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Третьяк, С., Солдатенко, В. - English in Biomedicine (ВолГМУ 2005)

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Волгоградский государственный медицинский
университет
ENGLISH IN BIOMEDICINE
Третьяк С.В.
Солдатенко В.А.
1
Волгоград, 2005
УДК 42:57:61(075)
ББК 81.2:28.0:5
Рекомендовано УМО по медицинскому и фармацевтическому образованию
вузов России в качестве учебного пособия для студентов медицинских вузов.
Рецензенты:
Доктор педагогических наук, член-корр. МОНПО, профессор кафедры
английской филологии Волгоградского государственного педагогического
университета Мещерякова Е.В.
Кандидат филологических наук, доцент, заведующий кафедрой
иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка Ростовского государственного
медицинского университета Соболева Т.А.
English in Biomedicine: Учебное пособие по английскому языку для
студентов I курса медико-биологических факультетов медицинских вузов/
Сост. Третьяк С.В., Солдатенко В.А. – Волгоград, 2005. -
Учебное пособие разработано на кафедре иностранных языков с курсом
латинского
языка
Волгоградского
государственного
медицинского
университета. Содержание пособия направлено на развитие навыков устной
речи, реферирования и перевода профессионально-ориентированных текстов.
К пособию прилагается грамматический справочник и глоссарий.
Составители:
Третьяк Светлана Владимировна – кандидат педагогических наук, доцент
кафедры иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка ВолГМУ;
Солдатенко Валентина Александровна – старший преподаватель кафедры
иностранных языков с курсом латинского языка ВолГМУ.
2
Предисловие
English in Biomedicine – учебное пособие, предназначенное, в первую
очередь, студентам медико-биологических факультетов медицинских вузов.
Данное пособие также может быть использовано студентами других
естественно-научных
факультетов,
а
также
научными
сотрудниками,
желающими изучать английский язык и совершенствовать владение им.
Работа с пособием предполагает базовое знание английского языка в
объеме средней школы. Упражнения и задания, направленные на повторение
грамматического материала и активизацию его в устной речи, а также задания
по реферированию и переводу аутентичных научных и научно-популярных
текстов ориентированы на развитие практических навыков использования
английского языка в целях профессионального и личностного развития.
3
Contents
Introduction. Biology as a science
2
Unit I. Seven levels of life organization
2
Unit 2. Molecular organization
6
Unit 3. Cellular organization
13
Unit 4. Colonial organization
27
Unit 5. Inheritance
33
Unit 6. Organ level of organization
41
Chapter 1. Nutrition and energy supply
41
Chapter 2. Why organisms need transport and
exchange mechanisms
51
Chapter 3. Blood and circulatory system
56
Unit 7. Control systems
62
Supplementary reading
71
Grammar supplement
84
4
Biology as a science
Unit I. Seven levels of life organization
Biology covers a wide field of
information over a considerable size range.
On the one hand it involves the movements
of electrons in photosynthesis and on the
other the migrations of individuals around the
earth. Within this range it is possible to
recognize seven levels of organization, each
of which forms the basis of the next. The
most fundamental unit is the atom; atoms
group to form molecules, which in turn may
be organized into cells. Cells are grouped
into tissues which collectively form organs,
which form organisms. A group of
organisms of a single species may form a
population.
Unit 1. Atomic organization
Did you know?
The most common element
by number of atoms in the
human body is hydrogen,
63%; next is oxygen, 25,5%
Essential Vocabulary
Amount
atom
calcium
cause
cell
damage
electron
hydrogen
ion
isomer
to absorb
to contain
to cover
to detect
to destroy
to detect
to emit
to exceed
to except
to exist
abundant
available
considerable
charged
deoxyribonucleic (acid)
equal
neutral
rapidly
selectively
similar
5
isotope
loss
matter
molecule
neutron
nitrogen
nucleus
oxygen
particle
property
range
sample
species
synthesis
tissue
variety
to gain
to involve
to maintain
to pass
to promote
to release
to remain
to spin
to trace
to vaporize
1. Назовите прилагательные, образованные от существительных:
Cell, hydrogen, ion, molecule, nucleus, synthesis, vein.
2. Дополните соответствия по образцу: cause – to cause;
?
cover
?
charge
?
existence
?
synthesis
?
-------------------
to absorb;
?
to contain;
?
to contribute;
?
to heat;
?
to transform.
Аналитическое чтение.
Atoms are the smallest units of a chemical element that can exist
independently. They comprise a nucleus which contains positively charged particles
called protons, the number of which is referred to as the atomic number. For each
proton there is a particle of equal negative charge called an electron, so the atom has
no overall charge. The electrons are not within the nucleus, but orbit in fixed
quantum shells around it. There is a fixed limit to the number of electrons in any one
shell. There may be up to seven such shells each with its own energy level; electrons
in the shells nearest to the nucleus have the least energy. The addition of energy, e.g.
in the form of heat or light, may promote an electron to a higher energy level within a
shell. Such an electron almost immediately returns to its original level, releasing its
6
newly absorbed energy. This electron movement is important biologically in
processes such as photosynthesis.
The nucleus of the atom also contains particles called neutrons which have no
charge. Protons and neutrons contribute to the mass of an atom, but electrons have
such a comparatively small mass that their contribution is negligible. However, the
number of electrons determines the chemical properties of an atom.
Grammar
1. Глаголы to be, to have: функции и спряжение во
временах Indefinite.
2. Артикли имен существительных.
3. Оборот there + be
4. Времена группы Indefinite Active
1. Найдите в тексте примеры употребления глаголов to be и to have.
Определите их функцию в предложении и грамматическое время.
2. Прокомментируйте употребление артиклей в предложениях 1, 3, 6.
3. Найдите в тексте оборот there + be. Определите его грамматическое
время, переведите предложения.
4. Измените следующие предложения во временах Indefinite.
Составьте вопросительную и отрицательную форму.
a) Atoms comprise a nucleus which contains positively charged particles.
b) An electron immediately returns to its original level.
c) Protons and neutrons contribute to the mass of an atom.
d) The number of electrons determines the chemical properties of an atom.
Summary
Прочтите тексты, пользуясь словарем, найдите наиболее важные в
смысловом отношении предложения (фрагменты). Кратко изложите
содержание текстов на английском языке (не более 4-5 предложений по
каждому тексту).
1.1 Ions
Atoms do not have any overall charge because the number of protons is always
the same as the number of electrons and both have equal, but opposite, charges. If an
atom loses or gains electrons it becomes an ion. The addition of electrons produces a
negative ion while the loss of electrons gives rise to a positive ion. The loss of an
electron is called oxidation, while the gain of an electron is called reduction. The
atom losing an electron is said to be oxidized, while that gaining an electron is said to
7
be reduced. The loss of an electron from a hydrogen atom, for instance, would leave a
hydrogen ion, comprising just a single proton. Having an overall positive charge it is
written as H+. Where an atom, e.g. calcium, loses two electrons its overall charge is
more positive and it is written Ca 2+. The process is similar where atoms gain
electrons, except that the overall charge is negative, e.g. Cl -. Ions may comprise more
than one type of atom, e.g. the sulphate ion is formed from one sulphur and four
oxygen atoms, with the addition of two electrons, SO 42-.
1.2 Isotopes
The properties of an element are determined by the number of protons and
hence electrons it possesses. If protons (positively charged) are added to an element,
then an equivalent number of electrons (negatively charged) must be added to
maintain an overall neutral charge. The properties of the element would then change indeed it now becomes a new element. For example, the addition of one proton, one
electron and one neutron to the carbon atom, transforms it into a nitrogen atom.
If, however, a neutron (not charged) is added, there is no need for an additional
electron and so its properties remain the same. As neutrons have mass, the element is
heavier. Elements which have the same chemical properties as the normal element
but have a different mass are called isotopes.
Isotopes can be traced by various means, even when incorporated in living
matter. This makes them exceedingly useful in tracing the route of certain elements in
a variety of biological processes.
Translation
Biology in medicine. Using isotopes as traces
Isotopes are varieties of atoms which differ in their mass. They are usually
taken up and used in biological systems in the same way as the 'normal' form of the
element, but they can be detected because they have different properties. Isotopes
have been used to study photosynthesis, respiration, DNA replication and protein
synthesis. Isotopes such as 15C and 13C are not radioactive and so do not decay but
they can be detected using a mass spectrometer or a nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) spectrometer.
To use a mass spectrometer the sample to be studied is vaporized is such a way
that the molecules become charged. They then pass through a magnetic field which
deflects them and the machine records the abundance of each ion with a particular
charge: mass ratio. Isotopes with an uneven number of protons or electrons spin, like
spinning bar magnets. A NMR spectrometer detects each type of spinning nucleus.
Radioisotopes can be used both for diagnosis and treatment of disease as well
as for research into possible causes. A particularly important isomer used to study
lung and heart complaints is 99mtechnetium. It has a halt life of only 6 hours and so
decays very rapidly. It can be used as an aerosol, in very low concentrations, to show
8
up available air spaces in patients' lungs. It may be used to label red blood cells so
that the distribution of blood within the spaces of the heart or in deep veins can be
shown. This is useful if there is a possibility of blood clots having formed.
The radiation emitted by a radioisotope can be used to destroy damaged tissue.
For example 131iodine is taken up selectively by the thyroid gland and can be used in
carefully calculated doses to destroy a specific amount of that gland.
Unit 2. Molecular organization
Essential vocabulary
aldehyde
arrangement
balance
bonding
branch
breakdown
carbohydrate
carbon dioxide
carrier
chain
chlorophyll
deficiency
deoxyribose
enzyme
environment
gravity
haemoglobin
hormone
intake
kidney
leakage
malformation
membrane
metabolism
nitrate
nucleotide
quantity
source
urine
vitamin
to accelerate
to alter
to assist
to constitute
to contract
to dissolve
to resist
to require
to reduce
to solve
to yield
aqueous
amphoteric
essential
exact
favourable
fatty (acid)
gastric (juice)
inner
liquid
osmotic
outer
ribonucleic (acid)
saturated
soluble
toxic
vital
variable
9
Назовите прилагательные, соответствующие существительным:
Deficiency, enzyme, environment, hormone, kidney, membrane, metabolism.
Аналитическое чтение.
Now we know that the electron shells around an atom may each contain a
maximum number of electrons. The shell nearest to the nucleus may possess a
maximum of two electrons and the next shell a maximum of eight. An atom is most
stable, i.e. least reactive, when its outer electron shell contains the maximum possible
number of electrons. For example, helium, with a full complement of two electrons in
its outer shell, is inert. In a hydrogen atom, the electron shell has a single electron and
so the atom is unstable. If two hydrogen atoms share their electrons, they form a
hydrogen molecule, which is more stable. The two atoms are effectively combined
and the molecule is written as H 2. The sharing of electrons in order to produce stable
molecules is called covalent bonding.
2.1
Inorganic ions
Water is the most important inorganic molecule in biology. Dissolved in the
water within living organisms are a large number of inorganic ions. Typically they
constitute about 1% of an organism by weight, but they are nonetheless essential.
They are divided into two groups: the macronutrients or major elements which are
needed in very small quantities, and the micronutrients or trace elements which are
needed in minute amounts (a few parts per million). Although the elements mostly
fall into the same category for plants and animals, there are a few exceptions.
Chlorine, for example, is a major element in animals but a trace element in plants. In
addition to the essential elements listed in Table 2.1, some organisms also have
specific requirements such as vanadium, chromium and silicon.
Table 2.1.
Macronutrients/
Major elements
Nitrate No3Ammonium
NH4+
Phosphate PO43Orthophosphate
H2PO4Sulphate SO42-
Functions
Notes
Nitrogen is a component of amino acids,
proteins, vitamins, coenzymes, nucleotides
and chlorophyll. Some hormones contain
nitrogen, e.g. auxins in plants and insulin in
animals.
A component of nucleotides and some
proteins. Used in the phosphorylation of
sugars in respiration. A major constituent of
bone and teeth. A component of cell
membranes in the form of phospholipids.
Sulphur is a component of some proteins and
certain coenzymes, e.g. acetyl coenzyme A.
Deficiency in animals and
humans is not vital.
In animals and humans,
deficiency can result in a
form of bone malformation
called rickets.
Deficiency in animals and
humans is not vital.
10
Potassium K+
Calcium Ca2+
Sodium Na+
Chlorine Cl-
Magnesium
Mg2+
Helps to maintain the electrical, osmotic and
anion/ cation balance across cell membranes.
Assists active transport of certain materials
across cell membrane. Necessary for protein
synthesis and is a co-factor in photosynthesis
and respiration.
It aids the translocation of carbohydrates and
amino acids. It is the main constituent of
bones, teeth and shells in animals. Needed for
the clotting of blood and the contraction of
muscle.
Helps to maintain the electrical, osmotic and
anion/ cation balance across cell membranes.
Assists active transport of certain materials
across the cell membrane.
Helps to maintain the electrical, osmotic and
anion /cation balance across cell membranes.
Needed for the formation of hydrochloric acid
in gastric juice. Assists in the transport of
carbon dioxide by blood.
A constituent of chlorophyll. An activator for
some enzymes, e.g. ATPase. A component of
bone and teeth.
Iron Fe2+ or Fe3+ A constituent of electron carriers, e.g.
cytochromes, needed in respiration and
photosynthesis. A constituent of certain
enzymes. Required in the synthesis of
chlorophyll. Forms part of the haem group in
respiratory pigments such as haemoglobin,
haemoerythrin, myoglobin.
Potassium plays an
important role in the
transmission of nerve
impulses.
Deficiency in animals and
humans is not vital.
In animals and humans,
deficiency leads to rickets
and delay in the clotting of
blood.
In animals and humans, it is
necessary for the functioning
of the kidney, nerves and
muscles; deficiency may
cause muscular cramps.
In animals, deficiency may
cause muscular cramps.
Deficiency in humans is not
vital.
Deficiency in animals and
humans is not vital.
Deficiency in animals and
humans leads to anaemia.
Micronutrients/ Functions
Trace elements
An activator of certain enzymes, e.g.
Manganese
2+
phosphatases. A growth factor in bone
Mn
Notes
Copper Cu2+
A constituent of some enzymes. A component
of the respiratory pigment haemocyanin.
Deficiency in animals and
humans is not vital.
Iodine I-
A constituent of the hormone thyroxin, which
controls metabolism.
Deficiency in animals
produces bone deformations.
development.
Cobalt Co2+
Zinc Zn2+
Deficiency in humans causes
cretinism in children and
goitre in adults; in some
other vertebrates it is
essential for metamorphic
changes.
Constituent of vitamin B12, which is important Deficiency in animals causes
in the synthesis of RNA, nucleoprotein and
pernicious anaemia
red blood cells.
An activator of certain enzymes, e.g. carbonic Carbonic anhydrase is
anhydrase.
important in the transport of
11
carbon dioxide in vertebrate
blood.
Associates with calcium to
form calcium fluoride which
strengthens teeth and helps
prevent decay.
Fluorine F-
A component of teeth and bones.
Grammar
1. Множественное число существительных.
2. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.
3. Типы вопросительных предложений
1. Образуйте множественную форму существительных:
Electron, shell, nucleus, molecule, quantity, category, plant, bone, tooth, muscle,
constituent.
2. Образуйте сравнительную и превосходную степени сравнения
прилагательных:
Deep, essential, exact, favourable, fine, liquid, narrow, rich, toxic, vital.
3. Сформулируйте как можно больше вопросов к предложениям:
а) Water is the most important inorganic molecule in biology.
b) Inorganic ions constitute about 1% of an organism by weight.
Summary
Прочтите тексты, пользуясь словарем, найдите наиболее важные в
смысловом отношении предложения (фрагменты). Изложите содержание
текстов на английском языке.
2.2
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates comprise a large group of organic compounds which contain
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and which are either aldehydes or ketones. The word
carbohydrate suggests that these organic compounds are hydrates of carbon. Their
general formula is Cx(H2O)y. The word carbohydrate is convenient rather than exact,
because while most examples do conform to the formula, e.g. glucose (C 6H12O6) and
sucrose (C12H22O11), a few do not, e.g. deoxyribose (C5H10O4).
Carbohydrates are divided into three groups: the monosaccharides ('singlesugars'), the disaccharides ('double-sugars') and the polysaccharides ('manysugars'). The presence of the hydroxyl groups allows carbohydrates to interact with
the aqueous environment and to participate in hydrogen bonding, both within and
between chains. Derivatives of the carbohydrates can contain nitrogens, phosphates
12
and sulphur compounds. Carbohydrates also can combine with lipid to form
glycolipids or with protein to form glycoproteins. This arrangement is typical of
many organic molecules where single units, called monomers, are combined to form
larger units, called polymers.
The functions of carbohydrates, although variable, are in the main concerned
with storage and liberation of energy. A few, such as cellulose, have structural roles.
2.3. Lipids
Lipids are a large and varied group of organic compounds. Like carbohydrates,
they contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, although the proportion of oxygen is
much smaller in lipids. They are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in organic
solvents such as acetone, alcohols and others. They are of two types: fats and oils.
There is no basic difference between these two; fats are simply solid at room
temperatures (10-20°C) whereas oils are liquid. The chemistry of lipids is very varied
but they are all esters of fatty acids and an alcohol, of which glycerol is by far the
most abundant.
Functions of lipids
1. An energy source.
Upon breakdown they yield 38 kJg -1 of energy. This compares favourably with
carbohydrates which yield 17 kJg -1 and means lipids are excellent energy stores. This
makes them especially useful for animals where locomotion requires mass to be kept
to a minimum. In plants they are useful in seeds where dispersal by wind or insects
makes small mass a necessity. This explains the abundance of oils extracted from
seeds and fruits, e.g. olive, peanut, coconut and sunflower. Their insolubility is
another advantage, as they are not easily dissolved out of cells.
2. Insulation.
Fats conduct heat only slowly and so are useful insulators. In endothermic
animals, such as mammals, fat is stored beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat) where it
helps to retain body heat. In aquatic mammals, such as whales, seals and manatees,
hair is ineffective as an insulator because it cannot trap water in the same way as it
can air. These animals therefore have extremely thick subcutaneous fat, called
blubber, which forms an effective insulator.
3. Protection.
Another secondary use to which stored fat is put is as a packing material
around delicate organs. Fat surrounding the kidneys, for instance, helps to protect
them from physical damage.
4. Buoyancy.
Being less dense than water, lipids aid buoyancy of aquatic vertebrates such as
sharks, seals and whales. Sharks have extremely fatty livers which make up to 25%
of their body volume and contain a lipid, squaline, with a specific gravity of only
0.86. Oils on bird feathers are especially important in keeping aquatic varieties afloat.
13
5. Waterproofing.
Terrestrial plants and animals have a need to conserve water. Animal skins
produce oil secretions, e.g. from the sebaceous glands in mammals, which waterproof
the body. Oils also coat the fur, helping to repel water which would otherwise wet it
and reduce its effectiveness as an insulator. Birds spread oil over their feathers for the
same purpose. Insects have a waxy cuticle to prevent evaporative loss in the same
way that plant leaves have one to reduce transpiration.
6. Cell membranes.
Phospholipids are major components of the cell membrane and contribute to
many of its properties.
7. Other functions.
Lipids perform a host of miscellaneous functions in different organisms. For
example, plant scents are fatty acids (or their derivatives) and so aid the attraction of
insects for pollination. Bees use wax in constructing their honeycombs.
2.4 Amino acids
Amino acids are a group of over a hundred chemicals of which around 20
commonly occur in proteins. They always contain a basic group, the amino group (—
NH2), and an acid group, the carboxyl group (—COOH). Most amino acids have one
of each group and are therefore neutral, some have more amino groups than carboxyl
ones (basic amino acids) while others have more carboxyl than amino groups (acidic
amino acids).
Amino acids are soluble in water. They have both acidic and basic properties,
i.e. amino acids are amphoteric. Being amphoteric means that amino acids act as
buffer solutions. A buffer solution is one which resists the tendency to alter its pH
even when small amounts of acid or alkali are added to it. Such a property is essential
in biological systems where any sudden change in pH could adversely affect the
performance of enzymes.
2.5 Enzymes
Did you know?
Typically enzymes speed up a chemical
reaction between one million (106) and
one trillion (1012) times – the equivalent
of accelerating a life span of 100 years
into the space of just 1 second!
Until recently it was thought that all biological catalysts were enzymes. We
now know that other substances may carry out catalytic functions in living organisms.
Abzymes are antibodies with catalytic properties and ribozymes are molecules of
RNA which act catalytically on themselves. Most biological catalysts however are
globular proteins known as enzymes. A catalyst is a substance which alters the rate of
14
a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent change. As they are not
altered by the reactions they catalyse, enzymes can be used over and over again. They
are therefore effective in very small amounts. Enzymes cannot cause reactions to
occur; they can only speed up reactions that would otherwise take place extremely
slowly. The word 'enzyme' means 'in yeast', and was used because they were first
discovered by Eduard Buchner in an extract of yeast.
Enzymes are complex three-dimensional globular proteins, some of which have
other associated molecules. While the enzyme molecule is normally larger than the
substrate molecule it acts upon, only a small part of the enzyme molecule actually
comes into contact with the substrate. This region is called the active site.
Translation
Biology around us. Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a lipid containing four rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms with
a branched side chain. A single hydroxyl group (OH -) gives the molecule a small
charge as the result of ionization. Cholesterol is very hydrophobic.
Most cholesterol in the body is found in the membranes of cells. Cholesterol is
essential for the functioning of plasma membranes where it plays two main roles.
Firstly it limits the uncontrolled leakage of small molecules (water and ions) in and
out of the plasma membrane. The cell can thus control the passage of solutes and ions
using specialized membrane proteins and without wasting energy counteracts their
leakage. The second role of cholesterol in membranes is to pull together the fatty acid
chains in phospholipids, restricting their movement, but not making them solid.
