Paña,Cyrylle Marie B. ABELS 1-2 Textism: An Analysis of the Effects of Texting Language to Millenials' Language and Grammar Literacy/Proficiency BIBLIOGRAPHY QOUTATION PARAPHRASES, SUMMARIES & SYNTHESIS Bushnell, C., Kemp, N. & Martin • Research with teenagers and young adults has shown largely neutral, F.H.,(2011). Text-messaging practices and or indeed some negative relationships between texting behaviour may not affect an individual when exposed to usage of text links to general spelling skill: A study of (frequency of text-messaging and/or use of textisms), and language speak/textism/text messaging lingoes for a long period of time. After a Australian children. Australian Journal of and literacy skills (De Jonge & Kemp, 2010; Drouin & Davis, 2009; lot of researches done, I was able to find a lot of references for this Educational & Developmental Psychology. Kemp, 2010; Massengill Shaw, Carlson, & Waxman, 2007; Rosen, subject. Vol 11, 2011, p. 2 Chang, Erwin, Carrier, & Cheever,2010). I was very interested about the topic regarding the effects that may or From the ten references that I‟ve read and stated in this annonated • …texting is simply another means of increasing exposure to the bibliography, the researchers have observed the current evolution of our written word, which is a positive predictor of reading success English language or language in general. (Cipielewski & Stanovich, 1992). As computer mediated communication or CMC emerged with the • ... textese allows children to play with words, leading to increased evolution of technology, a great change in the linguistic system took engagement with traditional spelling and reading place as years and generations pass by since then. Originally, the English language of the older generations was coined as Crystal, D.,(2008). Texting, p.82. • “ Some people object to Textspeak. Some are bemused by it. I am the Standard English language. During this generation, we now have fascinated by it, for it is the latest manifestation of the human ability— what we call SMS or Short-Messaging-System according to Ngozi (2017) as the language of „cyberkids‟ or „net generation‟ as Thurlow and and young human ability, at that—to be linguistically creative and to adapt language to suit the demands of diverse settings. In Textspeak, we are seeing, in a small way, language in evolution. McKay (2016) call the teens of the present generation. It comes in many names actually. As an English language variation, • “Leaving out letters always runs the risk of ambiguity. From the some web-scholars termed it as „Textism‟, and others even view it as a recievers‟ point of view, a single sequence can have more than one „foreign language‟ too. For Ngozi (2017), he defined that Text Message meaning...” particular group or region for communication—which is more like Dansieh, S.,(2011). SMS Texting and Its Potential Impacts on Students‟ Written • …over 50% of teachers said that they did see abbreviations and text Communication Skills. International language in student written assignments. Journal of English Linguistics 1.2 Ling, L., (2010). Texting as a life phase medium. Computer Mediated Journal, doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2010.01520.x, p. 2 language as not entirely a language but a peculiarity in language to a lingoes instead. Now, this contradicts to what Tagg (2012), Crystal (2008), Thurlow (2016), Tagliomente, Lee and Humphry‟s opinion, where textism/textese/textspeak is another form of evolution in language. With how the world continues to change, it‟s only normal that there will • It offered them an inexpensive and a discreet form of communication within their peer groups. In addition, it provided them with an arena in which they could play with the language and develop different forms of slang and internal forms of interaction. In this way texting was seen as a way in which teens could deﬁne themselves vis-`a-vis parents and other groups (Ling, 2008c; Oksman & Turtiainen, 2004). be some certain changes in some aspect of our lives in order to adapt and survive. But the real question here is, is this change bad or good for us? According to the researchers for An Analysis of Language in University Students’ Text Messages, textism, a form of a foreign language by others does have a positive and negative effects on an individuals‟ literacy skills, which is highly supported by several researchers too who dabbles Lyddy, F., Farina, F., Hanney, J., Farrell, L., •The prevalence of textisms within text messages has been & O‟ Neill, N.K. (2013). An Analysis of exaggerated in the media, with some descriptions treating text Language in University Students‟ Text messaging as if it were a „foreign‟ language (e.g., see Crystal, 2008 textism/textese/text speak/text lingoes in students literacy skills have Messages. Journal of Computer-Mediated a,b; Jones & Schieffelin, 2009; Thurlow, 2006) shown that it negatively affected their formal writing skill. Teachers