though his efforts to intervene in
Somalia resulted in several dozen American casualties and
caused a removal of American troops by 1993 despite the
continuing disorder
US did nothing to stop a genocide in Rwanda where Hutus
killed hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and moderate Hutus
George W. Bush was much less interested in Africa and did
not attend a conference on sustainable development held in
South Africa in 2002
US did little when Robert Mugabe appropriated white land
and gave it to blacks, precipitating a crisis in Zimbabwe
RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA

US continued to try to promote democracy
and capitalism, working closely with Boris
Yeltsin and his successor Vladimir Putin
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Russia remained unstable
Bush developed a close working relationship with
Putin
TERROR ON SEPTEMBER 11

On September 11, 2001, three hijacked airplanes slammed into the
World Trade Center Towers in New York City and the Pentagon in
Washington, DC
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The towers collapsed and all together 3000 people died though a fourth
plane was prevented from reaching its target when the passengers
fought back and caused the plane to crash in a field in Pennsylvania
The hijackers were Muslim extremists belonging to the al Qaeda
network run by Osama bin Laden and furious at the U.S. over its
Mideast policy as well as hating American materialistic and affluent
values
Attacks shattered American sense of security
Bush put together a worldwide coalition and launched a bombing
campaign in Afghanistan to smoke out bin Laden and his network
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The bombing, followed by a ground invasion, unseated the Taliban but
failed to capture bin Laden
An international coalition worked to rebuild Afghanistan and Hamid
Karzai headed the new government though instability remained
TERROR ON SEPTEMBER 11

Bush’s approval ratings soared and he created a new Department of
Homeland Security to help prevent further attacks
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In the Patriot Act, he invoked terrorism as a reason to allow the government to
encroach on individual liberties in the name of security
American Muslims were often the victims of the government effort
In 2002, Bush spoke out against an “axis of evil” consisting of Iraq, Iran and North
Korea, and insisted that an invasion of Iraq was necessary to stop their production
of weapons of mass destruction
In March 2003, with British support but without the UN, Bush launched an
attack on Iraq and declared victory six weeks later
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In December, soldiers captured Saddam Hussein but resistance to American
occupation continued
In mid-2004 approached, Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds fought each other for their
share of power, while remaining united in their opposition to the continuing
American presence
Insurgent attacks against American troops and Iraqis in new official positions
continued even as photographs of American abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib
aroused resentment around the world
By mid-2005, the American death toll had surpassed 1800 and opposition
mounted at home
DISCOVERING U.S. HISTORY
ONLINE
United States Census
http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html

The Landscape of Asian America
http://www.asian-nation.org/index.shtml
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U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
http://www.bls.gov/

Homelessness Programs and the People They Serve
http://www.huduser.org/publications/homeless/homeless_tech.html

William Jefferson Clinton
http://www.clintonlibrary.gov/

William J. Clinton Presidential Library and Museum
http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/

Investigating the President: the Trial
http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/resources/1998/lewinsky/

DISCOVERING U.S. HISTORY
ONLINE
Election Collection 2000
http://web.archive.org/collections/e2k.html

George Walker Bush
http://www.potus.com/gwbush.html

A Nation Challenged
http://www.nytimes.com/pages/national/dayofterror/

Understanding Afghanistan: A Land in Crisis
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/landincrisis/

War in Iraq
http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2003/iraq/

Picturing the Century: One Hundred Years of Photography from the
National Archives
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/picturing_the_century/

The Twentieth Century
http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/century/
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