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Абрамова, Р., Болсуновская, Л. - Нефтегазовое дело. Техническая и профессиональная коммуникация (ТПУ 2011)

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ
ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Р.Н. Абрамова, Л.М. Болсуновская
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
GUIDE TO EFFECTIVE TECHNICAL
WRITING & PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION
НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЕ ДЕЛО
ТЕХНИЧЕСКАЯ И ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНАЯ
КОММУНИКАЦИЯ
Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением по образованию
в области лингвистики Министерства образования и науки
Российской Федерации в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов старших курсов и магистрантов высших учебных
заведений, обучающихся по геологическим, нефтяным
и нефтегазовым специальностям, включая направление «Экономика
на предприятиях нефтяной и газовой промышленности»
Издательство
Томского политехнического университета
2011
УДК 622.323(075.8)
ББК 33.36я73
А16
Абрамова Р.Н.
А16
Petroleum Engineering. Guide to effective technical writing & professional communication = Нефтегазовое дело. Техническая и профессиональная коммуникация: учебное пособие / Р.Н. Абрамова, Л.М. Болсуновская; Томский политехнический университет. – Томск: Изд-во Томского политехнического университета, 2011. – 111 с.
ISBN 978-5-98298-916-1 (техническая и профессиональная коммуникация)
ISBN 978-5-98298-913-0
Данное пособие является руководством по совершенствованию письменной и
устной коммуникации. Цель пособия – подготовить студентов к эффективному общению на английском языке в будущей профессиональной деятельности с учетом
требований международных инженерных сообществ.
При подготовке данного руководства были использованы материалы и опыт
американских исследователей в области технической и профессиональной коммуникации.
УДК 622.323(075.8)
ББК 33.36я73
Рецензенты
Доктор геолого-минералогических наук, профессор
заведующий кафедрой геоэкологии и геохимии ИПР ТПУ
Л.П. Рихванов
Кандидат филологических наук,
доцент кафедры английской филологии ТГУ
О.В. Нагель
ISBN 978-5-98298-916-1 (техническая
и профессиональная коммуникация)
ISBN 978-5-98298-913-0
© ФГБОУ ВПО НИ ТПУ, 2011
© Абрамова Р.Н., Болсуновская Л.М., 2011
© Оформление. Издательство Томского
политехнического университета, 2011
CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
Introduction ……………………………………………………….
Part I Technical Writing
Unit 1 Portfolio …………………………………………………..
Lead-in ……………………………………………………………
Portfolio development …………………………………………….
Portfolio evaluation ……………………………………………….
8
8
10
10
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Unit 2 E-mail ……………………………………………………..
Lead-in ……………………………………………………………
Tips for good E-mail style ………………………………………..
E-mail layout ……………………………………………………..
E-mail samples ……………………………………………………
Guidelines ………………………………………………………...
Writing styles ……………………………………………………..
Exercises ………………………………………………………….
Task assignments …………………………………………………
Additional resources ………………………………………………
12
12
13
14
15
17
17
20
20
20
Unit 3 Employment correspondence ……………………………...
Lead-in ……………………………………………………………
Employment correspondence – guidelines ……………………….
Application form – tips …………………………………………..
Application form –sample ………………………………………..
Cover letters ………………………………………………………
Application letters ………………………………………………..
6.1. Page format ………………………………………………….
6.2. Layout ……………………………………………………….
6.3. Words and phrases …………………………………………..
6.4. Exercise ……………………………………………………..
6.5. Class task ……………………………………………………..
6.6. Task assignment ……………………………………………..
6.7. Additional resources………………………………………….
Cover (prospecting) letter ………………………………………...
7.1. Page format …………………………………………………..
7.2. Guidelines ……………………………………………………
7.3. Basic rules ……………………………………………………
7.4. Layout ………………………………………………………..
21
21
21
22
22
23
24
24
25
26
27
29
29
29
30
30
30
31
32
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3
6
9.
10.
7.5. Cover (prospecting) letter – sample ………………………….
7.6. Words and phrases……………………………………………
7.7. Exercises ……………………………………………………..
7.8. Task assignment ……………………………………………..
7.9. Additional resources ………………………………………….
Resume ……………………………………………………………
8.1 Tips in writing resumes ……………………………………….
8.2 Layout ………………………………………………………...
8.3 Resume format ……………………………………………….
8.4 Resume sample ……………………………………………….
8.5 Resume software ……………………………………………..
8.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………...
8.7 Additional resources ………………………………………….
Self-assessment-CV ……………………………………………...
Case study ………………………………………………………...
33
34
35
36
36
36
36
37
38
39
42
43
43
43
44
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Part II Professional Communication
Unit 4 Poster Presentation ………………………………………...
Lead-in ……………………………………………………………
Guidelines ………………………………………………………...
Layout …………………………………………………………….
Do’s & don’ts ……………………………………………………..
Exercises ………………………………………………………….
Additional resources ………………………………………………
45
45
45
45
46
47
49
50
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Unit 5 Interviewing ……………………………………………….
Lead-in ……………………………………………………………
Job hunting ………………………………………………………..
Interview success plan …………………………………………….
Do’s & don’ts ……………………………………………………..
Interview questions ……………………………………………….
Exercises ………………………………………………………….
Thank you letter …………………………………………………..
Additional resources ………………………………………………
51
51
51
54
54
56
60
64
68
1.
2.
3.
4.
Unit 6 Power Point Presentations …………………………………
Lead-in …………………………………………………………...
Designing an effective PP ………………………………………...
Basic rules ………………………………………………………...
Structuring your presentation ……………………………………..
68
68
68
69
69
8.
4
5.
6.
Key words and phrases …………………………………………… 71
Additional resources ……………………………………………… 74
Teaching notes to individual units ……………………………….. 75
Appendix I ………………………………………………………...
Appendix II ……………………………………………………….
Appendix III ………………………………………………………
Appendix IV ………………………………………………………
104
106
107
109
References ………………………………………………………... 110
5
INTRODUCTION
Handwritten, electronically mediated or face-to-face, workplace
communication is a complex social transaction. Each situation has its own
specific interpersonal, ethical, legal, and cultural demands. Today’s
professional is not only a fluent communicator, but also a discriminating
consumer of information, skilled in the methods of inquiry, retrieval,
evaluation and interpretation essential to informed decision making. All
writing exists within specific contexts. Whether you are working in private
industry or in government, your organization has its own way of
communicating information.
It has become clear in recent years that technical writing and
professional communication among Russian engineers is critical for their
success and revealed a need for Russian engineers to refocus their expertise
and skills to enter the global marketplace successfully and competitively. To
adapt to the international requirements in engineering education and to meet
the challenges of the international academic and professional workplaces, it
is necessary to introduce new courses in technical writing and professional
communication. «Guide to Technical Writing & Professional
Communication» is the first attempt. This Guide is for 4-year-5-year students
of the Geology & Petroleum Engineering Institute, Tomsk Polytechnic
University. The main reason for this is the following: at their future working
place (different domestic and foreign oil and gas companies) the students will
certainly need to write and communicate orally and professionally. Their
current level of L-2 ranges from Pre-Intermediate to Intermediate (after the
third course). The student’s ESP level will be beyond their general L-2 level,
i.e. Upper Intermediate – Advanced.
The objective of this Guide is to introduce students to the main issues
in technical writing with a special emphasis on practical application; to help
students grow as competent professional through practicing the kinds of
writing they will be doing in the work world.The Guide includes two parts:
Part I Technical Writing and Part II Professional Communication. Each part
includes those aspects which characterize the immediate needs and specific
material that the students study. As such a course has never been developed
in Russia, most of the theoretical material has been taken from different
6
American and Internet resources. All examples are taken from our reality
with the permission of the authors.
This Guide is tailored to the current special needs of the students of
the Geology & Petroleum Engineering Institute, TPU in their technically
oriented majors. It will aid those who plan to continue technical careers that
require sufficient knowledge of technical writing and professional
communication.
7
PART I
UNIT 1
PORTFOLIO
COMMNICATION DISPLAY PORTFOLIO (CDP) is a communicative
self-assessment that includes such documents which represent the student’s
best communication products.
PURPOSE: evaluate personal or individual communication practices. When
completing this course, you will create a portfolio to represent your work
throughout this course.
OBJECTIVE: students use portfolio to demonstrate their learning, to assess
their own work, to document their work for job searches and to provide a
reference in future courses, internship or on the job.
1. Lead-in
A. What is a portfolio? port·fo·li·o (port-fō lē-ō′, pōrt-) n. pl. port·fo·li·os
Which definition corresponds?
1. A portable case for holding material, such as loose papers, photographs, or
drawings.
2. The materials collected in such a case, especially when representative of a
person's work: a photographer's portfolio; an artist's portfolio of drawings.
3. The office or post of a cabinet member or minister of state.
4. A group of investments held by an investor, investment company, or
financial institution.
B. What does a portfolio include?
Let’s draw a mind map and see what is what.
8
PORTFOLIO
C. Do you know the meaning of the words: personal documentation,
corporate documentation and external documentation and internal
communication? What documents do you think you need for your future job?
Personal documentation – application form, business card, letters of
employment correspondence \ inquiry letter, resume / CV (Curriculum
Vitae), application, electronic job hunting, cover letter (Support for
Application).
Corporate documentation – e-mail, different business letters, memo,
proposals, instructions.
9
External documentation – reports (formal \ informal), articles (abstracts \
annotation).
Internal communication – poster presentation, presentations (conferences).
D. Do you think a person needs a portfolio?
E. What is the aim of a portfolio?
F. Do you think the content corresponds to what a portfolio should be? If not,
what would you exclude or include?
G. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a portfolio?
H. Do you need a portfolio?
2. Portfolio Development – each student works on his\her own portfolio, on
the basis of the content (including title page, contents page). Title page
sample – pg. 11.
3. Portfolio Evaluation – arrange focus groups (small group, role-play to
evaluate and comment on other group member CDPs.
10
TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY
GEOLOGY AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING INSTITUTE
DEPARTMENT ________________________________
COMMUNICATION DISPLAY PORTFOLIO (CDP)
NAME: ________________________________________
SPECIALIZATION: __________________________________
11
UNIT 2
E-MAIL
E-MAIL is a medium which has revolutionized the way in which we
communicate with each other. E-mail has become a large part of modern
communication, particularly in business. The world has become much smaller
now that we have the ability to send and receive e-mail messages over great
distances at an incredible speed. Survey shows that E-mail “is by far the most
frequently used and highly prized feature of the Internet”(Specter, Michael,
“Your Mail Has Vanished”. New Yorker 16 Dec. 1999: 95-104.)
PURPOSE: how to use e-mails as effectively as possible; be able to express
oneself more clearly in the professional sphere.
OBJECTIVE: students will become good e-mail citizens in writing
traditional forms of communication and knowing the etiquette to ensure good
manners in E-mail.
1. Lead-in
Open INTERNET
E-mail (Computer class). Name all
the operating windows. Match the windows with their functions.
1. thread
2. e-mail program
3. FAQ
4. cc (carbon copy)
5. bcc (blind carbon
copy)
A. Address field if those people need to know
about the subject but are not required to act on the
contents (are for the people you are indirectly
addressing. They are the FYI-ers or CYA-ers.
Don't ever do it here. Copy only those who need to
be copied; not your entire universe of contacts)
B. Address field is useful where discretion is
required. People in this field are concealed from
other recipients in the 'To'
C. There is no formatting using different fonts or
colours. E-mail messages can only contain
characters typed on a keyboard, known as the
ASCII character set. Most plain text e-mail is
written using a character set like Courier
D. Allows to add formatting to the text as well as
images or links using HTML(Hyber Text Makeup
Language) code
E. Outlook Express (otherwise known as OE);
Microsoft Outlook; web-based option like Yahoo
Mail or Hotmail.
12
6. vCard
F. Contact details and other relevant information;
E-mail signature includes:




7. attachment ( a
document, a
spreadsheet)
8. ICQ \ AIM
9. plain text e-mail
10. CYA virtual
standby
CYA y. Comment
11. Re
12. FYI
13. To
14. signature file
15. HTML E-mail
16. PDF
17. be flamed
confidentiality statements
drawing attention to web site addresses
promoting a newsletter
adding other contact details such as ICQ or
AIM
G. Address field for the people you are directly
addressing
H. You’ve sent an e-mail to a person(s) that has
caused that person(s) to respond in many, not-sonice words. It’s basically a verbal attack in
electronic form
I. Frequently asked questions
J. Deadline Reminder
K. For your information
L. Programme to restore lost documents in case of
fail
M. A supplementary document that is attached to a
primary document
N. Format file for business card exchange
O. Breaking the link between the original message
and your soon-to-be-created response. Without the
link, it can get difficult for the users on each end to
follow the sequence of messages, especially after
several exchanges. The correct thing to do is to
reply, which is essentially the same thing as
creating a new message, but maintains the thread.
P. Format
Q. Messengers
2. Tips for good E-mail style
1. Provide your reader with the right information and writing approach:

Quote the e-mail to which you are responding
13

Avoid the use of them, they (use I, we and specific names)
2. Make your page easy to read. Use:



Short paragraphs
Lines under 25 words
E-mail under twenty-five lines
3. Find different ways to express emotion, body language, and intonation.
(Appendix III \ Appendix IV– pg. 130–131).