Communication, doi:10.1111/jcc4.12045, p. •Plester and Wood‟s (2009) study of preteens found no negative even reported on a survey that 50% of their students essays and 547-548. effects on literacy for young users. Some studies have reported a assignments have a mix of textism/textese/text speak/text lingoes on this same issue. Certain researches conducted regarding the effects of positive effect of texting on children‟s literacy skills (e.g. Plester et al., (Dansieh, 2011) which literally frustrates them in anger, (Lee). Students 2009), although phonological skills may mediate some of that who uses the SMS standard also proclaims that not only their writing relationship (see Wood et al., 2011). Some studies have noted negative literacy skills were negatively affected but also showed in their vocal effects on literacy skills, however. speech. According to Tagliomonte, abbreviations, acronyms and •Rosen, Chang, Erwin, Carrier and Cheever‟s (2010) study of young misspelling of the words in CMC have influenced both the written and adults showed a negative association between self-reported textism spoken language with overuse of it in due time. Grammatical errors use and formal writing, while there was a positive association with informal writing. However, self-reported textism use was quite low in occur through iterative omissions and confusion in recalling the correct this case and may or may not reﬂect actual use of textisms. form of words and spelling happens when they revert back to Standard •Kemp (2010), using a textism translation/generation task, found that English in writing formal academic and literary compositions. messages using textisms were faster to write than those in standard Not long then, some people already heavily criticize and rejects textism. English, but they took nearly twice as long to read, and were Sutherland even dare to say that textism is just a mask for the associated with more reading errors. Ngozi, O.G.,(2017). Text Message Lingoes • The fact that words that do not normally have abbreviations are in a Dynamic Society. Ibadan Journal of compressed and the vowel or consonant content eliminated as often English Studies, Volume 12, p.2,7, 10 characterised by text message lingoes, subjects the reader to the difficult task of decoding what the writer has in mind. Sometimes, this leads to the misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the sentence and the intended message. • The new quests to economize energy, save costs, save time and take short cuts in communication, have however, degenerated to what is today known as Short Message System (SMS). • To them [ Crystal & Schieffellin] “textism arguably demonstrates an appreciation of sounds of language and has posed no negative effects on literacy for young users. • Ling (2010) cross-sectional analysis suggests that texting follows a life- phase pattern, with older teens and those in their early 20s making the most use of the medium, with usage dropping off with age. • Though text messaging is perceived as fast and cost effective, personal and nonintrusive with a distinctive style of writing, it is embedded with various inconsistences which pose a threat to the proper understanding of the intended messages. illiterates…a penmanship for the illiterates and mentally lazy people. A dialect that is bald, bleak, thin, unimaginative and pure drab shrinktalk. It was also supported by Humphry‟s statement from Tayebenik‟s journal of Txt msg n English Language Literacy, as he describes texting as a type of vandalism that pillage,rapes and destroy our language. Even Bushnell, Kemp and Martin seems to stand againts textism. On a more positive outlook in text messaging, according to Dr. Caroline Taggs‟ interview, conducted by Andy Tootel about The Language of Text Messaging and Social Networks, text messaging deviating from an analytical angle, is just another language variation that offers another medium or format of communication where they can freely express their selves to a degree that they can construct a wide variety of expressions and forms for every different context it‟s being used. This is also subversive to Crystals‟(2008) view in “Texting” as text speak being an evidence to humanity‟s ability to adapt to change, and evolve to survive in a diverse setting which is shown in a small way through our text speak language. We can also say that Tagg (2012) and Crystal‟s (2008) stand on text speak having an ambigous character for it‟s ability to contain different meanings and never having a fixed form and is full of inconsistencies. Sutherland, J.