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Как работают американские суды (Вопросы демократии Том 4, № 2, Сентябрь 1999)

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ltvjrhfnbb
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HFÅJNFÑN
FVTHBRFYCRBT CELS
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Jn htlfrwbb
Rfr hfåjnfñn fvthbrfycrbt cels
HFPLTKTYBT dkfcntq b cbcntvf clthétr b
ghjnbdjdtcjd, pfrhtgktyyfz d Rjycnbnewbb
CIF, ckeéfn jlybv bp yfbåjktt cdznj jåthtuftvsö ljcnbétybq fvthbrfycrjq ltvjrhfnbb.
Jyj ufhfynbhetn yt njkmrj ytpfdbcbvjcnm
celtåysö bycnbnenjd, yj b pfrhtgkztn pf ybvb
pyfxbntkmyeñ dkfcnm. Rjhyb änjq bltb eöjlzn
d Lhtdyññ Uhtwbñ, f d yjdjt dhtvz jyf åskf
hfpdbnf d hfåjnfö åhbnfycrjuj abkjcjaf Léjyf Kjrrf b ahfywepcrjuj abkjcjaf åfhjyf lt
Vjyntcrmt.
Jnws-jcyjdfntkb CIF, cjplfdibt fvthbrfycreñ Rjycnbnewbñ, b d jcjåtyyjcnb
Létqvc Välbcjy, jåtcgtxbkb ébdjt djgkjotybt änbö bltq d yjdjq htcgeåkbrfycrjq ajhvt
ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ecnhjqcndf, ecnfyjdktyyjq
gjckt ljcnbétybz ytpfdbcbvjcnb. Ytpfdbcbvjcnm celtåyjq dkfcnb pfrhtgktyf d Cnfnmt
3 Rjycnbnewbb b gjlhjåyj bpkjétyf d Åbkkt
j ghfdfö, gthdsö ltcznb gjghfdrfö r Rjycnbnewbb.
Lfyysq dsgecr éehyfkf gjcdzoty d
jcyjdyjv yt cjåcndtyyj ytpfdbcbvjcnb bycnbnenjd celtåyjq dkfcnb bkb hjkb celjd d fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvt ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ecnhjqcndf.
Crjhtt, änj cghfdjxybr gj djghjcfv ghfrnbxtc-
2
rjq hfåjns celtåyjq cbcntvs CIF: jcyjdyst
exfcnybrb cbcntvs, tt cnhernehf, aeyrwbb b
änbxtcrbt ufhfynbb. Dféyj bvtnm d dble, xnj
cels CIF aeyrwbjybheñn d jåotq cbcntvt
rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ecnhjqcndf, rjnjhfz ufhfynbhetn bö ytpfdbcbvjcnm.
Yfghbvth, ghtpbltyns vjuen yfpyfxfnm
atlthfkmysö celtq, yj yt vjuen jcdjåjélfnm
bö jn ljkéyjcnb. Änj ghfdj tcnm njkmrj e Rjyuhtccf, öjnz bcgjkmpetn jy tuj htlrj. D cdjñ
jxthtlm celmb vjuen jnvtybnm htitybz Ghtpbltynf bkb Rjyuhtccf, jåüzdbd bö ghjnbdjhtxfobvb Rjycnbnewbb – byjcnhfywtd xfcnj gjhféftn änf jcjåtyyjcnm fvthbrfycrjq ujcelfhcndtyyjq cbcntvs. Yj änf dkfcnm celtåyjuj
yflpjhf yt fåcjkñnyf, gjcrjkmre pfrjys vjuen
åsnm yfgbcfys pfyjdj, f d Rjycnbnewbñ, ghb
ytjåöjlbvjcnb, vjuen åsnm dytctys gjghfdrb.
Ghbywbgs b vtöfybpvs aeyrwbjybhjdfybz celtåyjq cbcntvs CIF bpkjétys d cnfnmt
ghjatccjhf Njyb V. Afqy, pfvtcnbntkz herjdjlbntkz Vtéleyfhjlyjq ghjuhfvvs ≤Ghbywbgs ghfdjdjuj ujcelfhcndf≥ ghb Ñhblbxtcrjv
afrekmntnt Ymñqjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf. Fdnjh
jåceélftn hfpkbxbz vtéle atlthfkmysvb
celfvb b celfvb infnjd, hjkm flvbybcnhfnbd-
ysö celjd, f nfrét bcrkñxbntkmyj dféyeñ cbcntve gjlfxb fgtkkzwbq. Gjcktlybt ghjöjlzn
xthtp abkmnh cgtwbfkmysö fgtkkzwbjyysö
celjd hfpkbxysö ehjdytq b byjulf ljöjlzn lj
Dthöjdyjuj celf Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, rjnjhsq, d cjjndtncndbb c fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvjq,
ghbybvftn jrjyxfntkmyjt htitybt gj celtåysv b rjycnbnewbjyysv djghjcfv.
Fvthbrfycrfz cbcntvf ñhbcgheltywbb gj
cenb jcyjdfyf yf cjcnzpfntkmyjcnb. D jcyjdt tt
ktébn eåtéltybt d njv, xnj dthjznyjcnm dszdktybz bcnbys dsit, rjulf jåt cnjhjys – pfobnf b jådbytybt – yfgjhbcnj ghtlcnfdkzñn cdjb
gjpbwbb éñhb ghbczéysö d cjjndtncndbb c
åtcghbcnhfcnysvb ghfdbkfvb ljrfpsdfybz d
ghbcencndbb åtccnhfcnyjuj celmb. J hjkb dctö
änbö kbw gjlhjåyj hfccrfpsdftncz d cthbb bynthdmñ c pfvtcnbntktv atlthfkmyjuj ghjrehjhf, yfpyfxftvsv celjv pfobnybrjv, fldjrfnjv
b celmtq, rjnjhst ghjdtkb yfib htlfrnjhs
Cnñfhn Ujhby b Åhñc Rähb.
D fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvt ceotcndetn ldf
jxtym hfpysö dblf celjghjbpdjlcndf: uhfélfycrjt b eujkjdyjt. Jyb ceotcndtyyj hfpkbxfñncz vtéle cjåjq gj ghfdbkfv ghjdtltybz ghjwtccjd, jåzpfyyjcnzv celf b ghfdfv gjlcelbvsö. Fldjrfn celf gj uhfélfycrbv ltkfv b ysytiybq ghtpbltyn Fvthbrfycrjq rjkktubb
celtåysö fldjrfnjd Jcåjhy T. Fqcrmñ-vk.
bccktletn änb hfpkbxbz d cdjtv jxthrt j uhfélfycrjv b eujkjdyjv celjghjbpdjlcndt. Lkz
bkkñcnhfwbb cdjtq njxrb phtybz jy bcgjkmpetn ghbvths bp yfievtdibö ltk, öjhjij
pdtcnysö vbhjdjq jåotcndtyyjcnb.
Cthlwtdbyjq fvthbrfycrjq celtåyjq cbcntvs ckeébn gjyznbt ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf, bkb
ghfdf, cjplfdftvjuj celmzvb, rfr gbcfyjuj, nfr
b ytgbcfyjuj, d jnkbxbt jn uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf, jgbhfñotujcz d jcyjdyjv yf gbcfyst cdjls pfrjyjd. Celmz jrheéyjuj atlthfkmyjuj
celf gthdjq bycnfywbb infnf Vähbktyl Gbnth
Lé. Vtccbnn hfccrfpsdftn j nhflbwbb ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf, eyfcktljdfyyjq fvthbrfycrjq
ujcelfhcndtyyjq cbcntvjq jn Åhbnfybb rfr
åsditq rjkjybfkmyjq lthéfds.
Yb jlby celtåysq bycnbnen yt vjétn hfåjnfnm äaatrnbdyj b cghfdtlkbdj, yt bvtz
dcnhjtyysö pfobnysö cbcntv, jåtcgtxbdfñobö
vfrcbvfkmyj dscjrbt änbxtcrbt yjhvs gjdtltybz celtq, fldjrfnjd b lheubö exfcnybrjd
celtåyjuj ghjwtccf. Bö åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnm,
ghjatccbjyfkbpv b xtcnyjcnm ébpytyyj ytjåöjlbvs lkz jåtcgtxtybz yfhjlyjq gjllthérb
b ljdthbz r ybv. D öjlt ntktdbpbjyyjq ghtccrjyathtywbb lkz celtq bp Ckjdtybb celmz
Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF Äynjyb Rtyytlb hfcceélftn j njv, rfr ecnfyjdbnm b cjöhfyznm
änbxtcrbt yjhvs lkz jåtcgtxtybz eybdthcfkmyjcnb ghbywbgf dkfcnb pfrjyf.
C vjvtynf ecnfyjdktybz htcgeåkbrb, hjkm
celjd d CIF yt juhfybxbdfkfcm yfrfpfybtv
ghtcnegktybq, yj pfrkñxfkfcm d jåtcgtxtybb
ghfd, pfrhtgktyysö d Rjycnbnewbb CIF. D
cnfnmt j ltkt ≤Åhfey ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥, htlfrnjh Lädbl Gbnnc ghjcktébdftn
bcnjhbñ ghbyznbz jlyjuj bp yfbåjktt dféysö
htitybq d bcnjhbb fvthbrfycrjuj rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf. Änj bcnjhbz j njv, rfr ytåjkmifz uheggf uhfélfy jåhfnbkfcm d cel c öjlfnfqcndjv jå jnvtyt pfrjyf infnf, rjnjhsq jyb
cjxkb ytcghfdtlkbdsv. Bö jåhfotybt ghbdtkj
r htitybñ Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF jå jnvtyt
änjuj pfrjyf, f nfrét cöjébö pfrjyjd d tot
24 infnfö.
3
Cjlthéfybt
Djghjcs
L T VJRHFNB B
CTYNZÅHM 1999
6
RFR
A E Y R W B J Y B H E T N C E LT Å Y F Z C B C N T V F D
CIF
Ghjatccjh Njyb Afqy, pfvtcnbntkm herjdjlbntkz Vtéleyfhjlyjq ghjuhfvvs
≤Ghbywbgs ghfdjdjuj ujcelfhcndf≥ ghb Ñhblbxtcrjv afrekmntnt Ymñqjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf,
hfccrfpsdftn j vtöfybpvt hfåjns fvthbrfycrbö celjd b j njv, rfrbv jåhfpjv jyb aeyrwbjybheñn
d fvthbrfycrjq celtåyjq cbcntvt d wtkjv.
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EXFCNYBRB
C E LT Å Y J U J G H J W T C C F
Cthbz bynthdmñ htlfrnjhjd Cnñfhnf Ujhbyf b Åhñcf Rähb c pfvtcnbntktv atlthfkmyjuj ghjrehjhf
CIF, yfpyfxftvsv celjv pfobnybrjv, fldjrfnjv b celmtq jå bö hjkb d celtåyjv ghjwtcct.
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UHFÉLFYCRJT
B EUJKJDYJT CELJGHJBPDJLCNDJ D
CIF
Cnfnmz ghtpbltynf Fvthbrfycrjq rjkktubb celtåysö fldjrfnjd Jcåjhyf T. Fqcrmñ-vk.
gjcdzotyf hfccvjnhtybñ ldeö dbljd celjghjbpdjlcndf – uhfélfycrjuj
b eujkjdyjuj, b jåüzcytybñ hfpkbxbq vtéle ybvb, bvtñobö rkñxtdjt pyfxtybt lkz gjybvfybz
fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvs ghfdjcelbz.
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CHFDYBNTKMYSQ
F Y F K B P C B C N T V G H T W T LT Y N Y J U J
B UHFÉLFYCRJUJ GHFDF
Gbnth Vtccbnn, celmz jrheéyjuj atlthfkmyjuj celf CIF gthdjq bycnfywbb
d infnt Vähbktyl, hfccrfpsdftn j ghjbcöjéltybb cbcntv ghtwtltynyjuj b uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf
b jå bö aeyrwbjybhjdfybb ctujlyz.
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C E LT Å Y F Z
ÄNBRF D ECKJDBZÖ GHFDJDJUJ UJCELFHCNDF
D öjlt ntktdbpbjyyjq ghtcc-rjyathtywbb lkz celtq bp Ckjdtybb celmz Dthöjdyjuj celf
CIF Äynjyb Rtyytlb hfccrfpsdftn j njv, rfr celtåyfz dtndm dkfcnb ljkéyf ufhfynbhjdfnm
eybdthcfkmyjcnm ghbywbgf dkfcnb pfrjyf.
4
U.
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≤ÅHFEY GHJNBD CJDTNF GJ JÅHFPJDFYBÑ≥:
D T H Ö J D Y J U J C E L F, B P V T Y B D I T T É B P Y M C N H F Y S
HTITYBT
Htlfrnjh Lädbl Gbnnc ghjcktébdftn bcnjhbñ ghbyznbz jlyjuj bp yfbåjktt dféysö htitybq d
bcnjhbb fvthbrfycrjuj rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf (≤Åhfey ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥),
rjhtyysv jåhfpjv ghtjåhfpjdfdituj ébpym fvthbrfycrjuj jåotcndf.
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ÅBÅKBJUHFABZ
Cnfnmb, rybub b dbltjvfnthbfks jå fvthbrfycrbö celfö b ñhblbxtcrjq cbcntvt CIF.
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CFQNS BYNTHYTNF
Drkñxfz dsöjls yf cfqns gj fvthbrfycrbv celfv b ñhblbxtcrjq cbcntvt CIF, f nfrét
ukjccfhbq ñhblbxtcrbö nthvbyjd.
Ä
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F R
F V T H B R F Y C R B T
T Y N Z Å H M
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B PLFNTKM
L ÉELBN C. C BUTK
H TLFRNJH
Ä YNJYB D. C FHBNB
Å HÑC R ÄHB
HTLFRNJH
LTÅJHF V. C. Å HFEY
V JYF Ä CRDTNBYB
E ÄQY Ö JKK
C NÑFHN U JHBY
LTÅJHF V. C. Å HFEY
I FHKF Ö FNNJY
H TLFRNJH - RJYCEKMNFYN
H TLFRNJH B YNTHYTN - DTHCBB
Y A J H V F W B J Y Y J U J
H F Å J N F Ñ N
C
JNDTNCNDTYYSQ
B
É E H Y F K S
ÉEHYFKF
H TLFRNJHS
F U T Y N C N D F
C I F
C E L S
.
Ä CNTKM Å ÄQHL
H TLFRWBJYYFZ
RJKKTUBZ
Ö JDFHL C BYRJNNF
L ÉELBN C BUTK
K TJYFHLJ E BKMZVC
H TLFRNJHS
HECCRJUJ BPLFYBZ
Y FNFIF Å FHÅFI
K BLBZ D JHJYBYF
L ÉJY L ÉTQCBR
L ÄDBL G BNNC
C GHFDJXYJ - BCCKTLJDFNTKMCRBQ
JNLTK
R ÄHJK Y JHNJY
Å FHÅFHF C FYLTHC
Ö ELJÉTCNDTYYSQ
U HFABXTCRJT
HTLFRNJH
JAJHVKTYBT
G JVJOYBR
HTLFRNJHF
L FQFYF D EKDTHNJY
Ö KJ Ä KKBC
C BKMDBZ C RJNN
GJ UHFABXTCRJVE JAJHVKTYBÑ
Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBC dsöjlzn rfélst nhb ytltkb. D ybö jåceélfñncz ckjéyst ghjåktvs, cnjzobt gthtl Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb. Jyb nfrét byajhvbheñn jåotcndtyyjcnm j cjåsnbzö, ghjbcöjlzobö d änjq cnhfys. Éehyfks dsöjlzn d cthbzö: ≤Ärjyjvbxtcrbt gthcgtrnbds≥, ≤Ukjåfkmyst ghjåktvs≥, ≤Djghjcs
ltvjrhfnbb≥, ≤Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf CIF≥ b ≤CIF: jåotcndj b wtyyjcnb≥. Jyb cjlthéfn fyfkbp, rjvvtynfhbb b byajhvfwbjyyst vfnthbfks gj jåceélftvjq ntvt.
Dct éehyfks gthtdjlzncz yf ahfywepcrbq b bcgfycrbq zpsrb, ghb änjv ubgthntrcnjdst dthcbb geåkbreñncz xthtp ytltkñ gjckt dsöjlf éehyfkf gj-fyukbqcrb.
Dcrjht gjckt änjuj dsöjlzn dthcbb d ajhvfnt Adobe Acrobat. Ytrjnjhst yjvthf éehyfkjd gthtdjlzncz nfrét yf fhfåcrbq, rbnfqcrbq, gjhneufkmcrbq b heccrbq
zpsrb, ghbxtv ldf gjcktlybö dfhbfynf dsöjlzn d ubgthntrcnjdjv htébvt b ajhvfnt Adobe Acrobat. • Vytybz, dscrfpsdftvst d änbö éehyfkfö, yt jåzpfntkmyj
jnhféfñn dpukzls bkb gjkbnbre ghfdbntkmcndf CIF. Ghjcmåf bvtnm d dble, xnj ÑCBC yt åthtn yf ctåz jndtncndtyyjcnb pf cjlthéfybt b gjcnjzyyeñ ljcnegyjcnm
ghbdjlbvsö pltcm cfqnjd d Bynthytnt; nfrjuj hjlf jndtncndtyyjcnm ytcen bcrkñxbntkmyj bö dkfltkmws. Geåkbretvst cnfnmb vjuen djcghjbpdjlbnmcz bkb gthtdjlbnmcz yf lheubt zpsrb pf ghtltkfvb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, tckb jyb yt cyfåétys juhfybxtybzvb, rfcfñobvbcz fdnjhcrbö ghfd. Ntreobt bkb ghtlsleobt yjvthf éehyfkjd vjéyj gjkexbnm c ljvfiytq cnhfybws Byajhvfwbjyyjq ckeéås CIF (ÑCBC) dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgmñnthyjq ctnb gj flhtce:
“http://www.usia.gov/journals/journals.htm”. Éehyfks ghtljcnfdkzñncz d ytcrjkmrbö äktrnhjyysö ajhvfnfö lkz eghjotybz bö ghjcvjnhf, gthtlfxb, dsdjlf b gtxfnb. Rjvvtynfhbb b pfvtxfybz vjéyj ghbcskfnm d vtcnyjt jnltktybt ÑCBC bkb d htlfrwbñ: Editor, Issues of Democracy (I/TDHR), U.S.Information Agency, 301
4th Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20547, United States of America.
5
Rfr hfåjnfñn fvthbrfycrbt cels
Rfr aeyrwbjybhetn celtåyfz
cbcntvf d CIF
N j y b V. A f q y
Gj Rjycnbnewbb ujcelfhcndtyyjt
ecnhjqcndj CIF jcyjdfyj yf ghbywbgt atlthfkbpvf, d cjjndtncndbb
c rjnjhsv atlthfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj jåkflftn juhfybxtyysvb gjkyjvjxbzvb, f dcz jcnfkmyfz dkfcnm ghbyflktébn infnfv. Änf ét vjltkm
hfpltktybz gjkyjvjxbq jghtltkztn
jnyjitybz vtéle atlthfkmysvb
celfvb b celfvb infnjd. D cdjtv
jåpjht fvthbrfycrbö celjd hfpkbxysö ehjdytq pfvtcnbntkm herjdjlbntkz Vtéleyfhjlyjq ghjuhfvvs
≤Ghbywbgs ghfdjdjuj ujcelfhcndf≥
ghb Ñhblbxtcrjv afrekmntnt
Ymñqjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf Njyb
V. Afqy jåüzcyztn, rfr aeyrwbjybhetn celtåyfz cbcntvf cnhfys.
6
Dhzl kb vjéyj ujdjhbnm j tlbyjq celtåyjq
cbcntvt CIF, gjcrjkmre yf ltkt jyf cjcnjbn
bp ytcrjkmrbö fdnjyjvysö celtåysö cbcntv.
Ceotcndetn tlbyfz cbcntvf atlthfkmysö
celjd, bvtñofz vyjétcndj utjuhfabxtcrbö
gjlhfpltktybq b hfpkbxyst ehjdyb bthfhöbb.
Rhjvt njuj, d rféljv infnt tcnm cdjz cjåcndtyyfz celtåyfz cbcntvf, drkñxfñofz ctnm
vtcnysö celjd, ltqcndeñobö yf nthhbnjhbb
infnf. D cjjndtncndbb c änjq ldetlbyjq cnhernehjq celjd atlthfkmyjuj ehjdyz b ehjdyz
infnjd, Dthöjdysq cel CIF dscnegftn jrjyxfntkmysv fhåbnhjv d njv, xnj rfcftncz atlthfkmysö pfrjyjd, f dscibq cel rféljuj infnf
(jåsxyj yfpsdftvsq dthöjdysv celjv) ckeébn
dthöjdysv jhufyjv, bynthghtnbheñobv pfrjys
cjjndtncndeñotuj infnf. D djghjcfö, cdzpfyysö
c atlthfkmyjq rjycnbnewbtq b pfrjyfvb, atlthfkmyst cels bvtñn ghfdj ghbybvfnm htitybt
j njv, yfheifñn kb pfrjys infnf atlthfkmyjt
pfrjyjlfntkmcndj.
Hfåjnf änbö cbcntv pfnhelyztncz ntv, xnj
ceotcndetn ytcrjkmrj bcnjxybrjd ghfdf, b
celfv jlyjq cbcntvs xfcnj ghböjlbncz bynthghtnbhjdfnm b ghbvtyznm pfrjys, yföjlzobtcz
d ñhbclbrwbb lheubö celjd. Rhjvt njuj, byju-
wbjyysö celjd, n.t. rfélsq cel bvttn gjkyjvjxbz jåüzdbnm njn bkb byjq pfrjy bkb ltqcndbz
bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb ytrjycnbnewbjyysvb,
xnj vjétn åsnm gthtcvjnhtyj celjv åjktt dscjrjq bycnfywbb.
Atlthfkmyst cels
Njyb V. Afqy
lf ghfdj ckeifybz jlyjuj b njuj ét ltkf
vjétn ghbyflktéfnm chfpe ytcrjkmrbv celfv.
Atlthfkmyfz celtåyfz cbcntvf, nfr ét rfr
b celtåyfz cbcntvf infnjd, gjcnhjtyf gj ghbywbge gbhfvbls. E jcyjdfybz gbhfvbls rfr yf
atlthfkmyjv ehjdyt, nfr b yf ehjdyt infnf
ltkf ckeifñncz d celfö gthdjq bycnfywbb,
relf ghbukfifñncz cdbltntkb, ghtlcnfdkzñncz
ljrfpfntkmcndf b cjjndtncndeñobv jhufyjv
(éñhb ghbczéysö, f byjulf celmtq) ghjbpdjlbncz ecnfyjdktybt afrnjd yf jcyjdt pfrjyf.
Yf dthibyt rféljq bp gbhfvbl yföjlbncz
≤cel gjcktlytq bycnfywbb≥ (yf atlthfkmyjv
ehjdyt änj Dthöjdysq cel CIF, yf ehjdyt
infnf – dthöjdysq cel infnf), rjnjhsq bvttn
gjkyjvjxbz bynthghtnbhjdfnm pfrjys, yföjlzobtcz d tuj ñhbclbrwbb. D åjkmibycndt infnjd, f nfrét d atlthfkmyjq cbcntvt ceotcndeñn b fgtkkzwbjyyst cels chtlytuj ehjdyz.
Åjkmibycndj celjd rfr yf atlthfkmyjv
ehjdyt, nfr b yf ehjdyt infnjd ghtlcnfdkzñn
cjåjq ≤cels jåotq ñhbclbrwbb≥, nj tcnm bvtñn ghfdj hfccvfnhbdfnm ltkf hfpkbxyjq rfntujhbb. D CIF yt ceotcndetn jcjåsö rjycnbne-
Nhflbwbjyyst atlthfkmyst cels yfpsdfñn
≤celfvb nhtnmtq cnfnmb≥, gjcrjkmre d cjjndtncndbb cj Cnfnmtq 3 Rjycnbnewbb CIF jyb
jåkflfñn ghfdjv celtåyjuj yflpjhf b jghtltktyyjq pfobnjq. Änb cels jhufybpjdfys dthnbrfkmyj d nhb ehjdyz, f nfrét gj utjuhfabxtcrjve ghbpyfre. Yf ybéytv ehjdyt yföjlzncz jrheéyst atlthfkmyst cels CIF gthdjq
bycnfywbb. Fgtkkzwbb, gjlfdftvst yf htitybt atlthfkmysö jrheéysö celjd gthdjq
bycnfywbb, yfghfdkzñncz d jrheéyst atlthfkmyst fgtkkzwbjyyst cels CIF. Bp ybö
ltkf vjuen gthtlfdfnmcz d Dthöjdysq cel
CIF. Åjkmieñ xfcnm gjkyjvjxbq gj celtåyjve yflpjhe Dthöjdysq cel jceotcndkztn gj
cdjtve ecvjnhtybñ, ghbybvfz htitybt kbim
gj ytåjkmijq xfcnb ltk, ghtlcnfdktyysö yf
tuj hfccvjnhtybt.
Jrheéyst atlthfkmyst cels CIF – cels
gthdjq bycnfywbb jåotq ñhbclbrwbb, nj tcnm
jyb ghjdjlzn ckeifybt ltk gj hfpkbxysv
eujkjdysv b uhfélfycrbv djghjcfv. Ceotcndetn 94 atlthfkmysö celtåysö jrheuf CIF,
ghbxtv d rféljv infnt yföjlbncz gj rhfqytq
vtht jlby jrheéyjq atlthfkmysq cel. D yfbåjktt rhegysö b uecnjyfctktyysö infnfö
ceotcndetn ytcrjkmrj jrheujd, ghb änjv uhfybws jrheujd yt gthtctrfñn uhfybws infnjd.
Xbckj celtq pfdbcbn jn hfpvthf nthhbnjhbb b
xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz – b, cjjndtncndtyyj,
pfuheétyyjcnb – rféljuj jrheéyjuj atlthfkmyjuj celf gthdjq bycnfywbb. Öjnz d rféljv
jrheéyjv atlthfkmyjv celt gthdjq bycnfywbb
7
hfåjnftn ytcrjkmrj celtq, ckeifybt ltkf ghjöjlbn gjl ghtlctlfntkmcndjv njkmrj jlyjuj
celmb.
Jrheéyst atlthfkmyst fgtkkzwbjyyst
cels CIF – atlthfkmyst cels chtlytuj ehjdyz. Änb fgtkkzwbjyyst cels cxbnfñncz jcyjdyjq ≤hfåjxtq kjiflrjq≥ atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq cbcntvs, gjcrjkmre åjkmifz xfcnm ltk
htiftncz bvtyyj d ybö. Fgtkkzwbb yfghfdkzñncz bp jrheéysö atlthfkmysö celjd CIF
gthdjq bycnfywbb d jrheéyst atlthfkmyst
fgtkkzwbjyyst cels CIF, tckb ghjbuhfdifz
cnjhjyf cxbnftn, xnj celmz jrheéyjuj atlthfkmyjuj celf gthdjq bycnfywbb ljgecnbk
celtåyeñ jibåre d ghbyznbb htitybz. Fgtkkzwbb yt vjuen gjlfdfnmcz lkz bcghfdktybz
ghtlgjkfuftvsö jibåjr d jwtyrt afrnjd, tckb
njkmrj ytn zdyjuj yfheitybz pfrjyf. Yfghbvth, ghjbuhfdifz cnjhjyf vjétn pfzdbnm, xnj
celmz ljgecnbk jibåre, ghbyzd rfrjq-ybåelm
ljrevtyn d rfxtcndt dtotcndtyyjuj ljrfpfntkmcndf, yj ghjbuhfdifz cnjhjyf yt vjétn jcgjhbnm htitybt celf bkb éñhb ghbczéysö, bcöjlz bp njuj, xnj jyb ghbikb r ytdthyjve htitybñ, jcyjdsdfzcm njkmrj yf änjv ljrevtynt.
Jrheéyst atlthfkmyst fgtkkzwbjyyst
cels CIF jödfnsdfñn 12 htubjyjd: 11 ghjyevthjdfyysö htubjyjd, rfélsq bp rjnjhsö
drkñxftn nthhbnjhbñ gj rhfqytq vtht nhtö
infnjd, b atlthfkmysq fgtkkzwbjyysq cel
CIF d jrheut Rjkevåbz, ult pfckeibdfñncz
nfrét ltkf, pfnhfubdfñobt atlthfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj. Rfélsq jrheéyjq atlthfkmysq
fgtkkzwbjyysq cel CIF hfccvfnhbdftn fgtkkzwbb, gjlfyyst bp jrheéysö atlthfkmysö celjd CIF gthdjq bycnfywbb, yföjlzoböcz yf
tuj nthhbnjhbb.