Smileys
Asterisks
Capital letters
Lower-case letters
Creative punctuation
Typed-out thoughts and reactions
Whitespace
Abbreviations
3. E-mail Layout
1. To:
2. Cc:
3. Subject line:
4. Appropriate greeting
5. Introduction
6. E-mail body (additional supporting information)
7. Final sentence
8. Concluding phrase
9. Signature file
14
4. E-mail samples
Informal
Dear Tatiana,
It was great to see you again, even twice in one day.
What a lucky guy I am!
I drove for about 7 hours straight, mostly in the rain,
before pulling over at 11:15 for “a little nap” and
sleeping in the car for two hours. I finally reached home
about 3:30 a.m., shocking Anya out of her wits because
I hadn’t been able to warn her that I wouldn’t arrive
earlier.
I got about 2–1\2 hours more sleep before getting up
for my meeting with the Associate Dean of the College
of Liberal Arts and Sciences to discuss my teaching
schedule for the next 1–2 academic years. Now I am
going on nerves alone.
I got my telephone service restored by paying the bill.
I’ll be writing again soon when I’ve gotten further into
the Dostoevsky stuff and gotten a little more sleep.
Affectionately yours,
Jerry
This e-mail is intended for the recipient only and is
private communication not intended for forwarding.
15
Formal
Dear Senator.......,
...............Like you, I’m eager to have the newly constitutes
US Senate and House of Representative, after New
Year’s, correct the hundreds of egregious blunders and
regressive acts that have been perpetrated by all
branches of our government in recent years, in both
domestic and foreign policy, and to move this country
forward in directions that will lead to its restoration in the
eyes of the world and, indeed, of the majority of its
population, as a beacon for those who struggle with the
twin curses of poverty and oppression
...........With almost 50 years behind me as a specialist in
Russia, I can tell you with absolutely certainty that not
only the Russian people, but also their government,
remain eager to cooperate with the United States in an
attempt to solve some of the most pressing problems
facing humanity, for example, terrorism, nuclear
proliferation.........
I strongly urge you ......to adopt positions with regard to
Russia and, indeed, the rest of the world, that will improve
chances for the survival of human civilization and of the
environment on our planet......................................
...........For what it’s worth, I would like to receive a
personal response from you, ............., to this letter, and
your permission to submit it to one or more newspapers
where it stands a chance of being printed.
Yours respectively and admiringly,
Gerald E. Mikkelson
Professor, Russian Studies, University of Kansas
(This e-mail example includes only separate parts.)
This E-mail is intended for the recipient only and is
private communication not intended for forwarding.
16
5. Guidelines
1. Why are you using e-mail;
2. Key features:
 purpose in communicating
 who you are addressing
 situation in which the e-mail occurs;
3. Proper use of E-mail format:
 always give the message a subject
 distinguish between open and blind copies
 use a signature and a warning (if appropriate);
4. In business e-mails – the reader must grasp the essentials quickly; no
risk of misunderstanding;
5. Think about the effect your reply will have;
6. In replies avoid breaking the thread of a sequence of message;
7. Don’t automatically “Reply to all”, unless it is expected or useful;
8. In replies only quote as much as necessary to place your message in its
context (often this is in the subject line);
9. Think before forwarding someone’s message;
10. Set up a proper system for filing e-mails;
11. Be aware of the context;
12. Avoid excessive use of capital letters and don’t use HTML formatting;
13. Be aware of the dangers of flaming;
14. Only use emoticons and initialisms in messages who are likely to
appreciate them.
(Jon Seely, Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, Oxford
University Press, 2005)
6. Writing styles
Name
Previous
contact
FORMAL \ NEUTRAL
Dear Mr.\Mrs.\ Ms (Dupuis)
Dear Mary
Thank you for your e-mail
of…….
Further to your last email,…….
I apologise for not getting in
contact with you before now.
17
INFORMAL
Hi \ Hello Mary
Mary,….(no name at all)
Thanks for your e-mail
Re your e-mail,……..
Sorry I haven’t written for
ages, but I’ve been really
busy
Reason for
writing
Giving
information
Attachments
Asking for
information
Requests
Promising
action
Offering help
I am writing in connection
with……
I am writing with regard
to………..
In reply to your e-mail, here
are…….
Your name was given to me
by…..
We would like to point out
that……
I’m writing to let you know
that…….
We are able to confirm
that………..
I am delighted to tell you
that………
We regret to inform you
that………..
Please find attached my
report.
I’m sending you….as a pdf
file.
Could you give me some
information about…….
I would like to know………
I’m interested in receiving \
finding out……
I’d be grateful if you
could……….
I wonder if you
could……………
Do you think I could have….?
Thank you in advance for
your help in this matter.
I will…………………….
I’ll investigate the matter.
I will contact you again
shortly.
Would you like me to…….?
18
Just a short note
about……….
I’m writing
about……………..
Here’s the…..you wanted.
I got your name
from………
Please note that………….
Just a note to say………..
We can confirm
that…………
Good news!
Unfortunately,……….
I’ve attached ……..
Here is the ……you
wanted.
Can you tell me a little
more about….
I’d like to know………..
Please send me………
Please could you….?
Could you…….?
Can I have……..?
I’d appreciate your help on
this.
I’ll……………
I’ll look into it.
I’ll get back to you soon.
Do you want me to…..?
Final
comments
Close
Technical
problems
Asking for
clarification
Giving
clarification
Close
If you wish, I would be happy
to……..
Let me know whether you
would like me to…………..
Thank you for your help.
Shall I…..?
Do not hesitate to contact us
again if you require any
further information.
Please feel free to contact me
if you have any questions. My
direct line is…
I am looking forward to (+
ing)
Give my regards to………….
Best wishes.
Regards.
Let me know if you need
anything else.
Let me know if you’d like
me to……
Thanks again for……
Just give me a call if you
have any questions. My
number is………
Looking forward
to…(+ing)
Best wishes to……..
Speak to \ See you soon.
Bye (for now)\ All the best.
CHECKING UNDERSTANDING
Did you get my last message sent on……..?
Sorry, you forgot to attach the file. Can you send it again?
I got your e-mail, but I can’t open the attachment.
Did you mean to send this? I don’t want to open it in case
it’s got a virus.
I’m not sure what you mean by……? Could you clarify?
Which…. Do you mean?
I don’t understand this point. Can you explain in a little
more detail?
Are you sure about that?
The correct information is given below. Please amend your
records accordingly.
Sorry, what I meant was…. not…..
I thought…., but I may be wrong.
I’ll check and get back to you.
Sorry, forget my last e-mail. You’re right.
I hope this clarifies the situation.
Get back to me if there’s anything else.
19
7. Exercises – Paul Emmerson: E-mail English, MacMillan, 2004 – contains
practice activities which can be used for self study or with a teacher in class.
8. Task assignments
1. Write an E-mail to your English teacher: asking extra information about
your lessons (for example, FCE courses). Don’t forget the style.
2. Image the following: (a) one is a student from another country (region,
city); (b) student of TPU. Continue your E-mailing for 2–3 times. Subject
can be what you prefer. Copy these e-mails and then analyse them in class.
3. A colleague asked you for help, and then almost immediately sent a
follow-up informing that she\he had solved the problem on her\his own.
4. You received an e-mail from an oil company (Shell, Baker Hughes, etc)
which says that you should give further information about yourself. Give an
answer, don’t forget the previous e-mail.
5. Collect as many e-mails from friends and family (3–4), from organizations
to individuals (3-4) as you can (in Russian\English).
 If these are in English, do they contain any of the features worked in
this unit?
 If these are in your own language, analyse whether the language varies
according to the action being requested. Is the language more formal
and polite? What forms are used?
9. Additional Resources
1. "E-mail Etiquette." I Will Follow Services. 1997.
http://www.iwillfollow.com/E-mailetiquette.html
2. Paul Emmerson: E-mail English, MacMillan, 2004
3. Nucifora, Alf. "Use etiquette when messaging via E-mail." Memphis
Business Journal 21.51 (14 April 2000): p23. Online. MasterFILE
Premier.
4. Thorton, Sam. "Rules and Regulations: E-mail Etiquette." 29 April
1998. http://www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/ITS/rules/E-mail.htm
5. http://www.perfectyourenglish.com
6. http://owl.english.purdue.edu
20
UNIT 3
EMPLOYMENT CORRESPONDENCE
EMPLOYMENT CORRESPONDENCE – conducting a successful job
search in one’s career; application letters and resumes. Such documents help
to assess one’s specific skills and goals – knowledge that is essential to
successful job search and preparation for a job interview.
PURPOSE: marketing one’s skills, abilities and knowledge; attracting the
attention of the person who screens and hires job applicants; ultimate goal is
to obtain a job interview.
OBJECTIVE: students should be able to prepare documents to help to
access specific skills and goals, as well as, knowledge that is essential to a
successful job search.
1. Lead-in
You have to prepare documents for your future job employment.
1. What documents should you have?
2. What is the importance of each document?
3. What is the purpose of each document?
4. What does each document include?
5. Do you think it is necessary to have such documents
beforehand?
2. Employment correspondence – guidelines
1. Map what you are bringing to the job application (stages of your life:
education, jobs, particular experience, activity).
2. List your interests (which are relevant).
3. Make a list of your skills, technical and professional.
4. Analyze and list personal qualities (Appendix V- pg. 133).
5. Research the job (advertisement analysis).
6. Read through all the information sent to applicants.
7. Research the company\organization on the Internet.
8. Construct your resume\CV.
9. Word-process your resume\CV.
10. Try to keep it to one side of A4; make sure that all important information
is on the first side.
11. Use letter of application to emphasize your selling points and include key
personal qualities.
12. Begin with a brief explanation of what you are applying for and why.
21
13. Use the body of the letter to highlight exactly why the job attracts you
and why you think you are very suitable for it.
14. Write a brief conclusion designed to leave the reader with the possible
impression.
15. Both documents should be word-processed and printed on a good printer.
Layout and typefaces should be chosen with care.
(Jon Seely, Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, Oxford
University Press, 2005)
3. Application form tips
 Complete all requested information – don’t leave anything blank. If
you don’t know the details, bring the application home and return it
when it’s completed.
 Write clearly and neatly – use black or blue ink.
 Check for spelling and grammatical errors – proofread your job
application form before turning it in.
 List your most recent job first –when completing employment
information.
 List your most recent education first – include vocational schools and
training programs as well as college and high school.
 References don’t necessarily have to be professional – if you have
volunteered, you can use members of the organizations that you have
helped or if you are a student, use your teachers. In all cases, ask for
permission prior to using the person for a reference.
 Don’t forget to sign your application!!
4. Application form – sample (Weatherford)
Print, practice filling out this job application form, and use it as a guide
when completing applications for employment.
INSTRUCTIONS: Print clearly in black or blue ink. Answer all questions.
Sign and date the form.
Objective (vacancy, practice)
Name
Date of birth
Citizenship
22
Address
Contacts
Phones \
1. Cell \
2. Home \
E-mail
Marital status
Education
Date
Name of university
Training \ courses (period, course’s
name, company)
Languages (basic, intermediate,
fluent)
Computer skills
Have you got international passport?
Preference: relocation or rotation?
Do you hold a driving licence?
ABCDE
Are your relatives employees or
clients of company Weatherford?
Passport RF
Career Summary
Period \ company \ position
I certify that information in this application is true and complete. I
understand that false information may be grounds for not hiring me or
for immediate termination of employment at any point in the future if I
am hired. I authorize the verification of any or all information listed
above.
Signature
Date
5. Cover letters
A cover letter typically accompanies each resume you send out. Your cover
letter may make the difference between obtaining a job interview and having
your resume ignored, so, it makes good sense to devote the necessary time
and effort to writing effective cover letters.
23
A cover letter should complement, not duplicate your resume. Its purpose is
to interpret the data-oriented, factual resume and add a personal touch.
A cover letter is often your earliest written contact with a potential employer,
creating a critical first impression.
There are three general types of cover letters:
 application letter which responds to a known job opening;
 prospecting letter which inquires about possible positions;
 networking letter which requests information and assistance in your job
search (in our case we will not be considering this type of letter).
6. Application letter
6.1. Page format
Should be an obvious companion to resume
Single space all elements
Double space between elements
Do not indent
Standard margins
Align vertically on page
24
6.2. Layout
Heading
Name not included
Full address
E-mail
Phone (OK)
Inside address
Date
Who (respect for name\title)
Where (fully)
No phone
Salutation
Dear,
To whom it may concern,
Body
Intro paragraph
 Brief (5–6 lines)
 State purpose
 How you found out about the job
 A “catch” ( interesting fact\connect with company\
kind of work you will be doing)
Middle paragraph
 Discuss important qualifications that relate specifically to the job
 Something on education
 Something on experience
 About 10–12 lines each
 Give an example of your past successful work
 Team experience
 Learning moment
 Career hopes
 How you match up with them
 Applicable coursework
Closing Paragraph
 Mention the resume, letters of reference
 Offer to answer any questions
 Offer additional materials (transcripts, portfolios, sample work)
 Make yourself available to interviews
Signature
 Sincerely
 4 blank lines
 Sign your name
25
6.3. Words and phrases
REFERENCE TO AD
I see from your advertisement in the ___________ that you have a vacancy
for a ______________________
It was with great interest to learn that your company is currently recruiting \
wishes to recruit ___________________
It was with great interest that I read the advertisement for ______________
STATE PURPOSE
I should like\I wish to apply for the position of ___________________
ENQUIRY ABOUT VACANCY
I would be interested to learn \ know whether you have a vacancy for____
I am writing to enquire about the possibility of working for your company___
I am looking for a position in ____________________
INFORMATION ABOUT THE JOB
Please send me further details of the position.
I would be obliged if you could forward a copy of the application form to me
at the above address.
EXPERIENCE\QUALIFICATIONS
For the past________ years I have been employed as a ___________
I was responsible for __________________
I was in charge of __________________
I specialize in _______________________________
This is a position for which I believe I am ideally suited.
I gained wide experience in ___________________ in _____________
department at _______________(company)
I have already acquired some experience in _______________
I speak fluent ___________________ I am fluent in ____________
I believe\I am certain I have necessary training and qualities needed for the
position of ___________________
I am eager to undertake new responsibilities in a challenging position.
I am keen to broaden my knowledge in the field of____________RESUME
I enclose\attach a copy of my resume (CV) which will give you further
particulars\more complete details of my career to date.
26
CONCLUSION
I will be happy to supply any other details you may require.
I would greatly appreciate the opportunity of an interview.
I can make myself available for interview at any time.
I am available for interview at your convenience.
I can only come to an interview on __________________.
I shall be available from _________________ onwards.
The names of two referees are given below.
I look forward to hearing from you. Hoping for a favourable reply.
6.4. Exercise-sample
Complete the application letter using the words from the box.
further particulars
specialized in
have the opportunity
in a challenging international environment
Enclosed is my resume
hearing from you
to be considered for the position of
available for interview
to date
broaden my experience
Having graduated from
as advertised
27
Janet Martin
12 Harcourt Road
LONDON SW1
18th November
Mr. J Muller
20.........
Export Manager
Luxiphon
Magdeburger Str. 250
10785 Berlin
Dear Mr. Muller
I would like (1) ____________________ assistant to the Export Manager,
(2) ______________ in the Times of November 1st.
(3)__________________________ business school in 1989, where I (4)
__________________ international business, I began working for the
marketing department of United Telecom. It was there that I came across
your products for which I have always had a high regard. I would be
delighted to (5) __________________ to work for your company, in order to
(6) ______________________ in the field of telecommunications (7)
__________________________.
(8) ____________________________ which will give you (9)
________________ of my career (10) __________________________.
I am (11) ______________________ at any time, and would be happy to
come to Berlin if necessary.
I look forward to (12) _________________________________.
Yours sincerely,
Janet Martin
(Курс делового английского языка « Издательство Мир книги», 2007)
28
6.5. Class task
Read the following advertisement. Complete an application letter according
to the layout, format, phrases and words.
Авиационный сайт
avia.delo-m.ru
Geophysicist\Head of Department
International oil and gas company is looking for
Head of department, Geophysicist; higher
education (geophysics and\or oil and gas field
exploration); intermediate level of English 15 +
years of relevant experience with Russian market
leaders oil & gas companies; good
communication skills; knowledge of Charisma
and Landmark would be preferable.
Compensation: good salary + package
6.6. Task assignment
Scan Internet to find an advertisement to your specialty. Write an
application letter.
6.7. Additional Resources
1. www.applicantdos.htm (About Human Resources)
2. www. quintcareera. com covres
3. www. college grad.com
29
7. Cover (prospecting) letter
When applying for a job a cover letter (prospecting) should be sent or
posted with your resume. Your cover letter should be specific to the position
you are applying for, relating your skills and experience to those noted in the
job posting. Your cover letter is your first (and best) chance to make a good
impression!
An effective cover letter should explain the reasons for your interest in the
organization and in the job you are applying for. Make sure that your letter
explains how your skills relate to the criteria listed in the job posting.
7.1. Page format
Should be an obvious companion to resume
Single space all elements
Double space between elements
Do not indent
Standard margins
Align vertically on page
7.2. Guidelines