Cholesterol is also used by the liver for making bile salts and, in small quantities, is
used to make steroids.
In total the body contains a pool of about 120-150 g of cholesterol which is
maintained by biosynthesis in the liver and intestine and by ingestion of meat,
seafood, eggs and dairy products. Vegans take in no cholesterol but most other diets
result in an intake of approximately 0.5 g, the body making a further 0.5 g, per day.
Cholesterol is lost from the body mainly as bile salts, but also as bile, in cells from
the lining of the intestine and as steroid hormones in the urine.
Cholesterol is insoluble in water but can be carried in the blood plasma in the
form of lipoproteins. The balance of these lipoproteins is usually maintained by
special receptors in the liver cells but saturated fats in the diet decrease their activity
and hence lead to a rise in plasma cholesterol. Deposits of crystalline cholesterol and
droplets of cholesterol esters can cause thickening of the artery walls
(atherosclerosis). This can lead to heart attacks (from blocking of coronary arteries),
strokes (brain arteries blocked) or blockages of arteries in the legs. Atherosclerosis
may follow damage caused to the artery walls by high blood pressure and smoking.
Smoking considerably decreases the concentration of the antioxidant vitamins E and
C in the blood resulting in the oxidation of some lipoproteins.
The products of oxidation are often toxic to the cells of the artery and cause
them to behave abnormally. The damaged cells release substances which cause the
15
blood to clot and the artery to contract. Macrophages which degrade the oxidized
lipoproteins are unable to deal with the cholesterol it carries. Eventually they fill with
cholesterol and die, depositing the cholesterol back into the artery.
Speaking
Do you agree with the statement that cholesterol is a fully unnecessary
substance in the human body? Speak on its function.
Why is it vital to control the amount of cholesterol in blood?
Unit 3. Cellular organization
Did you know?
A fully grown human is made up
of about 10 trillions cells!
16
Essential vocabulary
Assembly
bacterium
centriole
chromosome
cytoplasm
endocytosis
entity
feature
findings
fungus
fusion
gene
genome
layer
mammal
mitochondrion
nutrition
organelle
to occur
phagocytosis
reticulum
sequence
vesicle
vacuole
to acquire
to arise
to bound
to consume
to convert
to convey
to distinguish
to fold
to include
to magnify
to occur
to permit
to surround
to survive
adjacent
aerobic
anaerobic
capable
complex
compound
distinct
diverse
endoplasmic
hereditary
heterotrophic
hollow
numerous
rigid
spherical
1. Прочтите слова, попытайтесь перевести их, не пользуясь словарем,
определите часть речи:
Aspect, combine, coordinate, cytology, cytosol, diameter, discipline,
homeostatic, human, interest, mechanism, medial, microscopic, oocyte, organelle,
physical, physiology, somatic, trillion, vital.
2. Образуйте однокоренные слова, используя префиксы и суффиксы:
Prefix
ADisExtraIntraNonReUn-
Base word
act
bacterium
cell
chromosome
cytoplasm
fungus
heredity
Suffix
- al
-ar
- ary
-ent
- ety
- ian
- ic
17
mammal
to present
product
type
to vary
- ion
- ity
- ive
- tion
- ous
Аналитическое чтение.
Cells.
Cells are very small indeed - a typical cell is only about 0.1 mm in diameter.
Cells have a variety of forms and functions. They create and maintain all anatomical
structures and perform all vital physiological functions.
The human body contains trillions of cells, and all our activities - from running
to thinking - result from the combined and coordinated responses of millions or even
billions of cells. Yet each cell can function as an individual entity, responding to a
variety of environmental cues. As a result, anyone interested in understanding how
the human body functions must first become familiar with basic concepts of cell
biology.
Many insights into human physiology arose from studies of the functioning of
individual cells. What we have learned over the last 50 years has given us a new
understanding of cellular physiology and the mechanisms of homeostatic control.
Today, the study of cellular structure and function, or cytology, is a part of the
broader discipline of cell biology, incorporating aspects of biology, chemistry, and
physics.
The human body contains two general classes of cells: sex cells and somatic
cells. Sex cells are also called germ cells or reproductive cells. Somatic cells (soma,
body) include all the other cells in the human body.
Our representative cell is surrounded by a watery medium known as the
extracellular fluid. The extracellular fluid in most tissues is called interstitial fluid
(interstitium, something standing between). A cell membrane is to separate the cell
contents, or cytoplasm, from the extracellular fluid. The cytoplasm can itself be
subdivided into the cytosol, a liquid, and intracellular structures collectively known
as organelles.
Grammar
1. Модальные глаголы can, may, must, need и их
эквиваленты.
2. Неличные формы глагола. Причастие (Participle).
3. Страдательный залог времен группы Indefinite.
1. Найдите в тексте Cells примеры модальных глаголов. Объясните
их значение. Замените модальные глаголы на эквиваленты. Изменился ли
при этом смысл предложения?
18
2. Измените предложение, используя различные модальные глаголы.
Переведите предложения.
a) Researchers can create and maintain optimal conditions during an experiment.
were able
have to
must
are to
b) The students can start the experiment.
are able
may
are to
need
3. Найдите в тексте Cells примеры Participle, определите их функцию.
4. Прочтите текст, измените предложения, чтобы сказуемое было
выражено страдательным залогом (там, где это возможно).
In 1665, Robert Hooke, using a compound microscope, discovered that cork
was composed of numerous small units. He called these units cells. In the years that
followed, Hooke and other researchers discovered that cells compose many other
types of material. By 1838, the amount of plant material composed of cells convinced
Matthias Schleiden, a German botanist, that cells made up all plants. The following
year, Theodor Schwann reached the same conclusion about the organization of
animals. Their joint findings became known as the cell theory. It was of considerable
biological significance as it unified the nature of organisms. The theory makes the
cell the fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms. Hooke had
originally thought the cell to be hollow. With the development of better light
microscopes, first the nucleus and then organelles such as the chloroplasts became
visible. The development of the electron microscope revolutionized our
understanding of cell structure. With its ability to magnify up to 500 times more than
the light microscope, the electron microscope revealed the fine structure of cells
including many new organelles. This detail is called the ultrastructure of the cell.
The complexity of cellular structure led to the emergence of a new field of biology,
cytology - the study of cell ultrastructure. This shows that while organisms are very
diverse in their structures and cells vary considerably in size and shape, there is a
remarkable similarity in their basic structure and organization.
Summary
Кратко изложите содержание текстов на английском языке.
19
3.1 Cell as a fundamental unit of life.
Did you know?
Up to 2% of an adult human cells
die every day. This amounts to
18 million cells each second.
The cell is the fundamental unit of life. All organisms, whatever their type or
size, are composed of cells.
Five important characteristics of all cells are:
† self-feeding or nutrition (the "machine" function),
† self-replication or growth (the "coding" function),
† differentiation (form new cell structures such as spores as part of their life
style),
† chemical signaling (communication with other cells) and
† evolution (change to show new biological properties).
Superficially, cells seem to disobey a law of physics - they are highly ordered
structures in a world that generally becomes less ordered with time. How do they
maintain order? By continuously generating energy, some of which is used to
maintain cell structure. Energy generation is one important component of
metabolism; other aspects of metabolism include the chemical reactions that
synthesize the compounds and assembly reactions that make up the cell structure.
Protein molecules called enzymes catalyze chemical reactions in cells. Enzymes must
have a specific structure to function; therefore, there must be a set of information (a
gene) that encodes the structure of each protein in the cell. The instruction set is
encoded in DNA, the genetic material of all cells. There is also a translation system
RNA, to convert the information coded in the DNA to proteins. Several types of
RNA molecules (messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA) are important
in this process.
The result of biosynthesis is cell growth. For a cell to replicate itself, it must
synthesize more than 1000 different protein molecules. The cell has the genetic
information to produce about 3000 distinct proteins; the genes that are expressed are
those, which encode proteins that are most useful for growth or survival under the
existing environmental conditions. The cell must also faithfully copy its genetic
information, to pass onto the new cell. Mistakes in copying are made occasionally;
these mutations are usually harmful and kill the cell. However, they do provide a
mechanism for cells to acquire new properties.
3.2. The structure of prokaryotic cells
20
Prokaryotic cells (pro - 'before',
karyo - 'nucleus') were probably the first
forms of life on earth. Their hereditary
material, DNA, is not enclosed within a
nuclear membrane. This absence of a
true nucleus only occurs in two groups,
the bacteria and the blue-green bacteria.
There
are
no
membrane-bound
organelles within a prokaryotic cell.
Bacterial cells share certain
common structural features, but also
show group-specific specializations.
E. coli is a usually harmless
inhabitant of the intestinal tract of human
beings and many other mammals. The E.
coli cell is about 2 μm long and a little less
than 1 μm in diameter. It has a protective
outer membrane and an inner plasma
membrane that encloses the cytoplasm and
the nucleoid. Between the inner and outer
membranes is a thin but strong layer of
peptidoglycans (sugar polymers crosslinked by amino acids), which gives the cell
its shape and rigidity.
The plasma membrane and the layers
outside it constitute the cell envelope.
The plasma membrane contains
proteins capable of transporting certain ions
and compounds into the cell and carrying
products and waste out.
3.3. Structure of the eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cells (eu - 'true', karyo 'nucleus') probably arose a little over 1000
million years ago, nearly 2500 million
years after their prokaryotic ancestors. The development of eukaryotic cells from
prokaryotic ones involved considerable changes, as can be seen from the Figure.
Three major changes must have occurred as prokaryotes gave rise to
eukaryotes. First, as cells acquired more DNA, mechanisms evolved to fold it
compactly into discrete complexes with specific proteins and to divide it equally
between daughter cells at cell division. Second, as cells became larger, a system of
intracellular membranes developed, including a double membrane surrounding the
DNA. Finally, primitive eukaryotic cells, which were incapable of photosynthesis or
of aerobic metabolism formed permanent symbiotic associations with aerobic
and photosynthetic bacteria. Some aerobic bacteria evolved into the mitochondria of
modern eukaryotes, and some photosynthetic cyanobacteria became the chloroplasts
of modern plant cells.
21
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are compared in the Table2.2.
22
Typical eukaryotic cells (Fig.3) are much larger than prokaryotic cellscommonly 10 to 30 μm in diameter, with cell volumes 1,000 to 10,000 times larger
than those of bacteria.
Figure 3. Schematic illustration of the two types of eukaryotic cell: a representative animal cell (a)
and a representative plant cell (b).
The distinguishing characteristic of eukaryotes is the nucleus with a complex
internal structure, surrounded by a double membrane. The other striking difference
between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is that eukaryotes contain a number of other
membrane-bounded organelles.
3.4 The nucleus
When viewed under a microscope, the most prominent feature of a cell is the
nucleus. While its shape, size, position and chemical composition vary from cell to
cell, its functions are always the same, namely, to control the cell’s activity and to
retain the organism’s hereditary material, the chromosomes. It is bounded by a
double membrane, the nuclear envelope, the outer membrane of which is continuous
with the endoplasmic reticulum and often has ribosomes on its surface. The inner
membrane has three proteins on its surface which act as anchoring points for
chromosomes. It possesses many large pores (typically 3000 per nucleus) 40-100 nm
23
in diameter, which permit the passage of large molecules, such as RNA, between it
and the cytoplasm. (Fig. 4)
Figure 4. The nucleus and nuclear
envelope. (a) Scanning electron
micrograph of the surface of the nuclear
envelope, showing numerous nuclear
pores. (b) Electron micrograph of the
nucleus of the alga Chlamydomonas.
The cytoplasm-like material within
the nucleus is called nucleoplasm. It
contains chromatin which is made up of
coils of DNA bound to proteins. During
division the chromatin condenses to form
the chromosomes but these are rarely, if
ever, visible in a non-dividing cell. The
denser, more darkly staining areas of
chromatin are called heterochromatin.
(Fig. 5)
Within the nucleus are one or two
small spherical bodies, each called a
nucleolus. They are not distinct organelles
as they are not bounded by a membrane.
They manufacture ribosomal RNA, a
substance in which they are especially
rich, and assemble ribosomes.
The functions of a nucleus are:
1. To contain the genetic material of a cell
in the form of chromosomes.
2. To act as a control centre for the
activities of a cell.
24
3. To carry the instructions for the synthesis of proteins in the nuclear DNA
4. To be involved in the production of ribosomes and RNA.
5. In-cell division.
Figure 5. Chromosomes are visible in the electron microscope during mitosis. Shown
here is one of the 46 human chromosomes. Every chromosome is composed of two
chromatids; each consisting of tightly folded chromatin fibers. Each chromatin fiber
is in turn formed by the packaging of a DNA molecule wrapped about histone
proteins to form a series of nucleosomes.
3.5 Intracellular membranes
The small transport vesicles moving to and from the plasma membrane in
exocytosis and endocytosis are parts of a dynamic system of intracellular membranes,
which includes the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complexes, the nuclear
envelope, and a variety of small vesicles such as lysosomes and peroxisomes. (Fig. 6)
25
Figure 6. High-magnification electron micrographs of a sectioned cell show rough endoplasmic
reticulum, studded with ribosomes, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi complex.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a system of membranes found
throughout the cell, forming a cytoplasmic skeleton. It is an extension of the outer
nuclear membrane with which it is continuous.
The functions of the ER may thus be summarized as:
1. Providing a large surface area for chemical reactions.
2. Providing a pathway for the transport of materials through the cell.
3. Producing proteins, especially enzymes.
4. Producing lipids and steroids.
5. Collecting and storing synthesized material.
6. Providing a structural skeleton to maintain cellular shape.
3.6
Movement in and out of cells
The various organelles and structures within a cell require a variety of
substances in order to carry out their functions. In turn they form products, some
useful and some wastes. Most of these substances pass in and out of the cell. They do
this by diffusion, osmosis, active transport, phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
Diffusion
Diffusion is the process by which a substance moves from a region of high
concentration of that substance to a region of low concentration of the same
26
substance. Diffusion occurs because the molecules are in random motion (kinetic
theory). The rate of diffusion depends upon:
1. The concentration gradient - The greater the difference in concentration
between two regions of a substance the greater the rate of diffusion.
2. The distance over which diffusion takes place - The shorter the distance
between two regions of different concentration the greater the rate of diffusion. Any
structure in an organism across which diffusion regularly takes place must therefore
be thin. Cell membranes for example are only 7.5 nm thick and even epithelial layers
such as those lining the alveoli of the lungs are as thin as 0.3 µm across.
3. The area over which diffusion takes place - The larger the surface area the
greater the rate of diffusion. Diffusion surfaces frequently have structures for
increasing their surface area and hence the rate at which they exchange materials.
These structures include villi and microvilli.
4. The nature of any structure across which diffusion occurs - Diffusion
frequently takes place across epithelial layers or cell membranes. Variations in their
structure may affect diffusion. For example, the greater the number and size of pores
in cell membranes the greater the rate of diffusion.
5. The size and nature of the diffusing molecule - Small molecules diffuse faster
than large ones. Fat-soluble molecules diffuse more rapidly through cell membranes
than water-soluble molecules.
Osmosis
Osmosis is a special form of diffusion which involves the movement of solvent
molecules. The solvent in biological systems is invariably water. Most cell
membranes are permeable to water and certain solutes only. Osmosis in living
organisms can therefore be defined as: the passage of water from a region where it is
highly concentrated to a region where its concentration is lower, through a partially
permeable membrane.
Osmosis occurs not only when a solution is separated from its pure solvent by a
partially permeable membrane but also when such a membrane separates two
solutions of different concentrations. In this case, water moves from the more dilute,
or hypotonic, solution, to the more concentrated, or hypertonic, solution. When a
dynamic equilibrium is established and both solutions are of equal concentration they
are said to be isotonic
Active transport
Diffusion and osmosis are passive processes, i.e. they occur without the
expenditure of energy. Some molecules are transported in and out of cells by active
means, i.e. energy is required to drive the process.
The energy is necessary because molecules are transported against a
concentration gradient, i.e. from a region of low concentration to one of high
concentration. It is thought that the process occurs through the proteins that span the
membrane. These accept the molecule to be transported on one side of the membrane
and, by a change in the structure of the protein, convey it to the other side.
Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis (phago - ‘feeding’, cyto – ‘cell’) is the process by which the cell
can obtain particles that are too large to be absorbed by diffusion or active transport.
27
The cell invaginates to form a cup-shaped depression in which the particle is
contained. The depression is then pinched off to form a vacuole. Lysosomes fuse with
the vacuole and their enzymes break down the particle, the useful contents of which
may be absorbed. The process only occurs in a few specialized cells (called
phagocytes), such as white blood cells where harmful bacteria can be ingested.
Pinocytosis
Pinocytosis or ‘cell drinking’ is very similar to phagocytosis except that the
produced vesicles are smaller. The process is used for intake of liquids rather than
solids.
Translation
Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus, named after its discoverer Camillo Golgi, has a similar
structure to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum but is more compact. It is composed of
stacks of sacs made of membranes. The sacs are fluid-filled. There is normally only
one Golgi apparatus in each animal cell. The position and size of the Golgi apparatus
varies from cell to cell but it is well developed in secretory cells and neurones and is
small in muscle cells. Proteins and glycoproteins that reach the Golgi apparatus are
synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transport vesicles then deliver these
products to the Golgi apparatus. Inside the Golgi apparatus, enzymes modify the
arriving proteins and glycoproteins. For example, the enzymes may change the
carbohydrate structure of a glycoprotein, or they may attach a phosphate group,
sugar, or fatty acid to a protein.
One of the unique things about this organelle is that compounds which enter
the cisternae are constantly in motion, traveling up the stack from the ER toward the
cell membrane. Small vesicles move material from one cisterna to the next. There are
three types of vesicles that carry materials away from the Golgi apparatus:
1. Secretory Vesicles. Secretory vesicles contain secretions that will be
discharged from the cell. These vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and empty their
contents into the extracellular environment. This process is known as exocytosis.
2. Membrane Renewal Vesicles. When vesicles produced at the Golgi apparatus
fuse with the surface of the cell, they are adding new lipids and proteins to the cell
membrane. At the same time, other areas of the cell membrane are being removed
and recycled. The Golgi apparatus can thus change the properties of the cell
membrane over time. For example, new glycoprotein receptors can be added, making
the cell more sensitive to a particular stimulus. Alternatively, receptors can be
removed and not replaced, making the cell less sensitive to specific ligands. Such
changes can profoundly alter the sensitivity and functions of the cell.
3. Lysosomes. Vesicles called lysosomes that remain in the cytoplasm contain
digestive enzymes.
In general, the Golgi acts as the cell's post office, receiving, sorting and
delivering proteins and lipids. More specifically its functions include:
28
1. Producing glycoproteins such as mucin required in secretions, by adding the
carbohydrate part to the protein.
2. Producing secretory enzymes, e.g. the digestive enzymes of the pancreas.
3. Secreting carbohydrates such as those involved in the production of new cell
walls.
4. Transporting and storing lipids.
5. Forming lysosomes.
Lysosomes
Lysosomes (lysis – ‘splitting’, soma- 'body') are spherical bodies, some 0.1-1.0
µm in diameter. They contain around 50 enzymes, mostly hydrolases, in acid
solution. They isolate these enzymes from the remainder of the cell and so prevent
them from acting upon other chemicals and organelles within the cell. The functions
of lysosomes are:
1. To digest material which the cell consumes from the environment. In the
case of white blood cells, this may be bacteria or other harmful material. In protozoa,
it is the food which has been consumed by phagocytosis. In either case the material is
broken down within the lysosome, useful chemicals are absorbed into the cytoplasm
and any debris is egested by the cell by exocytosis.
2. To digest parts of the cell, such as worn-out organelles. This is known as
autophagy. After the death of the cell, the lysosomes are responsible for its complete
breakdown, a process called autolysis (auto - ‘self’, lysis - ‘splitting’).
3. To release their enzymes outside the cell (exocytosis) in order to break down
other cells.
In view of their functions, it is hardly surprising that lysosomes are especially
abundant in secretory cells and in phagocytic white blood cells.
Microscopy
Have you ever wished you could see little bit better - perhaps to read what
someone else is writing from a distance or to recognize who exactly it is in the crowd
at a football match? How frustrating it can be when you can't quite make out the print
of the newspaper of the person opposite you on the train. This is how early scientists
probably felt when they strained their eyes to decipher the detailed structure of
organisms.
The light microscope opened up a new world of structural detail for biologists,
but the wavelength of light limits the light microscope to distinguishing objects
which are 0.2 µm or further from each other. This ability to distinguish two objects
close together rather than to see them as a single image is called the resolving power
or resolution.
So in 1933 the electron microscope was developed. This instrument works on
the same principles as the light microscope except that instead of light rays, with their
wavelengths in the order of 500 nm, a beam of electrons of wavelength 0.005 nm is
29
used. This means that the electron microscope not only magnifies objects more, it
also has a resolving power many thousands of times better than a light microscope.
Whereas the light microscope uses glass lenses to focus the light rays, the
electron beam of the electron microscope is focused by means of powerful
electromagnets. The image produced by the electron microscope cannot be detected
directly by the naked eye. Instead, the electron beam is directed on to a screen from
which black and white photographs, called photoelectronmicrographs, can be
taken.
Light microscope
Advantages
Cheap to purchase and operate
Small and portable – can be used almost
anywhere
Unaffected by magnetic fields
Preparation of material is relatively
quick and simple, requiring only a little
expertise
Material rarely distorted by preparation
Natural colour of the material can be
observed
Disadvantages
Magnifies objects up to 2000×
The depth of field is restricted
Electron microscope
Disadvantages
Expensive to purchase and operate
Very large and must be operated in
special rooms
Affected by magnetic fields
Preparation of material is lengthy and
requires considerable expertise and
sometimes complex equipment
Preparation of material may distort it
All images are in black and white
Advantages
Magnifies objects over 500 000×
It is possible to investigate a greater
depth of field
30
Unit 4. Colonial organization
Did you know?