Xbcktyyjcnm celtq d hfpkbxysö jrheéysö
atlthfkmysö fgtkkzwbjyysö celfö CIF ceotcndtyyj hfpkbxftncz b pfdbcbn jn xbcktyyjcnb
yfctktybz b hfpvthf htubjyf. Rféljt ltkj pf-
8
ckeibdftncz celjv d cjcnfdt nhtö celtq,
dsåhfyysö gj éhtåbñ, ghbxtv cjcnfd celf
ljkéty åsnm d rféljv ckexft hfpysv.
Jrheéyst atlthfkmyst fgtkkzwbjyyst
cels CIF vjuen ghbybvfnm htitybz gj ltkfv
yf jcyjdt hfccvjnhtybz pfgbcjr gj ltke, ghtlcnfdkztvsö cnjhjyfvb, bkb ghjdjlz ecnyst
ckeifybz. Htitybt gjlujnfdkbdftncz jlybv bp
celtq d gbcmvtyyjv dblt b hfplftncz ldev
lheubv xktyfv cjcnfdf celf. Pfrkñxtybt celf
ljkéyj åsnm gjlgbcfyj gj rhfqytq vtht ldevz xktyfvb cjcnfdf celf. Kñåjq celmz, döjlzobq d cjcnfd celf, bvttn ghfdj yfgbcfnm ≤cjukfcyjt, yj yt cjdgflfñott≥ vytybt, d rjnjhjv
celmz cjukfiftncz c htitybtv åjkmibycndf, yj
gj lheubv bkb ljgjkybntkmysv ghbxbyfv.
Celmz, ytcjukfcysq c vytybtv celf, vjétn
gbcmvtyyj pfzdbnm j cdjtv jcjåjv vytybb,
jåüzcybd, gjxtve jy ghbitk r lheujve dsdjle.
Öjnz rfr ≤cjukfcyjt, yj yt cjdgflfñott≥, nfr
b jcjåjt vytybt yt bvttn ñhblbxtcrjq cbks,
jyb vjuen bvtnm ceotcndtyyjt pyfxtybt d ghbyznbb gjcktleñobö celtåysö htitybq.
Gjckt njuj, rfr cel d cjcnfdt nhtö celtq
dsytc htitybt, e cnjhjy tcnm ytcrjkmrj dfhbfynjd ltqcndbq: jyb vjuen ljåbdfnmcz ≤gjdnjhyjuj hfccvjnhtybz≥ ghbyznjuj htitybz ntv ét
cfvsv cjcnfdjv celf, kbåj ljåbdfnmcz ghjdtltybz ≤gjdnjhyjuj ckeifybz≥ htitybz celf dctvb celmzvb änjuj jrheéyjuj atlthfkmyjuj
fgtkkzwbjyyjuj celf CIF yf cjdvtcnyjv pfctlfybb, kbåj ét ljåbdfnmcz hfccvjnhtybz ltkf
Dthöjdysv celjv CIF, yfghfdbd öjlfnfqcndj
jå jnlfybb ghbrfpf jå bcnhtåjdfybb ltkf
(d ckexft, tckb cels ybétcnjzobö bycnfywbq
ghbyzkb htitybt gj bö ltke b hfpjikbcm dj
vytybzö). Rféljt bp änbö öjlfnfqcnd eljdktndjhztncz, jlyfrj, gj ecvjnhtybñ celf, b ghjbcöjlbn änj ytxfcnj.
Dthöjdysq cel CIF yföjlbncz yf dthibyt atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq cbcntvs b cjcnjbn bp
ltdznb celtq, rjnjhst ghjdjlzn ckeifybz ltk
b ghbybvfñn htitybz gj ybv. Rfr b d jrheéysö atlthfkmysö fgtkkzwbjyysö celfö CIF,
celmb Dthöjdyjuj celf vjuen ghbcjtlbybnmcz
r vytybñ åjkmibycndf bkb gbcmvtyyj pfzdbnm
j bkb ghbcjtlbybnmcz r ≤cjukfcyjve, yj yt
cjdgflfñotve≥ bkb jcjåjve vytybzv.
Jåofz ñhbclbrwbz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF
d jcyjdyjv jceotcndkztncz d lbcrhtwbjyyjv
gjhzlrt gjchtlcndjv ghjwtccf bcnhtåjdfybz
ltk bp ybétcnjzobö celjd. D cjjndtncndbb
c nfr yfpsdftvsv ghfdbkjv xtnshtö, tckb
xtnsht bp ltdznb xktyjd Dthöjdyjuj celf
CIF dscrfpsdfñncz d gjkmpe ghjdtltybz
ckeifybq rfrjuj-kbåj ltkf, nj öjlfnfqcndj jå
bcnhtåjdfybb änjuj ltkf eljdktndjhztncz. Dthöjdysq cel xfcnj ghbybvftn r hfccvjnhtybñ
ltkf, d rjnjhsö gthtrhtobdfñncz gjkyjvjxbz
ytcrjkmrbö jrheéysö atlthfkmysö fgtkkzwbjyysö celjd CIF bkb ltkf, pfnhfubdfñobt
dféyst rjycnbnewbjyyst bkb lheubt ñhblbxtcrbt ghbywbgs. Jnrfp d dslfxt ghbrfpf jå
bcnhtåjdfybb ltkf yt cdbltntkmcndetn j cjukfcbb c htitybzvb ybétcnjzobö celjd, yj ghjcnj jpyfxftn, xnj jghtltktyyjt xbckj celtq gj
rfrbv-kbåj ghbxbyfv yt pföjntkj hfccvfnhbdfnm änj ltkj.
Gjvbvj ghbrfpjd jå bcnhtåjdfybb ltk,
Dthöjdysq cel CIF vjétn ghjdjlbnm hfccvjnhtybt ltk gj fgtkkzwbzv atlthfkmysö
celjd bkb dthöjdysö celjd infnjd, dsytcibö
htitybz yf jcyjdt atlthfkmysö pfrjyjd
(yfghbvth, rjulf jrheéyjq atlthfkmysq fgtkkzwbjyysq cel CIF ghbybvftn htitybt jå
jnvtyt pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj frnf rfrjuj-kbåj infnf bkb rjulf cel infnf jåüzdkztn ytltqcndbntkmysv atlthfkmysq pfrjyjlfntkmysq frn).
Dthöjdysq cel nfrét bvttn ghfdj ghbybvfnm
htitybt gj rjyrhtnysv ñhblbxtcrbv djghjcfv gj jåhfotybzv ybétcnjzobö atlthfkmysö
celjd.
Ñhbclbrwbz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF nfrét
drkñxftn ghfdf celf gthdjq bycnfywbb gj juhfybxtyyjve rheue rjyrhtnysö ltk: cgjhs
vtéle ldevz infnfvb, cgjhs vtéle Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb Fvthbrb b jnltkmysv infnjv,
ltqcndbz infnf ghjnbd ébntkz lheujuj infnf
bkb byjcnhfywf, f nfrét ltkf, djpåeéltyyst
gj bybwbfnbdt bkb ghjnbd gjckf bkb rjycekf
byjcnhfyyjq lthéfds.
Cgtwbfkmyst cels
Rfr ghfdbkj, d hfvrfö atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq
cbcntvs yt cjplftncz cgtwbfkmysö celjd lkz
hfccvjnhtybz rfrbö-kbåj jcjåsö djghjcjd.
Ceotcndetn, jlyfrj, ldf ceotcndtyysö bcrkñxtybz: atlthfkmysq Ghtntywbjpysq cel CIF,
rjnjhsq hfccvfnhbdftn abyfycjdst bcrb ghjnbd Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb, b Cel
CIF gj Vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkt, hfccvfnhbdfñobq b dsyjczobq htitybz gj uhfélfycrbv
ltkfv ghjnbd Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb,
atlthfkmysö dtljvcnd b bö cjnhelybrjd, jcyjdfyysv yf kñåsö pfrjyfö, cdzpfyysö c vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdktq.
Ceotcndetn nfrét jlby cgtwbfkbpbhjdfyysq atlthfkmysq fgtkkzwbjyysq cel – Fgtkkzwbjyysq cel CIF d cbcntvt atlthfkmysö
celjd. Änjn cel jåkflftn ñhbclbrwbtq gj fgtkkzwbzv bp dctö atlthfkmysö jrheéysö celjd
gj ltkfv, jcyjdsdfñobvcz yf gfntynyjv pfrjyjlfntkmcndt, f nfrét gj fgtkkzwbzv bp atlthfkmyjuj Ghtntywbjpyjuj celf b Atlthfkmyjuj
celf CIF gj Vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkt.
Atlthfkmyfz celtåyfz cbcntvf nfrét
drkñxftn ytcrjkmrj celjd, yfpsdftvsö pfrjyjlfntkmysvb celfvb, bkb ≤celfvb gthdjq cnfnmb≥, bvtz d dble Cnfnmñ 1 Rjycnbnewbb
CIF. Änb cels ltqcndeñn d cjjndtncndbb c pfrjyjlfntkmysvb gjkyjvjxbzvb Rjyuhtccf b
bvtñn ghfdj ghbybvfnm htitybz gj afrnbxtc-
9
rbv djghjcfv, jnyjczobvcz r rjyrhtnysv
ltkfv. D rfxtcndt ghbvthjd ≤celjd gthdjq
cnfnmb≥ vjéyj ghbdtcnb atlthfkmysq fgtkkzwbjyysq cel Djjheétyysö cbk CIF, atlthfkmysq Cel CIF gj fgtkkzwbzv dtnthfyjd,
atlthfkmysq Yfkjujdsq cel CIF b atlthfkmysq Cel CIF gj åfyrhjncndfv. Fgtkkzwbb bp
änbö celjd vjuen gjlfdfnmcz d jrheéyst atlthfkmyst fgtkkzwbjyyst cels CIF.
F l v b y b cn h fn b d y s t c e l s
Atlthfkmyst dtljvcndf buhfñn juhjvyeñ hjkm
d hfphfåjnrt b ghbvtytybb atlthfkmysö pfrjyjlfntkmysö frnjd CIF gj åjkmijve rheue
djghjcjd – jn eghfdktybz ghbhjlysvb htcehcfvb lj djghjcjd jöhfys pljhjdmz b åtpjgfcyjcnb hfåjxbö. Xfcnj änj jpyfxftn, xnj atlthfkmyjt dtljvcndj dsgjkyztn hjkm jhufyf flvbybcnhfnbdyjuj ghfdjcelbz gj ecnfyjdktybñ
afrnjd d njv, xnj rfcftncz ghbvtytybz atlthfkmysö yjhvfnbdysö frnjd. Rjulf djpybrfñn
hfpyjukfcbz, cnjhjys ghtlcnfdkzñn cdjb ljrfpfntkmcndf celmt gj djghjcfv flvbybcnhfnbdyjuj ghfdf (CDFG), rjnjhsq dsgjkyztn aeyrwbñ
ecnfyjdktybz afrnjd. Rfélfz bp cnjhjy vjétn
gjlfnm fgtkkzwbñ yf htitybt celmb, jåsxyj
rjvbntne bkb rjvbccbb, jåhfpjdfyyjq atlthfkmysv dtljvcndjv, bplfdibv änjn yjhvfnbdysq frn. Gjcrjkmre r änjve vjvtyne CDFG eét
dsgjkybk pflfxe ecnfyjdktybz afrnjd, rjnjhjq
jåsxyj pfybvftncz jrheéyjq atlthfkmysq cel
gthdjq bycnfywbb, fgtkkzwbb yf htitybz
rhegysö atlthfkmysö dtljvcnd (yfghbvth,
Yfwbjyfkmyjuj eghfdktybz gj ehtuekbhjdfybñ
nheljdsö jnyjitybq bkb Atlthfkmyjq rjvbccbb gj djghjcfv njhujdkb) yfghfdkzñncz
ytgjchtlcndtyyj d jrheéyst atlthfkmyst
fgtkkzwbjyyst cels CIF. Öjnz nfrbt fgtkkzwbb vjuen yfghfdkznmcz d kñåjq jrheu cel, yf
ghfrnbrt åjkmibycndj fgtkkzwbq bp atlthfkm-
10
ysö dtljvcnd hfccvfnhbdftncz atlthfkmysv
fgtkkzwbjyysv celjv jrheuf Rjkevåbz.
C e l s i n fn j d
Rfélsq infn, f nfrét jrheu Rjkevåbz b Geähnj-Hbrj bvttn cdjñ ytpfdbcbvj ltqcndeñoeñ
celtåyeñ cbcntve. C njxrb phtybz infnf, cel
dscituj ehjdyz infnf ckeébn dthöjdyjq dkfcnmñ d jnyjitybb bynthghtnfwbb pfrjyjd cjjndtncndeñotuj infnf. Cbcntvf celjd infnjd, nfr
ét rfr b atlthfkmysö celjd, gjcnhjtyf gj
ghbywbge gbhfvbls.
D åjkmibycndt infnjd ceotcndetn nhtöcnegtyxfnfz celtåyfz cbcntvf, cjcnjzofz bp celjd
gthdjq bycnfywbb (byjulf yfpsdftvsö gthdsvb celfvb, jrheéysvb celfvb bkb htubjyfkmysvb celfvb), fgtkkzwbjyyjuj celf b celf gjcktlytq bycnfywbb (jåsxyj yfpsdftvjuj dthöjdysv celjv). D ytrjnjhsö infnfö bvttncz
kbim jlby ehjdtym hfccvjnhtybz fgtkkzwbq.
Rfr b d atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq cbcntvt,
celtåyst ckeifybz ghjdjlzncz gjl ghtlctlfntkmcndjv jlyjuj celmb (xfcnj d ghbcencndbb
éñhb ghbczéysö), fgtkkzwbb gj htitybzv
celjd gthdjq bycnfywbb hfccvfnhbdfñncz
cjcnfdjv celf bp nhtö celtq, f d dthöjdysö
celfö infnjd ltkf hfccvfnhbdfñncz dctvb xktyfvb celf, jåsxyj yfcxbnsdfñobvb ctvm bkb
ltdznm celtq.
Nfr ét, rfr b d atlthfkmyjq cbcntvt,
celtåyst ltkf infnjd hfccvfnhbdfñncz cyfxfkf d celt gthdjq bycnfywbb. Änb cels xfcnj
hfpltktys yf ldf ehjdyz: cels jåotq ñhbclbrwbb b cgtwbfkbpbhjdfyyst cels.
Ltkf, gj rjnjhsv ghbyzns htitybz celjv
gthdjq bycnfywbb, vjuen åsnm ghtlvtnjv fgtkkzwbb, yfghfdkztvjq b hfccvfnhbdftvjq fgtkkzwbjyysv celjv. Rfr jnvtxfkjcm dsit, d ytrjnjhsö infnfö ceotcndetn njkmrj jlby ehjdtym fgtkkzwbq bp celf gthdjq bycnfywbb.
D infnfö, ult tcnm ldf ehjdyz fgtkkzwbjyysö
celjd, ecnfyjdktys hfpkbxyst ghfdbkf jnyjcbntkmyj njuj, gthtqltn kb ltkj fdnjvfnbxtcrb
d fgtkkzwbjyysq cel bkb d dthöjdysq cel
infnf. D ytrjnjhsö infnfö fgtkkzwbb bp celf
gthdjq bycnfywbb yfghfdkzñncz d fgtkkzwbjyysq cel infnf chtlytuj ehjdyz b vjuen d gjcktleñotv åsnm hfccvjnhtys dthöjdysv celjv
infnf d lbcrhtwbjyyjv gjhzlrt. D lheubö infnfö cnjhjys vjuen gjlfdfnm fgtkkzwbb bp celf
gthdjq bycnfywbb yfghzveñ d dthöjdysq cel,
rjnjhsq ghbybvftn htitybt j ghbtvt ltkf r
hfccvjnhtybñ bkb yfghfdkztn ltkj d fgtkkzwbjyysq cel chtlytuj ehjdyz. D kñåjv ckexft
dthöjdysq cel infnf jåsxyj hfccvfnhbdftn
ltkf, pfnhfubdfñobt ceotcndtyyst djghjcs pfrjyjlfntkmcndf bkb gjkbnbrb infnf.
Cgtwbfkbpbhjdfyyst cels infnjd – änj
cels gthdjq bycnfywbb juhfybxtyyjq ñhbclbrwbb, rjnjhst hfccvfnhbdfñn ltkf, jnyjczobtcz njkmrj r jghtltktyyjve rheue ñhblbxtcrbö djghjcjd bkb cgjhjd. Öjnz yfåjh änbö
celjd hfpkbxftncz jn infnf r infne, dj vyjubö
infnfö tcnm cgtwbfkbpbhjdfyyst cels gj
djghjcfv ljhjéyjuj ldbétybz, ctvtqyjuj ghfdf, ltkfv j yfcktljdfybb ytldbébvjuj bveotcndf b vtkrbv éfkjåfv (ltkf gj ltytéysv
cevvfv vtymit jghtltktyyjq dtkbxbys).
Htitybz änbö cgtwbfkbpbhjdfyysö celjd vjuen
åsnm jåéfkjdfys d cels infnjd jåotq ñhbclbrwbb.
vb vfubcnhfnfvb, nj tcnm uhfélfycrbvb jabwbfkmysvb kbwfvb, jceotcndkzñobvb celtåyeñ
dkfcnm, gthtlfyyeñ bv d cjjndtncndbb c vtcnysvb pfrjyjlfntkmysvb frnfvb. Bö gjkyjvjxbz vjue drkñxfnm ghfdj ghbybvfnm htitybz
gj pfrjyfv j pjybhjdfybb ptvktgjkmpjdfybz,
cåjht vtcnysö yfkjujd b bö hfcöjljdfybb bkb
j cjplfybb b jåtcgtxtybb ltzntkmyjcnb jåotcndtyysö irjk.
Pfrkñxtybt
Jlyf bp yfbåjktt ckjéysö, yj b jlyjdhtvtyyj
yfbåjktt bynthtcysö jcjåtyyjcntq fvthbrfycrjq ñhblbxtcrjq cbcntvs cjcnjbn d ceotcndjdfybb hfpltkmysö celtåysö cbcntv yf atlthfkmyjv ehjdyt b d rféljv infnt. Änb celtåyst cbcntvs hfpkbxfñncz gj jhufybpfwbb cdjtq hfåjns. Åjktt njuj, cbnefwbz jckjéyztncz
toç b gthtrhtobdfybtv ñhbclbrwbq, xnj ghbdjlbn r njve, xnj rfélsq cel vjétn ghbybvfnm
r ghjbpdjlcnde ltkf, pfnhfubdfñobt rfr atlthfkmyjt pfrjyjlfntkmcndj, nfr b pfrjys infnf.
Yf ybéytv cdjtv ehjdyt dct celtåyst
cbcntvs CIF bvtñn aeylfvtynfkmyjt cöjlcndj. D åjkmibycndt cdjtv fvthbrfycrbt cels –
cels jåotq ñhbclbrwbb. Rhjvt njuj, rfélfz
cbcntvf gjcnhjtyf gj bthfhöbxtcrjve ghbywbge gbhfvbls, ghtlecvfnhbdfz lkz celjd åjktt
dscjrbö ehjdytq ghfdj yflpjhf b, ghb ytjåöjlbvjcnb, gthtcvjnhf ltk.
V t cn y s t c e l s
Rfélsq bp 50 infnjd bvttn nthhbnjhbfkmyjt
ltktybt yf flvbybcnhfnbdyst hfqjys b veybwbgfkbntns, yfpsdftvst rhegysvb ujhjlfvb,
uhfacndfvb, vtkrbvb ujhjlfvb b lthtdyzvb.
Vtcnyst jhufys dkfcnb, fyfkjubxyj dkfcnzv
infnjd, hfcgjkfufñn cdjbvb cjåcndtyysvb
celtåysvb cbcntvfvb, djpukfdkztvsvb vtcnys-
Djghjcs ltvjrhfwbb. Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBF. Njv 4, §2,
ctynzåhm 1999 u.
11
Rfr hfåjnfñn fvthbrfycrbt cels
Exfcnybrb celtåyjuj ghjwtccf
C n ñ f hn U j h b y b Å h ñ c R ä h b
Gjvbvj jndtnxbrf d celtåyjv hfpåb-
G h j re h j h
hfntkmcndt exfcndeñn b lheubt
Atlthfkmyst ghjrehjhs gjlhfpltkzñn celtåyst ltkf yf ldt jcyjdyst rfntujhbb – gj nbge
≤htfubhjdfybz≥ b ≤bybwbfnbdyst≥, ujdjhbn gjvjoybr atlthfkmyjuj ghjrehjhf Hjcf Hjlhbutc
Vthf, d xmb jåzpfyyjcnb döjlbn dtltybt cdzpfyysö c yfhrjnbrfvb ltk d ñéyjq xfcnb in.
Akjhbls.
≤Ltkf gj nbge ≤htfubhjdfybz≥ yjczn jlyjvjvtynysq öfhfrnth: yfghbvth, ghbdktxtybt r
cele pf cjdthityyjt d fähjgjhne ghtcnegktybt,
cdzpfyyjt c yfhrjnbrfvb≥, – gjzcyztn Hjlhbutc
Vthf. D ckexft ≤bybwbfnbdysö≥ ltk, rjnjhst
vjuen gjnhtåjdfnm ljkujuj dhtvtyb, ghjdjlbncz
åjkmijq jåütv cktlcndtyyjq hfåjns, ghtélt
xtv njn bkb byjq xtkjdtr åeltn fhtcnjdfy.
Gjljåyst ltkf jåsxyj dtlencz d cjnhelybxtcndt c nfrbvb atlthfkmysvb futyncndfvb, rfr
Flvbybcnhfwbz gj rjynhjkñ pf cjåkñltybtv
pfrjyjd j yfhrjnbrfö, Atlthfkmyjt åñhj hfccktljdfybq b Nfvjétyyfz ckeéåf CIF, ljåfd-
ltqcndeñobt kbwf, ghbdyjczobt
d ghjwtcc cdjb eybrfkmyst njxrb
phtybz. D jnltkmysö bynthdmñ yfib
htlfrnjhs Cnñfhn Ujhby b Åhñc
Rähb åtctleñn c gjvjoybrjv atlthfkmyjuj ghjrehjhf bp ñéyjuj jrheuf in. Akjhblf Hjcjq Hjlhbutc
Vthjq j hjkb ghjrehjhf, c yfpyfxftvsv celjv pfobnybrjv bp CfyAhfywbcrj Vfhnbyjv Cfåtkkb jå
jnyjcbntkmyj yjdjv lkz CIF uhfélfycrjv ghfdt gjlcelbvjuj yf fldjrfnf d eujkjdyjv ghjwtcct, c ghjrehjhjv bp Cfy-Ahfywbcrj Cnbdjv
Vfqj, pfybvfñotv ljkéyjcnm lbhtrnjhf Bycnbnenf bccktljdfybq ghfdjdsö cbcntv j ghjwtleht jnåjhf
ghbczéysö, f nfrét c celmtq infnf
Ymñ-Qjhr Kjhjq Ctqath Äcgbyjcf,
rjnjhfz gjzcyztn, rfr ghjbcöjlbn
celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj.
12
Gjvjoybr atlthfkmyjuj ghjrehjhf Hjcf Hjlhbutc Vthf
kztn Hjlhbutc Vthf. Rjulf ghjrehjhs ghjdjlzn
jghjcs cdbltntktq bp ghfdjjöhfybntkmysö
jhufyjd, enjxyztn jyf, futyns ljkéys lfdfnm
hfpüzcytybz gj nfrbv djghjcfv, rfr, yfghbvth,
bcgjkmpjdfdibtcz bvb vtnjls dtltybz yfåkñltybz. Vfuybnjajyyst pfgbcb b cntyjuhfvvs
nfrét fyfkbpbheñncz c exfcnbtv cdbltntktqjcdtljvbntktq, rjnjhst åelen lfdfnm gjrfpfybz
gj ltke.
D kñåjv ckexft, gj ckjdfv Hjlhbutc
Vths, ≤bvtyyj eghfdktybt atlthfkmyjuj ghjrehjhf ljkéyj ghbdktrfnm r celtåyjq jndtncndtyyjcnb yfheibntktq atlthfkmysö pfrjyjd≥.
Tckb cjdthityj ghtcnegktybt b gjljphtdftvsq pflthéfy, futyn edtljvkztn ltéehyjuj
ghjrehjhf, rjnjhsq jghtltkztn, rfrbt jcyjdfybz bvtñncz lkz fhtcnf. Futynfv, ghjbpdtlibv pflthéfybt, pflfñncz djghjcs nbgf ≤Ult
yföjlbkbcm yfhrjnbrb?≥ b ≤Jnrelf vs pyftv,
xnj jndtnxbre åskj bpdtcnyj j njv, xnj d xtvjlfyt åskb yfhrjnbrb?≥ Pfntv ghjrehjh cdzps-
dftncz c ltéehysv celmtq-vfubcnhfnjv, rjnjhsq dslftn jhlth yf fhtcn b htiftn, rfrjq
ltytéysq pfkju yfpyfxbnm pf jcdjåjéltybt
jndtnxbrf lj celf.
Jndtnxbr d ntxtybt 48 xfcjd ghtlcnftn
gthtl vfubcnhfnjv. Dj dhtvz änbö ckeifybq
jndtnxbre yfpyfxftncz fldjrfn, tckb jy d ytv
yeélftncz, jndtnxbr cnfdbncz d bpdtcnyjcnm j
dsldbyensö ghjnbd ytuj jådbytybzö b ecnfyfdkbdftncz hfpvth ltytéyjuj pfkjuf pf jcdjåjéltybt lj celf. Gj ckjdfv Hjlhbutc Vths,
tckb htxm bltn j rhegyjq gfhnbb yfhrjnbrjd,
kbåj ceotcndetn hbcr gjåtuf jådbyztvjuj bkb
euhjpf lkz jåotcndf, dkfcnb nhtåeñn yt jcdjåjélfnm jndtnxbrf gjl pfkju lj celf. D ghjnbdyjv ckexft celmz vjétn yfpyfxbnm pfkju b dsgecnbnm jndtnxbrf lj yfxfkf ghjwtccf.
Gjckt ghtlüzdktybz jndtnxbre jådbytybz
b d ckexft, tckb jy htibn yfcnfbdfnm yf cdjtq
ytdbyjdyjcnb, cel vjétn åsnm jnkjéty d cdzpb
c wtksv hzljv ghjwtccefkmysö ltqcndbq,
drkñxfz öjlfnfqcndf pfobns jå enfqrt ekbr,
htitybt gj rjnjhsv dsyjcbn celmz, f nfrét
nhtåjdfybz j ghtljcnfdktybb ljrfpfntkmcnd –
rjulf ghjrehjh ljkéty gthtlfnm fldjrfne
pfobns rjgbb pfzdktybq, ghjnjrjks kfåjhfnjhysö bccktljdfybq, vfuybnjajyyst gktyrb
b lheubt ljrfpfntkmcndf.
Hjlhbutc Vthf ujdjhbn, xnj d rféljv rjyrhtnyjv ckexft d hfvrfö ecnfyjdktyysö ghjwtccefkmysö yjhv ceotcndetn yt jxtym åjkmifz cdjåjlf ltqcndbq gj ≤pfrkñxtybñ cltkrb
j ghbpyfybb dbys≥. Yfghbvth, d jåvty yf
ghbpyfybt dbys dkfcnb vjuen öjlfnfqcndjdfnm
j yfpyfxtybb jådbyztvjve vtymituj chjrf nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz, tckb njn jrfétn ≤ceotcndtyyeñ gjvjom d hfccktljdfybb ltkf, yfghbvth, åeltn cjnhelybxfnm cj cktlcndbtv ghjnbd
jlyjuj bp cdjbö cjjåoybrjd≥, – ljåfdkztn jyf.
D rfxtcndt ghbvthf Hjlhbutc Vthf ghbdtkf
ltkj j yfkbxbb 10 rbkjuhfvv rjrfbyf, pf xnj
13
ghtlecvfnhbdftncz jåzpfntkmyjt yfrfpfybt
d dblt nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz chjrjv yf
10 ktn. Gj tt ckjdfv, tckb pfobnf jrfétn ceotcndtyyeñ gjvjom, jådbytybt vjétn öjlfnfqcndjdfnm j cvzuxtybb ghbujdjhf. Jlyfrj, jyf
jnvtxftn, xnj celmz yt jåzpfy eljdktndjhbnm
änj öjlfnfqcndj.
Yfpyfxftvsq celjv pfobnybr
Ghfdj gjlcelbvjuj yf fldjrfnf d eujkjdyjv
ghjwtcct – ≤jnyjcbntkmyj yjdjt lkz CIF
uhfélfycrjt ghfdj≥, ujdjhbn yfpyfxftvsq
celjv pfobnybr Vfhnby Cfåtkkb – ñhbcn,
rjnjhsq gj hjle cdjtq ltzntkmyjcnb jåzpfy
pfobofnm kñltq, jådbyztvsö d cjdthitybb
atlthfkmysö ghtcnegktybq.