One page only and limited to three targeted paragraphs
Written to someone specific, with the name and title spelled correctly
Company name and address are correct and complete
Full spell check and proofing
Three focused paragraphs (focused on the reader’s needs, not yours)
Closes with Sincerely,yours
Includes a P.S. for emphasis
Final step: do not forget to follow up
(www. College Grad.com)
30
7.3. Basic rules
 Explain why you are sending a résumé.
 Tell specifically how you learned about the position or the
organization.
 Convince the reader to look at your resume. Call attention to
elements of your background.
 Reflect your attitude, personality, motivation, enthusiasm, and
communication skills.
 Provide or refer to any information specifically requested in a job
advertisement that might not be covered in your resume.
 Indicate what you will do to follow –up.
 Explain why you are sending your resume.
 Information-seeking letters and follow-up.
 Market why you would be a good job candidate for that
organization based on the information.
(www. College Grad.com)
31
7.4. Layout
Your name
The contents of your letter might best be arranged into four paragraphs.
Your address
Consider what you need to say and use good writing style.
Your Phone Number
Your E-mail
Date
Name
Title
Organization \ Company
Address
City, State, Zip Code
Dear Mr.\Ms. Last Name
FIRST PARAGRAPH\OPENING PARAGRAPH: Why you are writing. How you learned
of the organization or position and basic information about yourself.
Remember to include the name of a mutual contact if you have one. Be clear and
concise regarding your request.
MIDDLE PARAGRAPH\2nd PARAGRAPH: What you have to offer.
Convince the readers that they should grant the interview or appointment you requested
in the first paragraph. Make connections between your abilities. Demonstrate that you
know enough about the employer or position to relate your background to the employer
or position. Mention specific qualifications which make you a good fit for the employer’s
needs. Remember, you are interpreting your resume. Try to support each statement you
make with a piece of evidence. Use several shorter paragraphs rather than one large
block of text. Refer to the fact that your resume is enclosed. Mention other enclosures if
such are required to apply for a position.
FINAL PARAGRAPH\3rd PARAGRAPH: How you will follow up.
Remember, it is your responsibility to follow-up (дополнительные данные); this relates
to your job search. State that you will do so and provide the professional courtesy of
indicating when (one week’s time is typical). State that you would be glad to provide the
employer with any additional information needed. Thank the employer for her/his
consideration.
Respectfully yours,
Your signature
Your Typed Name
Enclosure(s) (refers to resume, etc.)
(Note: the contents of your letter might best be arranged into four paragraphs. Consider
what you need to say and use good writing style).
32
7.5. Cover (prospecting) letter - sample
Alexey Vasiliev
NZ Contact Details:
25 Taylor Street, Blockhouse Bay,
Auckland 1007, New Zealand
E-mail: [email protected]
Greetings,
I am an Engineer-System Technician. I have a total of 10 years of formal
work experience. I am currently looking for a professional employment in
New Zealand.
While my experience and interests have led me to specialize in Digital Signal
Processing and Embedded Systems Programming, Technical support and
Exploitation of Radio Electronic and Information Systems. My skills could
be applied to various Information and Communication Technology areas.
I have been informed by close friends resident in New Zealand that the
country offers one of the best “work-life” balanced environments in the
world and I am keen to experience this for myself and thus seek suitable
employment in New Zealand.
Some of the personal attributes I offer your organization are:
 Very strong problem solving skills and an inventive-engineering
midset;
 Excellent analytical and very strong creative solution and team skills;
 Highly self-motivated and have the ability to multi-task, set priorities
for multiple projects and work on implementation with little
management;
 Solid interpersonal skills to interface with co-workers and customers;
 Effective decision making skills with a professional, business-focused
attitude;
 Availability to work weekends and\or off hours as necessary to meet
the organization’s needs;
 Good written, presentation and verbal communication skills.
I enclose my resume (curriculum vitae) for your kind reference, review and
positive perusal.
Sincerely,
Alexey Vasiliev
33
This cover letter is intended for the recipient only and is private
communication not intended for forwarding.
7.6. Words and phrases
opportunity
You specify
makes me an ideal candidate for
you listed through
looking for someone
work within
to intern at (internship)
be given the opportunity
assist sb with
play an active role (within)
look forward to
my qualifications seem to be a
match for
valuable experience
be referred to (you) by sb
to hire for
receive (Bachelor Degree) from
(University)
be confident that
practical work experience
solid educational experience
skills that I acquired through
major
ability to
as part of team
related to success
attributes
enthusiasm
essential to contributions and success
can apply my skills
to a position within
In more detail
If so,
for your consideration
outgoing personality
recently completed education
graduate from (University) with a
Degree in (speciality)
a strong candidate for
to enhance my formal education
put oneself through (schools) by
working (such jobs as)
make (an immediate) contribution follow up this letter with
to
long-term success in
arrange (a time to meet)
background
afford sb the opportunity to
professional approach to
look forward to putting my
knowledge and experience into
practice
arrange a convenient time
my responsibilities include
in relation to (your needs)
implement
to hear from sb by (date, time)
be reached at
inquire
work as ( ) on (amount) job
as you know
be well suited to
potential meeting date and time
in addition to
34
be interested in ( this position ) with complete requirements for
be appropriate for the position
my aspiration is (to work for)
work toward (Bachelor Degree)
welcome the opportunity to interview
you
be available to begin employment to learn of ( ) through online research
(date)
enclosed is (a copy of my resume)
from my research on your website
work at various levels
these skills would benefit
fully details my qualifications (for further outlines my qualifications
the position)
contact smby. to confirm
to seek an internship for
be exposed to
participate in
move up to
7.7. Exercises
A. Compile sentences using the following words. Don’t forget the WORD
ORDER in an English sentence.
1. an ideal candidate, track record, my, for, makes me, the, opportunity
2. someone, communication, are looking for, quantitative, and, leadership,
skills, for, you
3. to intern, I, last summer, was given, Baker Hughes, at, the opportunity
4. the Well Drilling Group, arising, and, worked within, I, assisted, with
problems, during the drilling process
5. to solve, within the group, an active role, played, helped them, and, I,
these issues
6. within this group, as part of team, is related to, my success, to work, the
ability
7. were essential to, during my internship, these attributes, my contributions
and success
8. within your company, I, the same skills, can apply, to a position
9. look forward to, discussing, I, the position, in more detail, with you
10. for the position, my qualifications, hope, seem to, I, be a match
11. mutually, a convenient time, an interview, I, to schedule, hope
12. consideration, thank, for, your, you
B. Analyze the above-mentioned cover (prospecting) letter according to the
layout (pg.32 )
35
7.8. Task assignment
You have written your application letter according to the ad that you found.
Now you are searching for a job, write a cover (prospecting) letter to the
company that you would like to work in.
7.9. Additional resources
1. Cover Letter Sample Get Vault's Free Sample Cover Letters, Templates
and Tipswww.vault.com/europe
2. Examples Of Cover Letters All Kinds Of Letters Here On One
Site.Letters.WebResultz.net
3. Dubai job agency We'll E-mail your resume directly to 100s of Dubai
employment agencies.www.e-jobsearch.com/UAE
8. Resume
The resume is a selling tool outlining your skills and experience so an
employer can see, at a glance, how you can contribute to the employer's
workplace.
8.1. Tips in writing resumes
Make your resume positive and completely error-free. If you are seeking two
or three different positions, prepare two or three separate resumes, each
tailored to the job you are targeting.
The following 10 tips will help you learn how to get employers to read your
resume:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Include a profile
Keep the resume short
Give more importance on content than on looks
Clearly identify your skills
List your educational and professional qualifications
Add related qualifications and interests
Focus on your job responsibilities
Be honest with your resume
Always attach a covering letter
Proofread your resume
36
8.2 Layout
CONTACT INFORMATION
First Last Name
Street Address
City, State, Zip
Phone (Cell\Home)
E-mail Address
OBJECTIVE (optional) – What do you want to do?
CAREER HIGHLIGHTS\QUALIFICATIONS (optional) –
A section that lists key achievements (достижение), skills (навык), traits (характерная
черта, особенность) and experience (опыт) relevant to the position for which you are
applying.
EXPERIENCE
Company # 1
City, State
Dates Worked
Job Title
Responsibilities\Achievements
Responsibilities\Achievements
Company # 2
City, State
Dates Worked
Job Title
Responsibilities\Achievements
Responsibilities\Achievements
EDUCATION – List the colleges (universities) you attended, the degrees you attained (received)
and any special awards and honors you earned.
SKILLS – Related to the position\career field that you are applying for.
REFERENCES AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST (по требованию) – Rather, have a separate list
of references to give to employers upon request.
37
8.3 Resume format
Name (centered or left justified; bold and larger than other text)
School address
1st line
2nd line
Phone number
E-mail address
(e-mail address under
your name looks fine
also)
Set your table borders as
"none" in Microsoft Word,
so the borders will not
appear on your resume
document. The table format
is solely to help you
structure your resume and
reformat easily.
Permanent Address
1st line
2nd line
Phone number
Objective
Your concise objective here
Education
B.S. (Major), June 2006
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia
Tech) Blacksburg, Virginia
GPA: x.x/4.0
Earned and financed 70 % of tuition and college expenses
Skills
First skill
Another skill
Etc.
Experience Employer Company/Organization, City & State location
Job Title, Month/Year dates
(DO use the bullet feature in MS Word to list each item)
(DON'T try to manually insert bullets and manually add spacing
to make your indentions line up)
Activities
& Honors
(Leadership position in organization)
(Award)
(Scholarship)
Etc.
The content of this sample is not intended to tell you exactly what to include
or how to order YOUR resume.
38
8.4 Resume sample
ALEXEY VASILIEV
CURRENT CONTACT DETAILS:
25 Taylor Street, Blockhouse Bay,
Auckland 1007, New Zealand.
E-mail: [email protected]
OBJECTIVE: To obtain a position in technical service in a computer
information system company or a large international company with an
established international presence and to apply my skills, background, work
and professional experience to contribute to a company’s growth in areas
related to digital signal processing, embedded systems and software\hardware
development, service and exploitation.
TOTAL EXPERIENCE
Network
administratorService IT-engineer
10 Years
09\2003 –
07\2006
Heriot-Watt
Tomsk, Russia
Petroleum
Engineering
Approved Support
Networking administration (Cisco, 200 IBM-PC, IBM – Servers, SGI,
SunServer 250, SunBlade 100; print-center (with Xerox X2 Plotter A0,
Xerox M35; personal management; carrying out the negotiations, business
correspondence and confinement of contracts for delivery; guarantee and
post-guarantee repairing, network projects, plans and organization,
installation and tuning, designing of logical and physical topology of the net;
24-hours serviced; repairing computers and printers.
Network
05\2002“Zond
Reclama” Tomsk, Russia
administrator09\2003
Advertising Holding
Service IT-engineer
Company
Networking administration (100 IBM-PC, IBM- Servers, MAC computers,
print-center, ATC, cartridge refilling and repairing; personal management;
guarantee and post-guarantee repairing, network projects, plans and
organization, installation and tuning, designing of logical and physical
topology of the net; 24-hours serviced; repairing computers and printers.
Network
03\2000“PROXYS”
Tomsk, Russia
39
administrator09\2001
Company
Service IT-engineer
Research of wholesale and retail computer market; organization and control
of financial lines and delivery of lots of merchandise from Moscow and StPetersburg to Tomsk; carrying out the negotiations, business correspondence
and confinement of contracts for delivery; personal management; guarantee
and post-guarantee repairing, control of quality; network projects, plans and
organization, installation and tuning; networking administration; installation
of routers in Tomsk for a City Net; 24-service; development digital
processing systems for oil and food companies.
Network
03\1999“Demo-Telecom”
Tomsk, Russia
administrator03\2000
Company
Service IT-engineer
Research of wholesale and retail computer market; organization and control
of financial lines and delivery of lots of merchandise from Moscow and StPetersburg to Tomsk; carrying out the negotiations, business correspondence
and confinement of contracts for delivery; personal management; guarantee
and post-guarantee repairing, control of quality; network projects, plans and
organization, installation and tuning; networking administration; 24-hour
service; development digital processing systems for food companies.
Service IT-engineer, 10\1996“Complex
Pro” Tomsk,
programmer
03\1999
Company
Russia\
Moscow
Work in the LAN projects, installation and tuning; administration of LAN
(UNIX, Windows); work in Moscow with wholesale suppliers and network
service; guarantee and post-guarantee repairing, 24-hour service,
development digital processing systems for oil companies and software for
small business companies.
Service IT-engineer, 07\1995“Him-Story”
Tomsk, Russia
programmer
10\1996
Building
Company
Computer equipment service in subdivisions; network administrator LAN;
taught Modern Operating Systems course in the Tomsk Polytechnic
University, 24-hour service, development digital processing systems for oil
companies and software for small business companies.
40
COMPUTER SKILLS
a) Gained through Academic Exposure:
Programming: Pascal, C, Java, Assembler
OS: MS-DOS, Windows 3.1-3.11\95\98\2000\XP\NT4; OS\2 3.0\4.0, Solaris
2.5 1\ 2.6\8,FreeBSD, Novell Netware 3.1 \ 4.1 Linux, Fr
Office programs: MS Office 95\98\2000 XP (Word, Excel, PowerPoint),
Staroffice
Internet: Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Opera
Computer maintaining: Hardware and Software
Nets: Ethernet, ATM, FDDI, Talking Ring, Wi-Fi, Lan Server, Lan Manager
b) Gained through Work Experience:
EDUCATION & TRAINING
2001 Diploma expert by certification 90\1 Volgogradsky Str.
technical
support
(Academy Moscow, Russia, 109443,
Standards and Certification of Russia, Tel. (+7) 0951724690
Moscow)
1999
Certificate
“Enterprise MSU, Vorobjovy Gory, Moscow,
Computing” program “Competency Russia
1500” (for System Engineer) Sun Tel. (+7) 095 9308708
Microsystems. (Redcenter, Moscow)
1998
Certificate
“Workgroup MSU, Vorobjovy Gory, Moscow,
Computing” program “Competency Russia
1000” (for System Engineer) Sun Tel. (+7) 095 9308708
Microsystems. (Redcenter, Moscow)
1995 Diploma Engineer-Electronic 40 Lenins Str., Tomsk, Russia,
System Technician, Tomsk State 634050
Academy of Automatic Systems of Tel. (+7) 3822510530
Control and Radio Electronics.
CERTIFICATE:
Sun Microsystem – Expert Level 1000 (Workgroup Computing), Expert
Level 1500 (Enterprise Computing);
Brainbench – Computer Technical Support, Network Technical Support
RetraTech Certification Center – Computer Technical Support, Network
Installation and Configuring, MCP
41
INTERESTS:
Fishing, rafting, Nordic skiing, orienteering, marathon racing. Professional
sportsman for 20 years, and participation in international competitions
(Moscow marathon race 1991, Omsk international marathon 1991-Russia;
orienteering championship FINS 1994 – Finland, O-Ringen 1994 – Sweden).
(This resume is intended for the recipient only and is private
communication not intended for forwarding.)
8.5 Resume software
Page margins of 1/2 to 1 inch on all sides generally look fine.
Use Microsoft Word to prepare your resume.
DO create your own simple Microsoft Word format, using a table with
invisible borders:
1. Except for your name, which can be larger, font sizes of 10, 11 or 12
generally look fine. Note that Arial 12 and Times 12 are not the same size.
If you have trouble getting your content on one page, use a smaller font,
like Arial 10.
2. Create your heading (name, addresses, phone numbers and e-mail).
You can create a three-column, two-row table (with cells merged on top
row) to organize your heading, as shown below, if you find this helpful.
3. For the body of your resume, create a table; one column for headings;
another column for content; one row for each heading section.
4. You can resize and realign your content easily as you revise your
resume. Using the table format means you don't have to individually tab
each line of your resume.
5. Set your borders to be invisible: format > borders and shading >
borders > none. You'll see them on screen as guidelines, but they won't
print.
42
8.6 Exercises
1. Analyze the above-mentioned resume according to the layout.
2. Prepare your resume for your future job
8.7 Additional resources
1. Online Resume Builder.htm
2. www.free-article-info.com
3. www.eslpages.com
4. www.resumesguide.com
5. www.job-winning-resumes.com
9. Self-assessment – CV (Curriculum Vitae)
Scan the following Internet Resources and find all necessary information.
Write your own CV.
Here is the basic information in a CV:
1. Full name
2. Address and telephoned number
3. Age, date and place of birth
4. Nationality
5. Marital status
6. Number of children
7. Dates and places of primary, secondary and tertiary education
8. Educational qualifications (public examinations taken\grades\degrees
achieved)
9. Employment record, to include details of each period of employment:
company\organization, position held, dates.
10. More detailed information about current position held, including salary
11. Interests
12. Names of two people who will provide references (often one as a
character reference, and one as a professional\work reference)
(Jon Seely, Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, Oxford
University Press, 2005)
43
Additional resources
1. Jim Bright and Joanne Earl, Brilliant CV, Pearson, 2001
2. Virginia Tech www.vt.edu
10. Case study
You are a recent university graduate (Tomsk Polytechnic University,
Geology & Petroleum Engineering Institute). You are applying for a job in
accordance to your major.
Complete the following steps:
1. Select a job most suitable to your speciality (according to the
bibliography of resources in your field of specialization);
2. Complete an application for employment including all necessary
information;
3. Send or post a cover letter with your resume. Your cover letter should
be specific to the position you are applying for, relating your skills and
experience to those noted in the job posting. Your cover letter is your
first (and best) chance to make a good impression. (Don’t forget the
sample cover letter-pg.);
4. Choose your resume very carefully. Select a format that highlights
your strengths and achievements. (Remember your resume needs to
impress the employer enough so you get the interview). Use the
resume format;
5. Include a CV(curriculum vitae) as a summary of your educational and
academic background, teaching and research experience, publications,
presentations, awards, honors, affiliations (прием в члены; авторство)
and other details. Be clear, concise, complete and up-to-date;
6. Provide a reference letter from your teacher. (one letter from your
Language teacher; one letter – specialist in Russian + translation).
44
PART II
UNIT 4
POSTER PRESENTATION
POSTER PRESENTATION – A poster is simply a static, visual medium
(usually of the paper and board variety) that you use to communicate ideas
and messages. The difference between poster and oral presentations is that
you should let your poster do most of the 'talking'; that is, the material
presented should convey the essence of your message. A visitor to a poster
does not want to read it, but to inspect it. The key to creating an effective
poster presentation is visual simplicity achieved without loss of information
content.
PURPOSE: to present ideas clearly and concisely. The main point of a
poster should be immediately clear to the audience when they first see it, so
you need to think carefully about the impact.
OBJECTIVE: students use poster presentations to be selective in
communicating their ideas, to demonstrate research work at different
conferences.
1. Lead-in
Demonstrate a poster presentation and discuss the following questions.
1.
What exactly is a poster presentation?
2.
What exactly is the "presentation" part of a poster presentation?
3.
What will the people viewing the poster be expecting from it?
2. Guidelines for designing a poster:
 Make the title brief and descriptive.
 Provide a brief abstract to orient the viewer.
 Plan a story for the viewer (the context – what, why, how;
the results and analysis; the importance of the results).
 Use telegraphic language and bulleted outlines.
45
 Construct easy-to-interpret graphs and tables for information and
comparisons.
 Include a visual image to illustrate your project and/or results.
 Make it easy for the viewer to determine the flow of information.
3. Layout
Poster Sample № 1
One of the simplest arrangements for a poster in landscape orientation with
individual poster elements in portrait orientation.
46
Poster Sample № 2
Landscape poster with a more complicated arrangement, but one which might
work well when multiple small items such as photographs will be displayed.
4. Do’s & Don’ts
DO’S
DON’TS
LAYOUT & FORMAT
1. Make up your poster in a large section, all
1. Make your poster up on
of roughly comparable size. Suggestion: each just one or two large boards
standard-sized paper, individually on a
colored-board of its own of slightly larger
dimension (9.5 x 12”)
2. Keep your title short, snappy and on target. 2.Write an overlong title
The title needs to highlight your subject matter
3. Make your title large enough to be read
3.Make the title type size
easily from a considerable distance. The title
too large or too small
should never exceed the width of your poster
area or should it ever occupy more than 2
47
lines. If things don’t fit, shorten the title, don’t
reduce the type-size
4. Put the names of all authors and
institutional affiliations just below your title
5.Use a type-size that can be read easily at a
distance of 4ft or better. 14-point type for fine
print and work way up (never down). For text20-point type
4.Leave people wondering
about who did this work
5. Use too small type-size
for your poster. Never,
ever, use 10\12 point type.
Don’t use it in your text,
anywhere. Don’t use it for
captions, figure legends,
footnotes. Don’t ever use
small type on a poster
6. Use a high-quality laser \ inkjet printer ( no 6.Pick a font that’s plain to
dot matrix printers, typewriters, handwriting)
read
7. Design your poster as if you were designing 7. Vary the type
the layout for a magazine \ newspaper. Strive
sizes\typefaces excessively
for consistency, uniformity and a clean
throughout the poster
readable look
8. Lay out the poster segments in a logical
8. Make your reader all over
order. Suggestion: columnar format to proceed the poster area to follow
vertically; first top to bottom, then left to right your presentation
9. Use
9. Use colors in your poster and try to use
them in a way that helps to convey additional gratuitous(неуместный)
colors
meaning. Suggestion: a) color borders, select
sth. that draws attention; b) color artwork –
colors mean sth. and serve to make useful
distinctions; c) pseudocoloring – color scale
should be tasteful, sensible and intuitive;
d) color contrast – never place isoluminous
colors in close proximity (dark red on navy
blue)
POSTER CONTENT
10. Write your poster as one
10. Break your poster up into sections.
Label all sections with titles. Always start long, meandering thread
with an abstract (less than 150 words).
Display all graphs, photos, etc. in
context. Write clear, short legends for
every figure. Follow up with a conclusion
section.
48
11. Get right to the heart of the matter
and remember the all-important KISS
Principle: Keep It Simple, Stupid! Your
poster must explain: a) what’s the
question; b) why should we care; c)
what’s your strategy; d) what did you
actually do; e) what did you actually find;
f) what did you think it all means; g)
reservations; h) where do you go from
here. BE brief and always stay on point
12.Recall that a poster should be more
telegraphic style
13. Consider adding a helpful tutorial
section to your poster
11.Ever expect anyone to spend
more than 3–5 min. at your
poster
12. Write your poster just as if it
were a scientific paper
13. Leave prospective readers
hanging or assume they’re all
experts
14. Provide parties with routes into the literature and supply a context for
your work
14. Leave out the references
(Steven M. Block: Do’s and Don’ts of Poster Presentation, Biophysical
Journal, Vol 71, 1996)
5. Exercises
1. Constructing a poster
To make an interesting poster for your project, answer the following
questions and prepare your own poster. Take A4 sheet of paper.
 What goals should I keep in mind as I construct my poster?
 How much information can I include on my poster?
 What kind of information should I include about what (how,
why) I did?
 How will the wording of my ideas on my poster be different
from my research paper?
 Once I have decided what to include, how do I actually design
my poster?
 How should I lay out my poster?
 How much space should I devote to each section?
 How much white space should I leave on my poster?
 Should I use graphics?
49
 How can I make sure that my poster is easy to read?
 How should I prepare for my presentation?
 Should I read from my poster?
2. Imagine your poster with an upside-down triangle centered from the top to
the bottom. Discuss the following questions.
The poster includes four areas.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Where is the Main focus area? What can be included in this area?
What is the secondary emphasis? What is included in this area?
Where is the Supporting area? What can be included in this area?
What is the Final Info area? What is included in this area?
3. Design a poster presentation «My future and ME!»
Additional resources
1. www.aas.duke.edu- Poster Presentation of Research Work (Dept. of
Chemical and Process Engineering University of Newcastle upon Tyne)
50
UNIT 6
JOB INTERVIEWING
Job Interview is a process in which a potential employee is evaluated by an
employer for prospective employment in their company, organization, or
firm. The primary purpose of the job interview is to assess the candidate's
suitability for the job, although the candidate will also be assessing the
corporate culture and demands of the job on offer.
PURPOSE: to prepare for an interview, to discuss in detail every item listed
on one's resume and to avoid being nervous, practice answering difficult
questions.
OBJECTIVE: students practice in preparing for future interviewing in
different foreign companies.
1. Lead-in
Scan this site: http://www.superjob.ru\test.
Let’s do one test and see what you are!!!
2. Job Hunting
There are three main factors which are very essential in job hunting:
1. WHAT arguments (аргумент) are relevant to any job (career) hunting
(search).