Ninety-nine per cent of all the
animal species that have ever
lived are now extinct.
Essential vocabulary
chickenpox
conjugation
consequence
cluster
diffraction
droplet
drought
duplication
fever
fraction
genus
grade
hierarchy
host
immunity
measles
multiplication
parasite
rod
serum
to associate
to benefit
to cure
to devise
to embrace
to estimate
to fit
to incorporate
to indicate
to invade
to lack
to manage
to prevent
to reflect
to respond
to split
to spread
to transmit
analogous
autotrophic
contaminated
extinct
flexible
homologous
immune
malignant
slim
tiny
Аналитическое чтение.
Did you know?
At a conservative estimate
there are 13.6 million species
on our planet.
Biodiversity. Principles of classification.
Before any study can be made of living organisms it is necessary to devise a
scheme whereby their enormous diversity can be organized into manageable groups.
This grouping of organisms is known as classification and the study of biological
classification is called taxonomy. A good universal system of classification aids
communication between scientists and allows information about a particular
31
organism to be found more readily. There is no 'correct' scheme of classification since
organisms form a continuum and any division of them into groups was proposed
solely for human convenience.
During the eighteenth century, the Swedish botanist Linnaeus devised a scheme
of classification which has become widely accepted. In this scheme organisms are
grouped together according to their basic similarities. Relationships are based on
homologous rather than analogous characteristics. Homologous characters are those
that have a fundamental similarity of origin, structure and position, regardless of their
function in the adult. Analogous characters are those that have a similar function in
the adult but which are not homologous, i.e. they do not have the same origin. For
example, wings of butterflies and birds are both used for flight but their origins are
not similar. Classification based on homology is called natural classification. It now
embraces biochemical and chromosome studies as well as the morphology and
anatomy used by Linnaeus. A modern natural classification reflects the true
evolutionary relationships of organisms.
The first colonies have arisen when individual unicells failed to separate after
cell division. Within colonies each cell is capable of carrying out all the essential life
processes. Indeed, if separated from the colony, any cell is capable of surviving
independently. In this way, the individual cells within a colony have become different
from one another in both structure and function, a process known as differentiation.
Further changes of this type have finally resulted in cells performing a single
function. This is known as specialization. With increasing specialization, and the
consequent loss of more and more functions, cells have become increasingly
dependent on others in the colony for its survival. This interdependence of cells
must be highly organized. Groups of cells must be coordinated so that the colony
carries out its activities efficiently. Such coordination between the different cells is
called integration. Once the cells become so dependent on each other that they are
no longer capable of surviving independently, then the structure is no longer a colony
but a multicellular organism.
Did you know?
If one page was devoted to describing
each species of life on earth,
the total would fill 3.75 miles of bookshelf.
Grammar
1. Времена группы Perfect Active.
2. Придаточные предложения (дополнительные,
определительные, обстоятельственные).
1. Найдите сказуемое в следующих предложениях. Определите его
грамматическое время:
32
a) During the eighteenth century, the Swedish botanist Linnaeus devised a scheme of
classification which has become widely accepted.
b) For example, wings of butterflies and birds are both used for flight but their origins
are not similar.
c) The first colonies have arisen when individual unicells failed to separate after cell
division.
d) The individual cells within a colony have become different from one another in
both structure and function.
e) The interdependence of cells must be highly organized.
f) With increasing specialization cells have become increasingly dependent on others
in the colony for its survival.
g) Once the cells become so dependent on each other that they are no longer capable
of surviving independently.
2. Найдите в тексте Biodiversity сложноподчиненные предложения.
Определите тип придаточных предложений. Обратите внимание на союзы,
соответствующие каждому типу придаточных предложений.
3. Составьте 15 вопросительных предложений так, чтобы ответы на
эти вопросы отражали основное содержание текста Biodiversity.
Summary
33
4.1 Viruses
A virus is a tiny parasite living, growing and reproducing inside a host cell.
When viruses damage or destroy the cells they invade, they produce viral diseases.
Viruses are the smallest microbes. They are smaller than bacteria, ranging in size
from about 20 nm to 300 nm. They cannot be seen through a light microscope and
pass through filters which retain bacteria.
Nature of viruses. Viruses were first discovered in 1892 by a Russian
scientist, D. Iwanowsky, who noted infective agents that passed through a filter for
ordinary bacteria. Hence they were originally called filterable viruses. First to be
discovered was the tobacco mosaic virus. In 1901 Walter Reed and his associates
found the virus that caused yellow fever in man. Since then, a great many viruses, all
parasites on the cells of plants, lower animals or human beings, have been identified.
Viruses contain nucleic acids such as DNA or RNA and must therefore be
considered as being on the border between living and non-living. Viruses are
classified by their structure and nucleic acids types. Most viruses found in animal
cells and those attacking bacteria (known as bacteriophages) have the nucleic acid
DNA. Other animal viruses and plant viruses contain RNA. Electron microscopy and
X-ray diffraction have shown viruses to be a variety of shapes such as spherical (e.g.
poliomyelitis), straight rods (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus) or flexible rods (e.g. potato
virus X).
Under certain circumstances of virus reproduction, they split apart and then
join together again. This is much the same process that occurs when the
chromosomes in the nucleus of a living cell split apart and rejoin to form new cells.
The process of wild multiplication of cancer cells also has much in common with
virus duplication.
Viruses are spread in a variety of ways. Some virus diseases, like chickenpox
and measles, are spread by contact or by droplets in the air. Rabies virus is
transmitted only through a wound - the bite of a rabid animal. Many viruses are
spread by insects. There is often a reservoir of virus infection in wild or domestic
animals. Virus diseases are rarely spread by water, milk or food contaminated by
virus. Immune serum from people who have had one attack of the virus disease, is
often used to provide a passive immunity. Prevention of virus infection, or its
damaging effects, is very often achieved by vaccines, killed or attenuated, made from
the original infection virus.
34
4.2 Bacteria
Bacteria are the smallest cellular organisms and are the most abundant. Such
cells may vary in the nature of the cell wall. In some forms the glycoprotein is
supplemented by large molecules of lipopolysaccharide. Cells which lack the
lipopolysaccharide combine with dyes like gentian violet and are said to be gram
positive. Those with the lipopolysaccharide are not stained by gentian violet and are
said to be gram negative. Gram positive bacteria are more susceptible to both
antibiotics and lysozyme than are gram negative ones. Bacteria may be coated with a
slime capsule which is thought to interfere with phagocytosis by the white blood
cells. Bacteria are generally distinguished from each other by their shape. Spherical
ones are known as cocci (singular - coccus), rod-shaped as bacilli (singular - bacillus)
and spiral ones as spirilla (singular - spirillum).
Cocci may stick together in chains, e.g. streptococcus, or in clusters, e.g.
staphylococcus. Bacteria show considerable diversity in their metabolism. The
majority are heterotrophic. They are responsible, with the Fungi, for decaying and
recycling organic material in the soil. Other bacteria are autotrophic.
Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, one cell being capable of giving rise to
over 4 × 1021 cells in 24 hours. Under certain circumstances conjugation occurs and
new combinations of genetic material result. Bacteria may also produce thick-walled
spores which are highly resistant, often surviving drought and extremes of
temperature.
Economic importance of bacteria
It is easy to think of all bacteria as pathogens but it is important to remember
that many are beneficial to humans. These benefits include:
1. The breakdown of plant and animal remains and the recycling of nitrogen,
carbon and phosphorus.
2. Symbiotic relationships with other organisms. For example supplying
vitamin K and some of the vitamin B complex in humans.
3. Food production, e.g. some cheeses, yoghurts, vinegar.
4. Manufacturing processes, e.g. making soap powders, tanning leather and
retting flax to make linen.
5. They are easily cultured and may be used for research, particularly in
genetics. They are also used for making antibiotics, amino acids and enzymes.
4.3 Fungi
The Fungi are a large group of organisms composed of about 80 000 named
species. For many years they were classified with the plants but are now recognized
as a separate kingdom. This separation is based on the presence of the polysaccharide
chitin found in their cell walls, rather than the cellulose present in plant cell walls.
The Fungi lack chlorophyll and are therefore unable to photosynthesize. They feed
heterotrophically, generally as saprobionts or parasites.
Economic importance of fungi
35
Many fungi are beneficial to humans. Examples include:
1. Decomposition of sewage and organic material in the soil.
2. Production of antibiotics, notably from Penicillium and Aspergillus.
3. Production of alcohol for drinking and industry.
4. Production of other foods. Citric acid for lemonade is produced by the
fermentation of glucose by Aspergillus. Yeasts are used in bread.
5. Experimental use, especially for genetic investigations.
Translation
Taxonomic ranks
It is convenient to distinguish large groups of organisms from smaller
subgroups and a series of rank names has been devised to identify the different levels
within this hierarchy. The rank names used today are largely derived from those used
by Linnaeus over 200 years ago. The largest groups are known as phyla and the
organisms in each phylum have a body plan radically different from organisms in any
other phylum. Diversity within each phylum allows it to be divided into classes. Each
class is divided into orders of organisms which have additional features in common.
Each order is divided into families and at this level differences are less obvious. Each
family is divided into genera and each genus into species. Every organism is given a
scientific name according to an internationally agreed system of nomenclature, first
devised by Linnaeus. The name is always in Latin and is in two parts. The first name
indicates the genus and is written with an initial capital letter; the second name
indicates the species and is written with a small initial letter. These names are always
distinguished in text by italics or underlining. This system of naming organisms is
known as binomial nomenclature.
Living organisms are divided into 5 kingdoms: Prokaryotae, Fungi,
Protoctista, Plantae and Animalia. It is difficult to fit viruses into this scheme of
classification because they are on the border of living and non-living. For this reason
they are dealt with separately.
Retroviruses
Probably the best known retrovirus is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV) which causes AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
The genetic information in a retrovirus is RNA. While many viruses possess
RNA, retroviruses are different in that they can use it to synthesize DNA. This is a
reversal of the usual genetic process in which RNA is made from DNA and the
reason retroviruses are so called (retro – behind or backwards).
In 1970 the enzyme capable of synthesizing DNA from RNA was discovered
and given the name reverse transcriptase. This discovery has considerable importance
for genetic engineering.
The DNA form of the retrovirus genes is called the provirus and is significant
in that it can be incorporated into the host’s DNA. Here it may remain latent for long
36
periods before the DNA of the provirus is again expressed and new viral RNA
produced. During this time any division of the host cell results in the proviral DNA
being duplicated as well. This explains why individuals infected with HIV virus often
display no symptoms for many years before suddenly developing full-blown AIDS.
When incorporated into the host DNA the provirus is capable of activating the
host genes. Where these genes are concerned with cell division or growth, and are
‘switched off’, their activation by the provirus can result in a malignant growth
known as cancer. The RNA produced by these newly activated genes may become
packaged inside new retrovirus particles being assembled inside the host cell. This
RNA may then be delivered, along with the retroviral RNA, to the next cell the virus
infects. This new cell will then become potentially cancerous.
Host genes which have been acquired by retroviruses in this way are called
oncogenes (oncos = tumour). Very few human cancers are caused by retroviruses in
this way but research into them has led to the discovery of similar genes found in
human chromosomes. These genes can be activated by chemicals or forms of
radiation rather than viruses, and their investigation has already helped to prevent
some cancers and may, in time, provide a cure.
Speaking
Заполните и прокомментируйте таблицу:
Organisms
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Harmful properties
Useful properties
Unit 5. Inheritance
Did you know?
Every cell contains all the DNA
needed to make the entire organism
from which it comes. And yet the DNA
from a single cell of a human weight 0.024g.
Essential vocabulary
Accuracy
adenine
base
boundary
constancy
cytosine
to adapt
to assert
to breed
to compete
to elucidate
to ensure
alternating
compatible
delicate
insecticidal
resistant
suitable
37
erythropoietin
evidence
female
guanine
habitat
hazard
helix
make-up
male
medium
messenger
offspring
ribose
uracil
to fail
to lead
to predict
to prevail
to succeed
to supply
to withstand
variable
Образуйте однокоренные слова, используя префиксы и суффиксы:
Prefix
InMisNonReUn-
Base word
accuracy
constancy
evidence
habitat
hazard
to adapt
to compete
to lead
to predict
resistance
to suit
to vary
Suffix
-able
- al
-ant
-ate
-ent
-er
- ety
- ion
- ity
- ive
- tion
-or
- ous
Аналитическое чтение.
Inheritance
The obvious similarities between children and their parents, or sometimes their
grandparents, have long been recognized. Despite many attempts to explain this
phenomenon, it is only in recent years that our knowledge of the process of heredity
has enabled us to understand the mechanism fully.
The fact that in some species both male and female are needed to produce
offspring, was realized from early times. The role each sex played was, however, a
matter of argument. When Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed sperm in human
semen, the idea arose that these contained a miniature human. So it was stated that
38
the female's role was nothing more than a convenient incubator. Around this period,
Regnier de Graaf discovered in ovaries what later would be called the Graafian
follicle. This was thought to contain the miniature human, so the male’s sperm was
considered to be just a stimulus for its development.
The problem with both these beliefs was that it could easily be observed that
any offspring tended to show characteristics of both parents rather than just one. This
led, in the last century, to the idea that both parents contributed hereditary
characteristics and the offspring was merely an intermediate blend of both. While
closer to present thinking, it also was not quite true. Logically the children of a tall
father and a short mother should be of medium height. But it is not always like this.
The offspring has two sets of genetic information - one from the mother and one from
the father. For any individual characteristic, e.g. height or eye colour, only one of the
two factors expresses itself. A few characters do show an intermediate state between
two contrasting factors, but this is relatively rare.
Alongside these changes in the last century, another development took place. It
was originally believed that new species would arise spontaneously in some manner.
By the end of the century it was more or less accepted that they were formed by
adaptation of existing forms. Natural selection is considered to be the mechanism by
which these changes arise. Without this variety and consequent selection of the types
best suited to the present conditions, species could not adapt and evolve to meet the
changing demands of the environment.
If this theory of evolution is accepted, then the process of inheritance must
permit variety to occur. At the same time, if the offspring are to be supplied with the
same genetic information as the parents, the genetic material must be extremely
stable. This stability is especially important to ensure that favourable characteristics
are passed on from one generation to the next. This then is the paradox of inheritance
- how to reconcile the genetic stability needed to preserve useful characteristics with
the genetic variability necessary for evolution. To satisfy both requirements it is
necessary to have hereditary units which are in themselves stable, but which can be
reasserted in an infinite variety of ways. A summary of the historical events which
contributed to our current understanding of heredity is given in Table:
Historical review of the main events leading to present-day knowledge of
reproduction and heredity
Name
Date
Belief/ Observation/ discovery
Aristotle
384-322 BC
General scientific
belief
van Leeuwenhoek
Up to 17th
century
1677
de Graaf
1670s
Mixing of male and female semen is like blending
two sets of ingredients which gives ‘life’
Simple organisms arise spontaneously out of nonliving material
Discovered sperm – it was generally believed that
these contained miniature organisms which only
developed when introduced into a female
Described the ovarian follicle (later called Graafian
follicle)
39
Lamarck
1809
Darwin
1859
Pasteur
1864
Sutton
1902
Garrod
1908
Johannsen
1909
Proposed theory of evolution based on inheritance
of acquired characterisrics
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection was published
Experimentally disproved the theory of spontaneous
generation
Observed pairing of homologous chromosomes
during meiosis and suggested these carried genetic
information
Postulated mutations as sources of certain hereditary
diseases
Coined term ‘gene’ as hereditary unit
Oparin
1923
Suggested theory of origin of life
Avery, McCarty
and McCleod
Hershey and
Chase
Watson and Crick
1944
1952
Showed nucleic acid to be the chemical which
carried genetic information
Showed DNA to be the hereditary material
1953
Formulated the detailed structure of DNA
Grammar
1. Неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив.
2. Согласование времен в сложноподчиненных
предложениях.
1. Найдите в тексте Inheritance примеры инфинитива. Определите их
функции в предложении.
2. Объясните правила согласования времен в следующих
предложениях:
a) It was stated that the female's role was nothing more than a convenient
incubator.
b) Around this period, Regnier de Graaf discovered in ovaries what later would
be called the Graafian follicle.
c) It was originally believed that new species would arise spontaneously in
some manner.
d) By the end of the century it was more or less accepted that they were formed
by adaptation of existing forms.
Summary
5.1 Nucleic acids
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
40
RNA is a single-stranded polymer of nucleotides where the pentose sugar is
always ribose and the organic bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil. There
are three types of RNA found in cells, all of which are involved in protein synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a large, complex molecule made up of both double
and single helices. Although it is manufactured by the DNA of the nucleus, it is found
in the cytoplasm where it makes up more than half the mass of the ribosomes. It
comprises more than half the mass of the total RNA of a cell and its base sequence is
similar in all organisms.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small molecule (about 80 nucleotides) comprising a
single strand. Again it is manufactured by nuclear DNA. It makes up 10-15% of the
cell's RNA and all types are fundamentally similar. There are at least 20 types of
tRNA, each carrying a different amino acid.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a long single-stranded molecule, of up to
thousands of nucleotides, which is formed into a helix. It enters the cytoplasm where
it associates with the ribosomes and acts as a template for protein synthesis. It makes
up less than 5% of the total cellular RNA. It is easily and quickly broken down,
sometimes existing for only a matter of minutes.
Did you know?
Each cell contains about 2 metres
of DNA. If all the DNA of a single
human were stretched out, it would
reach the moon and back 8000 times.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DNA is a double-stranded polymer of nucleotides where the pentose sugar is
always deoxyribose and the organic bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine and
thymine, but never uracil. Each of these polynucleotide chains is extremely long and
may contain many million nucleotide units.
Using the accumulated evidence, James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953
suggested a molecular structure which proved to be one of the greatest milestones in
biology. They postulated a double helix of two nucleotide strands, each strand being
linked to the other by pairs of organic bases which are themselves joined by hydrogen
bonds. The pairings are always cytosine with guanine and adenine with thymine.
However, this is no ordinary ladder; instead it is twisted into a helix.
5.2 The genetic code
Once the structure of DNA had been elucidated and its mechanism discovered,
one important question remained: how exactly are the genetic instructions stored on
the DNA to construct new cells and organisms? Most chemicals within cells are
similar regardless of the type of cell or species of organism. It is in their proteins and
DNA that cells and organisms differ. It seems a reasonable starting point to assume
that the DNA in some way provides a 'code' for an organism's proteins. Moreover,
41
most chemicals in cells are manufactured with the aid of enzymes, and all enzymes
are proteins. Therefore by determining which enzymes are produced, the DNA can
determine an organism's characteristics. Every species possesses different DNA and
hence produces different enzymes. The DNA of different species differs not in the
chemicals which it comprises, but in the sequence of base pairs along its length. This
sequence must be a code that determines which proteins are manufactured.
The part of the DNA molecule which specifies a polypeptide is termed a gene.
Perhaps the most significant scientific advance in recent years has been the
development of technology which allows genes to be manipulated, altered and
transferred from organism to organism - even to transform DNA itself. This has
enabled us to use rapidly reproducing organisms such as bacteria as chemical
factories producing useful, often life-saving, substances. The list of these substances
expands almost daily and includes hormones, antibiotics, interferon and vitamins.
5.3 Recombinant DNA technology
A number of human diseases are the result of individuals being unable to
produce for themselves chemicals which have a metabolic role. Many such
chemicals, e.g. insulin and thyroxine, are proteins and therefore the product of a
specific portion of DNA. The treatment of such deficiencies previously involved
extracting the missing chemical from either an animal or human donor. This has
presented problems. While the animal extracts may function effectively, subtle
chemical differences in their composition have been detected by the human immune
system, which has responded by producing antibodies which destroy the extract.
Even chemically compatible extracts from human donors present a risk of infection
from other diseases. Whether from animals or humans, the cost of such extracts is
considerable.
It follows that there are advantages in producing large quantities of 'pure'
chemicals from non-human sources. As a result, methods have been devised for
isolating the portion of human DNA responsible for the production of insulin and
combining it with bacterial DNA in such a way that the microorganism will
continually produce the substance. This DNA, which results from the combination of
fragments from two different organisms, is called recombinant DNA.
5.4 Evolution through natural selection (Darwin / Wallace)
Evolution is the process by which new species are formed from pre-existing
ones over a period of time. It is not the only explanation of the origins of the many
species which exist on earth, but it is the one generally accepted by the scientific
world at the present time.
Quite independently, Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace developed the same
theory on the mechanism of evolution. As a result, they jointly presented their
findings to the Linnaean Society in 1858. The essential features of the theory Darwin
put forward are:
42
1. Overproduction of offspring
All organisms produce large numbers of offspring which, if they survived,
would lead to a geometric increase in the size of any population.
2. Constancy of numbers
Despite the tendency to increase numbers due to overproduction of offspring,
most populations actually maintain relatively constant numbers.
3. Struggle for existence
Darwin deduced that members of the species were constantly competing with
each other in an effort to survive. In this struggle for existence only a few would live
long enough to breed.
4. Variation among offspring
The sexually produced offspring of any species show individual variations so
that generally no two offspring are identical.
5. Survival of the fittest by natural selection
Among the offspring there will be some better able to withstand the prevailing
conditions. That is, some will be better adapted ('fitter') to survive in the struggle for
existence. These types are more likely to survive long enough to breed.
6. Like produces like
Those that survive to breed are likely to produce offspring similar to
themselves. The advantageous characteristics that gave them the edge in the struggle
for existence are likely to be passed on to the next generation.
7. Formation of new species
Over many generations, the individuals with favourable characteristics will
breed, with consequent increase in their numbers. The development of a number of
variations in a particular direction over many generations will gradually lead to the
evolution of a new species.