≤Gj rhfqytq vtht, yf ehjdyt infnf, – ghjljkéftn Cfåtkkb, – d lkbyyjv gthtxyt ghfd,
rjnjhst åskb dsdtltys celfvb bp Rjycnbnewbb b ljåfdktys r gthdjyfxfkmyj bpkjétyysv
tt cjplfntkzvb, lfyyjt ghfdj vjéyj ghjcktlbnm njkmrj yfxbyfz c 1960-ö ujljd, f lkz tuj
afrnbxtcrjuj cnfyjdktybz gjnhtåjdfkjcm gjxnb
30 ktn≥.
Ghfdj yf fldjrfnf åthtn cdjt yfxfkj c
ltkf Rkfhtycf Ubltjyf (1963 u.) – åtlyjuj b
vfkjuhfvjnyjuj xtkjdtrf bp in. Akjhblf, rjnjhjuj jådbybkb d cjdthitybb vtkrjuj ghtcnegktybz. Ubltjy ghtlcnfk gthtl celjv åtp ltytu
b åtp fldjrfnf b gjghjcbk cel yfpyfxbnm tve
fldjrfnf. Yj celmz jnrfpfkcz cltkfnm änj, gjnjve xnj njulfiytt pfrjyjlfntkmcndj in. Akjhblf gjpdjkzkj cele yfpyfxfnm fldjrfnf njkmrj
ghb hfccvjnhtybb ltk, jådbyztvst gj rjnjhsv
vjukb åsnm ghbujdjhtys r cvthnyjq rfpyb.
Ubltjy åsk jceélty b ghbujdjhty r nñhtvyjve pfrkñxtybñ, yj gjlfk fgtkkzwbb xthtp dct
ehjdyb celtåyjq cbcntvs in. Akjhblf b, d rjytxyjv cxtnt, jåhfnbkcz d Dthöjdysq cel
CIF.
14
≤Eét jlyj änj ljcnjqyj djcöbotybz, – ujdjhbn Cfåtkkb. – Änjn ckexfq, rjulf åtlysq,
vfkjjåhfpjdfyysq xtkjdtr jceotcndbk cdjt
ghfdj jåéfkjdfybz htitybz celf ybpitq bycnfywbb d celfö dctö dsitcnjzobö bycnfywbq
dgkjnm lj Dthöjdyjuj celf d cdzpb c ytcghfdtlkbdjcnmñ, jn rjnjhjq jy gjcnhflfk, rhfcyjhtxbdj gjrfpsdftn, yfcrjkmrj dféyf pfobnf cdjåjls kbxyjcnb d yfitq ghfdjdjq cbcntvt≥.
Ghb hfccvjnhtybb ltkf Ubltjyf Dthöjdysq cel tlbyjleiyj gjcnfyjdbk, xnj rfélsq
jådbyztvsq, xmt ltkj ckeiftncz d celfö atlthfkmyjuj ehjdyz b ehjdyz infnf, bvttn ghfdj
yf fldjrfnf, f tckb jy yt vjétn gjpdjkbnm
ctåt yfyznm gkfnyjuj fldjrfnf, cel ljkéty yfpyfxbnm tve nfrjdjuj. Ubltjye åsk yfpyfxty
fldjrfn b yjdjt celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj dj
Akjhblt. Åkfujlfhz gjvjob yfpyfxtyyjuj celjv fldjrfnf Ubltjy åsk ghbpyfy ytdbyjdysv.
Htitybt gj ltke Ubltjyf cxbnftncz dféyjq dtöjq d ytghthsdyjv ghjwtcct hfphfåjnrb
b cjdthitycndjdfybz cbcntvs ghfd xtkjdtrf,
ujdjhbn Cfåtkkb. ≤Ltkj Ubltjyf ghbdtkj r
ddtltybñ ljkéyjcnb yfpyfxftvjuj celjv pfobnybrf rfr d atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq cbcntvt,
nfr b dj dctö 50 infnfö, – ghjljkéftn jy. –
Ghb jghtltktyysö jcjåsö jåcnjzntkmcndfö cel
yfpyfxftn jådbyztvjve fldjrfnf bp xfcnyjq
abhvs. Yj åjkmifz xfcnm jåsxysö vfkjbveobö jndtnxbrjd gjkmpetncz eckeufvb hfåjnfñotuj ghb celt pfobnybrf≥.
Yfpyfxftvsq celjv pfobnybr ghfrnbxtcrb
döjlbn d cjcnfd celf rfr nfrjdjuj. ≤Vs ghtlcnfdkztv cjåjq xfcnm celtåyjq cbcntvs, b
celmb jceotcndkzñn yflpjh pf yfitq ltzntkmyjcnmñ, c njxrb phtybz cjåkñltybz yflktéfobö yjhv änbrb b äaatrnbdyjcnb hfåjns≥, –
jnvtxftn Cfåtkkb. Yj yb jlby celmz – b, gj
cenb ltkf, yb jlby xtkjdtr – yt dghfdt dvtibdfnmcz d ghbdbktubhjdfyyst jnyjitybz vtéle
yfpyfxftvsv celjv pfobnybrjv b tuj rkbty-
nfrét ghfdj yf yflktéfott celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj, ufhfynbhjdfyyjt 6-q gjghfdrjq ghfdj
yf åtpjnkfufntkmyjt hfccvjnhtybt eujkjdysö
ltk d jnrhsnjv pfctlfybb celf, ghfdj yf ghjdtltybt jxyjq cnfdrb cj cdbltntkzvb b ghfdj
yf gjkextybt ekbr d cdjñ gjkmpe. Ghfdj yf
fldjrfnf ltkftn djpvjéysv htfkbpfwbñ dctö
jcnfkmysö ghfd≥, – ujdjhbn jy. D rjytxyjv
cxtnt, ≤jyj jåtcgtxbdftn kexieñ cbcntve ghfdjcelbz b ljdthbt r ujcelfhcnde≥.
G h b cz é y s t
Pfobnybr Vfhnby Cfåtkkb
njv. Yfpyfxftvst celjv pfobnybrb hfåjnfñn
åjktt ecthlyj, pyfz, xnj cfvj bö ghbcencndbt
gjåelbn ghjrehjhf nfrét ghbkjébnm åjkmit
ecbkbq, gjlxthrbdftn Cfåtkkb. Pf ujls cdjtq
hfåjns d celtåyjq cbcntvt tve yt hfp ghböjlbkjcm yfåkñlfnm, rfr ghjnbdjgjkjéyfz cnjhjyf – atlthfkmyst ghjrehjhs – nofntkmytt ujnjdbkb ltkf b jnyjcbkbcm r jådbyztvsv åjktt
cghfdtlkbdj b edfébntkmyj, pyfz, xnj bv ghjnbdjcnjbn yfpyfxtyysq celjv pfobnybr.
≤Ghfdj yf fldjrfnf – änj yfbåjktt jcyjdjgjkfufñott bp dctö ghfd, – pfrkñxftn Cfåtkkb.
– Åtp ytuj åskj ås ytdjpvjéyj ufhfynbhjdfnm
lheubt lhfujwtyyst ghfdf – ufhfynbhjdfyyjt
4-q gjghfdrjq r Rjycnbnewbb ghfdj yf pfobne
jn ytjåjcyjdfyysö jåscrjd b rjyabcrfwbq,
ufhfynbhjdfyyjt 5-q gjghfdrjq ghfdj yf pfobne jn hbcrf ldféls gjytcnb eujkjdyeñ jndtncndtyyjcnm pf jlyj b nj ét ghtcnegktybt b ghfdj yt lfdfnm ytdsujlyst lkz ctåz gjrfpfybz, f
D jåzpfyyjcnb ghbczéysö d fvthbrfycrjv
celtåyjv ghjwtcct ≤döjlbn jghtltktybt afrnjd≥, – ujdjhbn ñhbcn bp Cfy-Ahfywbcrj Cnbd
Vfqj, pfybvfñobq gjcn lbhtrnjhf Bycnbnenf
bccktljdfybq ghfdjdsö cbcntv. Jy jnvtxftn,
xnj, tckb ås bycnbnenf ghbczéysö yt ceotcndjdfkj, dct htitybz gj pfrjyfv b gj afrnfv
ljkéty åsk ås ghbybvfnm celmz. Dvtcnj änjuj
ghbczéyst dsyjczn htitybz yf jcyjdfybb
ghtlcnfdktyysö dj dhtvz celtåyjuj ghjwtccf
afrnjd, lfyysö gjl ghbczujq gjrfpfybq ébdsö
cdbltntktq, ljrevtynjd b ghtybq vtéle ghtlcnfdktyysvb d celt cnjhjyfvb.
Jnåjh cjcnfdf éñhb ghbczéysö bp cjuhfélfy gjlcelbvjuj – cnhjuj ckexfqysq ghjwtcc,
ghjljkéftn Vfqj. Htubcnhfnjhs vtcnysö
celtåysö cbcntv yfåbhfñn bvtyf bp hzlf
cgbcrjd, drkñxfz, d xfcnyjcnb, htubcnhfwbjyyst cgbcrb bpåbhfntktq, lfyyst j htubcnhfwbb fdnjvjåbktq b djlbntkmcrbö eljcnjdthtybzö. Kñåjq uhfélfyby CIF yt vjkjét 18 ktn,
yt bvtñobq celbvjcnb pf cjdthitybt nzérbö
ghtcnegktybq, bvttn ghfdj b jåzpfy zdbnmcz d
cel d yfpyfxtyysq ltym lkz exfcnbz d hfåjnt
éñhb ghbczéysö. D ytrjnjhsö infnfö ghbczéyst ljkéys rfélsq ltym ghböjlbnm yf celtåyst pfctlfybz d ntxtybt jghtltktyyjuj gthbjlf dhtvtyb, d lheubö infnfö bcgjkmpetncz
15
ghbywbg ≤jlby ltym bkb jlby celtåysq
ghjwtcc≥, gj bcntxtybb rjnjhjuj uhfélfyby jcdjåjélftncz jn lfkmytqituj bcgjkytybz jåzpfyyjcntq ghbczéyjuj. D kñåjv ckexft xtkjdtr, rjnjhsq bcgjkybk jåzpfyyjcnb ghbczéyjuj, jåsxyj yt dspsdftncz dyjdm d ntxtybt
hzlf ktn.
Vfqj hfccrfpsdftn, xnj rfélsq ltym
ytcrjkmrj cjn gjntywbfkmysö ghbczéysö ghbukfifñncz d plfybt celf, ult jyb jndtxfñn yf
djghjcs celmtq, ghjrehjhjd b fldjrfnjd pfobns lkz jghtltktybz bö ghfdjvjxyjcnb rfr ghbczéysö. Bv pflfñncz djghjcs nbgf: ≤Dkflttnt
kb ds fyukbqcrbv zpsrjv?≥ b ≤Ghböjlbkjcm
kb dfv åsnm éthndjq ghtcnegktybz?≥
D cbcntvt eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf
ñhbcns c jåtbö cnjhjy yfltktys ghfdjv jndjlbnm rfylblfnehs jghtltktyyjuj xbckf gjntywbfkmysö ghbczéysö åtp erfpfybz rjyrhtnysö
ghbxby. D rjytxyjv cxtnt jyb jnåbhfñn
12 veéxby b étyoby, rjnjhst åelen exfcndjdfnm d celtåyjv ghjwtcct, f nfrét nhtö pfgfcysö ghbczéysö, rjnjhst åelen djcnhtåjdfys
d njv ckexft, tckb jlby bp 12 jcyjdysö ghbczéysö dj dhtvz celtåyjuj ghjwtccf yt cvjétn
dsgjkyznm cdjb jåzpfyyjcnb. Lkz uhfélfycrbö
ltk byjulf nhtåetncz njkmrj itcnm ghbczéysö.
Byjulf – jåsxyj d ckexft yfievtdibö
eujkjdysö ltk – ghbczéyst yf ghjnzétybb
dctuj celtåyjuj ghjwtccf ≤bpjkbheñncz≥, ujdjhbn Vfqj. Änj jpyfxftn, xnj xktys éñhb ghbczéysö yt vjuen ébnm ljvf b dsyeéltys ébnm
d ujcnbybxysö yjvthfö, yt bvtz ljcnegf r hflbj, ntktdbltybñ b ufptnfv c ntv, xnjås CVB
cdjbvb rjvvtynfhbzvb gj hfccvfnhbdftvjve
ltke yt vjukb jrfpsdfnm yf ybö dkbzybt.
Gj ckjdfv Vfqj, ytgjchtlcndtyyj gthtl
celjv ghjrehjh b fldjrfns pfobns – gj cjukfcjdfybñ c celmtq – ljkéys htibnm, rfrbt ekbrb ljgecrftncz ghtlüzdbnm ghbczéysv. Jy
ljåfdkztn, xnj jyb nfrét ajhvekbheñn ≤djghj-
16
cs, rjnjhst ghtlcnjbn pflfnm xktyfv éñhb
ghbczéysö c ntv, xnjås, rjulf jyb elfkzncz
lkz cjdtofybz, e ybö åskb rjyrhtnyst djghjcs, yf rjnjhst jyb ljkéys jndtnbnm gj afrnfv≥. Nbgbxysq ghbvth gjljåyjuj djghjcf
d uhfélfycrjv ltkt pdexbn nfr: ≤Ljgecnbk
kb lfyysq xtkjdtr ytåhtéyjcnm ghb cnjkryjdtybb eghfdkztvjuj bv fdnjvjåbkz c lheubv
fdnjvjåbktv?≥ D ckexft eujkjdyjuj ltkf ñhbcn
vjétn pflfnm ghbczéysv cktleñobq djghjc:
≤Ghtlyfvthtyyj kb jndtnxbr cnhtkzk d änjuj
xtkjdtrf?≥
Ghjrehjhs, fldjrfns pfobns b celmz nfrét ljkéys hfphfåjnfnm lkz éñhb ghbczéysö
rjyrhtnyst bycnherwbb gj ghfdjdsv ghjwtlehfv. Gj ckjdfv Vfqj, änb bycnherwbb vjuen
drkñxfnm d ctåz, d xfcnyjcnb, jghtltktybt
bcgjkmpetvsö dj dhtvz celtåyjuj ghjwtccf nthvbyjd, pyfxtybt rjcdtyysö ekbr b gjlöjl r gjrfpfybzv cdbltntktq-ärcgthnjd.
Rjulf éñhb elfkztncz yf cjdtofybt, jyj
dsåbhftn bp cdjtuj cjcnfdf cnfhibye ghbczéysö. ≤Änjn xtkjdtr dscnegftn d hjkb jhufybpfnjhf jåceéltybq≥, – ujdjhbn Vfqj, pfvtxfz
ghb änjv, xnj ≤ythtlrj kñlb cnfyjdzncz jxtym
ndthlsvb d cdjbö eåtéltybzö b yt étkfñn
ghbckeibdfnmcz r vytybñ lheubö≥. Cnfhibyf
ghbczéysö lftn djpvjéyjcnm dscrfpfnmcz rféljve ghbczéyjve b herjdjlbn öjljv jåceéltybz.
Cjdtofybt ghbczéysö vjétn ghjlkbnmcz
ytcrjkmrj xfcjd bkb lfét lytq, gjnjve xnj htitybt ljkéyj åsnm ghbyznj tlbyjukfcyj. Tckb
éñhb ghbczéysö yt ghbltn r tlbyjve vytybñ, vjétn åsnm jåüzdktyj j ytghfdbkmyjv
celtåyjv hfpåbhfntkmcndt. D ckexft eujkjdyjuj
ltkf, tckb dsytcty dthlbrn j ghbpyfybb gjlcelbvjuj dbyjdysv, ghbujdjh jåsxyj jåüzdkztncz celmtq gjplytt. Gj pfdthitybb celtåyjuj
ghjwtccf, ytpfdbcbvj jn dsytctyyjuj htitybz,
ghbczéyst jcdjåjélfñncz jn cdjbö jåzpfyyjc-
Ñhbcn Cnbd Vfqj
ntq b bv dshféftncz åkfujlfhyjcnm celf pf
bcgjkytybt uhfélfycrjuj ljkuf.
Pf jxtym ytvyjubvb bcrkñxtybzvb, pfrkñxftn Vfqj, cbcntvf ghbczéysö aeyrwbjybhetn
yflktéfobv jåhfpjv, f dsyjcbvst éñhb
htitybz gjxnb dctulf cjdgflfñn c htitybtv,
rjnjhjt celmz dsytc ås cfv, tckb ås tve yt
gjvjufkb ghbczéyst.
Celmz
≤Ytpfdbcbvjcnm celtq bvttn åjkmijt pyfxtybt≥ d CIF, f jnrhsnjcnm gthtl ghtccjq b
jåotcndtyyjcnmñ ≤ckeébn öjhjibv chtlcndjv rjynhjkz yfl celtåyjq dkfcnmñ≥, – ujdjhbn celmz infnf Ymñ-Qjhr Kjhf Ctqath Äcgbyjcf. D hfvrfö cbcntvs ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf
d CIF hjkm celmb cjcnjbn d ≤ytqnhfkmyjv,
åtcghbcnhfcnyjv dszcytybb afrnjd, f d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö – tot b d dszcytybb pfrjyyjcnb≥.
Gj ckjdfv Äcgbyjcs, d änjv tt jnkbxbt jn
cbcntvs uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf, ghfrnbreñotqcz
dj vyjubö lheubö cnhfyfö, ult celmz ≤dscnegftn d hjkb cktljdfntkz b kbwf, ajhvekbheñotuj jådbytybt, f nfrét celmb yf ghjwtcct≥.
Jlyfrj jyf erfpsdftn, xnj d jåtbö cbcntvfö
d ckexft dsytctybz jådbybntkmyjuj ghbujdjhf
jy jåsxyj dsyjcbncz celmtq.
D eujkjdyjv celjghjbpdjlcndt CIF, ljåfdkztn Äcgbyjcf, gjlcelbvst bvtñn ghfdj
ghtlcnfnm gthtl jådbybntktv, ñhbcn ghjnbdyjq
cnjhjys bvttn ghfdj gjldthuyenm cdbltntktq
gthtrhtcnyjve ljghjce, b dct änj ghjbcöjlbn d
ghbcencndbb celmb b (bkb) éñhb ghbczéysö,
rjnjhst dsyjczn ≤ytpfdbcbvst jghtltktybz
afrnjd≥ gj ltke. Celmt yt hfphtiftncz ghjdjlbnm jlyjcnjhjyybt bkb dytceltåyst åtctls
dyt ghbcencndbz ñhbcnjd jåtbö cnjhjy, ljåfdkztn jyf. ≤Nfrjdj nhtåjdfybt yfituj rjltrcf
änbxtcrbö yjhv, b änj xhtpdsxfqyj dféyj lkz
jåtcgtxtybz xtcnyjcnb b ecnhfytybz djpvjéyjcntq lkz rjhhegwbb d cbcntvt≥.
Ujdjhz j ghfdbkfö hfåjns pfkf celf, Äcgbyjcf jnvtxftn, xnj celtåyst ghjwtccs jnrhsns
lkz jåotcndtyyjcnb, b ≤kñåjq uhfélfyby bvttn ghfdj yfåkñlfnm pf ghjbcöjlzobv≥. Jyf ljåfdkztn, xnj celmt ghböjlbncz jlyjdhtvtyyj
gjllthébdfnm gjhzljr rfr chtlb phbntktq, nfr
b d jnyjitybzö vtéle jåtbvb cnjhjyfvb ghjwtccf, b dtcnb ghjwtcc. Tckb ñhbcns dtlen ctåz ytghjatccbjyfkmyj, ujdjhbn Äcgbyjcf, celmz bvttn ghfdj pfrkñxbnm bö gjl cnhfée pf
ytedfétybt r cele, b d änjv ckexft bv vjétn
uhjpbnm inhfa kbåj ytghjljkébntkmyjt nñhtvyjt pfrkñxtybt, öjnz änj ckexftncz htlrj.
D gjcktlybt ujls d CIF hfpujhtkfcm
jétcnjxtyyfz gjktvbrf gj djghjce j njv, cktletn kb hfphtifnm nhfyckbhjdfnm celtåyst pf-
17
hjxyeñ rjvbccbñ d cjcnfdt ghtlcnfdbntktq
ñhblbxtcrbö DEPjd, rjkktubq ñhbcnjd b jåotcndtyysö jhufybpfwbq. Gjckt änjuj rjvbccbb
gthtlfñn bvtyf rfylblfnjd lkz drkñxtybz d
bpåbhfntkmyst åñkktntyb yf hfccvjnhtybt jndtncndtyysv pf jhufybpfwbñ dsåjhjd xbyjdybrfv kbåj jndtncndtyyjve pf jnåjh xbyjdybre,
tckb bcgjkmpetncz cbcntvf yfpyfxtybq. Chjr
gjkyjvjxbq celtq d in. Ymñ-Qjhr cjcnfdkztn
10 ktn lkz celjd ybpibö bycnfywbq b 14 ktn
lkz celjd dscibö bycnfywbq. Gjckt bcntxtybz
chjrf, d pfdbcbvjcnb jn htpekmnfnjd hfåjns,
celmb vjuen åsnm gthtbpåhfys b yfpyfxtys
gjdnjhyj bkb ytn.
Celmz Kjhf Ctqath Äcgbyjcf
ctlfybz gj ntktdbltybñ. Änj cgjh j åfkfyct
vtéle ghfdjv jåotcndtyyjcnb pyfnm jå jåcnjzntkmcndfö ltkf b ghfdjv jådbyztvjuj yf jghtltktyyjt edfétybt r tuj xfcnyjq ébpyb.
Äcgbyjcf cxbnftn, xnj ghtlcnfdbntkb gtxfnb bvtñn ghfdj yföjlbnmcz d pfkt celf, yj gjkfuftn, xnj ntktrfvths ≤vjuen ghbdtcnb r yfheitybñ celtåysö hfpåbhfntkmcnd≥, jcjåtyyj d
ckexft uhjvrbö ltk. Gj tt ckjdfv, pfrjyjlfntkmyst cjåhfybz hfpkbxysö infnjd ddjlzn
ghfdbkf ghbcencndbz ntktrfvth d pfkt celf, yj
lfét d ntö infnfö, ult änj hfphtityj, celmz d
jghtltktyysö ckexfzö vjétn yfkjébnm pfghtn
yf ntktnhfyckzwbñ. D jnkbxbt jn änjuj, d atlthfkmysö celfö ntktdbpbjyyst cütvrb pfghtotys.
Ghjwtlehf jnåjhf celtq d CIF pfdbcbn jn
infnf, yj jåsxyj bcgjkmpetncz jlby bp ldeö
jcyjdysö cgjcjåjd – dctyfhjlyst dsåjhs kbåj yfpyfxtybt ueåthyfnjhjv bkb vähjv. D hjlyjv lkz Äcgbyjcs infnt Ymñ-Qjhr rfylblfn d
celmb ljkéty åsnm ghfrnbreñobv ñhbcnjv c
jgsnjv hfåjns yt vtytt 10 ktn b ghjqnb jnåj18
Djghjcs ltvjrhfwbb. Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBF. Njv 4, §2,
ctynzåhm 1999 u.
Rfr hfåjnfñn fvthbrfycrbt cels
Uhfélfycrjt b eujkjdyjt
celjghjbpdjlcndj d CIF
Ä. Jcåjhy Fqcrmñ-vk
D cjjndtncndbb c Rjycnbnewbtq
d CIF ceotcndeñn ldt hfpkbxyst
celtåyst cbcntvs – atlthfkmyjuj
ehjdyz b ehjdyz infnf. Rfélfz
celtåyfz cbcntvf bvttn ldt fåcjkñnyj jnltkmysö lheu jn lheuf
ajhvs celtåyjuj hfpåbhfntkmcndf –
eujkjdyeñ b uhfélfycreñ.
Ä. Jcåjhy Fqcrmñ-vkflibq, fldjrfn
c ghfdjv dscnegktybz d celfö ghb
hfccvjnhtybb uhfélfycrbö ltk
bp u. Ifhkjnns (in. Ctdthyfz Rfhjkbyf), pfybvfñobq d yfcnjzott dhtvz gjcn ghtpbltynf Fvthbrfycrjq
rjkktubb celtåysö fldjrfnjd,
hfpüzcyztn änb hfpkbxbz, rjnjhst
ckeéfn rkñxjv r gjybvfybñ dctq
cbcntvs ghfdjcelbz CIF.
D ntxtybt vyjubö vtczwtd d pfujkjdrfö ufptn b
éehyfkjd, d byajhvfwbjyysö dsgecrfö yt
njkmrj d CIF, yj b dj dctv vbht ljvbybhjdfk
jlby tlbycndtyysq celtåysq ghjwtcc – ltkj
jå bcrt in. Rfkbajhybz ghjnbd pyfvtybnjuj
cgjhncvtyf J. Lé. Cbvgcjyf gj jådbytybñ
d cjdthitybb eåbqcndf gthdjq cntgtyb. Vbkkbjys fvthbrfywtd åskb åerdfkmyj pfubgyjnbpbhjdfys änbv ghjwtccjv, tétlytdyj ghbybrfz
r ärhfyfv cdjbö ntktdbpjhjd d yfltélt ecksifnm yjdjcnb j ytv. Jlyfrj, pfheåtéysö ntktphbntktq jy ythtlrj ghbdjlbk d pfvtifntkmcndj. Gjxtve ltkj Cbvgcjyf ckeifkjcm d celt
infnf, f yt d atlthfkmyjv celt? Gjxtve jn jndtnxbrf yt gjnhtåjdfkb lfnm gjrfpfybz? Yfrjytw, gjxtve gjckt njuj, rfr Cbvgcjy åsk ghbpyfy ytdbyjdysv, jy dyjdm ghtlcnfk gthtl
uhfélfycrbv celjv, ult yf ctq hfp jn ytuj gjnhtåjdfkb lfnm gjrfpfybz? Hfpdt änj yt jpyfxftn gjdnjhyjt ghbdktxtybt r celtåyjq jndtncndtyyjcnb pf jlyj b nj ét ghtcnegktybt?
19
Ä. Jcåjhy Fqcrmñ-vk
Jndtns yf änb djghjcs pfkjétys d ckjéyjv öfhfrntht celtåyjq cbcntvs CIF b tt
gfhfkktkmyjq cbcntvs celjd atlthfkmyjuj
ehjdyz b ehjdyz infnf. Rjycnbnewbz CIF yfltkztn atlthfkmyst dkfcnb rjyrhtnysvb gjkyjvjxbzvb, drkñxfz jghtltktyyst pfrjyjlfntkmyst gjkyjvjxbz, cjöhfyzz dct ghjxbt gjkyjvjxbz pf dkfcnzvb infnjd. Cjjndtncndtyyj,
ceotcndeñn cels atlthfkmyjuj ehjdyz lkz ckeifybz ltk j yfheitybzö atlthfkmyjuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf b cels ehjdyz infnf lkz ckeifybz
ltk j yfheitybzö pfrjyjlfntkmcndf infnjd.
Åjkmibycndj ghtcnegktybq cdzpfyj c yfheitybzvb pfrjyjlfntkmcndf infnjd.
Lfét nfrjt cthmtpyjt ghtcnegktybt, rfr
eåbqcndj, d åjkmibycndt ckexftd ghtlcnfdkztn
20
cjåjq yfheitybt pfrjyjd jlyjuj bp infnjd
CIF. Bvtyyj gjänjve ltkj J. Lé. Cbvgcjyf
ckeifkjcm d celt infnf Rfkbajhybz, yf nthhbnjhbb rjnjhjuj åskj cjdthityj ghtcnegktybt,
f yt d atlthfkmyjv celt. Jn Cbvgcjyf yt gjnhtåjdfkb lfnm gjrfpfybz yf celtåyjv ghjwtcct, gjnjve xnj d cjjndtncndbb c Rjycnbnewbtq
jy bvtk gjkyjt ghfdj yt lfdfnm gjrfpfybq, tckb yt öjntk. Jndtnxbrb d CIF jåkflfñn ytcvtnysv xbckjv ghfd, rjnjhst jghtltktys ytgjchtlcndtyyj Rjycnbnewbtq, ytpfdbcbvj jn
njuj, d celt rfrjuj ehjdyz – infnf bkb atlthfkmyjuj – ckeiftncz bö ltkj. R ghbvthe, njn
ét Cbvgcjy bvtk ås fyfkjubxyjt ghfdj yt
cdbltntkmcndjdfnm ghjnbd cfvjuj ctåz b d atlthfkmyjv celt.