I CAN DO aims to convince a prospective employer that you’re
competent to do the job. This competence (компетентность; квалификация)
has two dimensions: technical competence – ability to do technical work or to
learn to do the work; and interpersonal competence – ability to work
cooperatively and effectively in a team environment.

I WANT TO DO aims to convince a prospective employer that you not
only want to do the specific kind of work this employer would have you do.

I WILL DO aims to convince a prospective employer that you are a
person of good character.
2. WHERE to find job vacancies:
51
3. GENERATE a bibliography of resources useful in your field of
specialization, including the name and Internet address for each site\
magazines: JP, Oil & Gas Journal, as well as a summary of what is available.
Ex. 1 Some resources to help you in your job and research. Look through
the websites mentioned below and find the vacancies concerning your
specialty and give a full description of this vacancy. Use the plan below.
1. Job title
2. Position type
6. Region
7. Responsibilities
11. Languages
12. Required experience
(competencies)
3. Location
4. Company
8. Requirements
9. Qualifications
5. Industry
10. Education
13. Salary
14. Required personal
capabilities
15 Additions (gender; age;
mail address; E-mail)
1. hekazan.hh.ru\vacancy (HEADHUNTER)
2. heheadhunter.com.ua\employer
3. http://www.citi.ru\vac.
4. http://www.cornerstone.ru\es\esvacancies
5. http://www.oborudka.ru
6. http://www.checkpoint.kz\en\hot
7. http://www.ancor.ru\candidate\vacancies
8. http://www.rabota.ru\agency
9. http://www.e-xecutive.ru\print\vacancies
10. http://avia.delo-m.ru
11. http://www.oil-gas.ru\jobs\vac
12. http://rabota.westsib.ru
13. http://www.careerclub.ru\personnel
14. http://www.sfinga.ru\mypages\message
15. http://www.neftegaz.ru\kadr\viewvac
16. http://www.careers.slb.com
17. http://www.MonsterRussia.ru
18. http://www.manaspetroleum.com
19. http://www.it-hot.otts.ru
20. http://www. eoil.ru
21. http://www.atlasofscience.org
52
22. http://www.hge.pu.ru
23. http://msk.job.nuclear.ru
Ex. 2 Job vacancy example. Work in pairs. Discuss all the points according
to the plan above (pg. 72)
Hot Vacancies
May 30 2007, 01:34 PM
http://forum.eylence.az
Universal McCann
A leading media agency in Azerbaijan is looking for young professionals!
Position: Research Manager
Responsibilities:
Research Manager is responsible for:
 Organization of media, market and consumer researches.
 Building strong relations with research companies.
 Interpreting research results.
 Preparation of evaluation reports and presentations.
Requirements:
 Strong analytical skills (mathematical and economic background will be
an advantage).
 Minimum one year of related experience.
 Advanced knowledge of MS Excel, PowerPoint.
 Good command of Azeri, English and Russian.
 Proactive and decision maker.
 Team player.
 University degree in Economics or Mathematics.
Applicants should send their CV to e-mail [email protected] or fax
to: 497 39 77
53
3. Interview success plan is a step-by-step plan that helps you:





Identify the requirements of the job that you're interviewing for;
Review interview questions and identify the question you'll most likely
be asked;
Build a series of practice job interviews;
Develop answers for both expected and unexpected interview
questions;
Highlight the keys to interview success.
Step 1
The Job
Step 2
Potential Interview Questions
Step 3
Interview Answers
Step 4
Inappropriate Questions
Step 5
Interview Day Preparation
Step 6
Interview Plan
Step 7
Interview Wrap
(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_interview)
4. Do’s and Don’ts
Interviewing skills are crucial when trying to obtain employment. If the
interview doesn't go well, then an employer may be inclined to hire someone
else. To hone up on your job interviewing techniques, keep the following
do’s and don'ts in mind.
Do’s




Do research on the company so you will be prepared to answer any
questions about its history or business.
Do practice interviewing before the actual interview. Enlist a friend for
help.
Do dress appropriately.
Do bring extra copies of your resume.
54















Do arrive early. Preferably 10 to 15 minutes prior to the interview start
time.
Do greet the interviewer by title (Ms., Mr., Dr.) and last name.
Do shake hands firmly.
Do make eye contact with your interviewer.
Do wait until you are offered a chair before sitting.
Do be aware of body language. Maintain good posture and look
enthusiastic.
Do give qualitative answers to questions.
Do ask for clarification if you don't understand a question.
Do emphasize your strengths.
Do ask questions. This will display your interest in the position.
Do be honest.
Do listen carefully.
Do close the interview positively. Don't forget to let him or her know
that you look forward to hearing from the company soon.
Do get business cards from each person you interviewed with.
Do write a thank-you letter to your interviewer(s) promptly.
Don'ts















Don't be late.
Don't chew gum or smoke during the interview.
Don't wear heavy perfume or cologne.
Don't dress casual.
Don't have a limp or clammy handshake.
Don't tell jokes during the interview.
Don't be soft-spoken. Confidence is key.
Don't answer questions with a "yes" or "no." Give examples.
Don't rely only on your resume or cover letter to do the selling for
you.
Don't bring up or discuss personal issues or family problems.
Don't answer your cell phone. Turn it off.
Don't make negative comments about former colleagues, supervisors,
or employers.
Don't interrupt the interviewer.
Don't falsify your answers to interview questions.
Don't be discouraged if no definite offer is made at the end of the
interview.
55
While your resume will get you the job interview, the interview is what will
get you the job. Make sure your interviewing skills are impressive.
5. Interview questions
Strengths
Interview questions directed at your “strengths” (both technical and personal)
can be asked in several different ways.