The evolutionary theory of Darwin and Wallace is based on the mechanism of
natural selection. Let us look more closely at exactly how this process operates.
Selection is the process by which organisms that are better adapted to their
environment survive and breed, while those less well adapted fail to do so. The better
adapted organisms are more likely to pass their characteristics to succeeding
generations. Every organism is therefore subjected to a process of selection, based
upon its suitability for survival. The organism's environment exerts a selection
pressure. The intensity and direction of this pressure varies in both time and space.
Translation
Pros and cons of genetic engineering
The techniques of genetic engineering may be utilized to manufacture a range
of materials that can be used to treat diseases and disorders. In addition to insulin,
human growth hormone is now produced by bacteria to allow all children to be
treated. Among other hormones produced in this manner are erythropoietin, which
controls red blood cell production, and calcitonin, which regulates the levels of
43
calcium in the blood. Much research is taking place into the production of antibiotics
and vaccines through recombinant DNA technology.
The scope of recombinant DNA technology is not restricted to the field of
medicine. In agriculture, it is now possible to transfer genes which produce toxins
with insecticidal properties from bacteria to higher plants such as potatoes and cotton.
In this way these plants have 'built-in' resistance to certain insect pests.
There is no end of possibilities - transfer of genes conferring resistance to all
manner of diseases, development of plants with more efficient rates of
photosynthesis, the control of weeds are just some of the potential uses of
recombinant DNA technology. There are however ethical as well as practical
problems to be overcome before many of these ideas can be brought into practice.
The benefits of genetic engineering are obvious but there are also some
hazards. It is impossible to predict with complete accuracy what ecological
consequences may occur with releasing genetically engineered organisms into the
environment. It is always possible that the delicate balance that exists in any habitat
may be damaged by the introduction of organisms with new gene combinations.
Perhaps more real is the fear that the ability to manipulate genes could allow
human characteristics and behaviour to be modified. In the wrong hands this could be
used by individuals, groups or governments in order to achieve certain goals, control
opposition or gain ultimate power.
Even without these dangers there are still ethical issues which arise from the
development of recombinant DNA technology. Is it right to replace a 'defective' gene
with a 'normal' one? Who decides what is 'defective' and what is 'normal'? Is there a
danger that we shall in time reduce the variety so essential to evolution by the
removal of unwanted genes? Where a gene probe detects a fetal abnormality, what
criteria should be applied before deciding whether to carry out an abortion?
The challenge is to develop regulations and safeguards within moral boundaries
which permit genetic engineering to be used in a safe and effective way to the benefit
of both individuals in particular and humans in general.
Biology around us. Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a massive international effort to identify
and catalogue all the human genes and place them in their sequence along the 23
pairs of chromosomes. This will lay the foundations for finding out genes function to
cause disease and uncover new approaches to prevention and cure. This will develop
an understanding of inherited disease and genetic aspects of chronic disease such as
cancer and heart disease. Perhaps we will be able to identify genes responsible for
schizophrenia and other forms of mental illness. Will we begin to understand what
makes a genius and learn more about our evolution? Will we learn to adjust the
human life span? The basic work on the Human Genome Project is expected to be
completed in the 21 st century and then we will be faced with ethical concerns about
what should be done with the information about an individual’s genetic make-up.
Should it be confidential or should the family, the employer or the life insurance
44
company have the information? Will DNA profiling create a bank of information and
will people be eager to have ‘designed’ babies?
The benefits from the Human Genome Project could be enormous but all
people, not just scientists, will need to be properly equipped to make the decisions
that may face us in the future.
Speaking
1. Подготовьте сообщение (доклад, реферат) об истории развития
теорий наследственности. Какие наблюдения (открытия) стали, по Вашему
мнению, наиболее значимыми? Используйте таблицу «Historical review of
the main events leading to present-day knowledge of reproduction and heredity»
на стр. 35.
2. Выскажите своё отношение к развитию и применению
биогенетических технологий. Выберите один из следующих вариантов:
a) статья в научно-популярном журнале;
b) статья в научном журнале;
c) лекция для будущих генетиков;
d) диалог ученых – генетиков о достижениях и неудачах в их
деятельности;
e) конференция по проблемам этики и законодательства в области
биомедицинских исследований;
f) авторский вариант.
Unit 6. Organ level of organization
An organ is a structural and functional unit of a plant or animal. It comprises a
number of tissues which are coordinated to perform a variety of functions, although
one major function often predominates. The majority of plants and animals are
composed of organs. Examples include the leaf of plants, and the liver in mammals.
Most organs do not function independently but in groups called organ systems. A
typical organ system is the digestive system which comprises organs such as the
stomach, duodenum, ileum, liver and pancreas. Certain organs may belong to more
than one system. The pancreas, for example, forms part of the endocrine (hormone)
system as well as the digestive system, because it produces the hormones insulin and
glucagon, as well as the digestive enzymes amylase and trypsinogen.
Chapter 1. Nutrition and energy supply. Introduction
Did you know?
The energy released from one
peanut will keep the brain
active for one hour.
45
All organisms require a constant supply of essential nutrients. What these
nutrients are and the amounts of each required by an organism varies from species to
species. In mammals carbohydrates and fats are needed in relatively large quantities
as sources of energy, and proteins are needed in large amounts for growth and repair.
Vitamins and minerals are required in much smaller quantities for a variety of
specific functions. Water is a vital constituent of the diet and is necessary for efficient
digestion.
Food must be small enough to be ingested. This may involve the use of teeth or
other organs designed to break up food into small pieces. This mechanical
breakdown also has the effect of giving the food a larger surface area, which aids
later digestion.
Food comprises relatively few building blocks, largely monosaccharides,
amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol, arranged in a variety of macromolecules, which
meet the needs of the organism they make up. What suits one organism, however,
does not necessarily suit another. The food ingested must therefore be broken down
further into its component parts so that they can be rebuilt into the macromolecules
and structures of the organism. The food must be made small enough to pass across
cell membranes. This breakdown is mainly achieved through hydrolysis reactions
speeded up by enzymes and is termed chemical digestion.
1. Назовите существительные, соответствующие данным глаголам
(обратите внимание на способ словообразования):
to achieve, to bleed, to chew, to decrease, to digest, to increase, to remove, to
swallow, to treat.
2.
Образуйте
прилагательные,
соответствующие
данным
существительным :
Abdomen, aorta, duodenum, gland, intestine, liver, lymph, mastication, mucus,
oesophagus, saliva.
Аналитическое чтение
The stages of digestion
The alimentary canal begins above with the cavity of the mouth and terminates
below at the anus, traversing in its course the length of the thoracic and abdominal
cavities. After the entrance into the mouth the food undergoes a twofold reduction: a
mechanical one and a chemical one. The former process is called mastication. The
chemical action taking place in the mouth is accomplished by means of the first
digestive secretion, the saliva.
The sight, smell, and thought of food may elicit salivary and gastric secretion.
These juices cannot be effective, however, before food enters the body and therefore
mastication may be considered the first step in digestion. After a mouthful has been
taken, the teeth crush and break the food into fragments of proper size for
swallowing. Particle size may vary up to 12 mm in diameter but generally it is less
46
than 2 mm. After mastication the mass weighs from 3 to 6 grams, about one-fourth
of this weight due to saliva.
The saliva assists in mastication in several ways: by dissolving some of the
readily soluble food components; by partly digesting some of starch; by softening the
mass of food; by covering the bolus with mucus so as to make it more easily moved
about in the mouth.
In man the act of mastication has more significance than the mere grinding of
food preparatory to swallowing. While we are chewing the food, it is moving about in
the mouth so that the taste buds are being stimulated and odors are being released to
stimulate the olfactory epithelium. On these stimuli depends much of the satisfaction
and pleasure of eating, which in turn initiate the process of gastric secretion.
The food which reaches the stomach is mixed with saliva and is semisolid in
consistency. It accumulates in the fundus. Gradually, however, due to muscular
movements, the food is mixed with the gastric juice. The reaction of the gastric juice
is acid, pH 0.9 to 1.5. The most important constituents are hydrochloric acid, mucin,
pepsin, rennin and gastric lipase.
The first step in gastric digestion is the action of hydrochloric acid upon
protein to form acid metaprotein. The acid causes the protein to swell to a gelatinous
mass (acid metaprotein) which goes rapidly into solution in the acid gastric
secretions. Pepsin then hydrolyzes acid metaprotein to proteoses and peptones.
Protein digestion does not go beyond the peptone stage in the stomach; it is
completed in the intestines. There is no carbohydrate enzyme in the gastric juice but
some of the cane sugar (sucrose) is hydrolyzed by the hydrochloric acid.
As a result of muscular movements which mix the food with the gastric juice,
various chemical and physical changes take place which reduce the gastric contents
to a semifluid, more or less homogeneous, creamy mass called chyme. At intervals
portions of the chyme are ejected through the pylorus into the duodenum.
In the duodenum the food is treated by the pancreatic juice and the bile, an
important external secretion of the liver. The liver is the largest gland in the body
which has the most powerful influence upon all the metabolic functions of the body.
The principal organ of absorption is the small intestine. The function of the
small intestine is to separate the useful from the useless constituents of the food. The
fats, in the form of a fine emulsion, are taken up by lymph vessels called "lacteals",
and ultimately reach the blood, while sugars, salts, and amino-acids formed from
proteins pass directly into the small blood-vessels of the intestine.
The process is facilitated by the extreme unevenness of the intestinal wall,
which is folded into many ridges and pockets, while in microscopic structure the
surface is covered by fine finger-like processes named "villi" which are bathed in the
fluids passing down the intestine. Further absorption is probably assisted by the
"leucocytes", or white cells of the blood which are enormously increased in numbers
after a meal, and which have the power of wandering out of the blood stream and
taking up particles into their substance.
Food materials are absorbed almost exclusively by the small intestine. The
large intestine, or colon, absorbs water and salts. The food is passed down the
intestine by the contractions of its muscular coat, and finally, the indigestible residue,
47
together with various waste substance excreted from the liver and intestinal walls, is
cast out of the body in the stools.
Grammar
1. Времена группы Continuous Active.
2. Неличные формы глагола. Gerund.
1. Найдите в тексте The stages of digestion предложения в одном из
времен группы Continuous Active. Укажите сказуемое.
2. Укажите грамматическую форму глаголов, оканчивающихся на
- ing в следующих предложениях:
a) The alimentary canal begins above with the cavity of the mouth traversing in its
course the length of the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
b) The chemical action taking place in the mouth is accomplished by means of the
saliva.
c) The teeth crush and break the food into fragments of proper size for swallowing.
d) The saliva assists in mastication in several ways: by dissolving some of the readily
soluble food components; by partly digesting some of starch; by softening the mass
of food; by covering the bolus with mucus.
e) In man the act of mastication has more significance than the mere grinding of food
preparatory to swallowing.
f) While we are chewing the food, it is moving about in the mouth so that the taste
buds are being stimulated and odors are being released to stimulate the olfactory
epithelium.
Summary
6.1 Vitamins
Vitamins are organic chemical substances, widely distributed in natural
foodstuffs, that are essential to normal metabolic functioning of human beings and
lower animals. Only very small amounts are needed, but lack of the necessary
amount, however small, results in a vitamin-deficiency disease (avitaminosis).
Among the classical examples of such diseases are rickets, scurvy, beriberi, and
pellagra.
The word vitamin was invented in 1911 by a Polish chemist, Casimir Funk,
who was trying to extract from rice hulls a chemical substance that would cure beriberi. He thought he had found an amine chemical vital to life. He hadn't, but his
theory was correct: lack of certain chemical substances caused disease.
The chemical structure of many vitamins is known. They are used to enrich
foods, notably flour, from which natural vitamins are removed in the manufacture.
Vitamins in the body enter into the complicated enzyme reactions by which food is
digested, absorbed, and assimilated. When different vitamins were first discovered, it
48
was common practice to name them by letters of the alphabet. So many have now
been found that it is more practical to give them chemical names. Thus vitamin B 1 is
now called thiamine; vitamin C - ascorbic acid.
Vitamins are distinguished as fat-soluble — notably vitamins A, D and К —
and water-soluble — most of the others. Some are heat-labile, destroyed by cooking,
notably vitamin C; most are heat-stable.
Are vitamin pills necessary? Generally, no. A good mixed diet of common
foods supplies a human being with all the vitamins he needs. Adding vitamin pills or
concentrates to a good mixed diet will not increase resistance to disease. Multiple
vitamins plus minerals in inexpensive tablets or capsules, taken once a day, represent
a convenient way to fortify one's diet. Fortunately, moderate overdoses of vitamins
do no harm. Vitamin supplements are sometimes clearly necessary. They are needed
whenever the dietary intake of vitamins is inadequate. This condition frequently
occurs in the presence of severe illnesses, after surgical operations, on low-calorie
reducing diets, and during pregnancy. Vitamin needs differ with age. Thus vitamin D
is much more essential to infants and growing children than to adults.
Vitamins in the diet: Practically speaking, only a few of the many vitamins
have to be seriously considered in formulating diets. These important vitamins are A,
C, D, and the vitamin В complex.
Vitamin A, once called the "anti-infective vitamin," helps to preserve the
integrity of the skin and mucous membranes and other epithelial tissue, making them
more resistant to infection. It aids growth and tooth formation. Vitamin A is found in
fish oils (e.g. cod-liver oil), liver, milk, eggs and many green and yellow vegetables,
where it exists as carotene.
Vitamin В complex includes a large number of water-soluble vitamins,
including thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, biotin, pantothenic acid, inositol,
folic acid, and vitamin B 12. They are essential for utilization of carbohydrates, some
amino acids, normal appetite, and function of the digestive tract. Vitamin B12,
derived from liver, increases the formation of red blood cells and useful in treating
anemia. Best sources of vitamin B complex are pork, whole grain, dried peas and
beans, milk, salmon, eggs and liver.
Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is a delicate vitamin, not well stored in the body
and easily destroyed by heat. It supplies a kind of cementing substance that binds
cells together in the blood vessels, teeth, bones, and other tissues. Lack of it causes
the capillary blood vessels to break rather easily, producing such symptoms as
bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, poor teeth. These are some of the symptoms
of scurvy, a disease both prevented and cured by administration of vitamin C. The
best sources of vitamin С are citrus fruits—grapefruit, oranges, lemons, limes—and
tomatoes.
Vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," is essential to the utilization of calcium and
phosphorus, especially in proper bone and tooth formation. Infants and growing
children particularly need this vitamin. Lack of it induces rickets and other bone
disorders. Adults have little need of vitamin D supplements. When exposed to
sunlight, the human body manufactures its own vitamin D. The ultraviolet rays of the
49
sun turn sterols, fatty substances found in the human skin, into vitamin D. Fish-liver
oils are excellent sources of vitamin D; so are liver, butter, and eggs.
Vitamin K, or the coagulation vitamin, is needed by the human liver to produce
prothrombin, essential to normal blood clotting. It is particularly necessary, and may
be given, by injection, to newborn infants to prevent bleeding. Vitamin К is derived
from alfalfa, fish meal, and hempseed oil.
Did you know?
The longest time anyone has
ever lived without food or water
is 18 days.
6.2 The liver
The liver, weighing about 1.5 kg, makes up 3-5% of the body weight. It
originated as a digestive organ but its functions are now much more diverse.
In an adult human, the liver is typically 28 cm × 16 cm × 9 cm although its
exact size varies considerably according to the quantity of blood stored within it. It is
found immediately below the diaphragm, to which it is attached. Blood is supplied to
the liver by two vessels: the hepatic artery, which carries 30% of the liver's total
blood supply, brings oxygenated blood from the aorta; the hepatic portal vein
supplies 70% of the liver's blood and is rich in soluble digested food from the
intestines. A single vessel, the hepatic vein, drains blood from the liver. In addition,
the bile duct carries bile produced in the liver to the duodenum.
The branches of the hepatic artery and those of the hepatic portal vein combine
within the liver to form common venules which lead into a series of channels called
sinusoids. These are lined with liver cells or hepatocytes. Between the hepatocytes
are fine tubes called canaliculi in which bile is secreted. The canaliculi combine to
form bile ducts which drain into the gall bladder where the bile is stored before being
periodically released into the duodenum.
50
51
Functions of the liver
The liver is the body's chemical workshop and has an estimated 500 individual
functions. Some of these have been grouped under the following twelve headings:
1. Carbohydrate metabolism.
The liver's major role in the metabolism of carbohydrates is to convert excess
glucose absorbed from the intestine into glycogen. This stored glycogen can later be
reconverted to glucose when the blood sugar level falls. This interconversion is under
the control of the hormones insulin and glucagon produced by the Islets of
Langerhans in the pancreas.
2. Lipid metabolism.
Lipids entering the liver may either be broken down or modified for transport
to storage areas elsewhere in the body. Once the glycogen store in the liver is full,
excess carbohydrate will be converted to fat by the liver. Excess cholesterol in the
blood is excreted into the bile by the liver, which conversely can synthesize
cholesterol when that absorbed by the intestines is inadequate for the body's need.
The removal of excess cholesterol is essential as its accumulation may cause
atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries) leading to thrombosis. If in considerable
excess, its presence in bile may lead to the formation of gall stones which can block
the bile duct.
3. Protein metabolism.
Proteins are not stored by the body and so excess amino acids are broken down
in the liver by a process called deamination. Transamination reactions, whereby
one amino acid is converted to another, are also performed by the liver. All nonessential amino acids may be synthesized in this way, if they are deficient in the diet.
4. Synthesis of plasma proteins.
The liver is responsible for the production of vital proteins found in blood
plasma. These include albumins and globulins as well as the clotting factors
prothrombin and fibrinogen.
5. Production of bile.
The liver produces bile salts and adds to them the bile pigment bilirubin from
the breakdown of red blood cells. With sodium chloride and sodium hydrogen
carbonate, cholesterol and water, this forms the green-yellow fluid known as bile. Up
to 1 dm3 of bile may be produced daily. It is temporarily stored in the gall bladder
before being discharged into the duodenum.
6. Storage of vitamins.
The liver will store a number of vitamins which can later be released if
deficient in the diet. It stores mainly the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, although
the water-soluble vitamins B and C are also stored.
7. Storage of minerals.
The liver stores minerals, e.g. iron, potassium, copper and zinc.
8. Formation and breakdown of red blood cells - The fetus relies solely on
the liver for the production of red blood cells. In an adult, this role is transferred to
the bone marrow. The adult liver, however, continues to break down red blood cells
at the end of their 120-day life span.
52
9. Storage of blood.
The liver, with its vast complex of blood vessels, forms a large store of blood
with a capacity of up to 1500cm 3. In the event of haemorrhage, constriction of these
vessels forces blood into the general circulation to replace that lost and so helps to
maintain blood pressure. In stressful situations, adrenaline also causes constriction of
these vessels, creating a rise in blood pressure.
10. Hormone breakdown.
To varying degrees, the liver breaks down all hormones. Some, such as
testosterone, are rapidly broken down whereas others, like insulin, are destroyed
more slowly.
11. Detoxification.
The liver is ideally situated to remove, or render harmless, toxic material
absorbed by the intestines. Foreign organisms or material are ingested by the Kupffer
cells while toxic chemicals are made safe by chemical conversions within
hepatocytes. Alcohol and nicotine are two substances dealt with in this way.
12. Production of heat.
The liver, with its considerable metabolic activity, can be used to produce heat
in order to combat a fall in body temperature. This reaction, triggered by the
hypothalamus, is in response to adrenaline, thyroxine and nervous stimulation.
Did you know?
In an average lifetime we spend
three and a half years eating.
Speaking
Заполните таблицу. Работая в парах, опишите процесс пищеварения
с помощью вопросов и ответов (по таблице):
Division of the alimentary Organs and substances that The form of the mass after
canal
act upon the foodstuffs
being treated
Oral cavity
Stomach
Duodenum
Small intestine
Large intestine
53
Chapter 2. Why organisms need transport and exchange
mechanisms
All organisms need to exchange materials between themselves and their
environment. Respiratory gases and the raw materials for growth must pass into an
organism and waste products must be removed.
Did you know?
The 700 million alveoli
in both human lungs cover
an area of 90 m2 – almost
a size of a tennis court.
Essential Vocabulary
Alveolus (pl –i)
to attach
anterior
breathlessness
to branch
bronchial
bronchiole
to breath
carotid
capacity
to contract
costal
cartilage
to cough
coronary
chest
to exchange
dorsal
cilium (pl- a)
to expand
gaseous
diaphragm
to expand
persistent
larynx
to irritate
responsible
ligament
to lead
tidal
lumen
to narrow
thoracic
lung
to relax
pleura
rate
1. Укажите существительные, соответствующие глаголам в Essential
Vocabulary.
2. Образуйте прилагательные от следующих существительных
(воспользуйтесь словарем, если необходимо):
Alveolus, breathlessness, bronchiole, cartilage, chest, larynx, lung, pleura,
respiration, rib, sternum, thorax, trachea.
Аналитическое чтение
54
Gaseous exchange in mammals
Lungs are the site of gaseous exchange in mammals. They are found deep
inside the thorax of the body and so their efficient ventilation is essential. The lungs
are delicate structures and, together with the heart, are enclosed in a protective bony
case, the rib cage. There are twelve pairs of ribs in humans, all attached dorsally to
the thoracic vertebrae. The anterior ten pairs are attached ventrally to the sternum.
The remaining ribs are said to be 'floating'. The ribs may be moved by a series of
intercostal muscles. The thorax is separated from the abdomen by a muscular sheet,
the diaphragm.
Air flow in mammals is tidal, air entering and leaving along the same route. It
enters the nostrils and mouth and passes down the trachea. It enters the lungs via two
bronchi which divide into smaller bronchioles and end in air-sacs called alveoli.
Regions of the respiratory system. (Figure) Air passes through the pharynx
and past the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage which prevents food entering the trachea.