Yj rfr vjukj ckexbnmcz, xnj ltkj Cbvgcjyf ckeifkjcm ldféls – gthdsq hfp d eujkjdyjv celt, d rjnjhjv jy åsk ghbpyfy ytdbyjdysv d eåbqcndt cdjtq étys Ybrjkm Cbvgcjy b tt lheuf Hjyf Ujklvfyf, f dnjhjq hfp –
d uhfélfycrjv celt, ult jy åsk ghbpyfy jndtncndtyysv pf bö ubåtkm b ult jn ytuj gjnhtåjdfkb pfgkfnbnm bcnwfv? Jndtn pfrkñxftncz
d njv, xnj eujkjdyst b uhfélfycrbt celtåyst cbcntvs CIF fåcjkñnyj ytpfdbcbvs lheu
jn lheuf, b d ybö ghbvtyzñncz hfpkbxyst
dbls yfrfpfybq b hfpkbxyst ghjwtccefkmyst
yjhvs.
Yf uhfélfycrjv ghjwtcct gj ltke Cbvgcjyf jn jndtnxbrf gjnhtåjdfkb lfnm gjrfpfybz,
b rhbnthbq ljrfpfyyjcnb dbys åsk ybét.
D uhfélfycrjv ltkt dvtcnj dsytctybz dthlbrnf ≤dbyjdty dyt dczrbö hfpevysö jcyjdfybq
lkz cjvytybq≥ éñhb ghbczéysö ljkéyj åskj
ecnfyjdbnm kbim yfkbxbt åjktt dtcrbö ljrfpfntkmcnd dbys Cbvgcjyf, ytétkb tuj ytdbyjdyjcnb. D uhfélfycrjv celt jndtnxbr jåkflftn
vtymibvb ghjwtccefkmysvb ghfdfvb, f ghbujdjh xfot dctuj cdjlbncz r djpvtotybñ vfnthbfkmyjuj eothåf.
C j g j cn f d k t y b t
u h f é l f y c r j uj b e uj k j d y j uj
c e l j g h j b p d j l cn d f
Ghjwtccefkmyst yjhvs uhfélfycrjuj b eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf d atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq
cbcntvt b d celtåyjq cbcntvt ehjdyz infnf ytcrjkmrj hfpkbxfñncz, yj d jcyjdyjv cöjéb, gjcrjkmre d cjjndtncndbb c Rjycnbnewbtq yf dctö
ghjwtccfö jndtnxbrfv ljkéys åsnm ghtljcnfdktys cnhjuj jghtltktyyst ghfdf, f nfrét gjcrjkmre d jåjbö ckexfzö ghfdbkf ljrfpsdfybz
dbys d wtkjv cöjlys. Jlyfrj, ceotcndeñn pyfxbntkmyst hfpkbxbz d ghjwtlehfö uhfélfycrjuj b eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf:
– Pfzdktybt jcyjdfybq bcrf bkb jådbytybz. Bcrjdjt pfzdktybt bkb jådbytybt d eujkjdyjv celjghjbpdjlcndt yjcbn åjktt njxysq b
ltnfkmysq öfhfrnth.
– Hfcrhsnbt ekbr. Djpvjéyjcnb rféljq bp
cnjhjy – jådbytybz b pfobns – cjåbhfnm byajhvfwbñ d gjllthére cdjtq gjpbwbb d eujkjdyjv celjghjbpdjlcndt åjktt juhfybxtys.
– Åjkmitt åhtvz ljrfpfntkmcndf dbys.
D eujkjdyjv celjghjbpdjlcndt dbyf jndtnxbrf
ljkéyf åsnm ljrfpfyf ≤dyt dczrbö hfpevysö
jcyjdfybq lkz cjvytybq≥. Jlyfrj, d uhfélfycrjv celjghjbpdjlcndt bcntw b djpåelbdifz
ltkj cnjhjyf ljkéys ljrfpfnm njkmrj yfkbxbt
åjktt dtcrbö ljrfpfntkmcnd dbys jndtnxbrf,
ytétkb tuj ytdbyjdyjcnb. R ghbvthe, ghb
hfccvjnhtybb ltkf Cbvgcjyf d uhfélfycrjv
celt éñhb cjxkj änj eckjdbt dsgjkytyysv.
– Åjkmifz pfobotyyjcnm. D cbke gjntywbfkmyjq djpvjéyjcnb ghbvtytybz åjktt cthmtpysö yfrfpfybq jndtnxbre gj eujkjdyjve ltke
ghtljcnfdkztncz åjkmit ghjwtccefkmysö ghfd b
ufhfynbq, xtv d uhfélfycrjv celjghjbpdjlcndt.
– Ghfdj yf jåéfkjdfybt ghbujdjhf. Tckb
jndtnxbr gj eujkjdyjve ltke jghfdlfy, nj ghfdf jådbytybz yf jåéfkjdfybt ghbujdjhf ghfrnbxtcrb yt ceotcndetn, gjcrjkmre jndtnxbr yt
vjétn ldféls ghtlcnfnm gthtl celjv gj jådbytybñ d cjdthitybb jlyjuj b njuj ét ghtcnegktybz. D uhfélfycrjv ltkt ghjbuhfdibq bvttn ghfdj jåéfkjdfnm ghbujdjh.
– Åtpjnkfufntkmyjt hfccvjnhtybt ltkf.
Nfv, ult ltqcndeñott pfrjyjlfntkmcndj nhtåetn åtpjnkfufntkmyjuj hfccvjnhtybz ltkf d celt,
eujkjdyst ltkf vjuen hfccvfnhbdfnmcz åscnhtt,
xtv uhfélfycrbt.
E uj k j d y s t g h j w t c c s b g h f d f
jn d t n x b r j d
Ghtlcnfdktybt vbhjdjq jåotcndtyyjcnb jå
fvthbrfycrbö eujkjdysö ghjwtccfö dj vyjujv
cajhvbhjdfkjcm gjl dkbzybtv ujkkbdelcrbö
ntktdbpbjyysö lhfv – yfxbyfz jn cthbfkf j
Gthhb Vtqcjyt, rjnjhsq ghfrnbxtcrb dctulf
ljåbdftncz jghfdlfntkmyjuj ghbujdjhf lkz cdjbö rkbtynjd, b pfrfyxbdfz gthtlfxtq ≤KjcFylétktccrjt ghfdj≥. Änb ntktgthtlfxb yt
dctulf njxyj jnhféfñn hfåjne fvthbrfycrjuj
celf d eujkjdyjv celjghjbpdjlcndt. D ltqcndbntkmyjcnb eujkjdyst ghjwtccs d CIF htlrj
yjczn cnjkm lhfvfnbxysq öfhfrnth, rfr änj
bpjåhféftncz d abkmvfö, b jåsxyj åjktt jåcnjzntkmys b rhjgjnkbds.
Celmz herjdjlbn celtåysv ghjwtccjv b buhftn hjkm jrjyxfntkmyjuj fhåbnhf jnyjcbntkmyj
ghbvtybvjcnb pfrjyjlfntkmcndf. Éñhb ghbczéysö htiftn, ljcnfnjxyj kb ekbr ghtlcnfdbkj jådbytybt lkz njuj, xnjås jndtnxbrf vjéyj
åskj ghbpyfnm dbyjdysv ≤dyt dczrbö hfpevysö
jcyjdfybq lkz cjvytybq≥. Jådbytybt b pfobnf bpkfufñn cdjb fhuevtyns d cjjndtncndbb c
ghfdbkfvb celjghjbpdjlcndf d cjcnzpfntkmyjq
vfytht. Xnj ythtlrj elbdkztn pfheåtéysö yfåkñlfntktq, nfr änj vyjétcndj ghfd, rjnjhsvb
yfltkztncz jndtnxbr gj eujkjdyjve ltke gjckt
ghtlüzdktybz tve jådbytybz d cjdthitybb njuj bkb byjuj ghtcnegktybz. D CIF änj yfps-
21
dftncz ≤yflktéfotq ghfdjdjq ghjwtlehjq≥.
R änbv ghfdfv jnyjczncz cktleñobt:
– Celtåyjt ghtcktljdfybt djpvjéyj njkmrj gjckt njuj, rfr d öjlt ghtldfhbntkmyjuj celtåyjuj ckeifybz åeltn ecnfyjdktyj ljcnfnjxyjt jcyjdfybt lkz änjuj, bcöjlz bp pfckeébdfñobö ljdthbz ekbr, ghtlcnfdktyysö jådbytybtv.
– Ghfdj yf ghjdtltybt jnrhsnjuj celtåyjuj pfctlfybz, rjulf gjlcelbvjve pfxbnsdfñncz
jådbytybz, gjckt xtuj jy ljkéty cltkfnm pfzdktybt j cdjtq dbyjdyjcnb bkb ytdbyjdyjcnb.
– Ghfdj yf fldjrfnf, pf bcrkñxtybtv celtåysö ghjwtccjd j ytpyfxbntkmysö ghfdjyfheitybzö. Cñlf jnyjcbncz ghfdj djcgjkmpjdfnmcz
eckeufvb yfpyfxtyyjuj celjv åtcgkfnyjuj fldjrfnf, tckb jndtnxbr yt vjétn gjpdjkbnm ctåt
yfyznm fldjrfnf. Jndtnxbr nfrét bvttn ghfdj
nhtåjdfnm ghbcencndbz yf ghjwtcct cdbltntktq
b ghjdtltybz jxysö cnfdjr c ybvb xthtp cdjtuj fldjrfnf.
– Ghfdj yf jnrhsnsq cel ghbczéysö bp
xbckf tuj cjuhfélfy. D åjkmibycndt celjd
CIF ghbujdjhs gj eujkjdysv ltkfv ljkéys
dsyjcbnmcz gj tlbyjleiyjve htitybñ éñhb
ghbczéysö, b, d jnkbxbt jn lheubö cnhfy, ult
ceotcndeñn cels ghbczéysö, ghjrehjh b fldjrfn pfobns bvtñn juhfybxtyyjt ghfdj lfdfnm
jndjl ntv ghbczéysv, rjnjhst, gj bö vytybñ,
yt åelen cghfdtlkbdsvb d cdjbö htitybzö.
– Gj jlyjve b njve ét ghfdjyfheitybñ
vjétn åsnm ghjdtlty njkmrj jlby celtåysq
ghjwtcc. Änj nf cfvfz pyfvtybnfz pfobnf
jn hbcrf åsnm ldféls ghbdktxtyysv r cele pf
jlyj b nj ét ghtcnegktybt, rjnjhfz pfoboftn
jndtnxbrjd jn xhtpvthyj htnbdsö jådbybntktq,
bcgjkytyysö htibvjcnb d rjywt rjywjd yfqnb
nfrbö ghbczéysö, rjnjhst dsytcen jådbybntkmysq dthlbrn.
– Ghfdj djplthébdfnmcz jn lfxb ytdsujlysö lkz ctåz gjrfpfybq. D CIF jndtnxbrf yt-
22
kmpz pfcnfdbnm cdbltntkmcndjdfnm ghjnbd cfvjuj
ctåz. R ghbvthe, änbv ghfdjv djcgjkmpjdfkcz
J. Lé. Cbvgcjy yf eujkjdyjv ghjwtcct ghjnbd
ytuj. Tckb, jlyfrj, jndtnxbr htibn lfdfnm gjrfpfybz, jy ljkéty jndtnbnm yf djghjcs rfr
jådbytybz, nfr b pfobns.
– Ñhblbxtcrfz lttcgjcjåyjcnm. Jndtnxbr
ljkéty åsnm gcböbxtcrb cgjcjåysv gjyznm, d
cjdthitybb rfrjuj ghfdjyfheitybz jy jådbyztncz.
– Åtpjnkfufntkmyjt hfccvjnhtybt ltkf.
Rjycnbnewbz ufhfynbhetn åtpjnkfufntkmyjt hfccvjnhtybt ltkf celjv åtcghbcnhfcnysö ghbczéysö njq ñhbclbrwbb, yf nthhbnjhbb rjnjhjq åskj cjdthityj ghfdjyfheitybt. Jlyfrj,
ltkj vjétn åsnm gthtlfyj yf hfccvjnhtybt d
lheujq cel, tckb djpybrytn vytybt, xnj yt
elfcncz gjljåhfnm åtcghbcnhfcnysö ghbczéysö.
– Ljceltåyst hfpåbhfntkmcndf. Jndtnxbr
dghfdt nhtåjdfnm ghtljcnfdktybz tve ljcnfnjxyjuj dhtvtyb lkz gjlujnjdrb r pfobnt b jnrfpfnmcz jn cdjtuj ghfdf yf åtpjnkfufntkmyjt hfccvjnhtybt ltkf celjv. Jy nfrét bvttn ghfdj
jpyfrjvbnmcz c kñåsvb bvtñobvbcz d hfcgjhzétybb jådbytybz ekbrfvb, rjnjhst vjukb ås
ljrfpfnm tuj ytdbyjdyjcnm. Rhjvt njuj, jy bvttn ghfdj jghjcbnm cdbltntktq lj yfxfkf celtåyjuj ghjwtccf.
Ö j l d t l t y b z e uj k j d y j uj
ghjwtccf
Eujkjdysq ghjwtcc yfxbyftncz cj dcnegbntkmysö htxtq. Gthdsv dctulf dscnegftn ghtlcnfdbntkm jådbytybz, dnjhsv – ghtlcnfdbntkm
pfobns. Gjckt änjuj jådbytybt ghtlcnfdkztn
ekbrb b dspsdftn cdbltntktq, rjnjhst gjldthufñncz gthtrhtcnyjve ljghjce cj cnjhjys
pfobns. Yf änjv änfgt cel – gj cenb ltkf,
celmz – dghfdt ghtrhfnbnm ltkj, tckb jy cj-
xntn, xnj bvtñobtcz ekbrb yt ljrfpsdfñn afrnf cjdthitybz ghtcnegktybz gjlcelbvsv.
Gjckt änjuj pfobnf bvttn djpvjéyjcnm
ghtlcnfdbnm cdjb ekbrb b dspdfnm cdbltntktq.
Gjckt njuj rfr pfobnf bpkjébn cdjb fhuevtyns, jådbytybt vjétn ghtlcnfdbnm jghjdthufñobt bö ekbrb. Rfr b d uhfélfycrjv celjghjbpdjlcndt, celmz rjynhjkbhetn öjl celtåyjuj ghjwtccf b dsyjcbn htitybz gj cgjhfv j ljgecnbvjcnb ekbr. Celtåysq ghjwtcc pfdthiftncz
pfrkñxbntkmysvb htxfvb jåtbö cnjhjy b elfktybtv éñhb ghbczéysö yf cjdtofybt gjckt
gjkextybz bycnherwbq celmb.
Gj rféljve bp ghtlüzdktyysö gjlcelbvjve jådbytybq éñhb ljkéyj ghbpyfnm tuj
dbyjdysv bkb ytdbyjdysv. D ckexft dsytctybz dthlbrnf j ytdbyjdyjcnb ghjwtcc ghtrhfoftncz, f jndtnxbr jcdjåjélftncz. Tckb ét jndtnxbr åeltn ghbpyfy dbyjdysv bkb cfv pfzdbn
j cdjtq dbyjdyjcnb, ecnhfyzz ytjåöjlbvjcnm
ghjljkétybz celtåyjuj ghjwtccf, yfxbyftncz
änfg dsytctybz ghbujdjhf. Änj yt jnyjcbncz
r ltkfv, gj rjnjhsv gjlcelbvsq vjétn
åsnm ghbujdjhty r cvthnyjq rfpyb: d änjv
ckexft ghbczéyst ljkéys cltkfnm dsåjh
vtéle cvthnyjq rfpymñ b vtytt cehjdsv yfrfpfybtv.
Ghjwtlehf dsytctybz ghbujdjhf drkñxftn
d ctåz ljghbujdjhyjt hfccktljdfybt b cjcnfdktybt jnxtnf gj dctv djghjcfv, cdzpfyysv c
dsyjcbvsv gjlcelbvjve ghbujdjhjv. Gjlcelbvsq dghfdt jpyfrjvbnmcz c änbv jnxtnjv b dscrfpfnm gj ytve cdjb pfvtxfybz. Gjlcelbvsq
nfrét bvttn ghfdj yf ghbcencndbt fldjrfnf
ghb pfxbnsdfybb dsytctyyjuj ghbujdjhf. Gjckt änjuj cel pfxbnsdftn ghbujdjh, d rjnjhjv
ljkéyf åsnm jghtltktyf ecnfyjdktyyfz lkz
gjlcelbvjuj vthf yfrfpfybz b cgjcjå tt htfkbpfwbb. Celmz ajhvekbhetn ghbujdjh d cnhjujv cjjndtncndbb c ghtlgbcfyysvb pfrjyjv
yjhvfvb, tckb nfrjdst bvtñncz.
Jxtym dféyj nj, xnj dct gjlcelbvst gj
eujkjdysv ltkfv bvtñn ghfdj jåéfkjdfnm dsytctyysq bv ghbujdjh d celt åjktt dscjrjq
bycnfywbb dgkjnm lj – d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö –
Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF. Ghbujdjh celf vjétn
åsnm jnvtyty, tckb åskb ljgeotys ñhblbxtcrbt jibårb bkb yfheitys ghfdf jndtnxbrf.
Ghjwtlehf jåéfkjdfybz ghbujdjhf cjcnfdkztn
ytjnütvktveñ xfcnm celtåyjq cbcntvs CIF.
Ytvfkj gjlcelbvsö ljåbkbcm jnvtys bkb
cvzuxtybz dsytctyysö bv ghbujdjhjd fgtkkzwbjyysvb celfvb.
Jlybv bp cfvsö bpdtcnysö ghbvthjd jnvtys ghbujdjhf yf jcyjdfybb fgtkkzwbb cnfkj
ltkj ljrnjhf Cävf Itggfhlf, rjnjhsq d 1954 u.
åsk jceélty pf eåbqcndj cdjtq étys. Gthdjyfxfkmyst fgtkkzwbb Itggfhlf, d njv xbckt d
Dthöjdysq cel, åskb jnrkjytys. Yj d 1966 u.
Dthöjdysq cel jnvtybk ghbujdjh b gjcnfyjdbk,
xnj Itggfhl bvttn ghfdj yf ghjdtltybt gjdnjhyjuj celtåyjuj ghjwtccf. Gjplytt d njv ét
ujle jy åsk jghfdlfy yjdsv éñhb ghbczéysö.
Ltkj Itggfhlf dspdfkj åjkmijq jåotcndtyysq htpjyfyc, yj tot åjkmieñ bpdtcnyjcnm jyj
gjkexbkj gjckt njuj, rfr yf tuj jcyjdt åskj
cjplfyj gjgekzhyjt d itcnbltcznsö ujlfö b
ljkujt dhtvz yt cöjlbditt c ntktärhfyjd ije
≤Åtuktw≥. Ytvfkjve xbcke vtytt bpdtcnysö
gjlcelbvsö elfkjcm dsbuhfnm ltkj bkb ljåbnmcz jnvtys dsytctyyjuj bv ghbujdjhf d htpekmnfnt ghjwtlehs tuj jåéfkjdfybz.
Ö j l d t l t y b z u h f é l f y c r j uj
ghjwtccf
D uhfélfycrbö celtåysö ghjwtccfö jndtnxbr
bvttn vyjubt, yj yt dct ghfdf, ghtlecvjnhtyyst lkz eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf. Uhfélfycrjt ltkj yfxbyftncz c cjcnfdktybz bcnwjv
gbcmvtyyjuj pfzdktybz – yfpsdftvjuj ≤bcrjv≥
– c bpkjétybtv cenb tuj bcrjdjuj nhtåjdfybz b
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chtlcndf celtåyjq pfobns, rjnjhjuj jy ljåbdftncz. Gjckt änjuj cel yfghfdkztn jndtnxbre celtåyeñ gjdtcnre, d rjnjhjq tve ghtlgbcsdftncz lfnm jndtn yf bcr d ntxtybt jghtltktyyjuj
chjrf gjckt tuj gjkextybz.
Jndtnxbr ljkéty ghbpyfnm bkb jndthuyenm
rféljt bp jådbytybq b ghtlcnfdbnm fhuevtyns
d cdjñ pfobne. Jy nfrét dghfdt dscrfpfnm ghtntypbb r bcnwe, cjjndtnxbre bkb kñåjve kbwe,
gthdjyfxfkmyj yt abuehbhjdfditve d ltkt.
Rhjvt njuj, jy vjétn öjlfnfqcndjdfnm jå jnrkjytybb bcrf pf ytltqcndbntkmyjcnmñ cajhvekbhjdfyyjq ghtntypbb r ytve. Jy bvttn ghfdj
gjghjcbnm cel jnrkjybnm bcr yf jcyjdfybb jncencndbz ñhbclbrwbb d jnyjitybb ghtlvtnf
bcrf kbåj cfvjuj jndtnxbrf. Jy nfrét vjétn
dsldbyenm ghtlgjkjétybt j njv, xnj bcntw gjlfk bcr ≤yt d njn≥ cel bkb xnj jndtnxbr yt
åsk ljkéysv jåhfpjv gjcnfdkty d bpdtcnyjcnm
jåj dctö jåcnjzntkmcndfö ltkf.
Dcktl pf änbv yfxbyftncz ibhjrj gjybvftvsq ≤ghjwtcc hfcrhsnbz ljrfpfntkmcnd≥, d
rjnjhjv cel jåsxyj yt exfcndetn. Jlyfrj cnjhjyf, ljåbdfñofzcz hfcrhsnbz ljrfpfntkmcnd,
jåhfoftncz pf gjvjomñ r cele, xnjås pfcnfdbnm
ytcujdjhxbdjuj jggjytynf bkb lheujt kbwj ghtljcnfdbnm cjjndtncndeñoeñ byajhvfwbñ. Cnjhjyf, jn rjnjhjq ljåbdfñncz ytjåjcyjdfyyjuj
hfcrhsnbz ljrfpfntkmcnd, nfrét vjétn jåhfnbnmcz d cel pf pfobnjq.
Hfcrhsnbt ljrfpfntkmcnd vjétn drkñxfnm d
ctåz: gbcmvtyyst djghjcs, jndtns yf rjnjhst
ytjåöjlbvj lfnm gjl ghbczujq, ecnyst gjrfpfybz gjl ghbczujq, pfghjcs j ghtljcnfdktybb
cjjndtncndeñobö ljrevtynjd, vtlbwbycreñ bkb
gcböbxtcreñ ärcgthnbpe, tckb endthélftncz,
xnj jndtnxbr yfytc bcnwe ntktcyjt gjdhtéltybt, f nfrét pfghjcs j ghbpyfybb afrnjd, yt
jnyjczoböcz r ghtlvtne cgjhf. Gthtl yfxfkjv
celtåyjuj ghjwtccf kñåfz bp cnjhjy vjétn öjlfnfqcndjdfnm j dsytctybb cevvfhyjuj htit-
24
ybz d gjhzlrt eghjotybz celjghjbpdjlcndf gj
kñåjve yt gjlrhtgktyyjve ekbrfvb djghjce.
Tckb hfccvjnhtybt ltkf åeltn ghjljkétyj d
celtåyjv gjhzlrt, cel vjétn dsytcnb ljceltåyjt gjcnfyjdktybt, jghtltkbd djghjcs, rjnjhst yflktébn htibnm d öjlt celtåyjuj ghjwtccf, b ghtlecvjnhtd lheubt vths lkz ecrjhtybz
hfccvjnhtybz ltkf.
Byjulf uhfélfycrbt ltkf cdzpfys c nzérbvb ghtcnegktybzvb, rfr d ckexft ltkf Cbvgcjyf. Jlyfrj, ythtlrj jyb cdzpfys c vtytt cthmtpysvb ghfdjyfheitybzvb dhjlt cgjhjd
vtéle fhtyljlfntktv b fhtylfnjhjv. D ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö jndtxfnm gj cele ghböjlbncz nhtnmbv kbwfv. Yfghbvth, d ltkt j ytlfdytq
gthtcnhtkrt d Fnkfynt (in. Léjhlébz), dj dhtvz rjnjhjq ghtlgjkfuftvsq ghtcnegybr åsk
eåbn, hjlcndtyybr jlyjq bp tuj éthnd ghtlüzdbk bcr bydtcnbwbjyyjq rjvgfybb, yf nthhbnjhbb rjnjhjq ghjbpjikf gthtcnhtkrf, dkfltkmwfv plfybz, rjvgfybb, jndtxfñotq pf jåtcgtxtybt åtpjgfcyjcnb yf vtcnt bywbltynf, f nfrét r yfcktlcnde gjubåituj åfylbnf.
Uhfélfycrbt ltkf jåsxyj ckeifñncz d jnrhsnjv lkz jåotcndtyyjcnb celtåyjv ghjwtcct
d ghbcencndbb celmb b éñhb ghbczéysö xbcktyyjcnmñ jn 6 lj 12 xtkjdtr, dsåhfyysö d
ghjwtcct ckexfqyjuj jnåjhf, tckb cnjhjys yt
ljujdjhzncz j ghjdtltybb celtåyjuj ghjwtccf d
ghbcencndbb jlyjuj kbim celmb. Rfr b d eujkjdyjv ltkt, cnjhjys bvtñn ghfdj lfnm jndjl
jghtltktyysv ghbczéysv. Celmz herjdjlbn celtåysv ghjwtccjv b jghtltkztn ghbvtybvjcnm
pfrjyjd. Gjckt dcnegbntkmysö htxtq bcntw, yf
rjnjhjv ktébn åhtvz ljrfpsdfybz dbys, ghtlcnfdkztn cdjb ekbrb. Tckb ekbrb t dslthébdfñn rhbnbrb, bcr jnrkjyztncz eét yf änjv änfgt. Tckb ekbrb cjxntys ljcnfnjxysvb, yfcnftn
xthtl jndtnxbrf bpkjébnm cdjb fhuevtyns.
Gjckt njuj rfr jåt cnjhjys ghtlcnfdzn
cdjb ljrfpfntkmcndf, celmz vjétn jnrkjybnm kñ-
åjt bkb dct jådbytybz, yt gjlrhtgktyyst ekbrfvb. Pfntv rféljq bp cnjhjy ghtljcnfdkztncz
djpvjéyjcnm cltkfnm pfrkñxbntkmyjt pfzdktybt,
gjckt xtuj celmz hfpüzcyztn ghbczéysv yjhvs
ghfdf. Tckb ltkj gthtöjlbn r éñhb, njkmrj jyj
ljkéyj jghtltkbnm bvtñobtcz afrns b dsytcnb gj ltke cjjndtncndeñobq dthlbrn. Jlyfrj, d
uhfélfycrbö celtåysö ghjwtccfö éñhb xfot
hfphtiftncz dsyjcbnm dthlbrns åjkmibycndjv
ujkjcjd, xtv d eujkjdyjv celjghjbpdjlcndt.
Tckb ltkj ckeiftncz åtp exfcnbz éñhb, htitybt gj ytve ghbybvftn celmz.
Gj uhfélfycrbv ltkfv jåsxyj ghbvtyzñncz pyfxbntkmyj åjktt vzurbt vths yfrfpfybz,
xtv gj eujkjdysv ltkfv. Yfghbvth, d uhfélfycrjv ltkt Cbvgcjyf jndtnxbr åsk ghbujdjhty
r inhfae d 8,5 vky. ljkk. Öjnz änj yfrfpfybt
vjétn gjrfpfnmcz ljcnfnjxyj cehjdsv, dct
ét jyj pyfxbntkmyj vzuxt, xtv gjébpytyyjt
nñhtvyjt pfrkñxtybt, rjnjhjt uhjpbkj Cbvgcjye, tckb ås tuj dbyf åskf ghbpyfyf d eujkjdyjv celt. Ghbujdjh Cbvgcjye d uhfélfycrjv
celt åsk dsytcty ghbczéysvb tlbyjukfcyj,
öjnz gj pfrjyjlfntkmcnde in. Rfkbajhybz lkz
änjuj dgjkyt ödfnbkj ås 9 ujkjcjd ghjnbd 3. D
eujkjdyjv ét celt lkz dsytctybz ghbujdjhf
nhtåetncz tlbyjukfcyjt htitybt ghbczéysö.
Gjvbvj dpscrfybz ltytéysö cevv d uhfélfycrbö ltkfö ghbvtyzñncz nfrbt vths yfrfpfybz, rfr ghbrfp jlyjq bp cnjhjy cjdthibnm bkb
djplthéfnmcz jn cjdthitybz njuj bkb byjuj
rjyrhtnyjuj ltqcndbz, kbåj lheubt cjjndtncndeñobt vths celtåyjq pfobns. Celmz vjétn
nfrét jåzpfnm ghjbuhfdieñ cnjhjye djpvtcnbnm
celtåyst bplthérb. Änb bplthérb yjczn yjvbyfkmysq öfhfrnth b jåsxyj yt drkñxfñn d ctåz fldjrfncrbö ujyjhfhjd. Rfr b d ckexft eujkjdysö ltk, ghjbuhfdifz cnjhjyf bvttn ghfdj
jåéfkjdfnm ghbujdjh celf.