What do you consider your greatest strengths or assets?
What factors most account for your career success to-date?
What do you consider your most outstanding qualities?
In what areas are others most complimentary of you?
During performance reviews, what areas have most frequently been
cited as your key strengths?
From a job performance standpoint, what do you consider to be your
major attributes?
In checking with your co-workers, in what areas would they describe
you as most effective?
What aspects of this position do you feel you will perform
particularly well?
Describe your three greatest strengths and tell me how you have used
these to realize improvements in your current job?
Which two or three major accomplishments best illustrate your key
strengths?
In what ways do you consider your qualifications unique or
distinctive from others applying for this position?
Why should I hire you for this position?
On a scale of 1 to 10, which of your overall qualifications would you
rate at the “9” or “10” level?
What single skill or capability has most contributed to your career
success?
Why should we choose you over other candidates for this position?
Here are three distinct components:
1. identification of key strength (described by self\others);
2. evidence of key strength utilization (major contributions, job
success, career success);
3. comparison with peers (co-workers, other applicants for position).
56
Strengths fall into 2 categories:
1. technical – specialized knowledge, skills and abilities required to solve
problems and perform the job;
2. personal – traits and attributes that contribute to your motivation and
desire to perform the work particularly well (open, honest, highly
motivated, persistent, hard-working, loyal).
** You simply don’t say “I’m hard-working” – you are known for being
hard-working and have earned a reputation for handling large volumes of
work in a relatively short period of time.
Weaknesses








What do you feel are your major weaknesses?
What would you most like to improve about yourself, and why?
In what ways would you improve your effectiveness with others?
If you could, what two or three things would you most like to change
about yourself to improve your work effectiveness and why?
What steps have you taken during the last year to improve your overall
performance?
In what ways could you improve your interpersonal effectiveness?
How could you most improve your overall capability?
What factors have most stood in the way of your career success todate?
Here are three distinct components:
1. technical shortcomings (knowledge and skills required to
perform the job);
2. interpersonal shortcomings (your ability to relate to others in the
performance of your job);
3. personal shortcomings (your personal traits, characteristics and
behaviors that influence your effectiveness).
Education




Tell me about your education.
What do you most value about your education? Why?
How did your education prepare you for your career?
How has your education been beneficial to your current job?
57
 How relevant has your education been in preparing you for your
profession?
 What specific courses have proven most helpful to you in performing
your job? How have they helped you?
 What led to your decision to choose your major?
 In which courses did you do best? Why?
 What did you like most about your educational experience?
 If you could repeat your educational experience, what would you do
differently? Why?
 What professor most influenced your life? Why?
 What was there about being an engineering major that you found most
appealing?
 How have you used your education to your benefit?
 How good a student were you? What accounted for this?
 What aspects of your life has your education most influenced?
Here are three distinct components:
1. questions concerning why you chose a particular school or major
provide insight about how you think and make decisions
2. questions about the key factors you used to select a given school or
major provide some strong clues to employers about your basic value
system
3. questions about how you benefited from your education are sometimes
used by employers as a way to gauge (оценивать человека, характер)
the level of your interest in your chosen occupation
4. questions about the benefits of your education are also sometimes used
by employer as a way of measuring your capacity to make practical
application of your formal education and training
5. questions about “best courses” and “worst courses” may also yield
important information to the employer.
Work preference
 What type of work do you find rewarding and stimulating? Why?
 How would you describe the type of work you most like to do?
 Describe the type of work you would find most satisfying from a
professional standpoint?
 What are some of the criteria you are using to determine whether
or not a given job will be of interest to you?
58
Motivation and drive
 How do you measure your personal success?
 What are your three most important job objectives, and why are
they important?
 What are your long-term goals and objectives?
 What do you believe are the three or four most important
principles needed to achieve job success?
 What do you believe are the common characteristics of highly
successful people?
Personal traits and characteristics










How would you describe yourself?
What five or six adjectives best describe you?
What words best describe your personal style?
Which personal traits and characteristics have most hindered your
career progress?
In your most intimate conversations with family and close friends,
what have people said they most like about you?
Which of your traits and characteristics are you most proud of? Why?
What is there about yourself that you would most like to change? What
change would you make? Why?
Which of your personal traits and characteristics sometimes get in the
way of your relationship with others?
Which of your personal traits and characteristics best qualify you for
this job?
Which aspects of your personal style are you most sensitive of and
which are you most trying to improve?
Interpersonal skills
 With what kind of persons do you most enjoy working? Why?
 When confronted with an angry person, what do you do?
 If someone is critical of you and appears not to like you, what do
you do?
 Which of your skills would you rate higher: technical skills ,
interpersonal skills? Why?
 Do you feel it is more important to be well-liked by others or be
admired for your effectiveness? Why?
59
Planning and organizing skills




Describe your planning process.
What is your planning schedule?
How often do you do planning? Why?
Tell me about your daily work routine. How do you start the day?
What do you do next? What determines where you will spend your
time?
 Tell me about a time when good planning really paid of for you.
Communication skills
 On a scale of 1 to 10, where would you rate your overall
communication skills? Why?
 Using the same scale, where would you rate your verbal
communication skills? Why?
 Likewise, on the same scales, how would you rate your written
communication skills? Why?
 How well do you write?
(Arnold B. Kanter (1995), Essential Book of Interviewing, Random
House USA)
6. Exercises
Ex. 1. Decide which of the following questions you want to answer and fill
in any gaps with your personal information. Then discuss how you would
answer them.
1. I notice that your university \ higher education course was in
__________________
A. Which part of the course did you enjoy most? Why did you like that
subject?
B. Did you do a project in the final year? Can you tell me about that?
2. I see that after university \ higher education you worked in several jobs.
One
of
your
first
jobs
(training
position)
was
as
______________________________ in _____________ (company).
60
a
A. Can you tell me about that?
3. I see that in your previous job (training position) you worked as a
_______________ in _______________ (company).
A. Can you tell me about that? What exactly did you do there?
B. What did you learn from that job (training position)?
C. Why did you stay so long\so little in that company?
D. Why did you leave?
4.
So,
your
current
job
(training
position)
is
_________________________ in ____________________ (company).
as
A. Can you tell me a little about the company? What exactly do you do there?
B. What have you learnt in your current job (training position)?
C. How have you kept up to date with new techniques?
D. What personal and professional skills have you developed?
E. What experience do you have ________________ technology?
F. How would you describe your management style?
G. Why do you want to leave your current job (training position)?
5. I see that you are currently unemployed.
A. Why are you not working? How have you spent your time while you’ve
been unemployed?
B. Have you had other interviews? Why do you think you weren’t
successful?
61
6. Tell me something about yourself.
A. What do you do in your free time? What hobbies and interests do you
have?
B. What are your strong points?
C. What are your weak points?
D. Can you work under pressure? Can you give me an example?
E. Are you a persistent and determined person? Can you give me an
example?
F. What have been you greatest achievements?
G. Can you describe an important challenge in your life?
H. Can you describe an important change in your life?
I. What are your career objectives? Where do you see yourself three years
from now?
Ex. 2 **Teamwork Activities – teamworking, leadership activities training
resources, training games www.mta-international.com
Ex. 3 Before an interview, make up a list of questions with ready-made
answers. When you have prepared the questions, interview one of the
students.
Ex. 4 Assume you are in an actual job interview. You are asked to answer
the following questions, and keyboard your answers on a separate sheet of
paper.
 Use five different words to describe you.
 Think of your last training position or job. Give a specific example of
how you were successful on that training position\job.
62
Ex. 5 Interview Assignment
Your task is to interview someone who will better allow you and your group
to produce a more complete final project. The results of your interview will
be presented to the members of the class in the form of a two to three page
memo. Our purpose, as a group, is to see what people really think about our
topic area. Consider this as a complement to any library research that you
must perform to prepare your section of the final project. The most important
thing is that you have some sense of focus in your interview; you might want
to start with a few general questions, but then you might follow up with
questions aimed to a more specific end. You need to work with your group to
figure out just how your interview will best complement their interviews.
Please consider these points when planning, conducting, and writing up your
interview:





The interviewee must not be a relative of yours.
Two group members cannot interview the same person.
Prepare your questions in advance and arrange them logically. This
will help the interviewee answer your questions and will help you
organize your memo. This does not mean that you march on with your
questions if the answers your interviewee offers do not warrant this.
Keep your group members in mind when you write your report. List
them on the memo that you submit to me. Since they know the general
subject area, think of them at the technical executive level of audience.
You cannot tell us everything in a two or three page memo; focus your
report on the most significant points and save the rest for class
discussion and/or your own benefit. However, don’t rely entirely on
the arrangement of your questions to determine the order and emphasis
of your report. Allow the interview itself to direct your report. Choose
those areas that you feel ought to be emphasized. Turn in your list of
questions with your interview memo.
7. Thank you letter
After your interview, you should write a thank-you letter to your interviewee.
This person may be valuable to you later. It is also just the right thing to do.
Many places don’t automatically let people know if they haven’t got the job,
so ONE follow-up call is allowable. No matter how badly you think the
interview went, if you want the job, always send a follow-up interview letter.
63
If you don’t get the job and you’re curious why not, phone up and get some
feedback. It may help you for the next interview.
Writing a THANK YOU NOTE after an employment interview is a
MUST!! In fact, some employers think less of those interviewees who fail to
follow-up promptly.
Plan to send out your thank you letters as soon as possible (within 24 hours)
after your interviews. If time is of the essence, it’s appropriate to send a thank
you letter via E-mail.
7.1 Thank you letter tips
 Act Fast
 Group Letters – choose your approach based on what you think will
be most in keeping with the personality of the organization. Consider
whether the interviews had very much in common with one another.
If so, all the people on a master letter and add a personal note to each.
Otherwise, send a personalized letter to each interviewer.
 More Employment Thank You Letters – also thank everyone else
who assists with your job search.
 Make an Impression – use your letter as a way to stand out from the
crowd and make a good impression.
 What You Didn’t Say – if there was something that you wish you
had mentioned during the interview, here’s your chance to say it by
including it in your thank you letter.
 Thank You Letter Basics – can be handwritten, typed or sent via
e-mail. Each thank you letter should include a thank you for the
interview, your interest in the jobs, your qualifications and skills and
a final thank you.
 Short and Simple – do use the letter to repeat your interest in the
job, your enthusiasm for the company and to sell yourself as the ideal
candidate.
 Proof Your Letter- spell check and proof your thank you letter.
Then ask someone to proof it for you.
 Bottom Line – it is always appropriate to say thank you!
64
7.2 Layout
Heading
Name not included
Full address
E-mail
Phone number (OK)
Inside address
Date
Who (respect for name\title)
Where (fully)
No phone
Salutation
Dear,
To whom it may concern,
Body
Intro paragraph
 Brief (2–3 lines)
 State purpose
 Repeat what the job position was
Middle paragraph
 Discuss important qualifications that relate specifically to the job
 Brief (2–4 lines)
 Career hopes
 How you match up with them
Closing Paragraph
 Offer additional information
 Make yourself available (sate time\phone number)
Signature
 Sincerely
 4 blank lines
 Sign your name
65
7.3 Words and phrases
Thank you for taking the time out of your busy schedule.
It was a pleasure finally meeting you, regarding………………………………
It was very enjoyable to speak with you about…………………..
I appreciate the time you took to interview me.
The job, as you presented it, seems to be…………………………………
I am interested in working for you.
……look forward to hearing from you about this position.
The job seems to be an excellent match for (my skills and interest)
…….confirmed my desire to work with you.
I appreciate your time and consideration in interviewing me for this position
After speaking with.....
I believe that I would be a perfect candidate for this position
In addition to my enthusiasm for performing well
I would bring.......
..... necessary to get the job done
Please feel free to contact me at anytime if further information is needed
Thank you again for your time and consideration
It was very enjoyable to talk to you about.....................
.....once the decisions are made regarding this position
Thank you again for your time.
I want to reiterate (повторять) my strong interest in .........
7.4 Exercise
Complete the thank you letter using the words from the box.
Sincerely
thank you for the interview and your consideration
feel free to contact me
were strengthened
any additional information
internship
the kind of opportunity
My enthusiasm for the position
position
job requirements
I want to reiterate my strong interest make a significant contribution
I want to thank you very much for interviewing learning more about
66
212232 Moscow
Lubimovskaya Str. 21, 115
13 August, 20.......
Mr. Philip Wolgin
Director, Editorial Services
Atlantic Publishing
123320, Moscow
Woroninskij Pr-d, 67
Dear Mr. Wolgin,
(1) ________________________ me yesterday for the associate editor (2)
____________. I enjoyed you and (3) _________________ your publications.
(4) _____________________ and my interest in working for Atlantic Publishing (5)
___________________ as a result of the interview. I think my education and (6)
_______________ fit nicely with the (7) ___________________________. I am sure
that I could (8) _____________________ to the firm over time.
(9) _________________________ in the position and I working with you and your staff.
You provide (10) _______________________ I seek. Please, (11)
______________________ at (095) 333-33-33 or [email protected] if I can provide you with
(12) _________________.
Again, (13) _________________________________.
(14) ________________,
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
This thank you letter is intended for the recipient only and is private
communication not intended for forwarding.
7.5 Class task
You have just gone through an interview for an oil and gas company. Write a
thank you letter.
7.6 Task assignment
Look through your thank letter. Check grammar, spelling and copy it out.
8. Additional resources
1. Sweaty Palms: The Neglected Art of Being Interviewed (1993), The Speed
Press, Canada
2. Richard H. Beatty: The Interview Kit, 2000 USA
67
UNIT 6
POWER POINT PRESENTATIONS
Presentations (PP) are now widely used in international business and
science at all levels. Both presentation making and comprehending and
evaluating presentation (as a source of information for decision-making) have
become essential management skills.
PURPOSE: to plan a presentation carefully, to format PP and to give a
presentation successfully.
OBJECTIVE: student should feel confident in giving presentations of
different types in various situations.
1. Lead-in
Making a presentation in a foreign language is a complex task and represents
a challenge that can be a stressful experience.
Look at the following presentations. (Video tape: Student Conference- 2007)
1. What are your impressions?
2. What would you change? How?
3. What got your eye?
Now, evaluate the presentation according to the “Speech Evaluation Sheet”
(Appendix II pg. 128)
2. Designing an effective PowerPoint
Plan – concept (FILE- designing PP)
1. design principles
2. practical guides
 interior content
 creating slides
 transitions
 animation
 exterior content
 basic look
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2. Basic Rules!!!
1. GOLDEN RULE
2. Keep unity of design
3. Use readable typeface and font
4. Select readable font size
5. Adjust lettering to emphasize
6. Choose complementary colors
7. Avoid using text boxes
8. Avoid fancy animation effects
9. Consider the 6 x 6 Rule
10. Use bullets, not numbers
11. Use parallel structure
12. Use simple tables to present numbers
13. Use solids, not patterns in charts
14. Avoid overwhelming details in charts and graphs
15. Use readable figure size
16. Photos and illustrations
3. Structuring your presentation
REMEMBER……….. first impressions count.
SO………………….. let the audience see your best qualities.
IN PARTICULAR …………. try to be ………………..