The larynx (voice box) at the anterior end of the trachea is a box-like, cartilaginous
structure with a number of ligaments, the vocal cords, stretched across it. Vibration
of these cords when air is expired produces sound waves.
The trachea divides into two bronchi, one entering each lung. The bronchi are
also supported by cartilages. The bronchioles branch throughout the lung. These
eventually end in alveoli. Each lung is surrounded by an air-tight cavity called the
pleural cavity. This is bounded by two membranes, or pleura, which secrete pleural
fluid into the cavity. The fluid is a lubricant, preventing friction when the lungs
expand at inspiration. Pressure in the pleural cavity is always lower than in the lungs
and this allows them to expand and fill the thorax.
Breathing in (inspiration) in humans
In order for air to enter the lungs from the exterior, the pressure inside the lungs
must be lower than that of the atmosphere. When the external intercostal muscles
contract and the internal intercostal muscles relax, the ribs move upwards and
outwards. The diaphragm muscle contracts and flattens. These two movements cause
the volume of the thorax to increase and therefore the pressure inside it falls. The
elastic lungs expand to fill the available space and so their volume increases and the
pressure within them falls. This causes air to rush into the lungs from the exterior.
Breathing out (expiration) in humans
Breathing in is an active process but breathing out is largely passive. The
volume of the thorax is decreased as the diaphragm muscle relaxes and resumes its
dome-shape. The external intercostal muscles also relax, allowing the ribs to move
downwards (posteriorly) and inwards (dorsally). They may be assisted by contraction
of the internal intercostal muscles. As the volume of the thorax decreases, the
pressure inside it increases and air is forced out of the lungs as their elastic walls
recoil.
55
Grammar
1. Повторение форм страдательного залога времен
Indefinite
2. Сравнительная характеристика неличных форм
глагола
1. Измените залог сказуемого в следующих предложениях:
a) The ribs are moved by a series of intercostal muscles.
b) The thorax is separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm.
c) Vibration of these cords produces sound waves.
d) The trachea divides into two bronchi.
e) The bronchi are also supported by cartilages.
f) Each lung is surrounded by the pleural cavity.
g) This is bounded by two membranes which secrete pleural fluid into the cavity.
h) The volume of the thorax is decreased.
2. Найдите в тексте Gaseous exchange in mammals примеры неличных
форм глагола, сравните их грамматическую форму, функции в
предложении, способы перевода.
Summary
Smoking
Tobacco is responsible for 15-20% of all deaths in Britain, amounting to about
100000 people every year. The three main diseases closely linked with smoking are:
Coronary heart disease
Smoking increases the likelihood of fatty deposits arising on the inner lining of
the arteries (atherosclerosis), which cause the lumen to narrow, so restricting the
movement of blood through them. Where this narrowing occurs in the coronary artery
it can lead to a heart attack; narrowing in the carotid artery may result in a stroke.
Lung cancer
There is more than one type of lung cancer but bronchial carcinoma is by far
the most common. The tars in tobacco smoke may induce the epithelial cells lining
the bronchial tubes to become cancerous. If not treated, the tumour may completely
disrupt the functioning of the lung, leaving surgical removal as the only effective
treatment. A highly persistent cough, blood in the sputum and chest pains are all
symptoms of lung cancer.
Chronic bronchitis
The tars in tobacco irritate the epithelial lining of the bronchial tubes causing it
to produce excess mucus. The cilia lining the tubes become damaged and unable to
remove this mucus in the usual manner. Only by coughing can the mucus be expelled
and in time this leads to scarring and narrowing of the bronchial tubes, causing
breathlessness. Other smoking-related conditions include emphysema; cancer of the
56
mouth, throat, bladder and pancreas; other cardiovascular diseases; peptic ulcers;
narrowing of blood vessels in limbs; damage to the unborn child.
Tobacco smoke is a mixture of chemicals, a number of which interact with each
other, multiplying their effects. The three constituents which do most harm are
nicotine, carbon monoxide and tars.
Nicotine:
•
is quickly absorbed into the blood, reaching the brain in 30 seconds;
•
causes the platelets to become sticky, leading to clotting;
•
stimulates production of adrenaline, leading to increased heart rate and
raised blood pressure, which puts an extra strain on the heart.
Carbon monoxide:
•
lowers the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood;
•
may aggravate angina;
•
slows the growth of the fetus.
Tars:
•
form an aerosol of minute droplets which enter the respiratory system
causing thickening of the epithelium and leading to chronic bronchitis;
•
paralyse cilia, so dust, germs and mucus accumulate in the lungs, leading
to infection and damage;
•
contain carcinogens - heavy smokers have a 25% greater risk of cancer
than non-smokers.
Translation
Control of ventilation in humans
Ventilation of the respiratory system in humans is primarily controlled by the
breathing centre in the medulla oblongata. The ventral portion of this centre controls
inspiratory movements and is called the inspiratory centre; the remainder controls
breathing out and is called the expiratory centre. Control also relies on
chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies of the blood system. These are
sensitive to minute changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.
When the carbon dioxide level rises, increased ventilation of the respiratory surfaces
is required. Nerve impulses from the chemoreceptors stimulate the inspiratory centre
in the medulla. Nerve impulses pass along the phrenic and thoracic nerves to the
diaphragm and intercostal muscles. Their increased rate of contraction causes faster
inspiration.
As the lungs expand, stretch receptors in their walls are stimulated and
impulses pass along the vagus nerve to the expiratory centre in the medulla. This
automatically ‘switches off’ the inspiratory centre, the muscles relax and expiration
takes place. The breathing centre may also be stimulated by impulses from the
57
forebrain resulting in a conscious increase or decrease in breathing rate. The main
stimulus for ventilation is therefore the change in carbon dioxide concentration and
stimulation of stretch receptors in the lungs.
Speaking
1. Imagine that your younger sister (brother) doesn’t like walking. Explain the
importance of fresh air and its role in the functioning of our organism.
2. How would you persuade someone smoking that he damages his own health.
Chapter 3. Blood and circulatory system.
Did you know?
The heart pumps out 13 000
litres of blood each day.
As all cells are bathed in an aqueous medium, the delivery of materials to and
from these cells is carried out largely in solution. The fluid in which the materials are
dissolved or suspended is blood. While a number of ideas on blood were put forward
by Greek and Roman scientists, it was the English physician William Harvey (15781657) who first showed that it was pumped into arteries by the heart, circulated
around the body and returned via veins.
The purpose of the mammalian circulatory system is to carry blood between
various parts of the body. Each organ has a major artery supplying it with blood from
the heart and a major vein which returns it. These arteries and veins are usually
named by preceding them with the adjective appropriate to that organ, e.g. each
kidney has a renal artery and a renal vein. The flow of blood is maintained in three
ways:
1. The pumping action of the heart - This forces blood through the arteries
into the capillaries.
2. Contraction of skeletal muscle - The contraction of muscles during the
normal movements squeeze the thin-walled veins, increasing the pressure of blood
within them.
3. Inspiratory movements - When breathing in, the pressure in the thorax is
reduced. This helps to draw blood towards the heart, which is within the thorax.
58
Did you know?
We each produce 200 billion
new red blood cells every day.
Essential Vocabulary
Apex
arteriole
beat
chamber
cranium
cycle
erythrocyte
extremity
leucocyte
lymphocyte
node
output
platelet
pump
thrombocyte
valve
ventricle
to adhere
to arrest
to attach
to circulate
to contract
to dilate
artificial
biconcave
bicuspid
excretory
mitral
Analytical reading
Heart structure and action
A pump to circulate the blood is an essential feature of most circulatory
systems. These pumps or hearts generally consist of a thin-walled chamber - the
atrium (auricle) - and a thick-walled pumping chamber - the ventricle.
The mammalian heart consists largely of cardiac muscle, a specialized tissue
which is capable of rhythmical contraction and relaxation over a long period without
fatigue. The muscle is richly supplied with blood vessels and also contains connective
tissue which gives strength and helps to prevent the muscle tearing.
The mammalian heart is made up of two thin-walled atria which are elastic and
distend as blood enters them. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the
pulmonary veins while the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the venae
cavae. When full, the atria contract together, forcing the remaining blood into their
respective ventricles. The right ventricle then pumps blood to the lungs. Owing to the
close proximity of the lungs to the heart, the right ventricle does not need to force
blood far and is much less muscular than the left ventricle which has to pump blood
to the extremities of the body. To prevent backflow of blood into the atria when the
ventricles contract, there are valves between the atria and ventricles. On the right side
59
of the heart these comprise the tricuspid valves. On the left side of the heart the
bicuspid or mitral valves are present.
All vertebrate hearts are myogenic, that is, the heart beat is initiated from
within the heart muscle itself rather than by a nervous impulse from outside it. Where
it is initiated by nerves, as in insects, the heart is neurogenic.
The initial stimulus for a heart beat originates in a group of cardiac muscle cells
known as the sino-atrial node (SA node). This is located in the wall of the right
atrium. The SA node determines the basic rate of heart beat and is therefore known as
the pacemaker. In humans, this basic rate is 70 beats per minute. A wave of
excitation spreads out from the SA node across both atria, causing them to contract.
Then the wave reaches the atrio-ventricular node (AV node) which lies between the
two atria. The ventricles contract from the apex upwards. These events are known as
the cardiac cycle.
The rate of heart contractions can be varied from 50 to 200 beats per minute. Another
important factor in controlling blood pressure is the diameter of the blood vessels.
When narrowed - vasoconstriction - blood pressure rises; when widened vasodilation - it falls. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation are also controlled by the
60
medulla oblongata. From this centre nerves run to the smooth muscles of arterioles
throughout the body. Pressure receptors, known as baroreceptors, in the carotid
artery detect blood pressure changes. If blood pressure falls, the vasomotor centre
sends impulses along sympathetic nerves to the arterioles. The muscles in the
arterioles contract, causing vasoconstriction and a consequent rise in blood pressure.
A rise in blood pressure causes the vasomotor centre to send messages via the
parasympathetic system to the arterioles, causing them to dilate and so reduce blood
pressure.
61
Summary
Structure and functions of blood
Blood comprises a watery plasma in which are a variety of different cells. The
majority of cells present are erythrocytes or red blood cells which are biconcave
discs about 7 µm in diameter. They have no nucleus and are formed in the bone
marrow. The remaining cells are the larger, nucleated white cells or leucocytes. Most
of these are also made in the bone marrow. There are two basic types of leucocyte.
Granulocytes have granular cytoplasm and a lobed nucleus; they can engulf bacteria
by phagocytosis. Agranulocytes have a non-granular cytoplasm and a compact
nucleus. Some of these also ingest bacteria but the lymphocytes, made mainly in the
thymus gland and lymphoid tissues, produce antibodies. More sparsely distributed in
the plasma are tiny cell fragments called platelets. These are important in the process
of blood clotting.
The best known and most efficient respiratory pigment is haemoglobin. It
occurs in most animal. The haemoglobin molecule is made up of an iron porphyrin
compound - the haem group - and a protein -globin. The haem group contains a
ferrous iron atom, which is capable of carrying a single oxygen molecule. Different
haemoglobins have a different number of haem groups and so vary in their ability to
carry oxygen. A single molecule of human haemoglobin, for example, possesses four
haem groups. Therefore it is capable of carrying four molecules of oxygen.
Formation of blood. In the fetus red blood cells are formed in the liver, but in
adults production moves to bones, such as the cranium, sternum, vertebrae and ribs,
which have red bone marrow. White cells like lymphocytes are formed in the thymus
gland and lymph nodes whereas other types are formed in bones, e.g. the long bones
of the limbs, which have white bone marrow.
Blood performs two distinct functions: the transport of materials and defence
against disease. Summary of the transport functions of blood is given in the Table:
Materials
transported
Examples
Respiratory
gases
Oxygen
Organic
digestive
products
Mineral salts
Excretory
Transported
from
Lungs
Carbon
dioxide
Respiring
tissues
Glucose
Intestines
Amino acids
Vitamins
Calcium
Iodine
Iron
Urea
Intestines
Intestines
Intestines
Intestines
Intestines /liver
Liver
Transported to
Transported in
Respiring tissues
Haemoglobin in red blood
cells
Lungs
Haemoglobin in red blood
cells. Hydrogen carbonate
ions in plasma
Respiring tissues / Plasma
liver
Liver/body tissues Plasma
Liver/body tissues Plasma
Bones /teeth
Plasma
Thyroid gland
Plasma
Bone marrow
Plasma
Kidney
Plasma
62
products
Hormones
Heat
Insulin
Metabolic
heat
Pancreas
Liver and
muscle
Liver
All parts of the
body
Plasma
All parts of the blood
Did you know?
The entire length of arteries, veins
and capillaries in the human body
is estimated to be 80 000 miles –
more than three times the distance
around the world.
Translation
Clotting of the blood
If a blood vessel is ruptured it is important that the resultant loss of blood is
quickly arrested. If not, the pressure of the blood in the circulatory system could fall
dangerously low. At the same time it is important that clotting does not occur during
the normal circulation of blood. If it does, the clot might lodge in some blood vessel,
cutting off the blood supply to a vital organ and possibly resulting in death from
thrombosis. For this reason the clotting process is very complex, involving a large
number of stages. Only under the very specific conditions of injury are all stages
completed and clotting occurs. But the chances of clotting taking place in other
circumstances is reduced.
Cellular fragments in the blood called platelets (thrombocytes) are involved in
the clotting or coagulation of the blood. At the site of a wound the damaged cells and
ruptured platelets release thromboplastins. The platelets attract clotting factors
which create a cascade effect whereby each activates the next in the chain. At the end
of these chain reactions factor X is produced which in the presence of calcium ions
and vitamin K causes the inactive plasma protein, prothrombin, to become
converted to its active form, thrombin. This in turn converts another plasma protein,
the soluble fibrinogen, to fibrin, its insoluble form. The fibrin forms a meshwork of
threads in which red blood cells become trapped. These dry to form a clot beneath
which repair of the wound takes place. The clot not only prevents further blood loss,
it also prevents entry of bacteria which might cause infection.
Defence against infection - phagocytosis
Two types of white cell, the neutrophils and monocytes, are capable of
amoeboid movement. Both types carry out phagocytosis. White cells carry out
phagocytosis for two reasons: to protect the organism against pathogens and to
dispose of dead, dying or damaged cells and cellular debris.
63
In protecting against infection the phagocyte is attracted to chemicals produced
naturally by bacteria. The recognition is aided by the presence of opsonins - plasma
proteins which attach themselves to the surface of the bacteria. The phagocytes have
specific proteins on their surface that bind to these chemo-attractants. This causes the
phagocyte to move towards the bacteria. The phagocyte strongly adheres to a
bacterium on reaching it. The bacterium is enveloped and a vacuole, called a
phagosome, forms. Lysosomes within the phagocyte migrate towards the phagosome
into which they release lytic enzymes that break down the bacterium. The breakdown
products are finally absorbed by the phagocyte.
Phagocytosis causes inflammation at the site of infection. The hot and swollen
area contains many dead bacteria and phagocytes which are known as pus.
Inflammation results when histamine is released as a result of injury or infection.
This causes dilation of blood capillaries from which plasma, containing antibodies,
escapes into the tissues.
Artificial pacemakers
In Britain about 10000 people a year receive an artificial pacemaker. The
operation takes less than an hour and is performed under local anaesthetic.
Pacemakers are made up of a pulse generator and two electrodes. The pulse
generator is about the size of a thin matchbox and weighs 20 - 60 g. It is powered by
a lithium battery and is implanted under the patient's skin. The electrodes are placed
intravenously into the right atrium and the right ventricle. Disease or ageing can
damage the heart's natural pacemaker and the conduction of impulses through the
heart, causing an abnormally slow heart beat. The artificial pacemaker overcomes this
by generating electrical impulses artificially and conducting them to the muscles of
the heart on demand or when the heart misses a beat.
64
Unit 7. Control systems
Translation
7.1 How control systems developed
The ability to respond to stimuli is a characteristic of all living organisms.
While many stimuli originate from outside, it is also necessary to respond to internal
changes. In a single-celled organism, such responses are relatively simple. No part of
it is far from the medium in which it lives and so it can respond directly to
environmental changes. The inside of a single cell does not vary considerably from
one part to another and so there are few internal differences to respond to.
With the development of multicellular organisms came the differentiation of
cells which specialized in particular functions. With specialization in one function
came the loss of the ability to perform others. This division of labour, made the cells
dependent upon one another. Cells specializing in reproduction, for example, depend
on other cells to obtain oxygen for their respiration, to provide glucose and to remove
waste products. These different functional systems must be coordinated in order to
perform efficiently. No body system can work in isolation, but all must be integrated
in a coordinated fashion.
There are two forms of integration in most multicellular animals: nervous and
hormonal. The nervous system permits rapid communication between one part of an
organism and another. The hormonal system provides a slower form of
communication and can be compared with the postal system. Both systems need to
work together.
All organisms, plant and animal, must respond to environmental changes if
they are to survive. To detect these changes sense organs are required. Those
detecting external changes are located on the surface of the body and act as a vital
link between the internal and external environments. Many other sense cells are
located internally to provide information on a constantly changing internal
environment. In responding to stimuli, an organism usually modifies some aspect of
its functioning. It may need to produce enzymes in response to the presence of food
or move away from an unpleasant stimulus. In most cases the organ effecting the
change is some distance away from the sense cell detecting the stimulus. A rapid
means of communication between the sense cell and the corresponding organ is
essential. In animals the nerves perform this function.
The stimuli received by many sense organs are very complex and require
different responses. The sense organs must therefore be connected by nerves to all
effector organs. One method is to have an individual nerve running from the sense
organ to all effectors. Clearly this is only possible in very simple organisms where the
sense organs respond to a limited number of stimuli and the number of effectors is
small. Large, complex organisms require a different system, because the number of
sense organs and effectors is so great that individual links between all of them is not
possible. The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) acts like a switchboard
in connecting each incoming stimulus to the appropriate effector.
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66
Summary
7.2 Principles of endocrine and nervous control
In animals, two types of gland are recognized: exocrine glands, which convey
their secretions to the site of action by special ducts, and endocrine glands, which
lack ducts and transport their secretions by the blood. For this reason, the term
ductless glands is often applied to endocrine glands.
The secretions of these glands are called hormones. Derived from the Greek
word hormon, which means 'to excite', hormones often inhibit actions as well as
excite them. All hormones are effective in small quantities. Most act on specific
organs, called target organs, although some have diffuse effects on all body cells.
Most, but not all, endocrine glands work under the influence of a single master
gland, the pituitary. In this way the actions of individual glands can be coordinated.
Such coordination is essential as hormones work not in isolation, but interacting with
each other. Most organs are influenced by a number of different hormones. If the
pituitary is the master of the endocrine system then the hypothalamus is the
manager. It not only assists in directing the activities of endocrine glands, it also acts
as the important link between the endocrine and nervous systems.
The ability to respond to stimuli is a fundamental characteristic of living
organisms. The nervous system has three functions:
1. To collect information about the internal and external environment.
2. To process and integrate the information, often in relation to previous
experience.
3. To act upon the information, usually by coordinating the organism's
activities.
One remarkable feature of the way in which these functions are performed is
the speed with which the information is transmitted from one part of the body to
another. In contrast to the endocrine system, the nervous system responds instantly to
a stimulus. The cells which transmit nerve impulses are called neurones.
The nervous system may be sub-divided into a number of parts. The collecting
of information from the internal and external environment is carried out by
receptors. Along with the neurones which transmit this information, the receptors
form the sensory system. The processing and integration of this information is
performed by the central nervous system (CNS). The final function whereby
information is transmitted to effectors is carried out by the effector (motor) system,
which has two parts. The portion which activates involuntary responses is known as
the autonomic nervous system and the portion which activates voluntary responses
is termed the somatic system. The sensory and effector (motor) neurones are
sometimes collectively called the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Did you know?
The adult human brain contains
around 10 000 million neurones
and at least 1 million miles of fibers.
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Аналитическое чтение
The central nervous system
The central nervous system (CNS) acts as the coordinator of the nervous
system. It comprises a long, approximately cylindrical structure - the spinal cord and its anterior expansion - the brain.
As an elaboration of the anterior region of the spinal cord, the brain has a
basically similar structure. Both grey and white matter are present, as is the spinal
canal although it is expanded to form larger cavities called ventricles. Broadly
speaking, the brain has three regions: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. In
common with the entire central nervous system, the brain is surrounded by protective
membranes called meninges. There are three in all and the space between the inner
two is filled with cerebro-spinal fluid, which also fills the ventricles referred to
above.
The hindbrain
Medulla oblongata
This region of the brain contains many important centres of the autonomic
nervous system. These centres control reflex activities, like ventilation rate, heart rate
and blood pressure. Other activities controlled by the medulla are swallowing,
coughing and the production of saliva.
Cerebellum
This is a large and complex association area concerned with the control of
muscular movement and body posture. It receives sensory information relating to the
tone of muscles and tendons as well as information from the organs of balance in the
ears. Its role is not to initiate movement but to coordinate it. Any damage to the
cerebellum not surprisingly results in jerky and uncoordinated movement.
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The midbrain
The midbrain acts as an important link between the hindbrain and the forebrain.
In addition it houses both visual and auditory reflex centres. The reflexes they control
include the movement of the head to fix on an object or find a source of a sound.
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The forebrain
The thalamus
Lying as it does at the middle of the brain, the thalamus forms an important
relay centre, connecting other regions of the brain. It assists in the integration of
sensory information. Much of the sensory input received by the brain must be
compared to previously stored information before it can be made sense of. Pain and
pleasure appear to be perceived by the thalamus.
The hypothalamus
This is the main controlling region for the autonomic nervous system. It
controls such complex patterns of behaviour as feeding, sleeping and aggression.