Pfrkñxtybt
Celtåyfz cbcntvf CIF vjétn gjrfpfnmcz ytrjnjhsv byjcnhfyysv yfåkñlfntkzv xthtcxeh
ckjéyjq. Änj cjcnzpfntkmyfz gj cdjtve öfhfrnthe cbcntvf, jcyjdfyyfz yf hfccvjnhtybb ltk
d celt ghbczéysö, rjnjhfz jnyñlm yt cjdthityyf. Yj jyf bvttn jlyj dféyjt ghtbveotcndj – ytpfdbcbvjcnm jn dkfcntq. Yb jlby uhfélfyby Fvthbrb yt gjgfltn d nñhmve njkmrj gjnjve, xnj tuj öjnzn pfcflbnm nelf dkfcnb. Nfrjt
htitybt ghbybvftncz éñhb ghbczéysö bp
xbckf tuj cjuhfélfy, rjnjhst dsyjczn dthlbrn
yf jcyjdfybb jåütrnbdysö ghfdbk ljrfpsdfybz
dbys, ghbpdfyysö ufhfynbhjdfnm, yfcrjkmrj änj
djpvjéyj, xnjås jceéltybñ b yfrfpfybñ gjldthufkcz njkmrj njn, rnj ltqcndbntkmyj dbyjdty.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfwbb. Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBF. Njv 4, §2,
ctynzåhm 1999 u.
25
Rfr hfåjnfñn fvthbrfycrbt cels
Chfdybntkmysq fyfkbp cbcntv
ghtwtltynyjuj b uhfélfycrjuj
ghfdf
Celmz Gbnth Lé. Vtccbnn
Yfbåjktt öfhfrnthyfz jcjåtyyjcnm
ñhblbxtcrjq cbcntvs CIF cjcnjbn
d ytpfdbcbvjcnb jhufyjd celtåyjq
dkfcnb. Åelexb hfdyjghfdyjq dtndmñ
dkfcnb, cels ltqcndeñn d pyfxbntkmyjq
cntgtyb dyt rjynhjkz cj cnjhjys pfrjyjlfntkmyjq b bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb,
åtcghbcnhfcnyj ghbybvfz htitybz
gj ltkfv, yt gjldthufzcm dkbzybñ cj
cnjhjys jåotcndtyyjuj vytybz. Fvthbrfycrbq yfhjl edféftn cdjb cels b
celtq, öjnz b gjldthuftn bö byjulf
rhbnbrt. D ghbdjlbvjv ybét chfdybntkmyjv fyfkbpt cbcntv ghtwtltynyjuj
b uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf celmz jrheéyjuj
atlthfkmyjuj celf CIF Gbnth Vtccbnn
bp infnf Vähbktyl hfccvfnhbdftn
jcyjdyst jcjåtyyjcnb jåtbö cbcntv
b gjzcyztn, xtv jnkbxftncz fvthbrfycrfz cbcntvf ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf
jn cbcntvs uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf.
26
Ctujlyz d vbht ceotcndetn ldt jcyjdyst ñhblbxtcrbt cbcntvs: uhfélfycrjt ghfdj b ghtwtltynyjt ghfdj. Cnhfys rjynbytynfkmyjq Tdhjgs, Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb, åjkmifz xfcnm Fahbrb b vyjubt wtynhfkmyjtdhjgtqcrbt b fpbfncrbt ujcelfhcndf bcgjkmpeñn cbcntve uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf. D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb,
Dtkbrjåhbnfybb b lheubö cnhfyfö, hfytt döjlbdibö d cjcnfd Åhbnfycrjq bvgthbb, ltqcndetn cbcntvf ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf.
Rjhyb cbcntvs uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf ktéfn
d hbvcrjv ghfdt, jåyjdktyyjv d itcnjv dtrt
bvgthfnjhjv Ñcnbybfyjv b gjpét dbljbpvtytyyjv ñhbcnfvb Ahfywbb b Uthvfybb.
Cbcntvf ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf yfxfkf
cjplfdfnmcz d Fyukbb gjxnb nsczxtktnbt yfpfl.
Rj dhtvtyb cjplfybz åhbnfycrjuj Gfhkfvtynf
rjhjktdcrbt celmb eét jcyjdsdfkb cdjb htitybz yf ecnjzdiböcz ≤ghbyznsö≥ jåsxfzö.
Gjcntgtyyj ckjébkcz dtcmvf jåibhysq yfåjh
ghbyznsö htitybq. Rdfkbabwbhjdfyyst ñhbcns gjvjufkb änjve ghjwtcce. Yf tdhjgtqcrjv
dtyyjq djkb yf dtcm chjr bö gjkyjvjxbq≥, b
xnj jy kbibk kñltq ≤ghtbveotcnd celf ghbczéysö≥.
Gjckt Fvthbrfycrjq htdjkñwbb fyukbqcrjt ghtwtltynyjt ghfdj åskj c hfljcnmñ djcghbyznj ytpfdbcbvsvb infnfvb Fvthbrb. Pf
åjktt xtv 200 ktn, ghjitlibö c njuj dhtvtyb,
ghtwtltynyjt ghfdj ghtnthgtkj d Fvthbrt
vyjétcndj bpvtytybq ärjyjvbxtcrjuj, gjkbnbxtcrjuj b cjwbfkmyjuj öfhfrnthf b ghtdhfnbkjcm d cbcntve, bvtñoeñ jnkbxbz rfr d cgjcjåfö, nfr b d cnbkt dtltybz celjghjbpdjlcndf.
Xtv jnkbxftncz fvthbrfycrfz cbcntvf ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf jn cbcntvs uhfélfycrjuj
ghfdf?
≤Ghfdj, cjplfdftvjt celmzvb≥
Celmz jrheéyjuj atlthfkmyjuj celf CIF Gbnth Vtccbnn
rjynbytynt djccnfyjdktyyst cåjhybrb pfrjyjd
Ñcnbybfyf b ñhblbxtcrfz cbcntvf rfnjkbxtcrjq wthrdb buhfkb rkñxtdeñ hjkm d egjhzljxbdfybb nsczx vtcnysö pfrjyjd. D cjplfybb cdjtq ubårjq ñhblbxtcrjq cbcntvs Fyukbz åskf
vtytt gjldthétyf dkbzybñ änbö bcnjxybrjd.
Pltcm ybrjulf yt hfpltkzkb bltñ Ahfywepcrjq
htdjkñwbb jå juhfybxtybb dkfcnb celtq b j
njv, xnj bö gjkyjvjxbz ljkéys åsnm cdtltys
kbim r ghbvtytybñ pfrjyjd, ghbyznsö pfrjyjlfntkmysvb jhufyfvb.
Åhbnfycrbt rjkjybcns d Fvthbrt ghjljkéfkb nhflbwbb cdjtq cnhfys. Åjktt njuj, jlybv bp jådbytybq d flhtc åhbnfycrjuj rjhjkz,
gthtxbcktyysö d Ltrkfhfwbb ytpfdbcbvjcnb
CIF, åskj nj, xnj rjhjkm kbibk rjkjybcnjd
bö ghfd ébntktq Åhbnfybb, cltkfd rjkjybfkmyst cels ≤pfdbcbvsvb kbim jn cdjtq cjåcn-
Xfcnj ujdjhzn, xnj cbcntvf ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf cjcnjbn bp ytgbcfyyjuj ≤ghfdf, cjplfdftvjuj celmzvb≥, d nj dhtvz rfr uhfélfycrjt ghfdj
jcyjdfyj yf rjltrcfö pfrjyjd. Ctujlyziytt
ghfdj d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö cjplftncz gj
åjkmitq xfcnb pfrjyjlfntkmyjq dkfcnmñ. Yj
ntv yt vtytt dsitghbdtltyyjt jghtltktybt
≤ghfdf, cjplfdftvjuj celmzvb≥ lj ytrjnjhjq
cntgtyb dthyj.
Bcnjhbxtcrb pyfxbntkmyfz xfcnm fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvs ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf cnfkf htpekmnfnjv celtåysö htitybq, jcjåtyyj d nfrbö
dféysö jåkfcnzö, rfr ghfdj cjåcndtyyjcnb,
rjynhfrns b uhfélfycrbt ghfdjyfheitybz, bpdtcnysö d cnhfyfö uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf gjl jåobv yfpdfybtv ≤xfcnysö ghfdjyfheitybq≥. D
cnhfyfö uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf, yfghjnbd, åskb
hfphfåjnfys b ghbyzns jåibhyst rjltrcs pfrjyjd gj nfrbv hfpltkfv, rfr ghfdf kbxyjcnb,
dtotcndtyyjt ghfdj, ñhblbxtcrbt jåzpfntkmcndf b ghfdj yfcktljdfybz, f nfrét eujkjdyst,
ghjwtccefkmyst rjltrcs b cdjls pfrjyjd gj
rjvvthxtcrjve ghfde.
27
Yj åskj ås ytghfdbkmyj crfpfnm, xnj ghtwtltynyjt ghfdj – änj ytgbcfyyjt ghfdj. Celtåyst htitybz, bynthghtnbheñobt pfrjys,
ceotcndeñn d gbcmvtyyjv dblt b dctulf åskb
ljcnegys lkz gjkmpjdfybz. C cfvjuj hfyytuj
dhtvtyb (öjhjibv ghbvthjv ckeébn Dtkbrfz
Öfhnbz djkmyjcntq) ceotcndjdfkj ≤pfrjyjlfntkmcndj≥ – nj, xnj d cbcntvt uhfélfycrjuj
ghfdf yfpsdftncz ≤ghbyznsvb pfrjyfvb≥. D
Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö r ytve jnyjczncz rjycnbnewbb (rfr atlthfkmyfz, nfr b jnltkmysö infnjd), f nfrét pfrjyjlfntkmyst frns, ghbyznst
Rjyuhtccjv CIF b pfrjyjlfntkmysvb cjåhfybzvb infnjd.
Rhjvt njuj b yf atlthfkmyjv ehjdyt, b yf
ehjdyt infnjd pyfxbntkmyfz xfcnm ghfdf eét
cdtltyf d rjltrcs. Yfghbvth, yf atlthfkmyjv
ehjdyt ceotcndetn Atlthfkmysq yfkjujdsq rjltrc. Pfrjyjlfntkmyst cjåhfybz infnjd ghbyzkb tlbyst rjltrcs d cathfö eujkjdyjuj b rjvvthxtcrjuj ghfdf. Nfrét ceotcndeñn tlbyst
ghfdbkf ghjdtltybz uhfélfycrbö b eujkjdysö
ghjwtccjd, b öjnz jyb rfr ghfdbkj ghbybvfñncz dscibvb celtåysvb jhufyfvb atlthfkmyjuj ehjdyz bkb infnjd, d rjytxyjv cxtnt jyb
gjkexfñn jljåhtybt pfrjyjlfntkmysö jhufyjd.
Ntv yt vtytt cktletn jnvtnbnm, xnj vyjubt pfrjyjlfntkmyst b ghfdjdst frns ghjcnj pfrhtgkzñn htitybz, ghbyznst d cbcntvt ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf. Celtåyst htitybz, lfñobt njkrjdfybz rjycnbnewbzv b pfrjyjlfntkmysv frnfv,
nfrét cfvb gj ctåt cnfyjdzncz bcnjxybrfvb
ghfdf, nfr xnj ghtlcnfdktybt jå fvthbrfycrjq
cbcntvt rfr j ≤ghfdt, cjplfdftvjv celmzvb≥,
jcnftncz d wtkjv dthysv.
D nj ét dhtvz d cnhfyfö c uhfélfycrbv
ghfdjv yt dct ghfdj rjlbabwbhjdfyj d cvsckt jhufybpfwbb d tlbyst dctjåütvkñobt pfrjyjlfntkmyst frns gj dctv jåkfcnzv. Byjulf
ghbybvfñncz jnltkmyst pfrjys gj rjyrhtnysv
djghjcfv åtp dytctybz bö d cjjndtncndeñobt
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rjltrcs. Änb pfrjys ghjcnj ltqcndeñn gfhfkktkmyj c åjktt jåobv uhfélfycrbv bkb eujkjdysv rjltrcfvb ñhblbxtcrjq cbcntvs. B öjnz
d uhfélfycrjv ghfdt htitybz dsitcnjzobö
celjd yt bvtñn cbks pfrjyf lkz gjcktleñobö
cöjébö ltk (rfr änj bvttn vtcnj d ghtwtltynyjv ghfdt), yf ghfrnbrt dj vyjubö cnhfyfö
c uhfélfycrbv ghfdjv ybétcnjzobt cels
jåsxyj cktleñn htitybzv dsitcnjzobö dcktlcndbt eåtlbntkmyjq fhuevtynbhjdfyyjcnb bö
htitybq. Ntv yt vtytt, cjukfcyj ghbywbgfv
uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf, celmz ñhblbxtcrb yt cdzpfy ghtlsleobv htitybtv dsitcnjzotuj celf
gj nfrjve ét bkb fyfkjubxyjve ltke b gjkyjvjxty gjkyjcnmñ ghjbuyjhbhjdfnm änj htitybt.
Rjywtgwbz ghtwtltynf
D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö celtåyst htitybz
bvtñn cbke pfrjyf b ljkéys cjåkñlfnmcz
uhfélfyfvb, ñhbcnfvb b, rjytxyj ét, cfvbvb
celfvb. Änj jnhféftncz d ≤rjywtgwbb ghtwtltynf≥, dshfétyyjq d kfnbycrjq ahfpt stare
decisis – ≤htitybt ljkéyj jcnfdfnmcz d cbkt≥. Htitybz, ghbyznst dsitcnjzobv celjv,
bvtñn jåzpfntkmyeñ cbke lkz ybétcnjzotuj celf njq ét ñhbclbrwbb gj jlbyfrjdsv bkb cöjébv ltkfv.
Änf nhflbwbz, eyfcktljdfyyfz Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb jn Fyukbb, jcyjdsdftncz yf ytcrjkmrbö ghfrnbxtcrbö cjjåhfétybzö. D bö
xbckj döjlzn ghtlcrfpetvjcnm htpekmnfnjd,
cnhtvktybt r hfdyjve jåhfotybñ cj dctvb
kñlmvb, cnjkryedibvbcz c jlbyfrjdsvb bkb
cöjébvb ñhblbxtcrbvb ghjåktvfvb, ghtbveotcndf ghbyznbz nfrjuj htitybz gj djghjce,
rjnjhjt pfnhfubdftn dct gjcktleñobt ltkf, f
nfrét edfétybt r yfrjgktyyjq ñhbcnfvb b celmzvb velhjcnb. Ghb änjv, jlyfrj, gjybvftncz,
xnj jcyjdyst pfrjyjndjhxtcrbt jåzpfyyjcnb ktéfn yf pfrjyjlfntkmyjq dkfcnb, f celmb lfñn
njkrjdfybt pfrjyfv, d rhfqytv ckexft pfgjkyzz
ghjåtks, rjulf rjycnbnewbb bkb pfrjys yt cjlthéfn rjyrhtnysö gjkjétybq bkb gjkyjcnmñ
jåöjlzn rfrbt-kbåj djghjcs.
Nfrbv jåhfpjv, d rjywtgwbb ghtwtltynf
cjlthéfncz dféyst juhfybxtybz. Ghtélt dctuj, htitybt rfrjuj-kbåj celf åeltn jåzpfntkmysv lkz ybétcnjzotuj celf, tckb ghbyzdibq
htitybt cel cnjbn dsit d njq ét cfvjq bthfhöbb. Yfghbvth, htitybt Dthöjdyjuj celf
CIF gj djghjce rjycnbnewbjyyjuj bkb atlthfkmyjuj pfrjyf jåzpfntkmyj lkz dctö fvthbrfycrbö celjd, gjcrjkmre gj änbv djghjcfv dct
cels cxbnfñncz ybétcnjzobvb b döjlzn d ne
ét celtåyeñ dthnbrfkm, xnj b Dthöjdysq cel
CIF. Yj htitybz, ghbyznst jlybv bp ytcrjkmrbö jrheéysö atlthfkmysö fgtkkzwbjyysö celjd (celjd chtlytuj ehjdyz), jåzpfntkmys
kbim lkz jrheéysö atlthfkmysö celjd gthdjq
bycnfywbb, hfcgjkjétyysö d cjjndtncndeñotv
htubjyt. Htitybz dthöjdyjuj celf infnf gj
njkrjdfybñ pfrjyf änjuj infnf jåzpfntkmys yf
dctq nthhbnjhbb infnf, tckb jyb yt ghjnbdjhtxfn Rjycnbnewbb b atlthfkmysv pfrjyfv.
Fvthbrfycrbt celmb ghjzdkzñn åjkmieñ
jcnjhjéyjcnm d ghbyznbb htitybq. Rfr ghfdbkj, jyb ghbybvfñn r hfccvjnhtybñ kbim htfkmyst celtåyst ltkf bkb cgjhs, djpåeéltyyst cnjhjyfvb, xmb bynthtcs ytgjchtlcndtyyj
pfnhjyens. Rhjvt njuj celmb jåsxyj ghbybvfñn htitybz gj ltkfv, bcöjlz bp yfbåjktt eprbö djpvjéysö jcyjdfybq, yfghbvth, jåöjlz
rjycnbnewbjyyst djghjcs, rjulf ltkj vjétn
åsnm htityj yf jcyjdfybb jåsxysö pfrjyjd.
Gjvbvj änjuj, ≤ghfdj, cjplfdftvjt celmzvb≥,
cjcnfdkztn xfcnm bö htitybq kbim d ckexft,
rjulf änj fåcjkñnyj ytjåöjlbvj lkz ghbyznbz
htitybz gj ltke. Kñåst lheubt njkrjdfybz pfrjyf cxbnfñncz ytjabwbfkmysvb.
Tot jlybv juhfybxtybtv rjywtgwbb ghtwtltynf dscnegftn nj, xnj gjcktleñott ltkj
ljkéyj åsnm nfrbv ét bkb åkbprj cöjébv c
ghtlsleobv. Tckb jåcnjzntkmcndf ltkf yt jrfpsdfñncz d njxyjcnb cjdgflfñobvb bkb ceotcndtyyj cöjébvb, cel, ghbybvfñobq htitybt
gj ltke gjckt cjcnjzditujcz ghtwtltynf, cvjétn erfpfnm yf jnkbxbz b yt åeltn cdzpfy ghtlsleobv celtåysv htitybtv.
Dscibq celtåysq jhufy rfrjq-kbåj ñhbclbrwbb, yfghbvth, lkz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd –
Dthöjdysq cel CIF bkb lkz infnf – tuj dthöjdysq cel, vjétn jnvtybnm ghtwtltyn, lfét
tckb jåcnjzntkmcndf ltkf cjdgflfñn bkb ceotcndtyyj cöjéb c jåcnjzntkmcndfvb ghtlsleotuj ltkf. Yfghbvth, d 1954 u. d ghbyznbb htitybz gj pyfvtybnjve ltke j hfcjdjq byntuhfwbb
irjk ≤Åhfey ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥
Dthöjdysq cel CIF jnvtybk htitybt, ghbyznjt bv gj fyfkjubxyjve ltke d 1896 u.
Yj nfrjt ghzvjt bpvtytybt hfytt ghbyznsö htitybq ckexftncz ytxfcnj. Åjktt dthjznyj, xnj ghb ghbyznbb htitybq gj gjcktleñobv ltkfv dsitcnjzobq cel erfétn yf jnkbxbz yjdsö ltk, jnöjlz jn ghtwtltynjd, cnfdibö
ytétkfntkmysvb. Gj åjkmitq xfcnb ceotcndeñobt ljkujt dhtvz ghtwtltyns dsitcnjzobö
celjd jcnfñncz d cbkt.
C b cn t v fn b p f w b z p f r j y j d
Rfr yfqnb pfrjy d Fvthbrt? Vjéyj gjlevfnm,
xnj, exbnsdfz jlyjdhtvtyyjt ceotcndjdfybt
pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj ghfdf b celtåysö htitybq,
cjcnfdkzñobö ghfdj, änjn gjbcr jrfétncz pfnhelybntkmysv. Yj yf cfvjv ltkt änf pflfxf
chfdybntkmyj ghjcnf. Ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj pyfxbntkmyfz xfcnm fvthbrfycrjuj ghfdf yt cdtltyf d rjltrcs pfrjyjd, jyf ntv yt vtytt cbcntvfnbpbhjdfyf b jhufybpjdfyf gj ghtlvtnfv.
Ñhblbxtcrbt äywbrkjgtlbb b nhfrnfns, yfgbcfyyst extysvb ghjatccjhfvb b ghfrnbreñobvb ñhbcnfvb, bpkfufñn ghfdj d kjubxtcrjq
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gjcktljdfntkmyjcnb, rfr ghfdbkj, lfdfz bcnjhbxtcreñ gthcgtrnbde. Änb fdnjhbntnyst rybub
cjlthéfn cghfdjxyeñ byajhvfwbñ jå jcyjdfö
b rjyrhtnysö ghbywbgfö ghfdf gj hfpkbxysv
ghfdjdsv hfpltkfv, f nfrét ccskrb yf cjjndtncndeñobt pfrjys b ñhblbxtcrbt htitybz.
Ghjcvjnh cdjljd pfrjyjd b jgeåkbrjdfyysö d
dblt rybu ltk, yfpsdftvsö cåjhybrfvb celtåysö htitybq, ceotcndeñobö ctqxfc b d äktrnhjyyjv ajhvfnt – ljdjkmyj ytckjéyjt ltkj.
Dféyj jnvtnbnm, xnj d cbcntvt ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf fdnjhs nhfrnfnjd bvtñn vtymibq
dtc, ytétkb d cbcntvt uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf. D
cnhfyfö uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf bö hfåjns xfcnj
cxbnfñncz bcnjxybrfvb ghfdf b bcgjkmpeñncz
lkz hfphfåjnrb ljrnhby gj rjyrhtnysv ghfdjdsv djghjcfv. D cbcntvt uhfélfycrjuj ghfdf
celmb ghblfñn cjjåhfétybzv fdnjhjd nhfrnfnjd
åjkmijt pyfxtybt. D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, yfghjnbd, ljrnhbys, hfphfåjnfyyst fdnjhfvb
nhfrnfnjd, yt jåkflfñn jåzpfntkmyjq cbkjq, öjnz yf ybö vjuen ltkfnmcz ccskrb d cbke bö eåtlbntkmyjcnb.
C j g j cn f d k t y b t g h t w t l t y n y j uj
b u h f é l f y c r j uj g h f d f
Gjvbvj erfpfyysö jcjåtyyjcntq d cbcntvt
ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf ceotcndetn vyjuj bycnbnenjd, jncencndeñobö d cbcntvfö uhfélfycrjuj
ghfdf. Yfbåjktt dféysv bp ybö ckeébn éñhb
ghbczéysö, rjnjhjt c cjukfcbz cnjhjy exfcndetn d hfpåbhfntkmcndfö gj uhfélfycrbv b eujkjdysv ghjwtccfv. Éñhb ghbczéysö ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq dsåhfyyeñ gj éhtåbñ uhegge
uhfélfy, jåsxyj d xbckt 12 xtkjdtr, rjnjhst
ecnfyfdkbdfñn afrns gj ltke. Rjulf ghjdjlbncz ghjwtcc c exfcnbtv éñhb ghbczéysö, celmz
hfpüzcyztn éñhb jcyjds ghfdf, yj ecnfyjdktybt afrnjd jcnftncz ghthjufnbdjq ghbczéysö.
Änj jpyfxftn, xnj jåsxyst uhfélfyt htifñn,
30
rfrfz cnjhjyf jlthébn dthö d uhfélfycrjv
ghjwtcct, f d ckexft eujkjdyjuj ltkf – dbyjdty
bkb ytdbyjdty jådbyztvsq d cjdthitybb
ltqcndbq gj ghtlcnfdktyysv jådbytybzv.
Bycnbnen celf ghbczéysö jrfpfk pyfxbntkmyjt jghtltkzñott djpltqcndbt yf ghtwtltynyjt ghfdj. Gjcrjkmre xktys éñhb exfcndeñn d tuj hfåjnt yf dhtvtyyjq jcyjdt c wtkmñ
ecnfyjdktybz afrnjd, pfctlfybz celjd d cbcntvt ghtwtltynyjuj ghfdf jåsxyj juhfybxtys gj
dhtvtyb b byjulf pfybvfñn kbim ytcrjkmrj
lytq (öjnz byjulf ckexfñncz pfctlfybz ghjljkébntkmyjcnmñ b d ytcrjkmrj ytltkm bkb lfét
vtczwtd). Egjh ltkftncz yf ecnysq jghjc cdbltntktq, öjnz ljrevtyns nfrét ghtlcnfdkzñncz
d rfxtcndt ljrfpfntkmcnd. Ñhbcns jndtxfñn pf
ghtlcnfdktybt ltkf, f celmz, ghjdjlzobq ckeifybz, yt ghjdjlbn hfccktljdfybt ltkf lj celf. Ñhbcns, ghtlcnfdkzz ghjnbdjgjkjéyst
cnjhjys, jghfibdfñn cdbltntktq d öjlt ckeifybq, d nj dhtvz rfr celmz gj cenb dsgjkyztn
aeyrwbñ htathb. Gjrfpfybz cdbltntktq pfgbcsdfñncz ljckjdyj ctrhtnfhtv celf bkb pfgbcsdfñobvb ecnhjqcndfvb.
Cel gthdjq bycnfywbb, n. t. cel, d rjnjhjv
ghjdjlbncz gthdjyfxfkmyjt ckeifybt gj ltke,
d fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvt ckeébn ntv vtcnjv,
ult jajhvkztncz dcz ljrevtynfwbz gj ltke. Djjåot ujdjhz, fgtkkzwbjyyst cels juhfybxbdfñn cdjt hfccvjnhtybt htitybq ybétcnjzotuj
celf dszdktybtv ñhblbxtcrbö, f yt afrnbxtcrbö jibåjr. Ghb gjlfxt fgtkkzwbb yt vjétn
åsnm ghtlcnfdktyj yjdsö ljrfpfntkmcnd.
Dct änj cjcnfdkztn pyfxbntkmysq rjynhfcn
c celjghjbpdjlcndjv d cbcntvt uhfélfycrjuj
ghfdf, ult éñhb ghbczéysö gj åjkmitq xfcnb
yt ceotcndetn. D änjq cbcntvt dvtcnj ghjdtltybz tlbyjuj ytghthsdyjuj celtåyjuj ghjwtccf
vjétn åsnm ghjdtltyf cthbz celtåysö ckeifybq d ntxtybt lkbntkmyjuj gthbjlf dhtvtyb.
Ljrevtyns bvtñn åjkmitt pyfxtybt, ytétkb
gjrfpfybz cdbltntktq. Celmz frnbdyj exfcndetn
d hfccktljdfybb ltkf b nfrét ghjdjlbn jghjc
cdbltntktq. Dvtcnj ljckjdyjuj ghjnjrjkf ckeifybq ljrevtynfwbz gj ltke cjcnjbn bp pfgbctq celmb b ljrevtynjd hfccktljdfybz. Vjuen
gjlfdfnmcz fgtkkzwbb rfr gj afrnfv, nfr b gj
ñhblbxtcrbv jibårfv, b fgtkkzwbjyysq cel
vjétn b byjulf ghbybvftn r hfccvjnhtybñ yjdst ljrfpfntkmcndf.
Ytcvjnhz yf ceotcndeñobt hfpkbxbz, rfr
ghtwtltynyjt, nfr b uhfélfycrjt ghfdj bvtñn
cdjtq wtkmñ cghfdtlkbdjt, åscnhjt b ytljhjujcnjzott hfphtitybt celtåysö cgjhjd.
D gjcktlybt ujls fvthbrfycrbt cels cnfkb eltkznm jcjåjt dybvfybt ghjdtltybñ gjcnjzyyjq jwtyrb ehjdyz jhufybpfwbb celtåyjuj
ghjwtccf, c wtkmñ gjdsitybz rfxtcndf ghfdjcelbz. D htpekmnfnt änjuj d ltzntkmyjcnb fvthbrfycrbö celjd gjzdbkjcm vyjuj yjdsö cnjhjy. Jyb drkñxfñn åjkmijq cgtrnh fkmnthyfnbdysö vtöfybpvjd hfphtitybz cgjhjd (drkñxfz fhåbnhfé b gjchtlybxtcndj), f nfrét nfrbt
ghjwtlehyst vtöfybpvs rfr cdjlyst htitybz,
dsyjcbvst d gjhzlrt eghjotybz celjghjbpdjlcndf, b celtåyst htitybz d gjkmpe bcnwf
dcktlcndbt ytzdrb jndtnxbrf. Dct änb bycnhevtyns bcgjkmpeñncz celmzvb lkz ghbyznbz htitybq gj ltkfv yf hfyytq cnflbb hfccvjnhtybz åtp ghjdtltybz ajhvfkmyjuj celtåyjuj
ghjwtccf.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfwbb. Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBF. Njv 4, §2,
ctynzåhm 1999 u.