Organized – make your plan “transparent”
Human – make some reference to the immediate situation
Fluent – learn this part perfectly
Brief – the audience have come for the information
69
CLASSICAL MODEL
GREETING
Introduce
yourself
Introduce
your talk
Outline talk
PRESENT MAIN
PART
divided into
Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Summarise main
points
Conclude talk
Invite questions
70
5. KEY PHRASES AND WORDS
Using appropriate words and phrases at key moments of a talk makes it easier
for your audience to follow what you are saying and to anticipate what you
will be saying next. This list will help you to highlight the key stages and to
indicate the transitions between the different sections of your talk.
SPEECH PRESENTATION
Good morning. My name’s ……… Ladies and gentlemen, it’s an honor to
have the opportunity to address such a distinguished audience.
Good morning. Let me start by saying just a few words about my own
background. I am ………….(started out in ……..)
Welcome to……… I know I’ve met some of you, but just for the benefit of
those I haven’t, my name’s……………
Title\subject (Introducing the subject)
I’d like to talk (to you) today about……….
This morning I’m going to be talking about........
In my talk today I will be looking at.........
I’d like to start by giving you.................
I’m going to present the recent………..

to explain our position on………….

to brief you on ………….

to inform you about………….

to describe……………
The focus\topic\subject of my talk\speech presentation\paper…………..
I’m here today to…
consider
describe
My purpose today is to ………
review
outline
What I want to do today is to...
present
discuss
My objective today is
introduce
to………
My main aim this afternoon is
analyze
to…...
Purpose\objective
We are here today to decide\agree\learn about……
The purpose of this talk is to update you on…… \put you in the picture
about……. \give you the background to………
This talk is designed to act as a springboard for discussion\start the ball
rolling.
Length
71
I shall only take ( ) minutes of your time.
I plan to be brief
This should only take (
) minutes.
Outline\main parts
I have divided my presentation into X sections......
In the first section I will \ am going to describe.............
Then I will\am going to go on to .........
After that I will\am going to look at.........
Finally I will\am going to..........
There are (2, 3 …..) points to consider. First I’ll talk about ….then….and
finally……
I am going to divide my talk into……sections.
I have divided the talk (my report\our findings\this presentation) into (three,
four) sections\parts
The subject can be looked at under the following headings
We can break this area down into the following trends….
Presenting, initially the talk’s organization
Firstly\first of all
I’d like to…
talk about
Secondly\then\next
I want to….
go over
Finally\lastly\last of all
I’m going to…..
consider
To start with…..
I shall
look at
analyze
discuss
review
I shall be talking about\going over\looking at\reviewing\analyzing
Closing a point or selection\changing the subject
Well, I think that’s all I want to say on……..
I think that concludes what I have to say about……
Moving on now to……..
Let me turn now to……
If we can now look at……….
Having
considered
discussed
gone over
looked at
let’s now turn to…..
examined
reviewed
analyzed
Linking subjects in your talk \ referring back
72
As I said earlier……
As I mentioned earlier…….
As we saw earlier…….
I will be coming back to this later…….
I will return to this point later
Later, I will be talking about…….
If you have a look at this figure here.......
As you can see from the table.......
This particular slide shows.......
Giving examples
For example,
For instance,….
Such as……
X can be shown\illustrated\exemplified by
A case in point is...........
i. e. (pronounced “eye” and “ee” as in “see”
Revising
The main explanation for this is……
A key problem…..
There are two reasons\explanations for this. First…Second……
This is\can be explained by two factors. First…. Second………..
This is due to…… and also by…….
One reason for this is….. Another reason is………
Involving your audience\checking that your listeners understand
(asking rhetorical questions)
As you all know
As I’m sure you are all aware (of)
Are you with me so far?
Is that clear?
Some of you may be wondering how this can be done.
Am I right in thinking that......?
So, just how can this be achieved?
You may be wondering how long this will take.
Drawing conclusions
This means that...........
Consequently........
As a result............
Therefore...........
Inviting questions and feedback from the audience
73
Are there any questions so far?
Feel free to ask if you have any questions.
I welcome questions if at any point you don’t understand something.
If you have any questions about this, please do ask.
Signaling the end
Summarizing
So, we have looked at…. and we’ve seen
that……
To put it in a nutshell…………
To put it briefly……..
To summarize, I’d like to……..
I would just like to finish by saying........
To finish I would just like to remind you......
To recap.........
The main thing\s to remember is\are....
The point that I am making here is that.....
Thanking the audience
I would like to thank you for your interest and
attention
Thank you (very much) for your attention.
In conclusion, thank you.......
Questions
I’d glad to answer any questions
If you have any questions please I’m ready to
answer them.
Do you have any questions?
6. Additional resources
1. owl.english. purdue. edu (Designing an effective PowerPoint)
2. Effective Presentations: Jeremy Comfort with York associates, Oxford
University Press, 1996
3. Mark Powell: Presenting in English – how to give successful presentations,
Oxford University Press, 1996
4. Creating Opportunities, Oxford University Press, 1996
5. Presentation example: How to develop greater leadership in an engineering
culture (Resource Pack)
6. New Insights into Business: Graham Tulli, Susan Power, Longman, 2001
7. Videotapes:
 Ford presentations
 Effective presentations
 Creating opportunities
74
TEACHING NOTES TO INDIVIDUAL UNITS
PART I TECHNICAL WRITING
Unit 2 – E-mail
I
1. O
2. E
3. I
4. A
5. B
6. N
7. M
8. Q
9. C
10. L
11. J
12. K
13. G
14. F
15. D
16. P
17. H
II Writing Approach
Always quote your replies, unless you are sure the receiver of your e-mail
knows exactly what you are talking about.


Do not send e-mail that simply says "yes" to some mysterious
question. Include the question, or say, "Yes, I can meet you at the
airport." Always provide your reader with enough information.
A good rule of thumb is to look very carefully at all pronouns in your
first three sentences. If they don't refer to something explicitly stated in
the e-mail, change them to something concrete. For example, at the
start of your e-mail.
Don't say: "They asked me if I could go with them, but she wouldn't let
me."
Say: "My office friends asked me if I could go with them, but my wife
wouldn't let me."

When answering questions, you don't need to include the entire
question. Quote the most important part of the question. Instead of
quoting:
75
> I was thinking about taking a trip at the end of the month after I
finish the term, would you be interested in going to Guam?"
Quote:
>About Guam trip?
Sure, sounds like a good idea. But I'll have to check with my parents
about finances.
Page Layout
Usually people find it hard to read words on a computer screen than on paper.
The font may be too small. The screen may flicker. The screen is not as sharp
or as clear as paper. To make your e-mail easy to read, your page layout
should be a little different.


Use Shorter Paragraphs – Consider breaking up paragraphs to only a
few sentences a piece. That way readers can easily see new paragraphs
as they end and begin. They don't have to scroll.
Use Less Words – Long wordy sentences are not appropriate for most
e-mails, especially business e-mails. If people want more information,
they will ask for it. A good rule of thumb is to keep everything on one
"page" or one "screen." In most cases this means about 20 to thirty
lines.
Expression & Intonation
In writing, you cannot make your voice louder or softer, higher or lower, to
create emphasis or let others know how you feel.

Light Emphasis - If you want to give something light emphasis,
enclose it in asterisks. This is the same as using italics in a paper
document. E.g., "I feel really *sad* to day."
Or instead of:
I said that I was going to buy it on Friday.
Say:
I *said* that I was going to buy it on Friday.
76
Or:
I said that I was going to buy it on *Friday*.

Capitalize for Strong Emphasis – For greater emphasis, add some
EXCLAMATION!!!! marks.
HEY, I JUST WANTED TO KNOW IF YOU REALLY LIKE ME..
Oooooooh, I LOVE that.

For EXTREME Emphasis go Wild – Use >>, !!, and ** for dramatic
affect.
If you forget my birthday this, I swear that I will never, *never*,
*NEVER*, >>!!**NEVER**!!<< make you Bulgolgi again (ha ha).

Other Strategies – Use lower case letters (to indicate a whisper)
and . . . to indicate anticipation or a sigh:
I failed my TOEIC again, which *totally* sucks . . . I will have to
skip Guam and STUDY . . . AHHH!
psssst!
hey Sumi!
guess what?
HE PROPOSED!!!! :-) :-) !!
Emoticons, Smileys, and Body Language
To make your e-mails more like a face-to-face conversation, try the following
strategies:

Use Smileys (Emoticons) – Facial gestures can be represented with a
"smiley": an ASCII or text drawing of a facial expression. The most
common three are:

Pauses – In a face-to-face discussion if you ask someone a complicated
question, they might pause a long time, scratch their head, check their
watch, or make a face before answering. In e-mail you can create these
pauses by adding whitepace, and "I'm thinking" (repeating letters):
77
Weeeellllll.... errr hem.... Okay but *only* if you come too!
Well . . .
(clears his throat)
Okay but ONLY
if you come too!

Creative Punctuation – "Question Marks" and "Exclamation Marks"
can be used to help add expression to your e-mails. The question mark
is kind of shorthand for "huh?" while the exclamation mark can be
used to express amazement or even anger. Punctuation can also be
used as a placeholder for swearing e.g., That #@#$%. Asterisks can
also be used to represent missing letters e.g., that son of a b****!
???!?! I don't understand why you talked to her first instead of *me*.
(Writing Effective Business E-mail)
Unit 3 – Employment correspondence
Exercise
Janet Martin
12 Harcourt Road
LONDON SW1
th
18 November
Mr. J Muller
20.........
Export Manager
Luxiphon
Magdeburger Str. 250
10785 Berlin
Dear Mr. Muller
I would like (1) to be considered for the position of assistant to the Export
Manager, (2) as advertised in the Times of November 1st.
78
(3) Having graduated from business school in 1989, where I (4) specialized
in international business, I began working for the marketing department of
United Telecom. It was there that I came across your products for which I
have always had a high regard. I would be delighted to (5) have the
opportunity to work for your company, in order to (6) broaden my
experience in the field of telecommunications (7) in a challenging
international environment.
(8) Enclosed is my resume which will give you (9) further particulars of my
career (10) to date. I am (11) available for interview at any time, and would
be happy to come to Berlin if necessary.
I look forward to (12) hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
Janet Martin
3.6 COVER LETTER
Basic Rules
 Explain why you are sending a résumé. Don’t send a resume without
a cover letter. Don't make the reader guess what you are asking for; be
specific: Do you want a summer internship opportunity, or a
permanent position at graduation; are you inquiring about future
employment possibilities?
 Tell specifically how you learned about the position or the
organization – a flyer posted in your department, a web site, a family
friend who works at the organization. It is appropriate to mention the
name of someone who suggested that you write.
 Convince the reader to look at your resume. The cover letter will be
seen first. Therefore, it must be very well written and targeted to that
employer.
 Call attention to elements of your background — education,
leadership, experience — that are relevant to a position you are
seeking. Be as specific as possible, using examples.
 Reflect your attitude, personality, motivation, enthusiasm, and
communication skills.
 Provide or refer to any information specifically requested in a job
advertisement that might not be covered in your resume, such as
availability date, or reference to an attached writing sample.
 Indicate what you will do to follow-up:
79




Information-seeking letters and follow-up. To draft an effective
cover letter, you need to indicate that you know something about the
employing organization. Sometimes, even with research efforts, you
don’t have enough information to do this. In such a case it is
appropriate to write requesting information. After you receive the
desired information you can then draft a follow-up letter that:
Thanks the sender for the information;
Markets why you would be a good job candidate for that organization
based on the information; and
Explains why you are sending your resume.
3.6 PROSPECTING LETTER
1. Compile sentences using the following words. Don’t forget the WORD
ORDER in an English sentence.
1. My track record makes me an ideal candidate for the Geologist
opportunity.
2. You are looking for someone with leadership, quantitative, analytical, and
communication skills.
3. I was given the opportunity to intern at Baker Hughes last summer.
4. I worked within the Well Drilling Group and assisted crew with problems
arising during the drilling process.
5. I played an active role within the group and helped them to solve these
issues.
6. My success within this group is related to the ability to work as part of
team.
7. These attributes were essential to my contributions and success during my
internship.
8. I can apply the same skills to a position within your company.
9. I look forward to discussing the position with you in more detail.
10. I hope my qualifications seem to be a match for the position.
11. I hope to schedule an interview at a mutually convenient time.
12. Thank you for your consideration.
80
PART II PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION
Unit 1 – POSTER PRESENTATION
I. LEAD-IN DISCUSSION
1. What exactly is a poster presentation?
A poster presentation advertises your project. It combines text and graphics
to present your project in a way that is visually interesting and accessible. It
allows you to display your work to a large group of other scholars and to talk
to and receive feedback from interested viewers.
Poster sessions have been very common in the hard sciences for some time,
and they have recently become more popular as forums for the presentation
of research in other disciplines like the social sciences, service learning, and
the humanities.
2. What exactly is the "presentation" part of a poster presentation?
When you are standing in front of your poster, you – and what you choose to
say – are as important as the actual poster. Be ready to talk about your
project, answer viewers’ questions, provide additional details about your
project, and so on.
3. What will the people viewing my poster be expecting from it?
A Symposium draws a varied audience from across the university and the
surrounding community. In general, your audience members will fall into one
of two groups:
1.
Scholars and students from your general area
These people will be familiar with the basic concepts you’re working with,
field-specific terminology, and the main debates facing your field and
informing your research. However, don’t assume that they are familiar with
all of the technical details you address in your project; remember that even
within a specific field of study, there are lots of sub-fields. This audience will
probably be most interested in clear, specific accounts of the what and the
how of your project.
81
2.
Scholars, students, and community members who are not familiar with
your area of study
These people may have a very basic understanding of your field, but they
probably won’t be familiar with terms or with the specific debates that are
current in your field. They’ll especially need you to avoid over-technical
terms and jargon. This audience will be less interested in specific details and
more interested in the what and why of your project – that is, your broader
motivations for the project and its impact on their own lives. This audience
gives you an opportunity to teach them about the interesting information
you’ve been learning and to convince them that the kind of work you are
doing can – eventually, perhaps – change the world!
As you can see, different audience members will be looking for different
kinds of information. It’s your job to provide enough specific information to
satisfy people from your general area, yet also provide enough general
information to interest those outside of it. Talk with your mentor about how
to balance the needs of these two audiences.
TASKS
1. Constructing a poster
 What goals should I keep in mind as I construct my poster?
1. Clarity of content. You will need to decide on a small number
of key points that you want your viewers to take away from your
presentation, and you will need to articulate those ideas clearly
and concisely.
2. Visual interest and accessibility. You want viewers to notice
and take interest in your poster so that they will pause to learn
more about your project, and you will need the poster’s design
to present your research in a way that is easy for those viewers
to make sense of it.
 How much information can I include on my poster?
One of the biggest pitfalls of poster presentations is filling your poster
with so much text that it overwhelms your viewers and makes it
difficult for them to tell which points are the most important. Viewers
should be able to skim the poster from several feet away and easily
make out the most significant points.
82
The point of a poster is not to list every detail of your project. Rather,
it should explain the value of your research project. To do this
effectively, you will need to determine your take-home message. What
is the single most important thing you want your audience to
understand, believe, accept, or do after they see your poster?
Once you have an idea about what that take-home message is, support
it by adding some details about what you did as part of your research,
how you did it, why you did it, and what it contributes to your field and
the larger field of human knowledge.
 What kind of information should I include about what (how,
why) I did?
- In the hard sciences, the what of a project is often divided into its
hypothesis and its data or results. In other disciplines, the what is
made up of a claim or thesis statement and the evidence used to
back it up.
- Include information about the process you followed as you
conducted your project (how).
- Give your audience an idea about your motivation for this project.
What real-world problems or questions prompted you to undertake
this project? What field-specific issues or debates influenced your
thinking? What information is essential for your audience to be able
to understand your project and its significance? In some disciplines,
this information appears in the background or rationale section of a
paper.
 How will the wording of my ideas on my poster be different
from my research paper?
In general, you will need to simplify your wording. Long, complex
sentences are difficult for viewers to absorb and may cause them to
move on to the next poster. Poster verbiage must be concise,
precise, and straightforward. And it must avoid jargon.
 Once I have decided what to include, how do I actually design
my poster?
The effectiveness of your poster depends on how quickly and easily
your audience can read and interpret it, so it's best to make your
poster visually striking. You only have a few seconds to grab
83
attention as people wander past your poster; make the most of those
seconds.
 How should I lay out my poster?
In general, people expect information to flow left-to-right and topto-bottom. Viewers are best able to absorb information from a
poster with several columns that progress from left to right.
Even within these columns, however, there are certain places where
viewers’ eyes naturally fall first and where they expect to find
information.
 How much space should I devote to each section?
This will depend on the specifics of your project. In general,
remember that how much space you devote to each idea suggests
how important that section is. Make sure that you allot the most
space to your most important points.
 How much white space should I leave on my poster?
White space is helpful to your viewers; it delineates different
sections, leads the eye from one point to the next, and keeps the
poster from being visually overwhelming. In general, leave 10–30 %
of your poster as white space.
 Should I use graphics?
Visual aids are one of the most effective ways to make your poster
visually striking, and they are often a great way to communicate
complex information straightforwardly and succinctly. If your
project deals with lots of empirical data, your best bet will be a
chart, graph, or table summarizing that data and illustrating how
that data confirms your hypothesis.
If you don’t have empirical data, you may be able to incorporate
photographs, illustrations, annotations, or other items that will
pique your viewers’ interest, communicate your motivation,
demonstrate why your project is particularly interesting or unique.
84
Don’t incorporate visual aids just for the sake of having a pretty picture
on your poster. The visual aids should contribute to your overall
message and convey some piece of information that your viewers
wouldn’t otherwise get just from reading your poster’s text.
 How can I make sure that my poster is easy to read?
There is a number of tricks you can use to aid readability and
emphasize crucial ideas. In general:




Use a large font. Don’t make the text smaller in order to fit more onto
the poster. Make sure that 95 % of the text on your poster can be read
from 4 feet away. If viewers can’t make out the text from a distance,
they’re likely to walk away.
Choose a sans-serif font like Helvetica or Verdana, not a serif font, like
Times New Roman. Sans-serif fonts are easier to read because they
don’t have extraneous hooks on every letter. Here is an example of a
sans-serif and a serif font:
Once you have chosen a font, be consistent in its usage. Use just one
font.
Don’t single-space your text. Use 1.5 or double-spacing to make the
text easier to read.
For main points:



Use bold, italicized, or colored fonts, or enclose text in boxes. Save
this kind of emphasis for only a few key words, phrases, or sentences.
Too much emphasized text makes it harder, not easier, to locate
important points.
AVOID USING ALL CAPITAL LETTERS, WHICH CAN BE HARD
TO READ.
Make your main points easy to find by setting them off with bullets or
numbers.
 How should I prepare for my presentation?
You should re-familiarize yourself with the larger project you’re
presenting. Remind yourself about those details you ended up
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having to leave out of the poster, so that you will be able to bring
them up in discussions with viewers. Then, practice, practice,
practice!
Prepare a four-to five-minute overview of the project, where you
walk these pre-viewers through the poster, drawing their attention
to the most critical points and filling in interesting details as
needed. Make note of the kinds of questions these pre-viewers
have, and be ready to answer those questions. You might even
consider making a supplemental handout that provides additional
information or answers to predictable questions.
 Should I read from my poster?
No! Make sure you are familiar enough with your poster that you
can talk about it without looking at it. Use the poster as a visual aid,
pointing to it when you need to draw viewers’ attention to a chart,
photograph, or particularly interesting point.
2. Imagine your poster with an upside-down triangle centered from the top to
the bottom. Discuss the following questions.
1.
Main Focus Area
Location of research fundamentals: Title, Abstract, Results, Conclusion
2.
Secondary Emphasis
Location of important info: Intro, Results, Summary
3.
Supporting Area
Location of supporting info: Methods, Discussion
4.
Final Info Area
Location of supplemental info: References, Acknowledgments, Personal
information
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UNIT 2 – TELEPHONING
I. LEAD-IN DISCUSSION
The following tests can also be used at the classes, as 30-second exercise at
the beginning of each class.
TEST 1
Look at these three lines for 30 seconds. Pick out what student will remember
what box. Then write down what was in them. One, two, three……..
Remember 30 seconds.
1. A unique collection of complicated memory activities.
2. 432881096377
3. G Y B V W W B Y G V
TEST 2
Write down a sequence of ten letters/numbers. During this activity say things
only once – do not repeat them! Whisper your sequence to another student of
the opposite group, who whispers it to another student and so on. The last
student in this group writes down what he/she has heard. The last student
then says the sequence aloud. DID AN ACCURATE MESSAGE GET
THROUGH?
Does this happen when you talk on the phone?
When you answer a phone for someone else, do you offer to take a message?
If you take a message, do you write it down?
If you write it down, do you check spelling and numbers?
EXERCISES
Ex. 1 – Possible variants
Ex. 2
1. G
2. F
3. C
4. J
5. H
6. A
7. B
8. D
9. F
10. I
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Ex.3
A – 1; B – 5; C – 6; D – 2; E – 7; F – 1; G – 4
Ex 4. Possible variants
Ex. 5
1.
2.
3.
4.
Two- business and residential
Yes, six other PhoneDiscs
No, it’s on five regional discs
It can be searched by name, address, phone number, area code and
SIC code.
Ex. 6. Read the text about British Telecom’s Chargecard. Read the
statements. Circle T (TRUE) and F (FALSE).
1. T
2. F – No need to be embarrassed about asking to use someone else’s
phone for free.
3. F – It actually costs LESS to dial direct from a BT public phone using
a BT Chargecard, than to pay cash.
4. F – You can use your BT Chargecard to phone home from more than
120 countries.
5. T
6. T
7. F – You’ll have the option of limiting the BT Chargecard calling to
your home number only!
Ex. 7 – Possible variants
Ex. 8 – Possible variants
Ex. 9
1. d
2. e
3. b
4. j
5. f
6. a
7. i
8. h
9. g
10. c
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Ex. 10
1. a
2. a
3. b
4. b
5. c
6. c
7. a
8. c
9. b
10. b
11. a
Ex. 11
1. dialled
2. extension
3. troubled
4. pager
5. directory
6. stand
7. checked
8. confirm
9. problems
10. appointment
DISCUSSION: Telephone call activity
Telephone call 1
Eric is a customer. He did not identify himself at all throughout the
conversation. He spoke at a very fast rate and used an exaggerated
exclamation: "Wow". He did not make much use of politeness strategies in
his call. In other words, this telephone call departs from the basic principles
of politeness and of self-identification normally given in business textbooks.
Telephone call 2
In this second call, Eric identified himself at the second turn. He used an
appropriate opening remark to ask for the person being called. He repeated
the information given to him by the other party (lines 02 and 06). In the
closing, he thanked the other party twice and said Bye-bye to close the
conversation. In this case, Eric is conducting the so-called a client call.
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Telephone call 3
This call followed the standard structure of a business call. Eric used a polite
greeting phrase to open the channel. When Carrie answered the phone, he
immediately identified himself and stated the purpose of his call. Then he
explained the procedure of their visit and what he was going to do to help the
client. This telephone conversation is more elaborate.
All three of these are business calls, but they differ in the degree of business
contact. In the first call, there is no established business contact. It is an
initial business call, or what is called a one-time only call. It is brief, and
sounds a bit rude.
The second call is to an established business contact with a client. It is more
polite.
The third one is to a client who has already bought their service. This is a
potential long-term business contact.
These three calls differ in the opening, the self-identification and the
elaboration of details. With a one-time-only call, the caller did not identify
himself. He used “Hello”, “May I ask” to open the channel. With an
established business contact, the caller used “Hello”, “Good morning” and
then “May I ask” to open the conversation. He then stated his name, and
company to identify himself. The caller switched between the two codes of
Cantonese (local language in Hong Kong) and English. All three calls ended
with “OK’, “Thanks” and “Bye” as the closing remarks.
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UNIT 3 – INTERVIEWING
I.LEAD-IN DISCUSSION
http://www.superjob.ru\test
Здесь Вы сможете пройти тесты, которые помогут Вам лучше понять
себя и окружающих. Эти тесты не претендуют на полноту. К некоторым
нужно относиться с юмором. Надеемся, Вам понравятся те
психологические тесты, которые Вы здесь найдете.
Оценка уровня общительности
Дает возможность определить уровень коммуникабельности человека.
Отвечать на вопросы следует используя три варианта ответов – «да»,
«иногда» и «нет».
Определение уровня самостоятельности
Поможет определить, насколько Вы способны взять на себя
ответственные решения. Есть люди настолько нерешительные, что
пытаются свои проблемы свалить на других. Надеемся, что Вы не
принадлежите к их числу……….
Определение степени мотивации к успеху
Пройдя тест, Вы сможете определить, упорны ли Вы в достижении
своих целей, готовы ли к преодолению любых препятствий.
Определение Вашего стиля работы
Не все одинаково подходят к принятию решения. Если одни действуют
без долгих раздумий, как говорится, рубят с плеча, то другие
руководствуются правилом «семь раз отмерь – один отрежь». Что
лучше? Видимо, должна быть «золотая середина», но как ее найти?
А что Вы можете в этой связи сказать о себе? Является ли
решительность сильной стороной Вашего характера? Скоропалительны
ли Ваши решения? Или, наоборот, Вы решительны?
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Что говорят вам мимика и жесты
Часто невербальное общение может рассказать Вам больше, чем
приятный разговор. Определите, обладаете ли Вы интуицией, умеете ли
Вы интерпретировать мимику и жесты.
Время суток и ваша наибольшая работоспособность
Люди делятся на тех, кто предпочитает для работы и других занятий
утренние часы, и тех, кому больше подходят вечерние. Несложный тест
позволит Вам определить свою принадлежность к одной из этих
категорий.
II. The Interview Success Plan
Step 1
The Job
Each job announcement or job advertisement may include any combination
of a description of the job, job applicant qualifications and desired qualities.
The description, qualifications, and desired qualities are the keys to preparing
for the interview.
Step 2
Potential Interview Questions (www.job-interview.net)
Step 3
Interview Answers
The interview focuses on "what you say" and "how you say it". In this step,
we focus on "what to say".
As you know, there are many different types of interviews and interview
questions. Let's keep it simple. You're going to be asked about:


What you know – about your work experience, education, training,
goals, character, personal qualities, the job that you're seeking, the
company that you're interviewing for, and the knowledges required to
perform the job that you're seeking.
Identify a problem or issue – given a situation, find the problem or
issue. The question may focus on a situation that you've handled in the
past or how you would handle a hypothetical situation.
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
Identify a solution – given the problem or issue, how do you
proceed? The question may focus on a problem or issue that you've
handled in the past or how you would proceed in a hypothetical
situation.
Step 4
Inappropriate Questions
Here are examples of inappropriate topics and questions:
1. Age: What’s your age?
1. Childcare: Do you have after school care?
2. Conditions of work: Does your family approve of your travel?
3. Criminal Record: When was the last time you were arrested?
4. Ethnic origin of last name: Is your last name Japanese?
5. Gender: Are you female?
6. Language: Do you speak English at home?
7. Marital Status: Are you divorced?
8. Name/Title: Is that Ms. or Mrs.?
9. National origin: Are you Chinese or Japanese?
10. Race: What race are you?
11. Relatives: Is your husband employed?
12. Religion: Are you Catholic?
13. Residence: How can you handle the long commute?
14. Sexual preference: Are you gay?
Step 5





Interview Day Preparation
You should be ready by the day before the interview. For most people,
we recommend completing your preparation the day before the
interview.
Get your rest.
Don’t get distracted or excited by little things, don’t schedule
meetings over controversial issues, or do anything that might
break your concentration.
Taking into account the time of your interview and traffic, go early to
find parking and make sure that you have money for parking meters.
Dress appropriately. If you're applying for a job where you haven't
worked before, visit the offices of facilities. See what other employees
in positions similar to the one that you're seeking are wearing. Dress at
least at that level or higher. Don't visit on Friday, you may find
yourself dressing for casual Friday.
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
Be early. If the interviewers are ahead of schedule, they'll appreciate
the opportunity to get an early start.
Step 6
1
Interview Game Plan TASK 8
Don’t smoke, chew gum, tobacco, or anything else.
2
Make a positive and professional first impression by being
assertive and giving a firm handshake to each interviewer and
addressing each interviewer as they are introduced.
3
Reinforce your professionalism and your ability to communicate
effectively by speaking clearly and avoiding "uhs", "you knows",
and slang.
4
Use appropriate wording. You won’t receive extra points for every
word that has more than 10 letters. Use technical terms only when
appropriate to the question.
5
Use positive words. Instead of "if", "I think", "I feel" and "I wish"
use "when", "I am" and "I would".
6
7
8
Establish rapport by relating to each interviewer. Note the wording
that is used by each interviewer and when appropriate use similar
words. Maintain eye contact with each of the interviewers
throughout the interview.
Sit comfortably. Sit erectly, but don’t sit stiffly or sprawl over the
chair.
Project confidence and a positive attitude. Maintain awareness of
your voice, posture, energy level, and enthusiasm. Make hand
gestures to emphasize important points, but avoid distracting
gestures or making too many hand gestures.
9
Smile confidently, but not to the point where you would appear to
be too casual. Smiling will also help you relax and establish a
rapport with the interviewers.
10
Emphasize your strengths and qualifications that make a
compelling reason that you are the ideal person for the job.
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Don’t dominate the interview. Time does not equal quality.
11
12
Manage weaknesses or barriers so that they appear to be
indications of your strengths.
13
Be attentive. Listen to each question carefully and don’t interrupt.
If you aren't sure of what is being asked, politely request that the
question be repeated.
14
Close the interview with a strong closing statement of your
qualifications for the job.
15
Thank the interviewers. Shake their hands individually and thank
each interviewer by name.
Step 7