Another of its roles is to monitor the composition of the blood, in particular the
plasma solute concentration, and not surprisingly therefore, it has a very rich supply
of blood vessels.
The cerebrum
The cerebrum is highly convoluted in humans, considerably increasing its
surface area and hence its capacity for complex activity.
The cerebrum is divided into left and right halves known as cerebral
hemispheres. The two halves are joined by the corpus callosum. In general terms, the
cerebrum performs the functions of receiving sensory information, interpreting it and
transmitting impulses along motor neurones to allow effectors to make appropriate
responses. In this way, the cerebrum coordinates all the body's voluntary activities as
well as some involuntary ones. In addition, it carries out complex activities like
learning, reasoning and memory.
The outer 3 mm of the cerebral hemispheres is known as the cerebral cortex
and in humans this covers an especially large area. The association areas of the
cerebral cortex help an individual to interpret the information received in the light of
previous experience. The visual association area, for example, allows objects to be
recognized, and the auditory association area performs the same function for sounds.
Did you know?
Although the brain comprises
little more than 2% of the body’s
weight it uses 20% of the body’s energy.
Translation
7.3 Molecular clocks: mastering time.
Self-sustaining clocks that regulate daily and seasonal rhythms are found in
many biological systems, from fungi to humans. Imagine that you're locked in a room
with no clocks and no windows. For most people, the cyclic patterns of sleeping,
waking, activity and hunger will soon adopt a period of about 22-23 hours —
evidently, the body 'knows' the length of the day, even in the absence of visual cues.
Environmental signals, such as the day-night cycle, simply modify this biological
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rhythm to a slightly longer period of 24 hours.
In mammals, this internal clock controls rhythmic physiology and behaviour.
The clock is composed of molecular gears in measuring time. But where is the clock?
When does it start ticking? And how does it work?
What is the clock?
Until the 1930s, biological rhythms were studied only by botanists. In 1729,
the French astronomer d'Ortous de Mairan reported that the leaves of a heliotrope
plant could open and close following a day and night rhythm. Then, 100 years later,
Augustin de Candolle showed that these leaves could also open in constant darkness,
indicating that the cycle was independent of the light-dark rhythm.
Research has since broadened to include almost every organism with a nucleus
(eukaryotes) as well as some bacteria, and we now know that the clock consists of
three conceptual components. First, there is an input pathway that links the internal
cycle to external light-dark patterns. Second is the autonomous pacemaker, which
generates the daily (circadian) oscillation. Finally, there is an output pathway for the
expression of the physiologically measurable rhythms. For many years it was thought
that the control of such complex required tissue organization and high-level
intercellular communications. In fact, every cell in the pacemaker constitutes an
autonomous clock, with its own oscillatory properties.
Where is the clock?
In many organisms, the clock is localized in specific areas of the central
nervous system. The pineal gland of birds, reptiles and fish, for example, contains
photosensitive cells that show pacemaker properties and direct the circadian
production of hormones. In mammals the situation is more complicated. The centre
of the clock is an area in the anterior hypothalamus of the brain, called the
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN contains about 10,000 densely packed neurons, which are among the smallest cells in the brain.
Perhaps there are various clocks for different physiological situations, residing
in distinct anatomical structures, and such parallel clocks may overlap to regulate
human physiology and behaviour.
7.4 A biological defect underlying obesity
Human appetite is thought to be regulated by a delicate chemical balance
between the part of the brain that stimulates the basic feeding mechanism and the
various chemicals that suppress it.
It has long been known that damage to hypothalamus results in obesity,
suggesting that some biological defect underlying obesity might reside in the
hypothalamus. Now this defect has been found.
Over the years of work researchers suggested that a nerve-regulating chemical
in the brain, and especially in the hypothalamus might influence appetite regulation.
It is called cholecystokinin (CCK). Scientists compared concentrations of
immunoreactive CCK in brain extracts from obese mice and normal mice. CCK in
the brain of the obese mice averaged one – fourth of that in the normal mice. These
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findings proved a causal relationship between diminished brain CCK content and the
unrestrained appetite of the obese mice.
Can CCK injections help obese people lose weight? Some animal evidence suggests
that it may. More than two decades ago researchers showed that injections of
enterogastrone, a preparation rich in CCK, reduced food intake in mice.
7.5 “Addictive" properties of regular exercise.
A preventive medicine specialist may find the evidence for the "addictive"
properties of regular exercise. The finding may also explain why athletes often fail to
notice injury until after the competition is over. Dr Lee S. Berk has found that
persons who exercise regularly produce high levels of a natural opiate called betaendorphin in response to strenuous activity. This substance, a hormone produced by
the brain and the pituitary gland, increase pain tolerance, counters stress, and imparts
a feeling of well-being. In his study of six men and six women who were tested on a
treadmill, those who jogged regularly and were physically fit, produced betaendorphin more rapidly and in far greater amounts than those who were usually
sedentary. After the activity was stopped, beta-endorphin levels dropped back to
normal. In the non-runners, only a small rise in beta-endorphin occurred while they
exercised. However, a larger increase in beta-endorphin production was noted some
time after the activity was finished, when it was ineffective. Dr. Berk noted betaendorphin production may also account for other benefits of vigorous exercise, such
as ability to lower blood pressure and suppress appetite, both of which are known
effects of the hormone. "Beta-endorphin may also explain why people become
addicted to exercise", Dr. Berk said.
Did you know?
It has been estimated that the bacterium
causing tuberculosis resides in the
bodies of 2 billion people – more than
one – third of all human beings.
Summary
7.6 Types of immunity and immunization
Immunity is the ability of an organism to resist disease. It involves the
recognition of foreign material and the production of chemicals which help to destroy
it. These chemicals, called antibodies, are produced by lymphocytes of which there
are two types: T-lymphocytes, which are formed in bone marrow but mature in the
thymus gland, and B-lymphocytes, which are formed and mature in the bone
marrow.
There are two basic types of immunity, passive and active.
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Passive immunity is the result of antibodies passed into an individual but not
being produced by the individual itself. This passive immunity may occur naturally in
mammals when, for example, antibodies pass across the placenta from a mother to
her fetus or are passed to the newborn baby in the mother's milk. In both cases the
young developing mammal is afforded some protection from disease.
Alternatively, passive immunity may be acquired artificially by the injection of
antibodies from another individual. This occurs in the treatment of tetanus and
diphtheria in humans, although the antibodies are acquired from other mammals, e.g.
horses. In all cases, passive immunity is only temporary.
Active immunity occurs when an organism manufactures its own antibodies.
Active immunity may be the natural result of an infection. Once the body has started
to manufacture antibodies in response to a disease-causing agent, it may continue to
do so for a long time after, sometimes permanently. It is for this reason that most
people suffer diseases such as mumps and measles only once. It is possible to induce
an individual to produce antibodies even without suffering a disease. To achieve this,
the appropriate antigen must be injected in some way. This is the basis of
immunization (vaccination). There are a number of different types of vaccination
depending on the form the antigen takes:
1. Living attenuated microorganisms - Living pathogens, which have been
treated, e.g. by heating, so that they multiply but are unable to cause the symptoms of
the disease. They are therefore harmless but nonetheless induce the body to produce
appropriate antibodies. Living attenuated microorganisms are used to immunize
against measles, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis and rubella.
2. Dead microorganisms - Pathogens are killed by some means and then
injected. Although harmless they again induce the body to produce antibodies.
Typhoid, cholera and whooping cough are controlled by this means.
3. Toxoids - The toxins produced by some diseases, e.g. diphtheria and tetanus,
are sufficient to induce antibody production by an individual. To avoid these toxins
causing the symptoms of the disease they are first detoxified in some way, e.g. by
treatment with formaldehyde, and then injected.
4. Extracted antigens - The chemicals with antigenic properties may be
extracted from the pathogenic organisms and injected. Influenza vaccine is produced
in this way.
5. Artificial antigens - Through genetic engineering it is now possible to
transfer the genes producing antigens from a pathogenic organism to a harmless one
which can easily be grown in a laboratory. Mass production of the antigen is possible
in a fermenter ready for separation and purification before use. Vaccines used in the
treatment of hepatitis B can be produced in this way.
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Supplementary reading
EDWARD JENNER (1749-1823)
Edward Jenner was an English country doctor who pioneered vaccination.
Jenner's discovery in 1796 that inoculation with cowpox gave immunity to smallpox,
was an immense medical breakthrough and has saved countless lives.
Edward Jenner was born on May 17 1749 in the small village of Berkeley in
Gloucestershire. From an early age Jenner was a keen observer of nature and after
nine years as a surgeon's apprentice he went to St George's Hospital, London to study
anatomy and surgery under the prominent surgeon John Hunter. After completing his
studies, he returned to Berkeley to set up a medical practice where he stayed until his
death in 1823.
Jenner worked in a rural community and most of his patients were farmers or
worked on farms with cattle. In the 18th century smallpox was a very common
disease and was a major cause of death. The main treatment was by a method which
had brought success to a Dutch physiologist Jan Ingenhaus and was brought to
England in 1721 from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortly Montague. This method
involved inoculating healthy people with substances from the pustules of those who
had a mild case of the disease, but this often had fatal results.
In 1788 an epidemic of smallpox hit Gloucestershire and during this outbreak
Jenner observed that those of his patients who worked with cattle and had come in
contact with the much milder disease called cowpox never got smallpox. Jenner
needed a way of showing that his theory actually worked. He got such an opportunity
on the 14 May 1796, when a milkmaid with sores on her hands like blisters. Jenner
identified that she had caught cowpox from the cows she handled each day. He
extracted some liquid from her sores and then took some liquid from the sores of a
patient with mild smallpox.
Jenner approached a local farmer called Phipps and asked him if he could
inoculate his son James against smallpox. He explained to the farmer that if his
theory was correct, James would never have smallpox. Surprisingly, the farmer
agreed. Jenner made two small cuts on James's left arm. He then poured the liquid
from Sarah's cowpox sores into the open wounds which he bandaged. James went
down with cowpox but was not very ill. Six weeks later when James had recovered,
Jenner vaccinated him again, this time with the smallpox virus. This was an
extremely dangerous experiment. If James developed smallpox and died he would be
a murderer. To Jenner's relief James did not catch smallpox. His experiment had
worked.
In 1798 after carrying out further successful tests, he publicized his findings.
Jenner called his idea "vaccination" from the word vaccinia which is Latin for
cowpox. Jenner also introduced the term virus. Jenner found a great deal of
scepticism to his ideas. A cartoon was drawn, showing cows coming out of various
parts of people's bodies after they had been vaccinated with cowpox.
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However, Jenner persevered and eventually, doctors found that vaccination did
work and by 1800 most were using it. Jenner was awarded £30 000 by Parliament to
enable him to continue carrying out his tests. Deaths from smallpox plummeted and
vaccination spread through Europe and North America.
Jenner died in Berkeley on January 26, 1823 aged 74.
CHARLES DARWIN ( 1809 - 1882 )
Charles Darwin in 1840. Watercolour by George Richmond
Charles Darwin was an English naturalist who travelled thousands of miles to
obtain factual evidence to support the theory of evolution.
Charles Darwin came from a prosperous family. He was educated at Edinburgh
University where he studied medicine. Darwin did not complete his studies at
Edinburgh and went to Cambridge to read theology. While he was at Edinburgh he
developed an interest in natural history for the rest of his life. In 1831 he obtained his
degree from Cambridge and in the same year set out as a naturalist on a survey ship
called the Beagle. He did not return home until 1836.
Charles Darwin is known as the scientist who developed the modern theory of
evolution and together with Alfred Russel Wallace proposed the principle of natural
selection. Darwin published his findings in The Origin of the Species by Natural
Selection. This publication caused a great deal of controversy at the time, because it
disagreed with the literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis in the Bible.
CAMILLO GOLGI (1843 – 1926). The Nobel Prize Winner
Camillo Golgi was born in July 1843 in Corteno, a
village in the mountains in northern Italy, where his father was
working as a district medical officer. He studied medicine at the
University of Pavia where he attended as an 'intern student' the
Institute of Psychiatry. Golgi graduated in 1865 and started his
scientific career in 1869, with an article in which he stated that
mental diseases could be due to organic lesions of the neural
centers. However, convinced that theories had to be supported
by facts, Golgi soon abandoned psychiatry and concentrated on
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the experimental study of the structure of the nervous system.
In 1872, due to financial problems, Golgi had to interrupt his research, and
accepted the post of Chief Medical Officer at the Hospital of Chronically Ill in
Abbiategrasso (close to Pavia and Milan). In 1873 he published a short note ('On the
structure of the brain grey matter'). In 1875 Golgi published the first drawings of
neural structures as visualized by the technique he had invented. In 1885, Golgi
published a monograph on the fine anatomy of the central nervous organs, with
beautiful illustrations of the nerve centers he had studied with his method.
In the same year, Golgi returned to Pavia, where he was appointed in 1876 as
Professor of Histology. In 1877 he married. They had no children, and adopted
Golgi's niece Carolina. In 1897, studying the nervous system, Golgi noticed in
neurons an intracellular structure, whose existence he officially reported in April
1898. This structure was designated by Golgi "internal reticular apparatus" and was
soon named after him as Golgi apparatus (or much later as the Golgi complex and is
frequently referred to nowadays only as "the Golgi"). The discovery of this cell
organelle was a real breakthrough in cytology and cell biology.
In 1906 Golgi shared the Nobel Prize with Santiago Ramon Cajal for their
studies on the structure of the nervous system.
Highly respected, Golgi was dean of the Faculty of Medicine of the University
of Pavia, and rector of this university for several years. Golgi also received honours
from several European universities. He took an active part in public life; he was
especially concerned with public health, and became a senator in 1900. He retired in
1918 but remained as professor emeritus at the University of Pavia. Golgi died in
Pavia in January 1926 having exerted a profound influence on biomedical research in
the 20th century.
ILYA MECHNIKOV (1845 – 1916) The Nobel Prize Winner
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was born on May 16, 1845, in a
village near Kharkoff in Russia. He was the son of an officer of
the Imperial Guard, who was a landowner in the Ukraine
steppes. His mother, née Nevakhowitch, was of Jewish origin.
Mechnikov went to school at Kharkoff and was
passionately interested in natural history, on which he used to
give lectures to his small brothers and to other children. He was
at that time especially interested in botany and geology. When
he left school he went to the University of Kharkoff to study
natural sciences, and worked there so hard that he was able to
complete the four year course in two years. Graduating at
Kharkoff, he went to the University of Giessen. Subsequently he went to the
University of Göttingen and the Munich Academy. While he was at Giessen, he
discovered, in 1865, intracellular digestion in one of the flatworms, an observation
which was to influence his later discoveries.
In 1867 he returned to Russia, having been appointed an associate professor at
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the new University of Odessa and from there he went to take up a similar
appointment at the University of St. Petersburg.
At St. Petersburg he met his first wife, Ludmilla Feodorovitch, who suffered
from tuberculosis so severe that she had to be carried to church in a chair for the
wedding. For five years Mechnikov did all he could to save her life, but she died on
April 20, 1873. Broken by this loss, troubled by weak eyesight and heart troubles and
by difficulties in the University, Mechnikov became, at this time, so pessimistic that
he tried to take his own life by swallowing a large dose of opium; but, fortunately for
himself and for the world, he did not die. It was in Odessa, in fact, that he met his
second wife, Olga, whom he married in 1875. In 1880 his second wife had a severe
attack of typhoid fever and, although she did not die, Mechnikov, whose health was
still poor, again tried to take his own life. This time, however, he decided to do this
by means of the scientific experiment of inoculating himself with relapsing fever to
find out whether it was transmissible by the blood. The attack of relapsing fever that
followed was severe, but it did not kill him.
After his recovery from this disease, Mechnikov went to Messina to continue
his work on comparative embryology, and it was here that he discovered the
phenomenon of phagocytosis with which his name will always be associated.
Returning to Odessa, Mechnikov visited Vienna on the way and explained his ideas
to Claus, Professor of Zoology and it was Claus who suggested the term phagocyte
for the mobile cells which act in this way. Ultimately in 1883, Mechnikov gave, at
Odessa, his first paper on phagocytosis. Apart from its fundamental importance in
immunology, the discovery had a marked influence on Mechnikov himself. It
completely changed his outlook on life; he abandoned his pessimistic philosophy and
determined to find further proof of his hypothesis.
During this period Mechnikov had been appointed Director of an Institute
established in 1886 in Odessa. In 1888 he left Odessa and went to Paris to work under
the guidance of Pasteur. Pasteur gave him a laboratory and an appointment in the
Pasteur Institute. Here he remained for the rest of his life.
In 1908 he was awarded, together with Paul Ehrlich, the Nobel Prize for
Medicine. Mechnikov received many distinctions, among which were the honorary
D. Sc. of the University of Cambridge, the Copley Medal of the Royal British
Medical Society, the honorary memberships of the Academy of Medicine in Paris,
and the Academies of Sciences and of Medicine in St. Petersburg. In addition, he was
a corresponding member of the Swedish Medical Society.
From 1913 onwards Mechnikov began to suffer from heart attacks and,
although he recovered from the distress which the 1914-1918 War caused him, he
died on July 16, 1916.
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KARL LANDSTEINER (1868 – 1943) The Nobel Prize Winner
Karl Landsteiner was born in Vienna on June 14, 1868.
His father was a well-known journalist and newspaper
publisher, who died when Karl was six years old. Karl was
brought up by his mother, Fanny Hess, to whom he was so
devoted that her death mask hung on his wall until he died.
After leaving school, Landsteiner studied medicine at the
University of Vienna and graduated in 1891.
Even while he was a student he had begun to do
biochemical research in the mechanisms of immunity and in
the nature of antibodies. From 1898 till 1908 he held the post
of assistant in the University Department of Pathological
Anatomy in Vienna, the Head of which was Professor A. Weichselbaum, who had
discovered the bacterial cause of meningitis and pneumococcus. In 1911 Karl
Landsteiner became Professor of Pathological Anatomy in the University of Vienna.
Up to the year 1919, after twenty years of work on pathological anatomy,
Landsteiner with a number of collaborators had published many papers on his
findings in morbid anatomy and on immunology. But his name will no doubt always
be honoured for his discovery in 1901 of, and outstanding work on, the blood groups,
for which he was given the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1930.
In 1909 Landsteiner classified the bloods of human beings into the now well-known
A, B, AB, and O groups and showed that transfusions between individuals of groups
A or B do not result in the destruction of new blood cells and that this occurs only
when a person is transfused with the blood of a person belonging to a different group.
After the year of 1922 he was offered a post in the Rockefeller Institute for
Medical Research in New York and he moved there together with his family. Here in
collaboration with Wiener Landsteiner studied bleeding in the new-born, leading to
the discovery of the Rh-factor in blood.
To the end of his life, Landsteiner continued to investigate blood groups and
the chemistry of antigens, antibodies and other immunological factors that occur in
the blood. In 1939 he became Emeritus Professor at the Rockefeller Institute, but
continued to work as energetically as before, keeping eagerly in touch with the
progress of science. On June 24, 1943, he had a heart attack in his laboratory and died
two days later in the hospital of the Institute in which he had done such distinguished
work.
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HERMANN J. MULLER (1890 – 1967) The Nobel Prize Winner
Hermann Joseph Muller was born in New York City on
December 21, 1890.
He was brought up in Harlem, first attending public
school there and later Morris High School (also public) in the
Bronx. There he and his classmates Lester Thompson and
Edgar Altenburg founded what was perhaps the first highschool science club. His family (mother, sister and himself) had
very limited means. Hermann was enabled to attend a first class
college - Columbia - only through the unexpected award of a
scholarship, automatically granted to him in 1907 on the basis
of entrance examination grades. He spent his summers, during his college years, at
such jobs as bank runners and hotel clerk.
At Columbia College Muller was fascinated by the subject of biology. Reading
by himself in the summer of 1908 R.H. Lock's (1906) book on genetics, his interests
became centered in that field. In I909 he founded a students' biology club.
For his first two years of graduate work, he managed to obtain a scholarship (19101911) and then a teaching fellowship (1911-1912) in physiology, , while keeping up
with genetics on the side and doing various extra jobs, such as teaching English to
foreigners in night school. Finally, however, he obtained a teaching assistantship in
zoology at Columbia (1912-1915). The first summer (1911) of graduate work was
spent in studies at Woods Hole, the rest in laboratory teaching at Columbia. During
these five years he was seriously overworked. Still Muller was able to begin his
investigation of the simultaneous inter-relationships of many linked genes, which
supported the theory of crossing-over and constituted his thesis. At the same time he
undertook his analysis of variable, multiple-factor, characters by means of «marker
genes». This extended the validity both of chromosomal inheritance and of gene
stability.
Called to the Rice Institute, Houston, as Instructor, Muller taught varied
biological courses (1915-1918), and began studies on mutation. During this time and
the two years following, when he was again at Columbia (1918-1920), now as
instructor, he elaborated methods for quantitative mutation study. In 1920 Muller
moved to the University of Texas, this time as Associate Professor, and from 1925 on
as Professor, teaching mainly genetics and evolution, and doing research mainly on
mutation. He formulated the chief principles of spontaneous gene mutation as now
recognized. At the same time he put forward the conception of the gene as
constituting the basis of life, as well as of evolution, due to the property of
reproducing its own changes.
In late 1926 Hermann Muller obtained the evidence of the abundant production
of gene mutations and chromosome changes by X-rays. This opened the door to
numerous researches in the twenty years that followed. It was a tremendous work for
which the Nobel Award was granted. The researches included studies on the
mechanisms of the gene mutation effects, on the roles which each kind of changes
79
play in evolution, and on the properties of genes and chromosome parts, disclosed by
studies in which the chromosomes were broken and rearranged.