31
CELTÅYSQ
YFLPJH
Eybrfkmyfz aeyrwbz fvthbrfycrjq ñhblbxtcrjq cbcntvs, yfpsdftvfz celtåysv
yflpjhjv, yt egjvbyftncz d Rjycnbnewbb. Ntv yt vtytt jyf cxbnftncz pfrjyysv ghfdjv, hfphtifñobv cele ≤jåüzdkznm ytltqcndbntkmysvb ltqcndbz pfrjyjlfntkmysö bkb bcgjkybntkmysö dkfcntq, rjnjhst åskb cjxntys ghjnbdjhtxfobvb≥ pyfxtybñ bkb njkrjdfybñ Rjycnbnewbb.
Rjywtgwbz celtåyjuj yflpjhf dgthdst åskf hfphfåjnfyf d ltkt ≤Vfhåehb
ghjnbd Vtlbcjyf≥ (1803 u.), jlyjv bp
yfbåjktt hfyybö b yfbåjktt bpdtcnysö
ltk, hfccvjnhtyysö Dthöjdysv celjv,
rjulf Ebkmzv Vfhåehb åsk yfpyfxty
vbhjdsv celmtq Ghtpbltynjv Léjyjv
Flfvcjv, chjr ghtåsdfybz d ljkéyjcnb
rjnjhjuj gjlöjlbk r rjywe. Vfhåehb,
jlyfrj, yt dcnegbk d ljkéyjcnm gj ghbxbyt cnjkryjdtybz vytybq Flfvcf b yjdjuj Ghtpbltynf Njvfcf Létaathcjyf.
Vfhåehb gjlfk ghjitybt d Dthöjdysq
cel CIF, rjnjhjt gjcktlybq eljdktndjhbk, j ghbyznbb celtåyjuj gjcnfyjdktybz j dsgjkytybb nhtåjdfybq bcnwf,
pfcnfdbditt xbyjdybrjd atlthfkmyjuj
ghfdbntkmcndf dsgjkybnm cdjb jåzpfyyjcnb, öjnz bv b yt yhfdbkbcm htpekmnfns bö ltqcndbq.
D tlbyjukfcyjv htitybb Dthöjdyjuj
celf ukfdysq celmz Léjy Vfhifkk
pfkjébk jcyjds åeleobö gjkyjvjxbq
Dthöjdyjuj celf, erfpfd, xnj celtåyfz
dtndm dkfcnb ytctn jndtncndtyyjcnm
pf ≤jghtltktybt njuj, d xtv cjcnjbn
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pfrjy... D änjv pfrkñxftncz ceotcndj
ljkuf celtåysö jhufyjd≥. Öjnz Pfrjy j
celfö 1789 u. eét hfphtibk Dthöjdyjve
cele ghbybvfnm gjcnfyjdktybz, jåzpsdfñobt ghfdbntkmcndtyysö xbyjdybrjd
dsgjkybnm nhtåjdfybq bcnwf, hfytt
celmb cxbnfkb bö ghjnbdjhtxfobvb leöe
Rjycnbnewbb CIF.
D htpekmnfnt d öjlt ltkf Vfhåehb
ghjnbd Vtlbcjyf åskf ecnfyjdktyf dféyfz aeyrwbz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF,
f nfrét dctö lheubö atlthfkmysö celjd.
Öjnz bp änjuj ltkf yt cktljdfkj, xnj
celmb vjuen ljgjkyznm pfrjys bkb
Rjycnbnewbñ – jyb vjuen njkmrj lfdfnm
bö njkrjdfybz – ghfdj celtåyjuj yflpjhf lfkj Dthöjdyjve cele b, cktljdfntkmyj, dctq fvthbrfycrjq ñhblbxtcrjq
cbcntvt pyfxbntkmyj åjkmibt gjkyjvjxbz.
Ltåjhf V. C. Åhfey
Rfr hfåjnfñn fvthbrfycrbt cels
Celtåyfz änbrf d eckjdbzö
ghfdjdjuj ujcelfhcndf
C e l m z D t h ö j d y j uj c e l f C I F Ä y n j y b R t y y t l b
D jcyjdt rjycnbnewbjyyjq ltvjrhfnbb
ktébn dkfcnm pfrjyf, f jlybv bp
rkñxtdsö rjvgjytynjd dkfcnb pfrjyf
d eckjdbzö rjycnbnewbjyyjq ltvjrhfnbb
ckeébn tuj ytghtldpznjcnm. Yf jhufybpjdfyyjq lkz ckjdtycrbö celtq ntktdbpbjyyjq ghtcc-rjyathtywbb celmz
Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF Äynjyb Rtyytlb
hfccrfpsdftn, rfrbv jåhfpjv celtåyfz
dkfcnm ljkéyf ufhfynbhjdfnm ytghtldpznjcnm ghbywbgf dkfcnb pfrjyf,
gjllthébdfz ghb änjv njyrjt hfdyjdtcbt vtéle celtåyjq änbrjq b ytpfdbcbvjcnmñ celf.
Celtåyfz änbrf ntcyj cdzpfyf c ytpfdbcbvjcnmñ celf, b nhelyj ujdjhbnm jå jlyjv, yt egjvbyfz j lheujv.
Pfrjy ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq jåtn. Änjn jåtn
cjcnjbn d ytghtldpznjcnb. Tckb jåtn yfheiftncz, tckb jncencndetn ytghtldpznjcnm ghb cjåkñltybb, jnghfdktybb b njkrjdfybb pfrjyf, nj
ghfdj d njv dblt, rfr vs tuj pyftv, gthtcnftn
ceotcndjdfnm...
Ytpfdbcbvjcnm celf ntcyj cdzpfyf c tuj
ytghtldpznjcnmñ. Jåzpfyyjcnm celtåyjq dkfcnb
– yfcnfbdfnm yf njv, xnjås lheubt dtndb dkfcnb ghtljcnfdkzkb tq htcehcs, gjllthére b pfobne, ytjåöjlbvst lkz dsgjkytybz celjv tuj
aeyrwbq. Jlyfrj, eåtlbnm d änjv lheubt dtndb
dkfcnb nhelyj, jnxfcnb gjnjve, xnj ytrjnjhst
pfrjyjlfntkb cxbnfñn, xnj e celtq kturfz hfåjnf. Pfrjyjlfntkb ytjöjnyj gjdsifñn celmzv
pfhgkfne bkb yfpyfxfñn åjkmit celtq. Änj
nhelyj tot b gjnjve, xnj htcehcs crelys, f
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Celmz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF Äynjyb Rtyytlb
pfrjyjlfntkb ljkéys pfåjnbnmcz j cnhjbntkmcndt åjkmybw, irjk b ljhju... Jlyfrj, ltqcndtyyfz ghfdjdfz cbcntvf nfr ét dféyf lkz hfcneotq ärjyjvbrb b ghjuhtccbdyjuj jåotcndf, rfr
b åjkmybws, irjks b ljhjub. Gjänjve ljku celmb – jåüzcyznm, xnj cels b pfrjyyjcnm ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq dféyeñ cjcnfdyeñ xfcnm åfpjdjq byahfcnhernehs kñåjuj jåotcndf.
Rjywtgwbz celtåyjq änbrb
Ntcyj cdzpfyf c ytpfdbcbvjcnmñ celjd dcz rjywtgwbz celtåyjq änbrb. Tckb ås rjuj-nj bp dfc
gjghjcbkb hfccrfpfnm cdjbv rjkktufv j ghtlvtnt celtåyjq änbrb, gjyfxfke ds djpvjéyj yt
pföjntkb ås änjuj ltkfnm bkb gjcntcyzkbcm...
Yj ujdjhbnm j celtåyjq änbrt jxtym dféyj. Änj
yt jpyfxftn, xnj cfv jhfnjh åtpeghtxty. Änj jpyfxftn, xnj vs ljcnfnjxyj jpfåjxtys ntv, xnjås celtåyfz dkfcnm bvtkf htgenfwbñ xtcnyjq b
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ytghtldpznjq dj dctö cdjbö ltqcndbzö, b xnjås
jyf åskf nfrjdjq yf ghfrnbrt. Celtåyfz änbrf,
hfdyj rfr b ytpfdbcbvjcnm celjd, rfcftncz rfr
dgtxfnktybz, nfr htfkmyjcnb. Tckb ceotcndetn
dgtxfnktybt, ghtlcnfdktybt j ytxtcnyjcnb, yf
celtåyeñ dkfcnm kjébncz ntym.
Vjéyj hfccvfnhbdfnm änbxtcrbq rjltrc celtq rfr cjcnjzobq bp nhtö xfcntq. Gthdfz
xfcnm pfrkñxftncz d njv, xnj rfélsq celmz ljkéty cxbnfnm cdjbv gthcjyfkmysv rjltrcjv
rfr vjéyj åjktt dscjrbt cnfylfhns kbxyjuj b
ghjatccbjyfkmyjuj gjdtltybz. Dfif kbxyfz
ébpym, nj, rfr ds jnyjcbntcm r cdjtq ctvmt b
jåotcnde, ytbpåtéyj cnfyjdbncz bpdtcnysv jåotcndtyyjcnb, b ds ljkéys ltvjycnhbhjdfnm
nfrjt gjdtltybt, cghfdtlkbdjcnm, xtcnyjcnm,
ghzvjne, rjnjhsö vs éltv jn yfibö cfvsö jndtncndtyysö uhfélfy.
C njxrb phtybz ghjatccbjyfkmyjq, celmz
ljkéty dtcnb ctåz nfr, rfr gjljåftn dscjrjve
celtåyjve ljkéyjcnyjve kbwe. Vfyths b ntvgthfvtyn jxtym dféys. Yfghbvth, gjhjq celmt
åsdftn nhelyj clthéfnmcz, rjulf fldjrfn
evsiktyyj pfntdftn cgjh c celjv... Yj celmz
ljkéty yfcnfbdfnm yf njv, xnjås fldjrfn edféfk yt kbxyjt ljcnjbycndj celmb, yj ljcnjbycndj njuj exhtéltybz, rjnjhjt celmz ghtlcnfdkztn. Änj wtkjt bcreccndj – yfexbnmcz eghfdkznm fldjrfnfvb d dfitv celtåyjv pfkt.
Ytrjnjhst bp kexibö celtq d atlthfkmyjq
cbcntvt CIF, c rjnjhsvb z pyfrjv, ybrjulf
yt ghbdktrfkb fldjrfnf pf ytedfétybt r cele,
ybrjulf yt yfrfpsdfkb fldjrfnf. Yj cdjbv vfythfvb, jåkbrjv, dctv cdjbv gjdtltybtv jyb
ghbdyjczn d pfk pfctlfybq nfreñ fnvjcathe
edfétybz, xnj yb jlby fldjrfn ybrjulf yt jcvtkbncz dsqnb bp uhfybw gjljåfñotuj gjdtltybz gthtl kbwjv änjuj celmb...
Rfélfz nzéeofzcz cnjhjyf öjxtn åtcghbcnhfcnyjuj hfccvjnhtybz ltkf. B nfrjt hfccvjnhtybt åsnm åtcghbcnhfcnysv b yt dsps-
dfnm ybrfrbö cjvytybq d änjv... Celmz ljkéty
jåtcgtxbdfnm ytghtldpznjcnm celtåyjuj hfpåbhfntkmcndf hfpysvb cgjcjåfvb. Jy ljkéty
ghtljcnfdkznm hfdyjt dhtvz dctv cnjhjyfv. Jy
ljkéty ltqcndjdfnm åscnhj.
Tckb nzéeofzcz cnjhjyf ljåbdftncz åtcghbcnhfcnyjuj ckeifybz, jyf xfot dctuj cxbnftn, xnj ghfdjcelbt jceotcndbkjcm. Åjkmibycndj kñltq, jåhfofñoböcz d cel pf hfphtitybtv ltkf, eåtéltys d njv, xnj tckb bö dsckeiftn ytqnhfkmyjt, ytghtldpznjt kbwj, nj ghfdjcelbt åeltn jceotcndktyj.
Å b n d f p f y t g h t l d p z n j cn m
D hfvrfö cdjtuj kbxyjuj b ghjatccbjyfkmyjuj
rjltrcf celmb ljkéys bpåtufnm cnjkryjdtybz
bynthtcjd. Djpvjéyj, e ytrjnjhsö bp dfc hjlcndtyybrb hfåjnfñn d ctkmcrjv öjpzqcndt, åbpytct bkb ghjvsiktyyjcnb. Dkbztn kb änj yf
dfit evjyfcnhjtybt? Dkbztn kb änj yf dfit
jnyjitybt r hfpkbxysv djghjcfv? Crfpsdftncz kb yf dsyjcbvjv dfvb htitybb nj, xnj ds
ehjétytw jghtltktyyjuj hfqjyf cnhfys? Dct
änj crfpsdftncz yf dfitq gjpbwbb.
Yj ctrhtn, gjpdjkzñobq cnfnm celmtq c
dscjrbvb änbxtcrbvb yjhvfvb, cjcnjbn d njv,
xnjås ybrjulf yt ghtrhfofnm bpexfnm ctåz. Z
hfåjnfñ celmtq åjktt 20 ktn, b vtyz gjhféftn,
rfr xfcnj vyt ghböjlbncz djpdhfofnmcz r cfvjve yfxfke b pflfdfnm ctåt djghjc: ≤Yt dkflttn
kb vyjñ ytrfz crhsnfz ghtldpznjcnm, ytrfz
ghtlhfcgjkjétyyjcnm, ytrfz ghbcnhfcnyjcnm,
ytrbq ghtlhfcceljr, rjnjhst lfét vyt yt dblys? Xnj rjyrhtnyj gjåeélftn vtyz hfphtifnm
ltkj bvtyyj nfrbv jåhfpjv?≥ Vyt ghböjlbncz
fyfkbpbhjdfnm cjåcndtyyjt ghjikjt, cjåcndtyyeñ byntkktrnefkmyeñ gjpbwbñ, lfås ufhfynbhjdfnm cdjñ åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnm.
Åbndf pf ytqnhfkbntn, åbndf pf åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnm d cjpyfybb celmb bltn åtcrjytxyj.
E dfc ljkéys åsnm ytrbt dytiybt jhbtynbhs,
gjpdjkzñobt cnhtvbnmcz r fåcjkñnyjq åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnb... yj ds ybrjulf tt yt ljcnbuytnt,
gjnjve xnj dct vs – ghjlern yfibö cjåcndtyysö ghtlhfccelrjd b ghjikjuj.
Änbxtcrbt rfyjys
Dvtcnt c ntv ceotcndeñn jghtltktyyst jcyjdjgjkfufñobt ghfdbkf lkz åtcghbcnhfcnyjuj
ckeifybz ltkf. Dj-gthdsö, e dfc yt vjétn
åsnm abyfycjdjq bkb kbxyjq pfbynthtcjdfyyjcnb d ltkt, rjnjhjt ds ckeiftnt. Pdexbn
ljcnfnjxyj ghjcnj, yj xnj åeltn, tckb xkty dfitq ctvmb dkflttn frwbzvb rjhgjhfwbb bkb
rnj-nj bp lheptq dfv crfpfk, xnj yflttncz yf
jghtltktyysq bcöjl ltkf? Yfkbwj cnjkryjdtybt bynthtcjd, b ds ljkéys änjve djcghjnbdbnmcz.
D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, tckb ujdjhbnm j
atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq dkfcnb, kbxysq rjltrc
gjdtltybz gjlrhtgkztncz gbcfysvb änbxtcrbvb rfyjyfvb. Yf vjq dpukzl, kbxysq rjltrc
gjdtltybz ljkéty yföjlbnm jnhfétybt d gbcfyjv rjltrct änbrb, b celmb ljkéys jåceélfnm
änjn rjltrc.
Rjulf ds ckeiftnt bkb xbnftnt fvthbrfycrbq rjltrc änbrb, jy pdexbn nfr ghjcnj, nfr
äktvtynfhyj, xnj vjétn gjrfpfnmcz, xnj c ybv
cjukfcbncz rfélsq. Jy pdexbn gjxnb ckbirjv
eghjotyysv, åfyfkmysv. Gjpdjkmnt pfxbnfnm
dfv ctvm änbxtcrbö rfyjyjd. Änb ghtlgbcfybz
ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq ghbywbgs, rjnjhst ybrnj
yt vjétn jcgjhbnm.
– Celmz ljkéty cjöhfyznm xtcnyjcnm b ytpfdbcbvjcnm celtåyjq dkfcnb.
– Celmz yt ljkéty cjdthifnm ytgjljåfñobö ltqcndbq dj dctö dblfö ltzntkmyjcnb b yt
ljgecrfnm cjvybntkmyjuj gjdtltybz.
– Celmz ljkéty dsgjkyznm ljkéyjcnyst
jåzpfyyjcnb åtcghbcnhfcnyj b ghbktéyj.
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– Celmz vjétn pfybvfnmcz dytceltåyjq
ltzntkmyjcnmñ c wtkmñ cjdthitycndjdfybz pfrjyf, ghfdjdjq cbcntvs b ghjwtccf jnghfdktybz ghfdjcelbz.
– Celmz ljkéty htuekbhjdfnm dytceltåyeñ
ltzntkmyjcnm, cdjlz r vbybveve hbcr rjyakbrnf c celtåysvb jåzpfyyjcnzvb.
– Celmz ljkéty htuekzhyj gjlfdfnm jnxtns
j ljöjlfö, gjkextyysö pf ghfdjdeñ b dytceltåyeñ ltzntkmyjcnm.
– Celmz ljkéty djplthébdfnmcz jn gjkbnbxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb.
Ytrjnjhst bp änbö rfyjyjd, d njv xbckt gj
jåyfhjljdfybñ cdjbö ljöjljd, jnhféfñn jabwbfkmyeñ gjpbwbñ celtåyjq dkfcnb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, d jcyjdyjv lkz bpåtéfybz abyfycjdsö rjyakbrnjd. Vs gj pfrjye jåzpfys gjlfdfnm geåkbxysq jnxtn c gthtxbcktybtv dctuj kbxyjuj bveotcndf, dctö frnbdjd, frwbq b
dctö ljöjljd... Vs nfr cnhtvbkbcm jåtcgtxbnm
jncencndbt jcyjdfybq lkz djpybryjdtybz cjvytybq d åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnb, xnj yfcnjzkb yf
ltrkfhbhjdfybb dctö frwbq, rjnjhsvb dkflttn
celmz. Yfghbvth, tckb celmz dkflttn öjnz ås
jlyjq frwbtq rjvgfybb bkb tckb cegheu (cegheuf) bkb xkty ctvmb celmb dkflttn jlyjq frwbtq, nj celmz d jåzpfntkmyjv gjhzlrt jndjlbncz jn exfcnbz d ltkt, cdzpfyyjv c lfyyjq rjvgfybtq... Bkb tckb celmz cxbnftn, xnj bvttn
ljcnfnjxyeñ pfbynthtcjdfyyjcnm d ltkt b xnj
åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnm yt vjétn åsnm ufhfynbhjdfy, celmz yt ljkéty exfcndjdfnm d pfctlfybb,
gecnm lfét tuj jå änjv ghjczn fldjrfns...
Rjvbntn celtq
D atlthfkmyjq celtåyjq dkfcnb CIF tcnm rjvbntn celtq, jndtxfñobq yf djghjcs dctö xktyjd celtåyjq dkfcnb, cdzpfyyst c celtåyjq
änbrjq.... Rjvbntn lftn celmt yt njkmrj cjdtn b
jghtltktyyst ghbywbgs lkz jålevsdfybz b
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ghbyznbz dj dybvfybz, yj b ghtljcnfdkztn celmt jghtltktyyeñ pfobne. Tckb gjplytt celmñ
gjldthuyen rhbnbrt pf ckeifybt ltkf, jy vjétn crfpfnm: ≤Z yfgbcfk jå änjv d rjvbntn, b
rjvbntn cj vyjq cjukfcbkcz≥.
Gjpdjkmnt ghbdtcnb ghbvth. Åsk e yfc celmz, vyjuj dhtvtyb hfåjnfdibq yfl hfccvjnhtybtv jxtym ckjéyjuj fynbnhtcnjdcrjuj ltkf.
D gthbjl celtåyjuj hfpåbhfntkmcndf gj ltke jy
gjpyfrjvbkcz c lfvjq, b jyb gjétybkbcm. Jrfpfkjcm, xnj tuj étyf dkflttn pyfxbntkmysv xbckjv frwbq rjhgjhfwbq, rjnjhsvb jy pfybvfkcz,
b gjänjve jy gbcmvtyyj jåhfnbkcz d rjvbntn c
djghjcjv j njv, rfr tve cktletn gjcnegbnm...
Nfrbv jåhfpjv, änbxtcrfz cbcntvf ljkéyf
drkñxfnm d ctåz kbxysq b ghjatccbjyfkmysq
rjltrcs, jyf ljkéyf bvtnm gbcfyeñ cbcntve
änbxtcrbö yjhv b vtöfybpv, jåtcgtxbdfñobq
bö dsgjkytybt.
G h b p y f y b t c e l t å y j uj r j l t rc f
Dhtvz jn dhtvtyb njn bkb byjq celmz åtcxtcnbn celtåyeñ ghbczue b celtqcrjt vtcnj. Änj
åhjcftn ntym yf ghfdjcelbt d wtkjv. Änj gtxfkmyj, yj celmb njét kñlb, b, hfpevttncz, jyb
gjldthétys xtkjdtxtcrbv gjhjrfv...
D atlthfkmyjq cbcntvt Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd celmz vjétn åsnm jnhtity jn ljkéyjcnb njkmrj gentv bvgbxvtynf Ctyfnjv CIF. Pf
yfie 200-ktnyññ bcnjhbñ åskj dctuj ctvm
ckexftd, rjulf Ctyfne ghböjlbkjcm jncnhfyznm
celmñ. Tot ytrjnjhst celmb eöjlbkb d jncnfdre gjl lfdktybtv... d cbke rjhhegwbb, dpznjxybxtcndf, fkrjujkbpvf bkb gcböbxtcrjq ytecnjqxbdjcnb.
Rhjvt jncnhfytybz celmb gentv bvgbxvtynf, d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö bvttncz lbcwbgkbyfhysq vtöfybpv, c gjvjomñ rjnjhjuj celmzv
dsyjcbncz pfvtxfybt bkb jåüzdkztncz dsujdjh
pf ytgjljåfñott gjdtltybt. Änj rjynhjkbhetn-
cz cfvjq celtåyjq dkfcnmñ, b z cxbnfñ jxtym
dféysv, xnjås kñåjq vtöfybpv lkz jåüzdktybz gjhbwfybz bkb dsujdjhf celmzv, gjvbvj
jncnhfytybz jn ljkéyjcnb, yföjlbkcz d dtltybb celtåyjq dkfcnb. Jlyfrj, d cdjñ jxthtlm,
celtåyfz dkfcnm ljkéyf bvtnm ljcnfnjxyj ndthleñ änbre, ljcnfnjxyj ghjxyeñ nhflbwbñ åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnb b ytpfdbcbvjcnb lkz njuj, xnjås
jyf vjukf htifnm cdjb cjåcndtyyst ghjåktvs...
Änj – cjcnfdyfz xfcnm ytpfdbcbvjcnb celf.
Änj yt jpyfxftn, xnj vs ljkéys erhsdfnm bkb
pfobofnm xktyjd yfitq cjåcndtyyjq ubkmlbb.
Änj jpyfxftn, xnj vs ljkéys ltqcndjdfnm ghzvj b äythubxyj, ghbpyfdfz, xnj änbxtcrbq rjltrc celtq ytjåöjlbv, xnj jy ljkéty åsnm rjyrhtnysv, xnj vs ljkéys gjybvfnm, d xtv jy
cjcnjbn, b jåtcgtxbdfnm tuj dsgjkytybt.
Z ujdjhbk ljdjkmyj ljkuj, f ntgthm öjntk
ås jndtnbnm yf dfib djghjcs.
DJGHJC: D rjycnbnewbb Ckjdtybb tcnm
cgtwbfkmyjt gjkjétybt, ghtlecvfnhbdfñott,
xnj celmz vjétn åsnm xktyjv gjkbnbxtcrjq
gfhnbb, yj yt ljkéty pfybvfnm rfreñ-kbåj ljkéyjcnm d gjkbnbxtcrjq jhufybpfwbb. D öjlt
vtcnysö b ujcelfhcndtyysö bpåbhfntkmysö
rfvgfybq djpybrkb cthmtpyst djghjcs j njv,
vjétn kb celmz bltynbabwbhjdfnm ctåz rfr
xktyf gjkbnbxtcrjq gfhnbb b vjétn kb celmz
geåkbxyj gjllthébdfnm yt jnyjczotujcz r
celtåyjq cbcntvt rfylblfnf yf ujcelfhcndtyyeñ ljkéyjcnm. Vjétn kb, gj-dfitve, gjljåyfz gjkbnbxtcrfz ltzntkmyjcnm cxbnfnmcz ytevtcnyjq?
CELMZ RTYYTLB: D cnherneht Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd tcnm atlthfkmyfz celtåyfz
cbcntvf, d rjnjheñ z döjée, b 50 jnltkmysö
celtåysö cbcntv infnjd. Xfcnm jndtnjd, rjnjhst z lfv dfv ctujlyz, jnhféftn atlthfkmyeñ
nhflbwbñ – åjktt étcnreñ, åjktt jncnhfyty-
yeñ, åjktt yfcnfbdfñoeñ yf hfpltktybb dkfcntq. Gjänjve z lfv dfv ldf jndtnf – c njxrb
phtybz infnf b c njxrb atlthfkmyjq phtybz.
Cktlez atlthfkmyjq nhflbwbb, vs ghbikb
ås d eéfc, tckb ås celmz gjllthéfk gjkbnbxtcrjuj rfylblfnf. Yf yfi dpukzl, änj yt cjjndtncndetn ghbywbge hfpltktybz dkfcntq, rjnjhsq ljkéty cjåkñlfnmcz d yfitq rjycnbnewbjyyjq cbcntvt. Vs cxbnftv, xnj celmb yt
ljkéys jnjéltcndkznmcz c njq bkb byjq gjkbnbxtcrjq gfhnbtq.
D cbcntvt infnjd hzl celtq bpåbhftncz yf
cdjñ ljkéyjcnm. Bp-pf änjuj yfib lhepmz bp
vyjubö tdhjgtqcrbö cnhfy cjvytdfñncz, vjétn
kb nfrjq celmz djjåot åsnm ytpfdbcbvsv, ghböjlz yf cdjñ ljkéyjcnm d htpekmnfnt dsåjhjd.
D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö änj njét yfxbyftn dspsdfnm ytvfkj lbcreccbq, gjnjve xnj e yfc tcnm
ghjåktvf, cdzpfyyfz c juhjvysvb ltytéysvb
pfnhfnfvb yf ntktdbpbjyyst rfvgfybb, d öjlt
rjnjhsö byjulf dtltncz fubnfwbz pf rfylblfnjd
yf gjcn celmb. Gjänjve pflfyysq dfvb djghjc
j celmzö b gjkbnbrt d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö
yjcbn jxtym ébdjnhtgtoeobq öfhfrnth.
Tckb celtåyfz dkfcnm yfvthtyf åsnm ytpfdbcbvjq, jyf ljkéyf jnvtétdfnmcz jn gjkbnbxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb. Celtåyfz dkfcnm yt vjétn
jrfpfnmcz dnzyenjq d gfhnbqyst ltåfns, rjnjhst jåzpfntkmyj ghjbcöjlzn d frnbdyjq gjkbnbxtcrjq cbcntvt. Gjänjve yt levfñ, xnj hfpevyj ljåfdkznm r bvtyb celmb nt bkb byst celtåyst b gjkbnbxtcrbt zhksrb, b eé njxyj yt
levfñ, xnj celmt cktletn gjllthébdfnm gjkbnbxtcrjuj rfylblfnf. Jlyf bp éthnd, rjnjhst ds
ghbyjcbnt, blz d celtåyeñ dkfcnm, cjcnjbn
d njv, xnj ceotcndeñn jghtltktyyst cnjhjys
jåotcndtyyjq b xfcnyjq ébpyb, d rjnjhsö ds
åjkmit yt vjétnt exfcndjdfnm, b d rjytxyjv
cxtnt ds dspjdtnt ytedfétybt r ytghtldpznjcnb celtåyjq dkfcnb, tckb pfqvtntcm ltkfvb gjkbnbxtcrbvb...