Interview Wrap
Write down the questions.
Review your responses. What would you have worded or answered
differently? Why would you have answered differently? And what
would be a more appropriate answer?
Review your own behavior during the interview. Did you fidget? Did
you use any "uh's" or "you know's"? Did you smile? Did you use
hand gestures to emphasize important points?
Did you establish a rapport with the interviewers? How did they act
during the interview?
IV. INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
STRENGTHS
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1. My three major strengths are that I am creative, result- oriented and
continuous-improvement driven. (EXAMPLE) I am always looking for
opportunities to become more efficient and save money and time for the
company.
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2. My co-workers would likely tell you that my strongest attributes are
persistence and determination. I have developed a reputation for being
determined and persistent in tackling difficult problems. I am not a person
who gives up easily. (EXAMPLE)
3. Yes, if I were you, I would give serious consideration to hiring me over
the other candidates. One of my key strengths is _________. (One of my
areas of strength __________________)While working as
________________, for example, I brought about __________________.
WEAKNESSES
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1.
2.
My two greatest job-related weaknesses are that I tend to be highly
focused and result-oriented. Sometimes in my zeal to get things done I am
not always as sensitive as I might be to the fact that others don’t always
have the same sense of urgency as I do. Some, therefore, may see me as
“pushy”. Others, however, would tell you that they like my positive
attitude and enthusiasm.
The area I would most like to improve is my written communication
skills. Although this has certainly not been an area of major concern, it is
an area in which I would like to improve. I did take a creative writing
workshop (______) and I have experienced some improvement in this
sphere.
EDUCATION
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1. The choice of _______________ was an easy one for me. In school I was
an excellent student in ___________________. I particularly enjoyed
_____________ , which involved the application of ___________
to_____________________.
Engineering,
especially
__________
engineering, seemed a logical extension of my interest in
____________________.
2. In the broad sense, my education has helped me to learn how to be
independent and solve problems with little or no assistance. It has taught me
how to think, how to analyze, and where to go to get the answers. More
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specifically, it provided me with solid grounding in ____________, which
has enabled me to perform at a high level as an
_______________________. It has given me a high level of confidence in
my technical knowledge and ability.
3.
Although my general academic performance has been average. I have
done particularly well in _____________________ which was my major.
My grade point average in ___________________is approximately
________. In ____________ I have done even better with close to
________________. _______________ is clearly my strength and also
my strongest interest.
WORK PREFERENCE
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1. Jobs that I find most rewarding and stimulating are those where I have the
opportunity to use a combination of ______________ skills. I tend to thrive
in those jobs offering the opportunity to tackle major, long-standing problems
that the employer has a strong desire to solve. This tends to challenge and
stimulate me.
2. I tend to like jobs that are demanding and require getting a lot of work
done in a fairly short time frame. I like the problem-solving challenge of
______________.
MOTIVATION AND DRIVE
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1. One of my key personal objectives is to (complete a part-time MBA
program over the next two years). I feel this will provide me with a much
broader range of knowledge in other ______________ areas such as
__________________. I have a strong desire to learn more about
________________. As a part of my learning, I also try
to_________________. This forces me to keep expanding my intellectual
horizons and serves to stretch my mind a bit.
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PERSONAL TRAITS AND CHARACTERISTICS
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1. The three adjectives that, in my opinion, best describe me are creative,
energetic and result-oriented. I have earned a good reputation for coming up
with creative solutions and ideas to solve difficult problems. I tend to get a
lot accomplished in a relatively short time.
2. Perhaps the single trait that has gotten in my way in the past has been a
tendency to be sometimes a little too impatient and aggressive. I tend to be
very hard-working and result-oriented, and sometimes in my desire to get
things done quickly and efficiently, some may have viewed me as being
somewhat pushy or aggressive. I have attempted to be more sensitive to this
tendency and have been working on it. I think I have managed to temper
things quite a bit and I am now much more tolerant and patient. Today,
I think I can honestly say that I am no longer as before.
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1. I have always had an excellent reputation for getting along well with others
and this is one of my strengths. I could listen more carefully to another’s
point. Sometimes I may have a tendency to cut conversation short due to the
crush of the workload. I have tried to be sensitive and force myself to be a
little more patient. As a result, I believe that I have improved in this area.
PLANNING AND ORGANIZING SKILLS
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
CLASSIC ANSWERS
1.On a scale of 1 to 10, I would rate my written communication skills at
either the “9” or “ “ level. The best evidence that I can offer my skills in
this area is the fact that ________________________________________.
Using the same scale, I would also rank my verbal skills quite high
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EXERCISES 1–5
Possible variants
Essential Job Interview Tips
Some of the common questions that are asked during the interview and
appropriate responses to these questions. T can work with this material
according to his\her wish.
Interviewer: Tell me about yourself.
Candidate: I was born and raised in Milan, Italy. I attended the University of
Milan and received my master's degree in Economics. I have worked for 12
years as a financial consultant in Milan for various companies including
Rossi Consultants, Quasar Insurance and Sardi and Sons. I enjoy playing
tennis in my free time and learning languages.
Candidate: I've just graduated from the University of Singapore with a
degree in Computers. During the summers, I worked as a system
administrator for a small company to help pay for my education.
Comment: This question is meant as an introduction. Do not focus too
specifically on one area. The above question will often be used to help the
interviewer choose what he/she would like to ask next. While it is important
to give an overall impression of who you are, make sure to concentrate on
work related experience. Work related experience should always be the
central focus of any interview (work experience is more important than
education in most English speaking countries).
Interviewer: What type of position are you looking for?
Candidate: I'm interested in an entry level (beginning) position.
Candidate: I'm looking for a position in which I can utilize my experience.
Candidate: I would like any position for which I qualify.
Comment: You should be willing to take an entry level position in an
English speaking company as most of these companies expect non-nationals
to begin with such a position. In the United States, most companies provide
many opportunities for growth, so don't be afraid to start from the beginning!
Interviewer: Are you interested in a full-time or part-time position?
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Candidate: I am more interested in a full-time position. However, I would
also consider a part-time position.
Comment: Make sure to leave open as many possibilities as possible. Say
you are willing to take any job, once the job has been offered you can always
refuse if the job does not appeal (not interest) to you.
Interviewer: Can you tell me about your responsibilities at your last job?
Candidate: I advised customers on financial matters. After I consulted the
customer, I completed a customer inquiry form and catalogued the
information in our database. Then I collaborated with colleagues to prepare
the best possible package for the client. The clients were then presented with
a summarized report on their financial activities that I formulated on a
quarterly basis.
Comment: Notice the amount of detail necessary when you are talking about
your experience. One of the most common mistakes made by foreigners when
discussing their former employment is to speak too generally. The employer
wants to know exactly what you did and how you did it; the more detail you
can give the more the interviewer knows that you understand the type of
work. Remember to vary your vocabulary when talking about your
responsibilities. Also, do not begin every sentence with "I". Use the passive
voice, or an introductory clause to help you add variety to your presentation.
Interviewer: What is your greatest strength?
Candidate: I work well under pressure. When there is a deadline (a time by
which the work must be finished), I can focus on the task at hand (current
project) and structure my work schedule well. I remember one week when I
had to get 6 new customer reports out by Friday at 5. I finished all the reports
ahead of time without having to work overtime.
Candidate: I am an excellent communicator. People trust me and come to
me for advice. One afternoon, my colleague was involved with a troublesome
(difficult) customer who felt he was not being served well. I made the
customer a cup of coffee and invited both my colleague and the client to my
desk where we solved the problem together.
Candidate: I am a trouble shooter. When there was a problem at my last job,
the manager would always ask me to solve it. Last summer, the LAN server
at work crashed. The manager was desperate and called me in (requested my
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help) to get the LAN back online. After taking a look at the daily backup,
I detected the problem and the LAN was up and running (working) within the
hour.
Comment: This is not the time to be modest! Be confident and always give
examples. Examples show that you are not only repeating words you have
learned, but actually do possess that strength.
Interviewer: What is your greatest weakness?
Candidate: I am overzealous (work too hard) and become nervous when my
co-workers are not pulling their weight (doing their job). However, I am
aware of this problem, and before I say anything to anyone, I ask myself why
the colleague is having difficulties.
Candidate: I tend to spend too much time making sure the customer is
satisfied. However, I began setting time-limits for myself, if I noticed this
happening.
Comment: This is a difficult question. You need to mention a weakness that is
actually a strength. Make sure that you always mention how you try to
improve the weakness.
Interviewer:Why do you want to work for Smith and Sons?
Candidate: After following your firms progress for the last 3 years, I am
convinced that Smith and Sons are becoming one of the market leaders and I
would like to be part of the team.
Candidate: I am impressed by the quality of your products. I am sure that I
would be a convincing salesman because I truly believe that the Atomizer is
the best product on the market today.
Comment: Prepare yourself for this question by becoming informed about
the company. The more detail you can give, the better you show the
interviewer that you understand the company.
Interviewer: When can you begin?
Candidate: Immediately.
Candidate: As soon as you would like me to begin.
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Comment: Show your willingness to work!
The above questions represent some of the most basic questions asked on any
job interview in English. Probably the most important aspect of interviewing
in English is giving detail. As a speaker of English as a second language, you
might be shy about saying complicated things. However, this is absolutely
necessary as the employer is looking for an employee who knows his or her
job. If you provide detail, the interviewer will know that you feel comfortable
in that job. Don't worry about making mistakes in English. It is much better
to make simple grammar mistakes and provide detailed information about
your experience than to say grammatically perfect sentences without any real
content.
TASK: Practice your replies often to these and other questions. Sit down
with a friend and act out the interview. By repeating these phrases you will
gain much needed confidence.
7.6 THANK YOU LETTER
EXERCISE
212232 Moscow
Lubimovskaya Str. 21, 115
13 August, 20.......
Mr. Philip Wolgin
Director, Editorial Services
Atlantic Publishing
123320, Moscow
Woroninskij Pr-d, 67
Dear Mr. Wolgin,
(1) I want to thank you very much for interviewing me yesterday for the
associate editor (2) position. I enjoyed you and (3) learning more about your
publications.
(4) My enthusiasm for the position and my interest in working for Atlantic
Publishing (5) were strengthened as a result of the interview. I think my
education and (6) internship fit nicely with the (7) the job requirements.
I am sure that I could (8) make a significant contribution to the firm over
time.
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(9) I want to reiterate my strong interest in the position and in working with
you and your staff. You provide (10) the kind of opportunity I seek. Please,
(11) feel free to contact me at (095) 333-33-33 or [email protected] if I can
provide you with (12) any additional information.
Again, (13) thank you for the interview and your consideration.
(14) Sincerely,
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
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APPENDIX I
Proposal Presentation Criteria for Evaluation
Speaker _______________________________________________
Topic _________________________________________________
Introduction
States name and title clearly and confidently (not rushed)
Statement of the problem
Audience’s attention captured and maintained
Audience’s needs, interest, and/or knowledge anticipated and
addressed in some way
Logical, credible pattern of development
Speech sounds like an attempt to convince the audience that the
work is needed or valuable in some way
Speaker sounds like an objective researcher seeking answers
Adequate transitions (связующее звено) between ideas
Appropriate (соответствующий) claims are made and
supported by effective references
Objectives
Specific and clear objectives
Limitations are discussed in a specific and relevant way
Plan sounds open-minded
Language
Appropriate level of technical language
Grammatically correct
Well-chosen words
Technical terms defined
Pronounced correctly
Visuals
Smoothly integrated into talk
Attractive/ Quite clear
Relevant (существенный; важный)
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Delivery
Ethos (преобладающая черта)– confident, credible
(надежный)
Delivery added interest to the presentation
Delivery detracted (умалять, приуменьшать) from the
presentation
Voice
Adequate volume
Good enunciation (хорошее произношение, дикция)
Good expression
Well-paced
Avoids distracting use of fillers (дополнительные слова)
Avoids serious stumbles (запинка)
Physical presence
Appears prepared and confident
Faces audience
Makes eye contact with whole audience, not camera
Gestures appropriately, naturally
Avoids too many distracting movements or nervous tics
Time Appropriate?
105
APPENDIX II
Emoticon
:-)
;-)
:-|
:->
8-)
:-D
:-/
:-(
:-P
;-}
:-Q
:-e
:[email protected]
:-O
:-*
:-{}
:﴾
:─]
:─c
:─X
:─P
:’─(
:─⁄
:─o
:─*
O:─﴿
:─Y
:─[
Interpretation
Smiley face
Wink (light sarcasm)
Indifference
Devilish grin (heavy sarcasm)
Eye-glasses
Shock or surprise
Perplexed
Frown (anger or displeasure)
Wry smile
Leer
I don't understand
Disappointment
Scream
Yell
Drunk
Wears lipstick
Sad face
Very smiley face
Very unhappy
My lips are sealed
Sticking one’s tongue out
Crying
Skeptical
Surprised
Kiss
Angel
Aside comment
Very sad face
(Jon Seely, Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, Oxford
University Press, 2005)
106
APPENDIX III
Initialism
AAMOF
AFAIK
ASL
ATB
B
B2B
B4
BFN
BCNU
BTW
c
CUL8R
eta
etc.
FAQ
fax
F2F
F2T
FWIW
FYI
GAL
GR8
HAND
H8
HSIK
HTH
i.e.
IMHO
IOW
JIC
JK
KIT
L8R
MOB
MSG
MYOB
Meaning
As a matter of fact
As far as I know
Age, sex, location
All the best
Be
Business to business
before
Bye for now
be seeing you
by the way
See
See you later
estimated time of arrival
and the other (et cetera)
Frequently asked questions
facsimile
Face to face
Free to talk
for what it's worth
for your information
Get a life
Great
Have a nice day
Hate
How should I know?
Hope this helps
that is (id est)
in my humble opinion
In other words
Just in case
Just kidding
Keep in touch
Later
Mobile
Message
Mind your own business
107
N.B.
NE
NE1
NO1
OBO
OTOH
PCM
PLS
PPL
P.S.
R
ROTFL
RTFM
TIA
TNSTAAFL
TTFN
TTYL
U
WAN2
W
WKND
WYSIWYG
X
XLNT
XOXOX
YR
2
2DAY
2MORO
2NITE
4
remember (nota bene)
Any
Anyone
No one
or best offer
On the other hand
Please call me
Please
People
after writing (post scriptum)
Are
rolling on the floor laughing
Read the funny manual
thanks in advance
there's no such thing as a free lunch
ta ta for now
talk to you later
You
Want to
With
Weekend
What you see is what you get
Extension
Excellent
Hugs and kisses
Your
To, too
Today
Tomorrow
Tonight
For
(Jon Seely, Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, Oxford
University Press, 2005)
108
APPENDIX IV
Here are some qualities that can be applied
accurate
adaptable
can work under pressure
competent
decisive
extrovert
(kоммуникабельный,
контактный,
общительный,
дружелюбный человек)
flexible
good time-keeper
independent worker
loyal
careful
cooperative
dedicated
get on well with other
people
good communicator
hardworking
lively
methodical
astute (проницательный,
сообразительный)
committed
courteous
energetic
friendly
good sense of humor
imaginative
logical
meticulous
(тщательный;
щепетильный,
педантичный)
relaxed
orderly (аккуратный,
organized
опрятный)
practical
receptive
self-motivated
reliable
self-confident
positive
sensitive
thorough
thoughtful
vigilant (бдительный)
works well with others
(Jon Seely, Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking, Oxford
University Press, 2005)
109
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17
18.
19.
Beatty, R.H. (2000). The Interview Kit. USA.
Block, S.M. (1996). Do’s and Don’ts of Poster Presentation.
Biophysical Journal, Vol 71.
Business Writer’s Companion. Bedford\St. Martin’s. 1999.
Watson-Delestree, A. (1992). Basic Telephone Training, a basic course
in telephone language skills. Boston, USA.
Kanter, A.B. (1995). Essential Book of Interviewing. Random House
USA.
McCormack, J. and Slaght, J. (2005). Extended Writing & Research
Skills. Garnet Pub. Ltd. UK.
Seely, J. (2005). Oxford Guide to Effective Writing and Speaking.
Oxford University Press.
Sweaty Palms. The Neglected Art of Being Interviewed. The Speed
Press, Canada.1993.
Tan, Y., Wong, S., et. (2002). Professional Communication in
International Settings. Blackwell Pub.
The Technical Writer’s Companion. New York: Bedford\St. Martin,
1999.
Viney, P., Viney, K. (1996). Handshake. A course in communication
(Student’s Book). Oxford University Press.
Viney, P., Viney, K. (1996). Handshake. A course in communication
(Workbook). Oxford University Press.
Beer, D., McMurray, D. (1997). Writing as an Engineer. New York:
John Wiley & Sons.
Writing in English. A Practical Handbook for Scientific and Technical
Writers. A Pilot Project. Leonardo da Vinci Programme, European
Commission. 2000.
Курс делового английского языка. Изд-во Мир книги, 2007.
INTERNET RESOURCES
Payne, C. E-mail Etiquette: A Quick Guide to Writing a Professional
E-mail. JobWeb.com
Virginia Tech www.vt.edu
www.aas.duke.edu
lorien.ncl.uc.uk
110
Учебное издание
АБРАМОВА Раиса Николаевна
БОЛСУНОВСКАЯ Людмила Михайловна
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
GUIDE TO EFFECTIVE TECHNICAL
WRITING & PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION
НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЕ ДЕЛО
ТЕХНИЧЕСКАЯ И ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНАЯ
КОММУНИКАЦИЯ
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