This later work was carried on at a succession of places. In 1932 he was
awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship and for a year worked in Berlin, in Timoféeff's
department of genetics. At the request of N. I. Vavilov, he then spent 3 1/2 years as
Senior Geneticist at the Institute of Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the
U.S.S.R., first in Leningrad, later (1934-1937) in Moscow, with a considerable staff
of co-workers. With the rise of the Lysenko anti-genetics movement, he moved to the
Institute of Animal Genetics, University of Edinburgh (1937-1940. Then, from 1940
to 1945, At Amherst college he completed a large-scale experiment showing the
relationship of ageing to spontaneous mutations. Finally, in 1945, he accepted a
professorship in the Zoology Department at Indiana University. Here he is again
devoting his time chiefly to work on radiation-induced mutations, using them on the
one hand for purposes of genetic analysis and on the other hand in the study of how
radiation produces its biological effects.
He was President of the 8th International Congress of Genetics in 1948 and of
the American Humanist Association during 1956-1958. He has received Doctor of
Science degrees from the Universities of Edinburgh (1940), Columbia (1949) and
Chicago (1959), the honorary Doctor of Medicine from Jefferson Medical College
(1963), the Annual Award of the American Association for Advancement of Science
(1927), the Kimber Genetics Award (1955) and the Darwin-Wallace Commemoration
Medal (1958). Muller was designated Humanist of the Year by the American
Humanist Association in 1963. He has also received honorary memberships and
fellowships of many learned societies in the United States, England, Scotland,
Sweden, Denmark, India, Japan, Italy, etc.
Muller was married twice and had one son, David Eugene, and one daugther,
Helen Juliette.
Hermann J. Muller died in 1967.
FREDERICK BANTING (1891-1941) The Nobel Prize Winner
Frederick Banting, a Canadian scientist, was born in Alliston, Ontario, Canada,
in a poor family. His father always wanted him to become a minister, but Fred
decided to study medicine. After graduation in 1916 he was at once appointed a
lieutenant in the Canadian Army Medical Corps as the World War I lasted at the
time.
When the war was over Banting moved to London, a city in Western Ontario.
He became an instructor at the university department of physiology. One night in
October 1920 he was preparing for the lectures. He was to lecture on the pancreas
and deeply interested in the treatment of diabetes.
By that time doctors had known that the pancreas had some influence on the
way in which sugar was used in the human body. But Banting was the first to show
that the Islets of Langerhans (a cluster of cells in the pancreas) had something
valuable that influenced the diabetes treatment.
80
Banting decided to go to Toronto to make a series of experiments with dogs.
Nobody at the University of Toronto showed interest in his experiments but he was
given a small laboratory and ten dogs. One of his students, Charles Best, became his
assistant. The experiments of Banting and Best were successful. They obtained the
pure secretion of the Islets of Langerhans and injected it into the vein of the dog
which had been artificially given diabetes by removing its pancreas. Within a few
hours the blood sugar level of the sick dog returned to normal. Banting called this
mysterious secretion “isletin”. Later the substance was given the name “insulin”.
In January 1922 insulin was injected to the first human patient – a 14-year-old
boy in the critical stage of diabetes. He was given insulin in gradually increasing
doses. The blood sugar level dropped! It was a turning point in medical history. Until
that moment diabetes meant an early death.
In 1923 Banting’s work was awarded the Nobel Prize.
HUGO THEORELL (1903-1982) The Nobel Prize Winner
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell was born at Linköping,
Sweden, on July 6, 1903. He was the son of a surgeon. Theorell
was educated for nine years at a State Secondary School in
Linköping. In September, 1921, he began to study medicine at
the Karolinska Institute and in 1924 he graduated as a Bachelor
of Medicine. He then spent three months studying bacteriology
at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.
In 1930 he obtained his M.D. degree with a thesis on the
lipids of the blood plasma, and was appointed lecturer in
physiological chemistry at the Karolinska Institute. Since 1924,
Theorell had been on the Staff of the Medico-Chemical Institution, first as an
associate assistant and during the years 1928-1929 as a temporary Associate
Professor. Here he carried out his first work on the influence of the lipids on the
sedimentation of the blood corpuscles. In 1931 he studied the molecular weight of
myoglobin with the aid of the ultracentrifuge.
In 1932 he was appointed Associate Professor in Medical and Physiological
Chemistry at Uppsala University, and here he continued and extended his work on
myoglobin. From 1933 until 1935 Theorell held a Rockefeller Fellowship and
became interested in oxidation enzymes, a subject to which he has given his attention
ever since. At Berlin-Dahlem he produced, for the first time, the oxidation enzyme
called “the yellow ferment”.
Returning to Sweden in 1935, Theorell worked at the Karolinska Institute and
in 1936 he was appointed Head of the newly established Biochemical Department of
the Nobel Medical Institute, which was opened in 1937. For ten years this Institute
was housed in the Karolinska Institute, but in 1947 it was able to occupy its own
building. Since 1935, Theorell carried out researches on various oxidation enzymes.
81
For his work on the nature and effects of oxidation enzymes he was awarded the
Nobel Prize for Medicine for 1955.
Theorell was a member of learned societies in Sweden, Denmark, Norway,
Finland, the U.S.A., France, Italy, Poland, Belgium and India. He was Chairman of
the Swedish Medical Society in 1947-1948 and 1957-1958, and served as Secretary
of that Society during 1940-1946.
He was also Chairman of the Association of Swedish Chemists from 19471949. Since 1954 he has been Chief Editor of the journal Nordisk Medicin. He was a
member of many Government Committees and Chairman of the Swedish National
Committee for Biochemistry.
His interest in music is shown by the facts that he is also a Member of the
Swedish Royal Academy of Music and Chairman of the Stockholm Symphony
Society.
Theorell held honorary doctorates of the Universities of Paris, Pennsylvania,
Brussels and Rio de Janeiro, and was a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of
London, and the National Academy of Sciences of Washington.
In 1931 he married. They had one daughter, who died in 1935, and three sons.
Hugo Theorell died in 1982.
ANDREI BELOZERSKY (1905)
Belozersky was born in August 1905 in Tashkent. He completed his
undergraduate studies at Tashkent University in 1927. From 1927 to 1930 he was a
postgraduate student. In 1930 he became assistant in the plant biochemistry
department of Moscow University. A. N. Belozersky became associate professor in
1932, full professor in 1947, and head of the department in 1960. In 1965 he set up
and headed a research laboratory of organic biochemistry. In 1958 he was elected
corresponding member and in 1962 full member of the Academy of Sciences of the
USSR.
The main fields of Belozersky’s research were nucleic acids and nucleoproteins
of plants and bacteria. He started his research in the early 1930s. Belozersky’s work
was to prove the presence of DNA and to establish the presence and type of nucleic
acids in microorganisms, and particular in bacteria.
The analysis showed a correlation between the age and the biological activity
of the cell on the one hand and the age and the amount of nucleic acids in the cell on
the other. Already in 1957 he predicted the existence of a messenger RNA. In late
1940s Belozersky investigated several antibiotics.
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KONRAD BLOCH (1912-2000) The Nobel Prize Winner
Konrad E. Bloch was born on 21st January 1912, in
Neisse, Germany. He attended the elementary school and the
Real gymnasium in the same city and in 1930 went to Munich to
study chemistry at the Technische Hochschule. He became soon
attracted to organic chemistry.
For racial reasons his studies in Munich ended in 1934
after he had obtained the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur in
Chemistry. Leaving Germany Bloch was fortunate to find a
temporary position at the Schweizerische Forschungsinstitut in
Davos, Switzerland. His assignment there was to investigate the
phospholipids of tubercle bacilli, his first exposure to biochemical research.
In 1936 Bloch was able to immigrate to the United States as he had long hoped.
He entered the Department of Biochemistry, College of Physicians and Surgeons,
Columbia University, where he became a graduate student. Research leading to the
Ph.D. degree was completed in 1938. Rudolf Schoenheimer then asked Bloch to join
his research group. This period developed his lasting interest in intermediary
metabolism and problems of biosynthesis. During that time (in 1942) Bloch in
collaboration with David Rittenberg initiated the work on the biological synthesis of
cholesterol which was to occupy his research interests for nearly twenty years.
In 1946 Bloch moved to the University of Chicago as Assistant Professor of
Biochemistry. Appointments to Associate Professor and Professor followed in 1948
and 1950, respectively. Work on cholesterol, biosynthesis was continued and
progressed well with the aid of able and enthusiastic students.
In 1954 Bloch was appointed Professor of Biochemistry in the Department of
Chemistry, Harvard University, and in 1968 he became Chairman of the Department.
He became interested in the enzymatic formation of unsaturated fatty acids and more
recently in various aspects of biochemical evolution. Later he was awarded the Nobel
Prize.
Professor Bloch was President of the American Society of Biological Chemists
(1967), Chairman of the Section of Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences
(1966-1969), and Chairman of the National Committee for the International Union of
Biochemistry (1968). He held honorary doctor degrees from the universities of
Uruguay (1966), Brazil (1966), Columbia University (1967), Technische Hochschule,
Munich (1968), and Brandeis University (1970).
In 1941 Konrad Bloch married a native of Munich. They had two children.
Konrad Bloch died on October 15, 2000.
83
FRANCIS CRICK (1916-2004) The Nobel Prize Winner
Francis Harry Compton Crick was born on June 8th,
1916, at Northampton, England. Crick was educated at
Northampton Grammar School and Mill Hill School, London.
He studied physics at University College, London, obtained a
B.Sc. in 1937, and started research for a Ph.D., but this was
interrupted by the outbreak of war in 1939. During the war he
worked as a scientist for the British Admiralty, mainly in
connection with magnetic and acoustic mines. He left the
Admiralty in 1947 to study biology.
Supported by a studentship from the Medical Research
Council and with some financial help from his family, Crick went to Cambridge and
worked at the Research Laboratory. In 1969 the laboratory gained the name of
Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology. In 1954 Crick obtained
a Ph.D. on a thesis entitled «X-ray diffraction: polypeptides and proteins». He began
to lecture at Harvard, as a Visiting Professor, and visited other laboratories in the
States for short periods.
In 1947 Crick knew no biology and practically no organic chemistry or
crystallography, so much of the next few years was spent learning the elements of
these subjects. A critical influence in Crick's career was his friendship, beginning in
1951, with J. D. Watson, then a young man of 23, leading in 1953 to the proposal of
the double-helical structure for DNA and the replication scheme. Crick and Watson
subsequently suggested a general theory for the structure of small viruses.
In recent years Crick, in collaboration with S. Brenner, has concentrated more
on biochemistry and genetics leading to ideas about protein synthesis, and the genetic
code. In 1962 he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy
of Arts and Sciences, and a Fellow of University College, London. He was a Fellow
of Churchill College, Cambridge, in 1960-1961.
In 1940 Crick married Ruth Doreen Dodd. Their son, Michael F. C. Crick is a
scientist. They were divorced in 1947. In 1949 Crick married Odile Speed. They had
two daughters. The family lives in a house appropriately called «The Golden Helix»,
in Cambridge. In 1963 Crick and Watson shared the Nobel Prize in
physiology/medicine.
Francis Crick died on July 28, 2004.
84
ARTHUR KORNBERG (1918) The Nobel Prize Winner
Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn, New York in
1918 and educated in its public school. He received his
undergraduate degree in science from the City College of New
York in 1937 and the M.D. degree from the University of
Rochester in 1941. After a year’s internship in internal
medicine, he served as a commissioned officer in the U. S.
Public Health Service. He was first assigned to the Navy as a
ship’s doctor, and then as a research scientist at the National
Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from 1942 to 1953.
He obtained training in enzymology at New York
University School of Medicine in 1946 and at Washington University School of
Medicine in 1947. Upon returning to Bethesda, he organized and directed the
Enzyme Section. He resigned in 1953 with the rank of Medical Director, to assume
the chairmanship of the Department of Microbiology of Washington University
School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri.
In 1959 Kornberg received (with Severo Ochoa) Nobel Prize for Physiology or
Medicine for discovering the means by which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
molecules are duplicated in the bacterial cell. In 1959 he organized the Department of
Biochemistry of the Stanford University School of Medicine, serving as its chairman
until 1969 and thereafter as professor. He accepted the title of Professor Emeritus in
1988. From his early studies of the mechanisms of the enzymatic synthesis of
coenzymes, he extended his interest to the biosynthesis of the nucleic adds,
particularly DNA. Kornberg found the enzyme that assembles the building blocks
into DNA, named DNA polymerase. Many other enzymes of DNA metabolism were
discovered responsible for the start and elongation of DNA chains and chromosomes.
These enzymes were the basis of discovery of recombinant DNA which helped ignite
the biotechnology revolution.
Among his honors are memberships in the National Academy of Sciences, the
Royal Society, American Philosophical Society, a number of honorary degrees, the
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1959), the National Medal of Science (1979)
and other medals and awards.
85
ROBERT W. HOLLEY (1922-1993) The Nobel Prize Winner
Robert W. Holley was born in Urbana, Illinois, on
January 28th, 1922, one of four sons of Charles and Viola
Holley. His parents were both educators. He attended public
schools in Illinois, California and Idaho, and graduated from
Urbana High School in 1938. He studied chemistry at the
University of Illinois and received his B. A. degree in 1942.
Graduate work was interrupted during the war. Holley
spent two years, 1944-1946 at Cornell University Medical
College where he participated in the first chemical synthesis of
penicillin. The Ph.D. degree in organic chemistry was awarded
in 1947. After completing the Ph. D. degree, Holley spent 1947-1948 as a
Postdoctoral Fellow of the American Chemical Society at Washington State
University. He then returned to Cornell University as Assistant Professor of Organic
Chemistry in 1948. He was Associate Professor there from 1950-1957. In 1958, he
returned to Ithaca, New York, as a Research Chemist at the U. S. Plant, Soil and
Nutrition Laboratory on the Cornell University campus. He had an appointment in the
University throughout this period and became Professor of Biochemistry in 1962. He
rejoined the faculty of Cornell University full time in 1964 as Professor of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and was Chairman of the Department from
1965 to 1966. The following year, 1966-1967, was spent at the Salk Institute.
Holley's training as a chemist did not alter his basic interest in living things.
This interest has influenced his choice of research, which began with the organic
chemistry of natural products. There followed the work on amino acids and peptides,
and eventually work on the biosynthesis of proteins. The following 10 years were
spent working with this RNA, first concentrating on the isolation of the RNA, and
then working on the determination of the structure of the RNA. The nucleotide
sequence was completed at the end of 1964. It was for this work that the Nobel Prize
was awarded. More recently, his work has been concerned with factors that control
cell division in mammalian cells.
Holley was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of
Science, The American Society of Biological Chemists and the American Chemical
Society. He received the Albert Lasker Award in Basic Medical Research in 1965,
and the U. S. Award in Molecular Biology of the National Academy of Sciences in
1967.
Robert W. Holley died on February 11, 1993.
86
Grammar supplement
The Noun (Имя существительное)
Род
Сравните: В русском языке существительное (одушевленное и неодушевленное)
имеет три рода: мужской (мальчик, стол — он), женский (девочка, лампа — она) и средний
(дитя, кресло - оно). В английском языке все существительные (неодушевленные и
одушевленные, кроме тех, которые обозначают людей) принадлежат к одному роду —
среднему и поэтому в единственном числе заменяются одним местоимением it, которое
можно переводить словами он, она, оно в зависимости от рода существительного в русском
языке, например:
book
— it (она),
table
— it (он),
dog
— it (она),
window
— it (оно).
Число
1. Множественное число существительных образуется прибавлением окончания -s к
существительному в единственном числе. При этом надо помнить, что -s произносится
звонко [z] после звонких согласных и глухо [s] после глухих согласных:
girl – girls, desk - desks
2. Если существительное в единственном числе оканчивается на -s, -ss, -х,
-sh, -ch или гласную, тогда прибавляется окончание -es, которое всегда произносится как [iz],
например:
class - classes, box – boxes, potato - potatoes
Примечание
а) Если существительное в ед.числе оканчивается на -f, то при образовании мн. числа
-f меняется на -v и прибавляется окончание -es, например:
leaf – leaves, shelf - shelves;
б) если существительное оканчивается на -у (после согласной), то -у меняется на -i и
прибавляется окончание -еs, например:
cherry - cherries
3. В составных существительных форму множественного числа принимает
смыслообразующее слово: passer-by (пешеход) – passers-by
4. Ряд существительных образуют мн. число не по общему правилу. Запомните
некоторые из них:
man - men,
woman - women,
child - children,
foot - feet,
tooth - teeth,
goose - geese,
mouse - mice,
Некоторые существительные – заимствования из латинского и греческого языков:
atrium – atria,
bacterium – bacteria,
nucleus – nuclei,
stimulus – stimuli
87
Падеж
1. Общий падеж (the common case)
Сравните: Существительные в русском языке имеют шесть падежей, которые
образуются путем изменения окончания существительного. Благодаря падежам мы
определяем связь между словами и таким образом понимаем смысл предложения. В
современном английском языке существительное имеет только одну форму — общий падеж.
Это значит, что существительное в предложении остается неизменным, а связь его с другими
словами осуществляется с помощью предлогов, которые используются перед существительным в общем падеже, например:
about a friend — о друге, with a friend — с другом, for a friend — для друга
Но иногда предлог не переводится, он только указывает на нужный падеж, например:
to travel by plane – путешествовать самолетом,
to write in pencil — писать карандашом,
to strike with a stone — ударить камнем.
2. Притяжательный падеж ( the possessive case)
Существует еще одна форма существительного — притяжательная, которая образуется прибавлением к существительному в общем падеже апострофа ' с буквой s — 's. Раньше
эту форму принимали только одушевленные существительные, и она выражала
принадлежность какого-то предмета кому-то, например:
Tom's book,
a boy's dog.
В современном английском языке эту форму могут принимать и неодушевленные существительные, например:
the machine's parameters — параметры машины,
the government's policy — политика правительства.
Примечание
Существительные, обозначающие дни недели, время суток и имеющие
притяжательную форму, могут переводиться прилагательными, например:
today's newspaper — сегодняшняя газета,
yesterday's news — вчерашние новости,
night's work — ночная работа.
Если в притяжательную форму ставится существительное во мн. числе (а это значит,
что у него уже есть окончание -s, второе ни требуется), то используется только один
апостроф, например:
the students' book — книга студентов, the boys' dog — собака.
Существительные, образующие мн. число без окончания -s, принимают окончание 's ,
например:
women's rights — права женщин
men's duty — долг (обязанность) людей.
Как видно из всех примеров, за существительными в притяжательной форме стоит
существительное в общем падеже, и именно с него надо начинать перевод этого
словосочетания:
the Earth 's population — население Земли,
my brothers' friends — друзья моих братьев.
Функции существительного в предложении
Мы знаем, что существует пять основных членов предложения: подлежащее,
сказуемое, дополнение, определение, обстоятельство. В английском языке существительное
может играть роль любого члена предложения.
88
1. Подлежащее
The classes begin at eight o'clock.
2. Сказуемое
В этой роли существительное обязательно стоит после глагола-связки, чаще всего
глагола to be, например:
Hе is a student. She is a doctor.
3. Дополнение
В этой роли существительное стоит после сказуемого и бывает прямым или
косвенным:
а) прямое дополнение (кого? что?) обычно употребляется без предлога, например:
I like the girl.
Некоторые английские глаголы с прямым дополнением (без предлога) в русском
переводе требуют предлог, например:
I followed the doctor. — Я последовал за врачом.
б) косвенное дополнение (кому? чему?) обычно выражается существительным с предлогом и
может находиться как после сказуемого, так и после прямого дополнения:
Не gave the textbooks to his friend.
4. Обстоятельство
В этой роли существительное всегда используется с предлогом, обычно с
определенным артиклем и может находиться в начале или в конце предложения, например:
His car is in the garage.
5. Определение
Существительное в роли определения может употребляться:
а) с предлогом — после определяемого слова и может соответствовать русскому
прилагательному или существительному, например:
a book of interest, discussions оf this type
6) без предлога — перед определяемым существительным (после артикля) и тоже может
соответствовать русскому прилагательному, например:
a table lamp, a school fellow
Примечание
Однако иногда перевод существительного прилагательным может привести к ошибке,
например:
car door — дверь машины, а не машинная дверь
table leg — ножка стола, а не столовая ножка.
Обратите внимание на то, что существительное в роли определения обычно
используется в единственном числе, но это не значит, что имеется в виду только один
предмет, например:
a book case — шкаф для книг, а не шкаф для одной книги.
Иногда два существительных пишутся слитно (или через дефис), особенно если они
короткие и часто употребляются вместе, например:
tea-party — званый чай
raincoat — плащ
tea-leaf — чайный лист
homework — домашняя работа.
Существительных в роли определения может быть больше, чем одно, — целый ряд.
Перевод во всех случаях надо начинать с последнего слова в ряду и устанавливать
логические связи, например:
The Moscow region medical establishments’ presentation was organized in Moscow. —
Презентация медицинских учреждений Московской области была организована в Москве.
Основные суффиксы и префиксы существительных
89
В английском языке, как и в русском, существует несколько способов образования
новых слов. Самым продуктивным является словообразование посредством присоединения
суффикса (к концу слова) и префикса (к началу слова).