37
Yf vjq dpukzl, ghjldbétybt celtq b jwtyrf bö hfåjns ljkéys jcyjdsdfnmcz yf bö ghjatccbjyfkmysö pfckeufö b ghbdthétyyjcnb
ghbywbge ytghtldpznjcnb pfrjyf. Nfr xnj d njq
cntgtyb, d rfrjq änj gjpdjkzñn dfib rekmnehf
b gjkbnbxtcrfz cbcntvf, z ås ghtlghbyzk dct
djpvjéyst ifub lkz njuj, xnjås gjcnfdbnm celmñ dyt gjkbnbxtcrbö ghbcnhfcnbq b gjkbnbxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb.
DJGHJC: Ctqxfc d Ckjdtybb d cfvjv hfpufht ltåfns jå bpvtytybzö d rjycnbnewbb. Dblbnt kb ds rfrbt-nj ghtgzncndbz r njve, xnjås
fccjwbfwbz celtq cgjcjåcndjdfkf cjdthitycndjdfybñ rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf, jhufybpez
lbcreccbb bkb exfcndez d gjlujnjdrt ghjtrnf
rjycnbnewbb?
CELMZ RTYYTLB: Celmb jceotcndkzñn
dkfcnm d hfvrfö ujcelfhcndtyyjuj fggfhfnf. Gjänjve ytjåöjlbvj, xnjås celmb c bö ghjatccbjyfkmysv jgsnjv b ghbdthétyyjcnmñ ytghtldpznjcnb pfrjyf exfcndjdfkb d ntö lbcreccbzö b vthjghbznbzö, rjnjhst gjpdjkzn ekexibnm pfrjyjlfntkmcndj.
D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö tcnm rjyrhtnyst
ghfdbkf d yfibö rfyjyfö, yt njkmrj hfphtifñobt, yj b gjåeélfñobt celtq ghtgjlfdfnm,
exfcndjdfnm d vthjghbznbzö gj cjdthitycndjdfybñ ghfdjdjq cbcntvs...
Rjulf fvthbrfycrbt celmb boen cjñpybrjd,
vs xfcnj jåhfoftvcz r yfibv lhepmzv b åsdibv rjkktufv.... Vs ltkftv änj jnrhsnj, jåüzcyzz d geåkbxyjv gbcmvt, d xtv cjcnjzn yfib
celtqcrbt pfåjns. Vs yt vjétv åsnm yfcnjkmrj jncnhfytys jn vbhf, xnjås vs vjukb bkb
ljkéys åskb buyjhbhjdfnm ghjåktvs, pfrjyjlfntkmcndj b vths, pfnhfubdfñobt celtåyeñ
dkfcnm, b z cxbnfñ dgjkyt evtcnysv lkz celmb
exfcndjdfnm d nfrjq ltzntkmyjcnb b lbcreccbzö.
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Jlyfrj, celmz ljkéty åsnm jxtym jcnjhjéysv, xnjås åskj zcyj, xnj jy pfybvftncz
änbv d rfxtcndt dytceltåyjq ltzntkmyjcnb b yt
åeltn dcnegfnm d gjljåyst lbcreccbb yf cdjtv
hfåjxtv vtcnt bkb drkñxfnm änj d cdjb gbcmvtyyst vytybz bkb gjcnfyjdktybz.
DJGHJC: Z ghjxtk dfi rjltrc gjdtltybz
celtq... b öjntk ås ytcrjkmrj gjlhjåytt epyfnm
j gjkjétybzö gj jåtcgtxtybñ dsgjkytybz änbö
ghfdbk b j njv, rfrjds gjcktlcndbz d ckexft
yfheitybz, b rnj cktlbn pf bö cjåkñltybtv?
CELMZ RTYYTLB: D cbcntvt celtåyjq
dkfcnb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd d rféljv htubjyt
ceotcndetn nfr yfpsdftvsq jrheéyjq atlthfkmysq fgtkkzwbjyysq celjv. Rfélsq infn b
atlthfkmysq jrheu Rjkevåbz jnyjczncz r jlyjve bp 12 nfrbö celjd. D rféljv bp ybö tcnm
ukfdysq celmz, b ghb ytv bvttncz rjvbntn, cjcnjzobq yfgjkjdbye bp celtq, hfåjnfñobö d
celfö gthdjq bycnfywbb, b yfgjkjdbye bp
fgtkkzwbjyysö celtq. Kñåjq uhfélfyby bkb
kñåjq lheujq celmz vjuen dytcnb éfkjåe yf njuj bkb byjuj celmñ.
Ytrjnjhst bp änbö éfkjå cjdthityyj ytjåjcyjdfyys. Jyb bcöjlzn jn ytljdjkmyjq nzéeotqcz cnjhjys, dsldbufñotq d flhtc celmb
ytrbt yflevfyyst jådbytybz. Nfrbt éfkjås
åscnhj hfccktleñncz b jnrkjyzñncz. Tckb ét
htxm bltn j ghtlgjkfuftvsö åjktt cthmtpysö
yfheitybzö, nj jceotcndkztncz hzl ifujd. D
ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö ukfdysq celmz b rjvbntn
ghjcnj dspsdfñn celmñ, åtctleñn c ybv yf pfctlfybb rjvbntnf rjyabltywbfkmyj, yfcnfdkzñn celmñ... Gj htpekmnfnfv pfctlfybz rjvbntnf
yt ghjbpdjlbncz ybrfrbö pfgbctq, rhjvt pfzdktybz j njv, xnj éfkjåf ghbyznf r cdtltybñ b
hfccvjnhtyf... Rjvbntn nhtåetn jn celmb, xnjås
gjljåyjt gjdtltybt yt gjdnjhzkjcm d åeleotv,
erfpsdftn yf öfhfrnth änbxtcrjuj yfheitybz b
eothå, rjnjhsq lfyysq celmz yfyjcbn celtåyjq dkfcnb.
Tckb ét yfheitybt gjdnjhztncz, kbåj yjcbn cthmtpysq öfhfrnth, nj lbcwbgkbyfhyst
vths vjuen drkñxfnm d ctåz geåkbxyjt gjhbwfybt b ghbrfp ukfdyjuj celmb jnjpdfnm jghtltktyyst ltkf jn celmb-yfheibntkz. Cgbcjr
ltk änjuj celmb juhfybxbdftncz, bkb ltkf,
gj rjnjhsv jy ljgecnbk yfheitybz, jnpsdfñncz.
Tckb ghjcnegjr yjcbn jxtym cthmtpysq öfhfrnth, cjcnfdkzz uheåjt yfheitybt yjhv celtåyjq änbrb bkb ghtcnegktybt, nj ukfdysq celmz ghtlcnfdkztn celmñ-yfheibntkz d Ctyfn
CIF yf ghtlvtn bvgbxvtynf. Nfrjt ckexfkjcm, gj-vjtve, ldféls pf gjcktlybt 10 ktn, b
d jåjbö ckexfzö celmb åskb jncnhfytys jn ljkéyjcnb.
Ytrjnjhst bp änbö ghjåktv djpybrfñn gjnjve, xnj celmz åtphfpkbxty, ytdjcghbbvxbd, f
gjhjq b ktybd... Celmb ljkéys exbnmcz. Ytrjnjhst celmb levfñn, xnj, pfyzd vtcnj celmb,
jyb vjuen ghtrhfnbnm extåe. Yj änj jibårf.
Bvtyyj rjulf ds cnfyjdbntcm celmtq, ds b ljkéys yfxbyfnm exbnmcz. Änj – xfcnm dfibö änbxtcrbö jåzpfyyjcntq. Yj byst fvthbrfycrbt
celmb – f dct jyb pfdfktys hfåjnjq b gthtuheétys – gjghjcne gthtcnfñn jå änjv pfåjnbnmcz
b pflevsdfnmcz. Djn gjxtve kexibq yfi ghbtv – cjdtn lheubö celtq, b jy gjxnb dctulf
chfåfnsdftn.
Öjxe tot egjvzyenm, xnj d ytrjnjhsö infnfö CIF ceotcndeñn rjvbccbb gj jnpsde celtq, d rjnjhsö ghtlcnfdktys xfcnyst uhfélfyt, f yt celmb. Änj yt jnyjcbncz r atlthfkmyjq
cbcntvt. Vtöfybpvs, ltqcndeñobt d infnfö,
dtcmvf jnkbxfñncz jn ntö, rjnjhst z jgbcfk.
DJGHJC: Gjpdjkmnt cajhvekbhjdfnm djghjc j ytpfdbcbvjcnb celtq yf cktleñotv
ghbvtht. D celjghjbpdjlcndt yföjlbncz ltkj
j åfyrhjncndt d jnyjitybb abhvs, dsgecnbditq nfr yfpsdftvst ≤åhjcjdst≥, ytyfltéyst
jåkbufwbb. Rjyuhtcc ghjdjlbn hfccktljdfybt
jå jndtncndtyyjcnb gjkbnbxtcrbö ltzntktq,
ghbxfcnysö r dsgecre änbö jåkbufwbq. Vjétn
kb celmz, ckeifñobq ltkj j åfyrhjncndt, ghjöjlbnm cdbltntktv d änjv hfccktljdfybb? B
tckb lf, nj rfrbvb chtlcndfvb hfcgjkfuftn
celmz ghjnbd djghjcjd cktljdfntktq j htitybzö, dsytctyysö d hfccvfnhbdftvjv ltkt j åfyrhjncndt?
CELMZ RTYYTLB: Z yt kñåkñ rjvvtynbhjdfnm rfrjt-kbåj rjyrhtnyjt ltkj, ult yt
pyfñ dctq gjljgktrb, yj dfi djghjc gjpdjkztn
vyt gjujdjhbnm j ytrjnjhsö jåobö ghbywbgfö...
Gj åjkmitq xfcnb yfib ghfdbkf ghzvj pfghtofñn celmt dscnegfnm d hjkb cdbltntkz gj
vjhfkmyjve jåkbre xtkjdtrf. Yj tckb celmz
hfcgjkfuftn ytrjnjhjq byajhvfwbtq gj gjdjle
hfccktletvjq ltzntkmyjcnb, nj, gjljåyj kñåjve
lheujve cdbltntkñ, jy ljkéty cjjåobnm bpdtcnyst tve afrns jhufyfv, ghjdjlzobv ljpyfybt.
DJGHJC: Dfi rjltrc celtåyjuj gjdtltybz
ukfcbn, xnj ≤celmb vjuen gbcfnm, xbnfnm ktrwbb,
ghtgjlfdfnm b dscnegfnm gj ytñhblbxtcrbv djghjcfv b pfybvfnmcz bcreccndjv, cgjhnjv b
lheubvb dblfvb cjwbfkmyjq b htrhtfwbjyyjq
ltzntkmyjcnb, yj änj yt ljkéyj dcnegfnm d ghjnbdjhtxbt c bö celtåysvb jåzpfyyjcnzvb≥. Z
öjntk ås epyfnm, dj-gthdsö, yeéyj kb bv lkz
änjuj xmt-nj cjukfcbt? Yfghbvth, d yfitq
cnhfyt vs ljkéys pfhexbnmcz cjukfcbtv ghtlctlfntkz celf, tckb öjnbv pfyznmcz rfrjq-kbåj
dytceltåyjq ltzntkmyjcnmñ. Dj-dnjhsö, vjuen
kb jyb gjkexfnm gkfne pf äne dytceltåyeñ ltzntkmyjcnm? B, d-nhtnmbö, tcnm kb ghtltk lkz nfrjq jgkfns? Yfghbvth, vjétn kb celmz pfhfåfnsdfnm ltymub dytceltåyjq ltzntkmyjcnmñ?
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CELMZ RTYYTLB: D atlthfkmyjq cbcntvt celmb vjuen pfhfåfnsdfnm ltymub ghtgjlfdfybtv b geåkbrfwbtq rybu bkb cnfntq. Änjn pfhfåjnjr juhfybxbdftncz atlthfkmysv pfrjyjv
b cjcnfdkztn ghbåkbpbntkmyj 10 ghjwtynjd ljkéyjcnyjuj jrkflf celmb. Yj ghtélt xtv pfybvfnmcz änbv, celmz ljkéty gjkexbnm hfphtitybt ghtlctlfntkz cdjtuj celf, c ntv xnjås ufhfynbhjdfnm, xnj änj yt dcnegbn d ghjnbdjhtxbt
c tuj celtåyjq ltzntkmyjcnmñ... Vs yt vjétv
åhfnm gkfne pf xntybt ktrwbq kñåjq uheggt
kbw, bynthtcs rjnjhsö pfnhfubdfñncz celjv.
Vs vjétv xbnfnm ktrwbb njkmrj yf ñhblbxtcrbö afrekmntnfö b d ghjatccbjyfkmysö fccjwbfwbzö. Xnj rfcftncz exfcnbz d lheubö vthjghbznbzö nbgf frwbq ghjntcnf, vbnbyujd b nfr
lfktt, nj celmb änjuj ltkfnm yt vjuen.
D pfrkñxtybt öjntk ås crfpfnm, xnj lkz
vtyz änjn xfc ghjitk jxtym bynthtcyj. Vtéle
celmzvb dctuj vbhf ceotcndetn hjlcndj, cdzpm,
eps ghbdzpfyyjcnb. Vs hfpltkztv jlyb b nt ét
ecnhtvktybz, eåtéltybz, bcgsnfybz b åtls,
jlyj b nj ét joeotybt ecgtöf b djkytybz, jncnfbdfz dkfcnm pfrjyf. Yf gjhjut yjdjuj dtrf z
levfñ, xnj bcnjhbrb cjxnen jlybv bp dtkbrbö
ljcnbétybq yfitq wbdbkbpfwbb pf änb gjcktlybt 100 ktn lfhjdfybt pfrjyf kñlzv dj dctv
vbht. Dkfcnm pfrjyf gjybvftncz rfr ghfdj, jn
hjéltybz lfyyjt rféljve xtkjdtre, f celmb
jkbwtndjhzñn rfr htfkmyjcnm, nfr b ecnhtvktybz änjq dkfcnb pfrjyf.
Åjkmijt cgfcbåj.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfwbb. Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBF. Njv 4, §2,
ctynzåhm 1999 u.
40
Rfr hfåjnfñn fvthbrfycrbt cels
Åhfey ghjnbd Cjdtnf
gj jåhfpjdfybñ:
htitybt Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF,
bpvtybditt ébpym cnhfys
Lädbl Gbnnc
D vft 1954 u Dthöjdysq cel CIF
ghbyzk pyfvtyfntkmyjt htitybt
gj ltle ≤Åhfey ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj
jåhfpjdfybñ≥, cjukfcyj rjnjhjve
ceotcndjdfybt hfpltkmysö ujcelfhcndtyysö irjk lkz åtksö b wdtnysö
åskj jåüzdktyj ghjnbdjhtxfobv
Rjycnbnewbb. Djitlifz d yfpdfybt
ltkf afvbkbz Åhfey jnyjcbncz
r Jkbdthe Åhfeye, fahj-fvthbrfywe, htibditve ljåbdfnmcz celtåyjuj htitybz, rjulf tuj ctvbktnyññ
ljxm Kbyle yt ghbyzkb d yfxfkmyeñ
irjke lkz åtksö ghjdbywbfkmyjuj
ujhjlrf Njgtrb d Rfypfct, ult ébkf bö ctvmz. Yfi htlfrnjh Lädbl
Gbnnc ghjcktébdftn bcnjhbñ
ghbyznbz jlyjuj bp yfbåjktt
dféysö htitybq d bcnjhbb fvthbrfycrjuj rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf,
rjnjhjt bpvtybkj ébpym yt njkmrj
Njgtrb, yj b dctq cnhfys.
Dtcyjq 1954 u. Jkbdth Åhfey åsk cfvsv bpdtcnysv jnwjv d Fvthbrt. Yj jy åsk yt tlbycndtyysv bcnwjv d ltkt ≤Åhfey ghjnbd Cjdtnf
gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥, gjlfyyjv d cel d 1951 u.
Tot 12 bcnwjd – ébntktq Njgtrb – ghbcjtlbybkbcm r Åhfeye, ghtlcnfdkzz bynthtcs cdjbö
ltntq (dctuj 20 ltntq), jåzpfyysö gj pfrjye
gjctofnm hfcjdj hfpltkmyst yfxfkmyst irjks.
Gjlfxtq gthdjyfxfkmyjuj bcrf pfybvfkjcm
njgtrcrjt jnltktybt Yfwbjyfkmyjq fccjwbfwbb
cjltqcndbz ghjuhtcce wdtnyjuj yfctktybz
(YFCGWY), cnfhtqitq jhufybpfwbb CIF gj
pfobnt uhfélfycrbö ghfd.
Jnvtnbv, xnj ltkj Åhfeyf yt åskj gthdsv
dspjdjv epfrjytyyjve hfcjdj hfpltkmyjve
jåhfpjdfybñ d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Tot d
1849 u. gjöjébq bcr åsk gjlfy d u. Åjcnjyt,
infn Vfccfxectnc. C 1881 gj 1949 uu. kbim
d infnt Rfypfc åskj gjlfyj 11 bcrjd ghjnbd
ctuhtufwbb d irjkmyjv jåhfpjdfybb. Rj dhtvtyb ckeifybq bcrf bp Njgtrb d Dthöjdyjv celt
41
C gjpdjktybtv Vjhbns Ltqdbc
Vfrrbykb Åthytnn (cghfdf), åsdibq ghtlctlfntkm
vtcnyjuj jnltktybz YFCGWY d 50-ö ujlfö.
CIF hfcjdfz ctuhtufwbz d jåotcndtyysö irjkfö åskf yjhvjq yf åjkmitq xfcnb nthhbnjhbb
cnhfys b åskf hfphtityf bkb jåzpfntkmyf gj
pfrjye d 24 infnfö. Ltkj Åhfeyf cnjbn jcjåyzrjv, gjcrjkmre, dj-gthdsö, änj åsk gthdsq dsbuhfyysq bcr nfrjuj hjlf, dj-dnjhsö, d cbke
vfcinfåf htitybq Dthöjdyjuj celf b, d-nhtnmbö, bp-pf juhjvyjuj dkbzybz, rjnjhjt änj ltkj jrfpfkj yf fvthbrfycrjt jåotcndj cthtlbys
20-uj cnjktnbz.
Y t d j c g t n s q ut h j q
≤Ytdjcgtnsv uthjtv njgtrcrjuj ltkf åsk Vfrrbykb Åthytnn≥, – ujdjhbn C. T. (Cjyyb) Crhjuubyc, djpukfdkzñobq Rjvbntn infnf Rfypfc gj
edtrjdtxtybñ gfvznb ltkf ≤Åhfey ghjnbd
Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥. Njulf V. Åthytnn åsk
ghtlctlfntktv vtcnyjuj jnltktybz YFCGWY.
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≤Bvtyyj Åthytnn eujdjhbk Jkbdthf Åhfeyf b
lheubö hjlbntktq b c gjvjomñ vtcnysö fldjrfnjd yfxfk ghjwtcc≥, – ljåfdkztn Crhjuubyc.
Lheubt bcnjxybrb d Njgtrt gjlndthélfñn änj
endthéltybt. Åjktt njuj, Åthytnn c gjvjomñ
ctrhtnfhz YFCGWY Kñcbyls Njll b fldjrfnjd Xfhkmpf Crjnnf, Léjyf Crjnnf, Äkbib
Crjnn b Xfhkmpf Åktlcj hfphfåjnfk cnhfntubñ
njuj, rfr dsbuhfnm änj ltkj.
Åthytnn evth d 1970 u. Tuj csy Vfhrec,
rjnjhjve yf vjvtyn gjlfxb bcrf åskj 13 ktn,
lj cbö gjh ébdeobq d Njgtrt, ujdjhbn, xnj
≤åjhmåf c ctuhtufwbtq åskf ltkjv ébpyb vjtuj jnwf. Jy åsk jåsxysv hfåjxbv xtkjdtrjv,
dthbdibv, xnj ctuhtufwbz vjétn åsnm cjrheityf c gjvjomñ celtåyjq cbcntvs. Jy dctulf
åsk eåtélty, xnj dsbuhftn≥. C Vfhrecjv cjukfcyf tuj ctcnhf, Vfhbnf Lädbc, ébdeofz ctqxfc d Rfypfc-cbnb. ≤Vjq jntw dctulf åjhjkcz
pf cdjb ghfdf, – ujdjhbn jyf. – Z änj gjvyñ,
öjnz åskf vfktymrjq. Jy dctulf gbcfk gbcmvf
b cjpsdfk cjåhfybz. Åjhmåf ghjnbd ctuhtufwbb
d irjkfö ghbjåhtkf lkz ytuj jxtym åjkmijt
pyfxtybt≥.
B cn w s
Cjukfcyj ytrjnjhsv bcnjxybrfv d Njgtrt, Jkbdth Åhfey ghjöjlbk d rfxtcndt ukfdyjuj bcnwf
gj ltke d jcyjdyjv gjnjve, xnj jy åsk tlbycndtyysv veéxbyjq chtlb gjlfdibö bcr. Yj gj
ckjdfv csyf dtleotuj vtcnyjuj fldjrfnf
Xfhkmpf Crjnnf-vk., Jkbdth Åhfey ≤cnfk ukfdysv bcnwjv, gjcrjkmre tuj afvbkbz åskf gthdjq gj fkafdbne. Vjq jntw b lheubt vtcnyst
fldjrfns dtkb änj ltkj d cjnhelybxtcndt c
u-yjv Åthytnnjv b YFCWGY≥.
Kbylt Åhfey Njvgcjy ctqxfc 55 ktn, b jyf
gj-ghtéytve ébdtn d Njgtrt. Jyf yt jxtym kñåbn hfccrfpsdfnm j ghjikjv b j hjkb tt jnwf
d bpvtytybb cbcntvs jnxfcnb gjnjve, xnj cxb-
Lädbl Gbnnc
≤Vyt ghböjlbkjcm djpbnm ldeö cdjbö ltntq
yf vfibyt d irjke lkz xthysö xthtp dtcm
ujhjl vbvj ldeö åtksö irjk, – ujdjhbn Ötylthcjy. – Vjb ltnb dctulf ujhlbkbcm cdjbv
exfcnbtv d änjv bcnjhbxtcrjv ltkt, – ghjljkéftn jyf. – Ljyfkml Äylhñ gj-ghtéytve ébdtn
pltcm, d Njgtrt. Tve ctqxfc 55 ktn. F vjz
ljxm Dbrb Äyy evthkf jn hfrf d 1984 u.≥.
Crtqkp hfccrfpsdftn, xnj jyf njét ljkéyf
åskf dtcnb cdjñ ljxm Heam Äyy ≤vbvj åtkjq
irjks, rjnjhfz åskf ghzvj yfghjnbd yfituj
ljvf. Vjz ljxm, rjnjhjq ctqxfc 57 ktn, ébdtn
d yfitv ujhjlt b jxtym hflf yfitve ecgtöe.
Gj-vjtve, vs ljåbkbcm jxtym dféyjuj htpekmnfnf≥.
Ldevz bcnwfvb bp Njgtrb åskb Ptkvf Ötylthcjy
(yf cybvrt) b Dbdbfy Crtqkp.
nftn, xnj chtlcndf vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb ckbirjv vyjuj dybvfybz eltkzñn kbxyj tq, pfåsdfz
j lheubö 12 njgtrcrbö bcnwfö. Ctcnhf Kbyls,
Ithbk Åhfey Ötylthcjy, ysyt bcgjkybntkmysq lbhtrnjh Ajylf Åhfeyf pf hfdtycndj d jåhfpjdfybb, cjukfcyf c jwtyrjq X. Crjnnf-vk.
≤Vs jxtym ujhlbvcz ntv, xnj cltkfk yfi jntw,
– ujdjhbn Ötylthcjy. – Yj jxtym dféyj yt eghjofnm ltkj Åhfeyf: yt pfåsdfnm fldjrfnjd,
lheubö bcnwjd Njgtrb, f nfrét bcnwjd d lheubö
infnfö, rjnjhst dgjcktlcndbb åskb drkñxtys
d ltkj Åhfeyf≥.
Tot ldevz bcnwfvb bp Njgtrb åskb Ptkvf
Ötylthcjy b Dbdbfy Crtqkp, ébdeobt b ctqxfc nfv ét. D yfxfkt 50-ö ujljd jyb åskb vjkjlsvb vfnthzvb, b jåt jxtym öjntkb åsnm
drkñxtyysvb d bcr. Jåt jyb djplfñn ljkéyjt
hjkb Vfrrbykb Åthytnnf b vtcnysö fldjrfnjd,
ujdjhz, xnj kbim gjl bö herjdjlcndjv åjhmåf pf
hfcjdeñ byntuhfwbñ d ltkt jåhfpjdfybz cnfkf
djpvjéyjq.
Gthdjt htitybt celf
Ltkj Åthytnnf b bcnwjd hfccvfnhbdfkjcm
28 atdhfkz 1951 u. d u. Njgtrt d jrheéyjv
atlthfkmyjv celt CIF gthdjq bycnfywbb gj
jrheue Rfypfc. Htqvjyl Rfhnth, ysyt atlthfkmysq celmz d Ymñ-Qjhrt, njulf åsk fldjrfnjv Ajylf ñhblbxtcrjq pfobns YFCWGY.
C gjvjomñ vtcnysö fldjrfnjd jy cltkfk ghtlcnfdktybt gj ltke b öjlfnfqcndjdfk j yfkjétybb celtåyjuj pfghtnf yf hfcjdeñ ctuhtufwbñ
jåotcndtyysö yfxfkmysö irjk d Njgtrt.
Celmb åkfujétkfntkmyj jnytckbcm r gjpbwbb bcnwjd, jnvtnbd d cdjtv htitybb, xnj hfpltktybt åtksö b wdtnysö ltntq d jåotcndtyysö irjkfö yfyjcbn eothå jåhfpjdfybñ wdtnysö ltntq≥. Jlyfrj, celmb yt eljdktndjhbkb
bcr, gjcrjkmre d 1896 u. Dthöjdysq cel CIF
ghbyzk htitybt gj ltke ≤Gktccb ghjnbd Athuñcjyf≥ j njv, xnj ceotcndjdfybt ≤hfpltkmysö,
yj hfdysö≥ irjkmysö cbcntv lkz xthyjuj b åtkjuj yfctktybz yt ghjnbdjhtxbkj Rjycnbnewbb,
b yf vjvtyn ckeifybq änj htitybt jcnfdfkjcm
d cbkt. Gjänjve, bcöjlz bp ghtwtltynf Gktccb,
cel Rfypfcf cxtk ytjåöjlbvsv ghbyznm htit-
43
ybt d gjkmpe Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ u. Njgtrb
b ghjnbd bcnwjd.
≤D ghbywbgt, vjq jntw b lheubt vtcnyst
fldjrfns, f nfrét u-y Åthytnn yt åskb hfpjxfhjdfys, – ujdjhbn X. Crjnn-vk. – Jyb pyfkb,
xnj tlbycndtyysq cgjcjå ghtrhfnbnm ctuhtufwbñ gj dctq cnhfyt, f yt njkmrj d Njgtrt, åskj ghjbuhfnm ltkj [d celt gthdjq bycnfywbb], f
pfntv jåéfkjdfnm htitybt d Dthöjdyjv celt
CIF≥.
H t i t y b t D t h ö j d y j uj c e l f
CIF
D öjlt gjlujnjdrb r ckeifybzv d dscitv
celtåyjv jhufyt cnhfys 1 jrnzåhz 1951 u. ltkj Åhfeyf åskj jåütlbytyj c lheubvb bcrfvb
ghjnbd hfcjdjq ctuhtufwbb d irjkfö, gjlfyysvb d infnfö Ñéyfz Rfhjkbyf, Dbhlébybz,
Ltkfdäh b d jrheut Rjkevåbz. Jåütlbytyyjt
ltkj gjkexbkj jabwbfkmyjt yfpdfybt ≤Jkbdth
K. Åhfey b lh. ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ
u. Njgtrb b lh.≥. Nthuel Vfhifkk, gjpét cnfdibq gthdsv xthyjrjébv xktyjv Dthöjdyjuj
celf CIF, åsk njulf ñhblbxtcrbv cjdtnybrjv
wtynhfkmyjuj fggfhfnf YFCWGY b ecgtiyj
jncnfbdfk bynthtcs bcnwjd.
17 vfz 1954 u. Ukfdysq celmz Dthöjdyjuj
celf CIF Ähk Ejhhty pfxbnfk tlbyjukfcyj
ghbyznjt htitybt celf, jåüzdbditt ceotcndjdfybt hfcjdj hfpltkmysö irjk ytrjycnbnewbjyysv. ≤Vs ghbikb r dsdjle, – pfzdbk Ukfdysq celmz, – xnj d jåkfcnb jåotcndtyyjuj
jåhfpjdfybz ljrnhbyf ≤hfpltkmyjuj, yj hfdyjuj≥ jåhfpjdfybz yt ljkéyf bvtnm vtcnf. Hfpltkmyst jåhfpjdfntkmyst exhtéltybz yt hfdys
gj ceotcnde. Gjänjve vs cxbnftv, xnj bcnws b
lheubt kñlb, yföjlzobtcz d fyfkjubxyjq
cbnefwbb b jn bvtyb rjnjhsö djpåeéltyj änj
ltkj, d htpekmnfnt ctuhtufwbb, cjcnfdkzñotq
ghtlvtn éfkjås, jrfpsdfñncz kbityysvb hfd-
44
yjq pfobns pfrjyf, ufhfynbhjdfyyjq 14-jq gjghfdrjq [r Rjycnbnewbb CIF]≥.