(2002). Cn u txt?The •„thin and unimaginative… mask[ing] dyslexia, poor spelling and Guardian, Nov. 11th 2002. Retrieved on mental laziness… penmanship for illiterates‟ 18th August 2010 from, • As a dialect, text ('textese'?) is thin and unimaginative. It is bleak, But in Tagliamonte, Sali & Denis, Derek, Tagg, Crystal and Ling‟s case, this may not be really a problem. Based on their statements, textism‟s inconsistency and ability to have http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2002/ bald, sad shorthand, drab shrinktalk. The dialect has a few hieroglyphs many different meanings and forms is actually a good point of this nov/11/mobilephones2. (codes comprehensible only to initiates) and a range of face symbols. language. This, according to them shows a great deal of humanities … Linguistically it's all pig's ear. … Texting is penmanship for ability to be creative in expressing not only in vocal speech but also in illiterates. writings. Rather than view textism as changing language as a whole, why • “…people are perhaps not overly concerned with cutting the message down. Research suggests that people are more concerned with not so much getting their point across but saying what they want to say in the way they want to say it to a friend. So, it's all about building up relationships and expressing yourself and that sort of thing. So, people will use more words if that‟s necessary.” • “The thing about texting and to an extent, other forms of online communication, is that you can‟t use gesture and intonation, facial Tagg.(2012).http://www.ideaslab.bham.ac.u expressions and other things we take for granted when we‟re speaking. k/ideaslab_podcast.htm. I think to an extent that encourages people to make puns and play with the language to express themselves.” • “…language change and one is language variation. So with language variation it‟s important to understand that there are different varieties of one language, so where language varies according to the context it‟s being used in, or the reason it‟s being used, so you have the language of academic writing and the language of science, the language of biology and the language of physics and you have the language of newspapers and then you have more informal varieties like spoken conversation and text messaging.” not view it as just an addition to the variety of language? Crystal‟s group of other researchers who coincides to the positive angle of textism have also said that textism in a way has also brought benefits to users of this language. Regardless of all criticism and biased opinions, we, however cannot deny that textism allowed us the freedom to play with words, leading to increased engagement with traditional spelling and reading. It encourages people to make puns and play with the language to express themselves while also being fast and easy to construct, personal and nonintrusive with a distinctive style of writing that can cater to different context, situation, people and region. • “…rather than seeing text messaging as changing the language as a whole, it‟s adding to the language if you like, it‟s another variety, another way in which we‟re using language.” • “…we recognise that language does change and has always changed, and it‟s changing now, it‟s probably becoming more informal in some ways, not because of text messaging but it‟s part of it.” Tagliamonte, Sali & Denis, Derek. (2008). Linguistic ruin? LOL! Instant messaging and teen language. American Speech AMER SPEECH. 83. 3-34. • …we have clearly tapped into a vibrant new medium of communication with its own unique style. 10.1215/00031283-2008-001, p.33 Tayebinik, M.,(2012). Txt msg n English •Several researchers blamed textism and termed it as an unfavorable Language Literacy, p.1-2. phenomenon due to its harmful consequences to the student‟s writing composition. • Humphrys  criticized it [textism] more strongly and described textism as a type of vandalism that is gradually destroying the language. He believed that texting is “ pillaging our punctuation; savaging our sentences and raping our vocabulary and they must be stopped” • Tagliamonte  alarmed that variations in text messages reflects the expansion of writing speech. • Lee  reported teachers‟ frustration on students‟ frequent use of typical textism in their writing assignments. • „… a majority of the students claimed that misspelling occurs even in formal writing and assignments due to the overuse of abbreviated words in texting messages.‟ • Apparently, conversations are shortened and users believe that this is due to the iterative use of such abbreviations in text messages. • According to Tagliamonte  abbreviations, acronyms and misspelling of the words in CMC have influenced both the written and spoken language. • …it has also affected the way the students‟ speak. Textism also damages the students‟ grammatical skill through the use of iterative omissions or incomplete structure of sentences. It also causes spelling confusion to the students when they have difficulties in recalling the correct form of the words. • According to Tagliamonte  this language is a hybrid between speech and writing that represents a renaissance of a new linguistic system. • They tend to communicate faster, engage in simple and cost effective instant messaging, and at the same time fit into the current trend among themselves.