Dtkbrfz ñhblbxtcrfz gjåtlf
Htitybt gj ltke ≤Åhfey ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj
jåhfpjdfybñ≥ åskj ghjdjpukfityj dtkbrjq
ñhblbxtcrjq gjåtljq, pyfvtyfntkmysv ltkjv,
gjlndthélfñobv nj, xnj d Fvthbrt cels ceotcndeñn yt njkmrj lkz dsytctybz yfrfpfybq
pf ghtcnegktybz, yj b lkz gjlndthéltybz ghfd.
≤Änj gjcnfyjdktybt pfybvftn jxtym dscjrjt
vtcnj d hzle lheubö htitybq Dthöjdyjuj
celf≥, – ujdjhbn Hjåthn Åfhrth, ghjatccjh
ñhbcgheltywbb b ärcgthn gj rjycnbnewbjyyjve ghfde ñhblbxtcrjuj afrekmntnf Eybdthcbntnf Lfrdtcy d u. Gbnncåehut, infn Gtycbkmdfybz.
Gj tuj ckjdfv, dféyj, xnj d cdjtv htitybb
Dthöjdysq cel jgbhfkcz yf ghbywbg hfdyjq pfobns, pfrhtgktyysq d 14-jq gjghfdrt r Rjycnbnewbb CIF. ≤Cel ghbvtybk ghbywbg hfdyjq pfobns bvtyyj nfr, rfr jy b åsk pflevfy
– lkz pfobns, d xfcnyjcnb, ghfd fahj-fvthbrfywtd≥. Yj änj htitybt bvtkj b åjktt ibhjrjt pyfxtybt, – ujdjhbn Åfhrth. ≤Htitybt
1954 u. gjdktrkj pf cjåjq åjkmijt xbckj lheubö
celtåysö ghjwtccjd, jgbhfdiböcz yf ghbywbg
hfdyjq pfobns b ghbdtlibö r ekexitybñ gjkjétybz étyoby b lheubö uhegg yfctktybz, rjnjhst gjkfufkb, xnj bö ghfdf åskb eotvktys≥.
Jndtxfz yf djghjc, rfrbv jåhfpjv Dthöjdysq cel vju d jlyjv ltkt – ≤Gktccb ghjnbd
Athuñcjyf≥ – ghbyznm htitybt d gjkmpe ctuhtufwbb, f d lheujv – ltkt Åhfeyf – ghjnbd,
Åfhrth jndtxftn, xnj e celf åskj åjktt 50 ktn,
d öjlt rjnjhsö vjéyj åskj eåtlbnmcz d njv,
xnj hfcjdfz ctuhtufwbz d njv dblt, rfr jyf
ceotcndjdfkf, åskf yf cfvjv ltkt vtnjljv
gjlfdktybz jlyjq hfcjdjq uheggs, f yt jceotcndktybtv ghbywbgf ≤hfpltkmyst, yj hfdyst≥.
D cdjtq gjldjlzotq bnjub rybut ≤Åhfey
ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ: åbndf pf byntuhfwbñ≥ Vfhr Nfiytn gjllthébdftn ckjdf
Åfhrthf. ≤Lfét ctujlyz, – gbitn jy, – d
ltkt Åhfeyf pfrkñxftncz cfvjt ukeåjrjt pfzdktybt celf gj wtynhfkmyjq ghjåktvt bcnjhbb
Fvthbrb: rfr fvthbrfyws hfpysö hfc ljkéys
jnyjcbnmcz lheu r lheue. D änjv cvsckt
änj – nhbeva fvthbrfycrjuj rjycnbnewbjyfkbpvf≥.
C ybv cjukfcty pfvtcnbntkm Utythfkmyjuj
ghjrehjhf infnf Rfypfc Gjk Ebkcjy, rjnjhsq
d ltkt Åhfeyf ghtlcnfdkzk jndtnxbrf, n. t. jncnfbdfk ctuhtufwbñ. Htitybt Dthöjdyjuj celf,
ujdjhbn jy, ≤hfcibhbkj pyfxtybt gjyznbz åfpjdjq cghfdtlkbdjcnb d jnyjitybzö vtéle hfpkbxysvb uheggfvb yfctktybz≥. D cdjtq rybut
jå bcnjhbb änjuj ghjwtccf ≤Dhtvz gjhfétybq:
jncnfbdfz bynthtcs Rfypfcf d ltkt ≤Åhfey
ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥ Ebkcjy gbitn,
xnj änj htitybt nfrét ≤ghblfkj yjdjt bpvthtybt rjycnbnewbjyyjve ghbywbge hfdyjq pfobns b ljkéyjuj ghfdjghbvtytybz≥.
G j c k t c e l t å y j uj h t i t y b z
Yt ljéblfzcm htitybz Dthöjdyjuj celf, Cjdtn
gj jåhfpjdfybñ u. Njgtrb ghjdtk hfcjdjt jåütlbytybt dctö yfxfkmysö irjk ujhjlf. Lj ltkf
Åhfeyf pfrjy infnf Rfypfc jåzpsdfk jceotcndkznm hfcjdj hfpltkmyjt yfxfkmyjt jåhfpjdfybt
d gjctktybzö c yfctktybtv åjktt 15 nsc. xtkjdtr. Chtlybt irjks infnf ybrjulf yt åskb hfcjdj hfpltkmysvb.
Yj yf jcnfkmyjq xfcnb cnhfys pflfxf
åskf åjktt ckjéyjq. Gjänjve Dthöjdysq cel
CIF d 1955 u. ghbyzk vtytt bpdtcnyjt gjcnfyjdktybt, ghbrfpfd ≤ytpfvtlkbntkmyj yfxfnm
ltzntkmyjcnm gj gjkyjve dsgjkytybñ≥
ghtlsleotuj htitybz b ljcnbxm hfcjdjq
byntuhfwbb d irjkfö ≤rfr vjéyj crjhtt≥.
Yj lfét ytcvjnhz yf änj cjghjnbdktybt
htitybñ Celf åskj dtcmvf ibhjrbv, b d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö gjnhtåjdfkfcm ujnjdyjcnm
ghtlcnfdbntktq bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb bcgjkmpjdfnm cbke lkz tuj dsgjkytybz. Yfbåjktt bpdtcnys d änjv cvsckt cjåsnbz 1957 u., rjulf
Ghtpbltyn Lefqn Äqptyöfeäh gjckfk atlthfkmyst djqcrf d u. Kbnnk-Hjr, infn Fhrfypfc, gjckt njuj, rfr ueåthyfnjh infnf Jhdbk Ajåec jnrfpfkcz dsgjkybnm ghbrfp atlthfkmyjuj celf j
hfcjdjq byntuhfwbb irjk. D gthdsq hfp cj
dhtvty Uhfélfycrjq djqys atlthfkmyst djqcrf åskb bcgjkmpjdfys yf ñut CIF lkz pfobns fahj-fvthbrfywtd.
D lheubö hfqjyfö ñuf cnhfys gjkjétybt
crkflsdfkjcm gj-hfpyjve. D åjkmibycndt vtcn
ltctuhtufwbz irjk ghjntrfkf åtcghtgzncndtyyj, öjnz b yt dctulf åscnhj. Cjukfcyj gjlhjåyjve jgbcfybñ irjkmyjq ltctuhtufwbb, lfyyjve Lädbljv Ujklabkljv d tuj rybut ≤Xthysq,
åtksq b ñéfyby≥, r yfxfke 1956–1957 irjkmyjuj ujlf ≤ghjwtcc ltctuhtufwbb jceotcndkzkcz d 723 irjkmysö jrheufö, pfnhjyed 300 nsc.
xthysö ltntq≥.
C lheujq cnjhjys, gj ckjdfv Ujklabklf,
pfrjyjlfntkb ñéysö infnjd ghbyzkb jrjkj 450
pfrjyjd, ≤yfghfdktyysö yf jåöjl gjcnfyjdktybz Dthöjdyjuj celf≥. B lfét d 1960 u. ≤vtytt jlyjuj ghjwtynf irjkmybrjd yf ñut CIF
gjctofkb hfcjdj cvtifyyst irjks≥. D Njgtrt b djjåot d infnfö Chtlytuj Pfgflf ghjwtcc
itk ujhfplj åscnhtt. D ñéysö infnfö jy pfdthibkcz d rjywt 60-ö – yfxfkt 70-ö ujljd.
Öjnz åbndf ghjnbd nhtåetvjq gj pfrjye hfcjdjq ctuhtufwbb åskf dsbuhfyf vyjuj ktn yfpfl,
b ctujlyz atlthfkmyst cels pfybvfñncz djghjcfvb ctuhtufwbb d irjkmysö jrheufö, djpybribvb d htpekmnfnt ckjébdiböcz yf ljåhjdjkmyjq jcyjdt cnherneh hfcctktybz.
45
Lädbl Gbnnc
Vfhrec Åthytnn (cktdf) b Cjyyb Crhjuubyc
Htitybz celjd bpvtyzñn
e cn j z d i b t cz d p uk z l s
Åjhmåf ghjnbd ctuhtufwbb cdbltntkmcndetn
j njv, crjkm nhelyj bpvtybnm ecnjzdibt dpukzls b jåsxfb d kñåjv jåotcndt, jcjåtyyj
bvtñobt ukeåjrbt rjhyb d nhflbwbzö b bcnjhbb, ujdjhbn Léjy-Gjk Léjyc, ghjatccjh
ñhbcgheltywbb b ärcgthn gj rjycnbnewbjyyjve ghfde Eybdthcbntnf Hbxvjylf d infnt Dbhlébybz. ≤Ceotcndtyyj dféyj, xnj ghjbpjitlibt bpvtytybz cnfkb htpekmnfnjv ltqcndbq celtåysö jhufyjd gj jöhfyt ytjnütvktvsö ghfd,
pfrhtgktyysö d Rjycnbnewbb CIF, f yt cktlcndbtv vth, ghbyznsö jhufyfvb pfrjyjlfntkmyjq bkb bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb≥. Åtp ytpfdbcbvjq celtåyjq dkfcnb b rjycnbnewbjyysö uf-
46
hfynbq ghfd vtymibycnd, ljåfdkztn jy, åjhmåf
pf ltctuhtufwbñ åskf ås ujhfplj åjktt
nhelyjq.
C ybv cjukfcys Uähb Jhabkl b Cmñpty
Bnfy. D cdjtq rybut ≤Ltvjynfé ctuhtufwbb≥
jyb gbien j rkñxtdjq hjkb celjd d chfdytybb
c lheubvb dtndzvb dkfcnb. ≤Pf bcrkñxtybtv
gthbjlf c 1964 gj 1968 uu., bvtyyj cels, f yt
pfrjyjlfntkmyfz bkb bcgjkybntkmyfz dkfcnm
jghtltkzkb gjkbnbre d jåkfcnb ltctuhtufwbb≥,
– ljåfdkzñn jyb.
Öjnz Dthöjdysq cel pfghtnbk ctuhtufwbñ
kbim d jåotcndtyysö irjkfö, dkbzybt änjuj
htitybz åskj ujhfplj ibht. Änj htitybt gjckeébkj njkxrjv r yfxfke dctjåotuj yfcnegktybz ghjnbd ctuhtufwbb dj dctö cathfö fvthb-
rfycrjq ébpyb, drkñxfz jåotcndtyyst eckeub
b djpvjéyjcnb nheljecnhjqcndf. D ltrfåht
1955 u., cgecnz kbim gjknjhf ujlf gjckt htitybz Dthöjdyjuj celf, l-h Vfhnby Kñnth Rbyuvk. djpukfdbk ecgtiysq åjqrjn fdnjåecjd d
Vjynujvthb, infn Fkfåfvf, c wtkmñ ghjntcnf
ghjnbd hfcjdjq ctuhtufwbb yf jåotcndtyyjv
nhfycgjhnt.
D gjcktleñobt ujls d jåcnfyjdrt vfccjdsö frwbq, ghtlghbyznsö juhjvysv xbckjv ytghfdbntkmcndtyysö jhufybpfwbq, cajhvbhjdfdibö ldbétybt pf uhfélfycrbt ghfdf, cels bplfkb vyjujxbcktyyst hfcgjhzétybz ghjnbd
ctuhtufwbb. C ghbyznbtv d 1964 u. Pfrjyf j
uhfélfycrbö ghfdfö b Pfrjyf j ghfdfö bpåbhfntktq (1965 u.) ctuhtufwbz åskf ghfrnbxtcrb
gjåtéltyf.
≤ V s g j cn e g b k b g h f d b k m y j ≥
Bcnjhbrb gj uhfélfycrbv ghfdfv jcjåtyyj
gjlxthrbdfñn dféyjcnm htitybz gj ltke Åhfeyf d ljcnbétybb ghjuhtccf d hfcjdsö jnyjitybzö d wtkjv. ≤Jyj [htitybt] cnfkj vthbkjv
hfåjns dythfcjdjq ñcnbwbb, c gjvjomñ rjnjhjuj fvthbrfyws vjukb bpvthznm cdjt ghjldbétybt gj genb r bltfke hfdysö djpvjéyjcntq≥,
– gbitn Hjåthn Dmtcåhjn d rybut ≤Yf genb
r cdjåjlt: bcnjhbz ldbétybz pf uhfélfycrbt
ghfdf d Fvthbrt≥.
B cgecnz gjkcnjktnbz änj htitybt jcnftncz bcnjxybrjv uhjvflyjq ujhljcnb lkz bcnwjd.
≤Z gjvyñ änj, rfr åelnj änj åskj dxthf, – ujdjhbn Ptkvf Ötylthcjy. – Z epyfkf j celtåyjv
htitybb bp ufptns ≤Njgtrf Cntqn Léjhyäk≥.
Rfr ctqxfc dbée juhjvysq pfujkjdjr ≤Ctuhtufwbz d irjkfö pfghtotyf≥. Z ghbikf d djcnjhu.
B njulf, b ctqxfc z cxbnfñ, xnj vs gjcnegbkb
ghfdbkmyj≥. ≤Dct änj åskj nfr lfdyj, yj änjuj
ybrjulf yt pfåsnm, änj dctulf jcnftncz c njåjq≥, – ljåfdkztn Dbdbfy Crtqkp.
Vfhrec Åthytnn yt gjvybn njxyj htfrwbñ
jnwf yf cjjåotybt j njv, xnj Dthöjdysq cel
ghbyzk htitybt j pfghtnt ctuhtufwbb. ≤Yj jy
dctulf dthbk d nj, xnj cghfdtlkbdjcnm djcnjhétcndetn, nfr xnj, z edthty, jy åsk jxtym cxfcnkbd,
– ujdjhbn Åthytnn. – Vjq jntw åsk edthty, xnj
bvtyyj xthtp cels yeéyj åjhjnmcz c ctuhtufwbtq. Jy ybrjulf yt nthzk dths d nj, xnj cels d
rjywt rjywjd gjrjyxfn c ctuhtufwbtq d cjjndtncndbb c Rjycnbnewbtq b Åbkktv j ghfdfö≥.
26 jrnzåhz 1992 u. ghtpbltyn Léjhlé Åei
gjlgbcfk erfp N 12-525 j cjplfybb d xtcnm
htitybz Dthöjdyjuj celf jn 1954 u. Yfwbjyfkmyjuj bcnjhbxtcrjuj veptz ≤Åhfey ghjnbd
Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥. Veptq hfcgjkjéty d
u. Njgtrt d yfxfkmyjq irjkt Vjyhj, rjnjheñ
gjctofkf Kbylf Åhfey gjxnb gjkcnjktnbz yfpfl, lj njuj, rfr irjkf åskf ltctuhtubhjdfyf.
D veptt, d cjplfybb rjnjhjuj d xbckt lheubö,
ghbybvfñn exfcnbt Ajyl Åhfeyf b Rfypfccrbq
rjvbntn gj edtrjdtxtybñ gfvznb ltkf ≤Åhfey
ghjnbd Cjdtnf gj jåhfpjdfybñ≥, åelen cjåhfys
felbjdbpefkmyst vfnthbfks b jnrhsnf bccktljdfntkmcrfz åbåkbjntrf. Veptq jnrhjtncz lkz
gjctnbntktq d 2002 u. ≤Vs yflttvcz, xnj
kñlb åelen ghböjlbnm cñlf lkz njuj, xnjås
kexit gjyznm vfcinfå b ckjéyst gjcktlcndbz
htitybz gj ltke Åhfeyf≥, – ujdjhbn Rtabhb
Rjkåthn, ghtlcnfdbntkm Ckeéås yfwbjyfkmysö
gfhrjd, d xmtv dtltybb b åeltn änjn veptq.
Jkbdthe Åhfeye, Ptkvt Ötylthcjy, Dbdbfy Crtqkp b lheubv hjlbntkzv ktuxt dctuj
åskj gjllfnmcz hfpjxfhjdfybñ, yj jyb bcgjkmpjdfkb äythubñ cdjtuj ytujljdfybz lkz rjyrhtnysö ltqcndbq, ujdjhbn Cjyyb Crhjuubyc bp
Rfypfccrjuj rjvbntnf gj edtrjdtxtybñ ltkf
Åhfeyf. ≤Hjlbntkb njulf ghjzdbkb åjkmieñ
cvtkjcnm≥, – ljåfdkztn jy. Rjytxysv htpekmnfnjv åskj yt njkmrj jrjyxfybt ctuhtufwbb, yj b
aeylfvtynfkmyjt bpvtytybt d jnyjitybb fvthbrfywtd r hfcfv b r hfdtycnde gthtl pfrjyjv.
47
≤Z eét jxtym cnfhfz étyobyf, yj tckb ås
vyt ghbikjcm cltkfnm änj cyjdf, z ås yt rjktåfkfcm≥, – ujdjhbn Dbdbfy Crtqkp. ≤Tckb
pfukzyenm ukeåét, cvsck htitybz gj ltke
Åhfeyf b cjplfybz veptz d njv, xnj kñlb dctö
hfc cjplfys hfdysvb, – ljåfdkztn Ptkvf Ötylthcjy. – Vs ljikb lj Dthöjdyjuj celf
Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb lkz njuj, xnjås
gjlndthlbnm änjn afrn, b vs dsbuhfkb≥.
48
R FR D T H Ö J D Y S Q CEL C I F
JNÅBHFTN LTKF B GHBYBVFTN
H T I T Y B Z GJ YBV
D gjcktlybt ltcznbktnbz 19-uj dtrf
d Dthöjdyjv celt CIF yföjlbkjcm yf
hfccvjnhtybb jlyjdhtvtyyj cnjkm åjkmijt rjkbxtcndj ltk, xnj djpybrkf jgfcyjcnm pfdfkf hfåjns. Gjänjve d 1891 u.
Rjyuhtcc d jndtn yf öjlfnfqcndj Dthöjdyjuj celf cjplfk atlthfkmyst cels
chtlytuj ehjdyz, åjktt bpdtcnyst rfr
jrheéyst atlthfkmyst fgtkkzwbjyyst
cels CIF. Änb cels hfccvfnhbdfñn
fgtkkzwbb bp jrheéysö atlthfkmysö
celjd CIF gthdjq bycnfywbb. Ctujlyz
jrheéyst atlthfkmyst cels CIF gthdjq bycnfywbb utjuhfabxtcrb hfpltktys
yf 11 htubjyjd, d rféljv bp rjnjhsö
ceotcndetn jrheéyjq atlthfkmysq
fgtkkzwbjyysq cel CIF. Rhjvt njuj,
jrheéyjq atlthfkmysq fgtkkzwbjyysq
cel CIF gj jrheue Rjkevåbz ghjdjlbn
ckeifybz gj ltkfv, cdzpfyysv c atlthfkmysv ghfdbntkmcndjv.
Uhfélfyt vjuen gjlfdfnm bcrb d kñåjq bp jrheéysö atlthfkmysö celjd –
gthdjq bycnfywbb bkb fgtkkzwbjyyst,
– yj tckb xtkjdtr cxbnftn, xnj ybétcnjzobq cel ghbyzk ytcghfdtlkbdjt bkb
ytdthyjt htitybt, jy vjétn gjlfnm
ghjitybt d Dthöjdysq cel c ghjcmåjq
j hfccvjnhtybb änjuj ltkf. Tckb cel
ghbvtn htitybt j ghjdtltybb ckeifybq, tuj htitybt åeltn jrjyxfntkmysv.
Gjckt änjuj bcntw yt vjétn ghtlghbyznm ybrfrbö lheubö ñhblbxtcrbö
ltqcndbq. Tckb Dthöjdysq cel jnrfpsdftncz ghjdtcnb ckeifybz gj ltke,
nj jcnftncz d cbkt gjcktlytt celtåyjt
htitybt. Jnrfp celf pfckeifnm ltkj yt
jpyfxftn, jlyfrj, cjukfcbt bkb ytcjukfcbt celtq Dthöjdyjuj celf c htitybtv
ybétcnjzotuj celf.
Dthöjdysq cel vjétn ghjdjlbnm
gthdjyfxfkmyst ckeifybz gj ytrjnjhsv
dblfv ltk, jghtltktyysv Rjycnbnewbtq
CIF. Ñhbclbrwbz Dthöjdyjuj celf
hfcghjcnhfyztncz yf cgjhs vtéle ldevz
infnfvb, cgjhs vtéle Cjtlbytyysvb
Infnfvb b jnltkmysv infnjv, ltqcndbz
rfrjuj-kbåj infnf ghjnbd ébntkz lheujuj infnf bkb byjcnhfywf, f nfrét ltkf,
gj rjnjhsv bcnwjv bkb jndtnxbrjv dscnegftn gjcjk bkb rjycek byjcnhfyyjq
lthéfds.
Bp gjlfdftvsö rfélsq ujl nsczx
b nsczx fgtkkzwbq cel jnåbhftn kbim
jrjkj 300 ltk, ghbxtv gj ghbvthyj
gjkjdbyt bp ybö ghjdjlzncz ecnyst ckeifybz b ghbybvftncz jrjyxfntkmyjt
htitybt.
Celmb jåsxyj jnåbhfñn ltkf ytcrjkmrbö nbgjd. Ltkf vjuen åsnm ≤bcnhtåjdfys bp ybétcnjzotuj celf≥, rjulf
ytcrjkmrj ybétcnjzobö celjd ghbyzkb
hfpkbxyst htitybz b nhtåetncz htitybt
dsitcnjzotuj celtåyjuj jhufyf. Cel
nfrét jåhfoftn dybvfybt yf ltkf, gj
rjnjhsv ybétcnjzobq cel ghbyzk htitybt b rjnjhst hfytt åskb yfghfdktys
yf hfccvjnhtybt Dthöjdyjuj celf, yj yt
ghbyzns r ckeifybñ, f nfrét yf nfrbt
ltkf, ult gjpbwbz celtq bpvtybkfcm, b
jyb öjnzn ghbyznm lheujt htitybt.
49
Cel nfrét bvttn jcjåjt ghfdj jndtxfnm yf nfr yfpsdftvst ≤jabwbfkmyj
pfdthtyyst djghjcs≥, pfnhfubdfñobt
ltkf, gj rjnjhsv ybétcnjzobq fgtkkzwbjyysq cel yt cvju dsytcnb htitybz.
Ybétcnjzobq cel kbåj yfghfdkztn d
Dthöjdysq cel pfghjc j gjkextybb
bycnherwbq, kbåj ghjcbn Dthöjdysq cel
ghbyznm ltkj r ghjbpdjlcnde b dsytcnb
jrjyxfntkmyjt htitybt.
Lkz njuj, xnjås Dthöjdysq cel ghbyzk ltkj r ghjbpdjlcnde, xtnsht bp
ltdznb xktyjd celf ljkéys cjukfcbnmcz
c ntv, xnj änj ltkj pfckeébdftn dybvfybz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF. Tckb cel
cjukfcbkcz ghbyznm ltkj r ghjbpdjlcnde,
jy vjétn ghbyznm htitybt yf jcyjdt
rhfnrbö gbcmvtyysö ghtlcnfdktybq
rféljq bp cnjhjy bkb yfpyfxbnm ecnyst
ckeifybz gj ltke yf pfctlfybb celf.
Ghjdtltybt ecnysö ckeifybq ghtlgjkfuftn åjktt ltnfkmyjt hfccvjnhtybt ltkf,
öjnz bcrkñxftncz ghtlcnfdktybt yjdsö
afrnbxtcrbö ljrfpfntkmcnd. Byjulf Cel
vjétn ghbukfcbnm nfr yfpsdftvjuj
≤lheuf celf≥ (amicus curiae), n. t. yt
exfcndeñotuj d ltkt ärcgthnf, rjnjhsq
ghtljcnfdkztn cele byajhvfwbñ b ljdjls gj ltke, gjvbvj nzéeoböcz cnjhjy.
Tckb cel ghbybvftn htitybt j ghjdtltybb ckeifybq gj ltke, yf pfctlfybb ljkéys ghbcencndjdfnm gj rhfqytq
vtht itcnm bp ltdznb xktyjd Dthöjdyjuj
celf. Gjckt pfckeibdfybz dctö fhuevtynjd, ltdznm celtq ghjdjlzn pfrhsnjt
pfctlfybt. Jyj yfxbyftncz c dscnegkt-
50
ybz ukfdyjuj celmb c rhfnrbv bpkjétybtv ltkf b cdjtq gjpbwbb gj ytve. Gjckt ytuj cj cdjbvb vytybzvb dscnegfñn
d gjhzlrt cnféf hfåjns d Dthöjdyjv
celt jcnfkmyst djctvm celtq. Xktys
Dthöjdyjuj celf vjuen gjgsnfnmcz
eåtlbnm ytcjukfcysö c ybvb rjkktu bkb,
tckb e ybö ytn xtnrjuj vytybz, ghjljkébnm cåjh byajhvfwbb. Rjulf ukfdysq
celmz ghböjlbn r dsdjle, xnj d lfkmytqitv jåceéltybb ytn ytjåöjlbvjcnb,
jy ghjdjlbn ujkjcjdfybt. Nfr ét rfr
b ghb dscrfpsdfybb vytybq, celmb
ujkjceñn gjckt ukfdyjuj celmb gj jxthtlb, d pfdbcbvjcnb jn cnféf hfåjns
d Dthöjdyjv celt.
Gjckt ghjdtltybz ujkjcjdfybz ghbybvftncz htitybt j yfpyfxtybb jndtncndtyyjuj pf yfgbcfybt vytybz celf. Tckb
ukfdysq celmz döjlbn d cjcnfd åjkmibycndf, jy vjétn kbåj lfnm pflfybt lheujve xktye åjkmibycndf yfgbcfnm vytybt,
kbåj yfgbcfnm tuj cfv. Tckb ukfdysq
celmz jrfpsdftncz d vtymibycndt, cnfhibq xkty Dthöjdyjuj celf bp xbckf
yföjlzoböcz d åjkmibycndt lftn pflfybt j yfgbcfybb vytybz. Jy vjétn
yfgbcfnm vytybt cfv kbåj gjhexbnm änj
lheujve celmt bp cjcnfdf åjkmibycndf.
Gjckt njuj, rfr vytybt yfgbcfyj,
yfgbcfdibq tuj celmz pyfrjvbn c ybv
jcnfkmysö xktyjd Dthöjdyjuj celf,
e rjnjhsö tcnm ghfdj dytctybz cdjbö
cjåcndtyysö ljgjkytybq bkb ghtlkjétybq – pfxfcneñ gjkyjcnmñ ghjnbdjgjkjéysö. Byjulf ghjbcöjlbn nfr, xnj ghb
yfgbcfybb vytybz celmb bpvtyzñn cdjt
htitybt, gthtöjlz bp vtymibycndf d
åjkmibycndj b yfjåjhjn.
Öjnz kbim jlby celmz cjcnfdkztn
ntrcn jrjyxfntkmyjuj vytybz Dthöjdyjuj
celf, kñåjq lheujq xkty celf bvttn
ghfdj bpkjébnm cdjb cjjåhfétybz gj
ltke. Lkz njuj, xnjås åsnm ghbyznsv d
rfxtcndt jrjyxfntkmyjuj vytybz Dthöjdyjuj celf, jyj ljkéyj gjkexbnm jljåhtybt gj rhfqytq vtht gznb tuj xktyjd.
Ltåjhf V. C. Åhfey
51
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gloss.htm
56
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