Основные суффиксы существительных:
Суффикс
Основа
-er, -or
глагол
-ation, -ion, -sion,
-tion
-ment
глагол
-ance, -ence
глагол
-ing
глагол
-ics
лексическая
основа
лексическая
основа
лексическая
основа
прилагательное
-ian
- age
-ty, -ity
-th
-ness
-ure, -ture, -sure
-ship
Значение
действующее лицо,
профессия, устройство
действие, процесс,
состояние
действие, процесс,
состояние
действие, процесс,
состояние
действие, процесс
глагол
название наук,
специальностей
представитель той или
иной специальности
процесс, состояние,
название действия
абстрактное
существительное,
обозначающее состояние,
свойство
прилагательное качество, свойство
прилагательное качество, свойство
лексическая
явление, процесс
основа
лексическая
состояние, свойство,
основа
качество
Примеры
manager, speaker, smoker,
receiver, translator, visitor
communication, expression,
translation
payment, treatment,
management, movement
assistance, dependence,
maintenance
training, teaching, cooling,
meeting
pediatrics, physics, optics,
electronics
pediatrician, musician,
mathematician
passage, advantage,
courage, message
activity, ability, density
length, width, strength
darkness, brightness, illness
lecture, pressure, culture
hardship, friendship
Основные префиксы существительных:
Префикс
counterantidedisin-, im-, uncoselfintersubundernonpremis-
Значение
противо-, контранти-, противоде- , обезне-, дис-, бесне-, диссо-, взаимосамовнутри-, взаимо-, интерподпод-, нижний
недо-, предне-, неправильный
Примеры
countermeasure, counterrevolution
antibody, antidote
decrease, decompression, decomposition
disadvantage, disorder, disability
inaccuracy, imbalance, uncertainty
cooperation, coauthor, coexistance
self-criticism, selfdefense
interaction, intercommunication
subgroup, subclass
underclothes
nonsmoker
precursor, precondition
misuse, misunderstanding
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The Article (Артикль)
Артикли — это служебные слова, которые используются перед существительными. В
английском языке существуют два артикля: неопределенный a (an) и определенный the.
Правильное использование артиклей является одним из самых трудных вопросов в английской грамматике.
Неопределенный артикль
Неопределенный артикль a (an) (форма an употребляется перед существительными,
которые начинаются с гласной: an article) произошел от древнеанглийского числительного ān
что означает один (one). Следовательно, неопределенный артикль используется только перед
исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе.
Обычно неопределенный артикль указывает на принадлежность предмета какому-то
классу однородных предметов, например:
There is a table in the room. — В комнате есть стол (а не диван)
He is a student. — Он студент (а не школьник).
Неопределенный артикль также употребляется в случаях, когда перед
существительным стоит прилагательное описательного характера: a smart student.
В восклицательных предложениях типа: What a day! – Что за день!, Such a fool! – Вот
глупец! – неопределенный артикль указывает на единичность, уникальность упомянутого
существительного.
Необходимо запомнить случаи употребления артикля a (an) в оборотах
As a rule; it’s a shame; in a hurry; at a loss; it’s a pity, etc.
В словосочетаниях to have a bite, to have a smoke, to have a shower неопределенный
артикль указывает на однократность и непродолжительность выполняемого действия –
перекусить (по сравнению с «есть, кушать»), покурить (по сравнению с «курить»), принять
душ (по сравнению с «принимать душ»).
Определенный артикль
Артикль the произошел от древнеанглийского указательного местоимения θat, в современном английском языке оно имеет форму that — тот. Следовательно, определенный
артикль выделяет один определенный предмет или несколько определенных предметов из
всех подобных:
If you have read the book, give it to me.
Определенный артикль может использоваться перед любым существительным в
любом числе в следующих случаях:
1. Если перед существительным стоит:
а) порядковое числительное – the second chance,
б) прилагательное в превосходной степени сравнения – the best student,
в) слова following, last, next, same, very, only.
2. Перед названиями известных культурных и исторических ценностей – the Kremlin,
the British Museum, the Tower.
3. Если за существительным стоит уточняющий оборот:
Show me the jacket you have bought.
4. С названиями водных пространств, группы островов, горных цепей:
The Volga, the Canaries, the Urals.
5. С названиями сторон света (the South), уникальных явлений (the sun, the Earth, the
sky).
6. При обозначении целого класса предметов (явлений):
The rose is a flower.
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7. Перед собирательными существительными, отражающими принадлежность к одной
семье (the Ivanovs), нации, национальности (the Russian), а также перед собирательными
существительными, образованными от прилагательных и наречий (the poor, the wounded).
Нулевой артикль
Следует знать случаи, когда артикль не употребляется:
1. В обращениях: Little girl!
2.
Если перед личным именем стоит существительное, обозначающее
родственные связи, звания, титулы – uncle, captain, Lord.
3.
Перед существительными, обозначающими время суток (morning, afternoon),
время принятия пищи (breakfast, dinner), дни недели (Monday, Sunday), названия месяцев
(May, August), времена года (spring, summer).
4.
Перед неисчисляемыми (time, milk) и абстрактными существительными
(friendship, science).
The Pronoun (Местоимение)
Местоимения бывают: личные, притяжательные, возвратные и указательные.
Личные местоимения
Личные местоимения имеют два падежа (именительный и объектный) и, как и в
русском языке, три лица:
Падеж
Лицо
Именительный
(Кто? Что?)
1-е лицо
I
We
You
He
She
It
They
2-е лицо
3-е лицо
Объектный
(Кому?
Чему? Кого? Что? Кем?
Чем? О ком? О чем?)
Me
Us
You
Him
Her
It
Them
1. Личные местоимения в именительном падеже всегда являются подлежащими, значит, за ними всегда следует сказуемое.
Примечание
Местоимение she иногда употребляется для замены существительных, обозначающих
названия стран, пароходов и животных (в сказках), например:
France, ship, cat (he – кот, she – кошка)
2. Местоимение it требует особого внимания, так как может иметь разные значения:
а) чаще всего it заменяет слова в ед. числе, обозначающие неодушевленные и
одушевленные существительные (кроме людей), и соответствует русским местоимениям он,
она, оно в зависимости от рода существительного в русском языке, например:
a plan (он), a book (она), a window (оно) - it
б) в тех случаях, когда it заменяет не одно слово, а целое описание, понятие,
приведенное раньше, оно соответствует русскому слову это, например:
It is an important problem. — Это — важная проблема
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It was their point of view. — Это была их точка зрения
в) местоимение it также может играть роль подлежащего в безличных конструкциях,
которые в русском языке передаются безличными предложениями типа: Холодно. Темно.
Возможно, что... В этом случае it является формальным словом, оно только занимает место
подлежащего (так как английское предложение не может быть без подлежащего), но не
переводится, например:
It is cold. — Холодно.
It is dark. — Темно.
It is possible (that) he is right. — Возможно, что он прав.
3) Личные местоимения в объектном падеже всегда играют роль дополнения, а значит,
стоят после сказуемого, например:
Take it! — Возьмите его (план)!
Read them! — Прочитайте их (документы)!
Help her! — Помогите eй!
I help him. — Я помогаю ему.
Притяжательные местоимения
1. Притяжательные местоимения отвечают на вопрос чей? чья? чье? чьи? Эти
местоимения всегда стоят перед существительными и имеют только одну форму, независимо
от числа определяемого существительного.
Падеж Именительный
Лицо
(Кто? Что?)
I
1-е лицо
2-е лицо
3-е лицо
We
You
He
She
It
They
Притяжательный
(Чей? Чья? Чье? Чьи?)
My
Our
Your
His
Her
Its
Their
Притяжательные местоимения могут употребляться без существительного,
самостоятельно. В этом случае они имеют особую форму и играют роль слов-заместителей:
Mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs— особая форма притяжательных местоимений,
которая образуется присоединением к ним окончания -s (кроме my — mine). Эти словазаместители заменяют существительное с притяжательным местоимением:
Our plan is better than theirs (their plan). — Наш план лучше, чем их (план). Your article
is more interesting than mine (my article). — Твоя статья интереснее, чем моя (статья).
Запомните:
При наличии притяжательного местоимения артикль не используется!
Возвратные местоимения
Возвратные местоимения образуются от притяжательных местоимений прибавлением
к ним слова self, что означает сам, себя. Если слово self прибавляется к местоимениям мн.
числа, оно тоже принимает форму мн. числа — selves (при этом f меняется на v):
Myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, herself, himself, itself, themselves
Возвратные местоимения himself и themselves образованы от личных местоимений в
объектом падеже.
Возвратные местоимения могут выполнять три функции в предложении:
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а) усиливают существительное или местоимение — в этом случае они обычно стоят в
конце предложения (или после определяемых слов) и соответствую русским словам сам,
сама, само, сами, как таковой, сам по себе, например:
I do it myself. — Я делаю это сама.
The fact itself is interesting. — Этот факт интересен как таковой (сам факт интересен).
She is kindness herself. — Она — сама доброта.
б) делают глагол возвратным — в этом случае возвратные местоимения стоят после
сказуемого, которое в русском языке выражается глаголом в возвратной форме с окончанием
-сь, -cя, например:
She hurt herself. — Она ушибласъ.
A new idea suggests itself. — Напрашивается новая идея.
в) играют роль косвенного дополнения (кому? чему?) — в этом случае в соответствии
с твердым порядком слов возвратные местоимения стоят после сказуемого и в русском
переводе передаются словом себе, например:
They built themselves a new house. — Они построили себе новый дом (но не сами).
Но: They built the house themselves. — Они построили этот дом сами.
Указательные местоимения (this, these, that, those, the same, such)
1. Указательные местоимения this, these и that, those могут использоваться перед
одушевленными и неодушевленными существительными. Они различаются по числу и по
значению, которое можно определить как «близкий» предмет и «дальний» предмет:
ед. число
мн. число
«близкий»
this (этот, эта, это)
these (эти)
предмет
«дальний»
that (тот, та, то)
those (те).
предмет
Поскольку эти местоимения являются указательными, на них всегда падает
логическое ударение.
2. Указательное местоимение the same имеет только одну форму, используется перед
существительными в ед. и мн. числе и в русском языке передается словами «тот же самый,
один и тот же, одинаковый». Слово «тот» в русском переводе диктуется определенным
артиклем the.
We use the same plan. — Мы используем тот же (самый) план.
We have the same ideas. — У нас одинаковые идеи.
They said the same words. — Они сказали одни и те же слова.
She is the same age as me. — Ей столько же лет, как и мне.
Примечание
The same может употребляться и самостоятельно, как существительное со значением
«то же самое, одно и то же», например:
They did the same. — Они сделали то же самое.
3. Указательное местоимение such может употребляться перед одушевленными и неодушевленными существительными в ед. и мн. числе и в русском соответствует словам
«такой, такие» например:
We had such fun! — У нас было такое веселье!
Don't use such words! — He употребляйте такие слова
Если such используется перед существительным в ед. числе, то перед
существительным сохраняется неопределенный артикль а (аn), например:
Such an act is welcome. — Такое действие приветствуется.
She is such a nice girl! — Она такая прелестная девочка!
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Неопределенные местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные
Неопределенные местоимения some, any, no, every
Эти местоимения стоят перед существительным и отвечают на вопросы какой?, когда
определяют качество, и сколько?, когда определяют количество.
1. Местоимение some обычно употребляется в утвердительных предложениях и
соответствует русским словам:
а) какой-то, некоторый — когда определяется качество, например:
Не has some English book. — У него есть какая-то английская книга.
We had some problems. — У нас были некоторые проблемы
б) несколько, некоторое количество — когда определяется количество:
Не bought some English books. — Он купил несколько английских книг.
We have some invitation cards. — У нас есть несколько пригласительных билетов.
2. Местоимение any также может определять и качество, и количество и
употребляется во всех типах предложений. Оно соответствует русским словам:
а) какой-нибудь, сколько-нибудь — если употребляется в вопросительном
предложении, например:
Do you have any English book? - У тебя есть какая-нибудь английская книга? Do you
have any money? — У тебя есть сколько-нибудь денег?
б) никакой, нисколько — если any употребляется в отрицательном предложении,
например:
I do not have any English book. — У меня нет никакой английской книги;
в) любой — если any употребляется в утвердительном предложении, например:
I will take any book. — Я возьму любую книгу.
Аny of these books is interesting. — Любая из этих книг интересная.
3. Местоимение nо является отрицательным и имеет значение никакой — когда
определяется качество, ни один (из) — когда определяется количество.
Следует помнить, что в английском предложении, в котором есть местоимение nо (или его
производное), сказуемое имеет утвердительную форму, но в его русском варианте сказуемое
должно иметь отрицательную форму (с частицей не), например:
There were по books on the table. — На столе не было никаких книг.
No pupil knew the answer to this question. — Ни один ученик не знал ответа на этот
вопрос.
I like no sports. — Мне не нравится никакой вид спорта.
4. Местоимение every - используется перед одушевленными и неодушевленными
существительными в единственном числе и переводится словами каждый, всякий,
например:
Every player was on top form. — Каждый игрок был в лучшей форме.
I see her every day. — Я вижу ее каждый день.
Исключением является случай, когда за every стоит числительное с существительным
во мн. числе, например:
I go to Paris every six weeks or so. — Я езжу в Париж каждые шесть недель или около
этого.
Производные от some, any, no, every
1. Местоимения some, any, no, every в сочетании со словами body (тело), thing
(вещь), one (некто), where (где, куда) и how (как) образуют слова, которые используются
самостоятельно, а не как определения перед существительными:
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Производные от some (какой-то), any (какой-нибудь)
body
(обозначает лицо)
somebody
кто-то
anybody
кто-нибудь
thing
(обозначает предмет)
something
что-то
anything
что-нибудь (в вопросит. предл.)
все (в утверд. предл.)
one
некто
someone
кто-то (один)
anyone
кто-нибудь (в вопросит. предл.)
любой (в утверд. предл.)
where
где, куда
somewhere
где-то, куда-то
anywhere
где-нибудь, куда-нибудь
how
как
somehow
как-то, так или иначе
anyhow
как-нибудь
when
когда
оnсе
когда-то
ever
когда-нибудь
Производные от nо (никакой), every (каждый)
body
(обозначает лицо)
nobody
никто
everybody
каждый, все
thing
(обозначает предмет)
one
некто
nothing
ничто
nо one, none
никто, ни один
everything
всё
everyone
каждый
where
где, куда
how
как
nowhere
никуда, нигде
nohow
никак, никоим образом
everywhere
везде, повсюду
in every way
всячески, по-всякому
when
когда
never
никогда
always
всегда
При изучении таблицы обратите внимание на то, что:
а) в переводе русские частицы - тo (some — какой-то), - нибудь (any — какой-нибудь)
и ни -(no — никакой) сохраняются почти во всех производных;
б) во всех производных местоимениях ударение падает на первый слог;
в) не забывайте, что производные от отрицательного местоимения nо делают все
предложение отрицательным, а это значит, что в русском предложении перед сказуемым
надо поставить частицу не. Например:
I can understand nothing. — Я ничего не могу понять.
Nobody can do it. – Никто не может сделать это.
г) Мы знаем, что в русском предложении можно использовать любое количество
отрицательных слов, например:
Он никогда никому не дает ни одной книги.
В английском предложении может быть только одно отрицательное слово (будь то
подлежащее, сказуемое, дополнение или обстоятельство), которое делает все предложение
отрицательным. Поэтому приведенная выше фраза в английском варианте может звучать так:
Не never gives any of his books to anybody.
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Английское предложение «Nobody ever saw him anywhere», в котором только одно
отрицательное слово (nobody) , в русском варианте имеет четыре отрицательных слова
«Никто никогда нигде не видел его». Следовательно, фразу «Я ничего не могу понять»,
можно передать двумя способами:
I can understand nothing (отрицательное дополнение);
I cannot understand anything (отрицательное сказуемое).
Выделяют также вопросительные и относительные местоимения. Они совпадают
по форме, но в предложении передают различные значения:
Who
Whose
Whom
by whom
with whom
What
about what
What
Which
Which of
Вопросительные
Относительные
Кто?
Чей?
Кого?
Кем?
С кем?
тот, кто; тот, который
которого
которого, кого;
(с) которым, (с) кем;
(с) которым, (с) кем
Что?
О чем?
что; то, что;
о том, что
Какой?
Который?
Кто из…? Который из…?
который, которого
That – который, которые
Слова – заместители существительных
Мы всегда стараемся избежать повторения одного и того же слова в предложении
несколько раз. В английском языке существуют специальные слова-заместители, которые
используются вместо слов, уже упомянутых в данном или предыдущем предложении.
Кроме личных местоимений в именительном и объектном падежах в роли слов —
заместителей существительных используются и другие слова.
1. Mine, ours, his, hers, theirs, yours — форма притяжательных местоимений. Эти
слова-заместители заменяют существительное с притяжательным местоимением.
Притяжательное местоимение обязательно используется с существительным, а словозаместитель употребляется самостоятельно, например:
Our group is better than theirs.
Your answer is worse than hers.
2. That, those — служат для замены существительных, которые имеют после себя
определение, обычно существительное с предлогом (чаще всего of):
This book is more interesting than that on the shelf.
The best pictures are those of my friend.
3. This, these — обычно используются в качестве подлежащего, поэтому за ними идет
глагол -сказуемое (а не существительное, как в том случае, когда this и these являются
указательными
местоимениями).
Эти
заместители
заменяют
существительные
предшествующего предложения и соответствуют русским словам это, все это, все они и т.п.:
This helps me much.
These are of great interest for us.
4. One, ones —могут заменять существительные, которые имеют определение
(обычно стоящее перед этими существительными). Если заменяется существительное во мн.
числе, используется ones, например:
I have a red pencil, give me a green one.
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Of all these books the English ones are mine.
5. Слово one может также использоваться в качестве подлежащего (за ним идет
сказуемое). В этом случае оnе как бы заменяет неизвестное одушевленное лицо. Такие
предложения по-русски переводятся как безличные предложения: One must know it. - Нужно
знать это.
The Adjective (Имя прилагательное),
The Adverb (Наречие)
Поскольку прилагательные и наречия образуют степени сравнения одинаково, они
включены в одну тему.
Прилагательное
1. Прилагательное выражает признак предмета. В русском языке прилагательное
изменяется no числам, падежам, а в ед. числе и по родам. Английское прилагательное не
имеет рода и формы мн. числа, например:
an open door — открытая дверь,
these open doors — эти открытые двери.
2. Роль прилагательного в предложении. Прилагательное может играть роль двух
членов предложения:
а) определения (какой? чей? который?) — в этом случае прилагательное всегда стоит
перед определяемым словом, но после артикля (или местоимения), и их может быть
несколько, например:
a beautiful song — прекрасная песня,
a small shiny black leather handbag — маленькая блестящая черкая кожаная сумочка.
б) именной части сказуемого — в этом случае прилагательное всегда стоит после
глагола-связки:
She is beautiful. — Она прекрасна.
Наречие
1. Наречие отвечает на вопрос как? каким образом? и др. и играет роль двух членов
предложения:
а) обстоятельства — в этом случае наречие показывает как, каким образом
происходит действие сказуемого, и может стоять как в середине, так и в конце предложения,
например:
I know the subject well. — Я знаю этот предмет хорошо.
I quite agree with you. — Я вполне согласен с вами.
б) определения — в этом случае наречие определяет прилагательное или наречие и
стоит перед определяемым словом. В роли определения часто используются наречия very и
quite:
I like it very much. I know it very well.
His French is quite perfect. You are quite right.
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Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий
Как и в русском языке, в английском существуют три степени сравнения:
положительная, сравнительная и превосходная. Все три степени сравнения служат для того,
чтобы сравнивать количество или качество различных предметов, действий.
Положительная
степень — это основная (базовая) форма, которая чаще всего
просто говорит о данном количестве или качестве:
прилагательное
Today is a nice day. The blood is red.
наречие
Не spoke quite loudly. Не read the letter aloud.
Положительная степень прилагательных и наречий используется также:
а) при сравнении одинаковых качеств (в русском — так(ой) же ..., как и..). В этом
случае прилагательное или наречие в положительной степени ставится между словами as ...
as. Например:
прилагательное
Your hands are as cold as ice. This story is as interesting as his.
наречие
We go there in winter аs often as in summer. Не drove as fast as he could.
б) при указании на неравные качества (в русском: — не так(ой) ..., как). В этом случае
прилагательное или наречие в положительной степени находится между словами not so ... as
или not as ... as. Например:
прилагательное
She is not as nice as her sister. This story is not so interesting as his.
наречие
We go there in winter not so often as in summer. Не drove not as fast as yesterday.
Сравнительная степень прилагательных образуется двумя способами:
1) прибавлением суффикса -еr (в русском языке -ее: сильнее, умнее), который
присоединяется к односложным прилагательным или двусложным, оканчивающимся на –y,
ow, er:
long - longer,
easy - easier (конечное у меняется на i + -еr),
fat - fatter (конечная согласная после краткой ударной гласной удваивается)
pale - paler (конечное е выпадает),
narrow – narrower,
clever - cleverer
2) при помощи слова more - более (less — менее), которые ставятся перед
многосложными прилагательными и двусложными, кроме указанных в пункте 1:
important - more important,
careful - more careful,
helpless – more helpless
Превосходная степень сравнения также образуется двумя способами:
1) прибавлением суффикса -еst (в русском языке –ейший или самый…: сильнейший,
самый сильный), который присоединяется к односложным прилагательным или
двусложным, оканчивающимся на –y, ow, er:
long - longest,
easy - easiest,
fat – fattest,
narrow – narrowest,
clever - cleverest
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2) при помощи слова most - самый, которое ставятся перед многосложными
прилагательными и двусложными, кроме указанных в пункте 1:
important - most important,
careful - most careful,
helpless - most helpless
Основные суффиксы и префиксы прилагательных:
Суффикс
- al
именная (сущ.)
Основа
- ous
именная (сущ.)
- ic
именная (сущ.)
-y
именная (сущ.)
- able, -ible
глагол
- ant, - ent
глагол
- ive
- ar, -ary
существительное
глагол
именная
- ed
существительное
- ful
существительное
- less
существительное
Значение
Примеры
относящийся к тому, что
выражено основой
обладающий качеством,
обозначенным основой
относящийся к тому, что
выражено основой
обладающий качеством,
обозначенным основой
способность подвергаться
действию, выраженному
глаголом
различное
обладающий качеством,
обозначенным основой
обладающий качеством,
обозначенным основой
обладающий тем, что
выражено основой
наличие качества или
свойства, выраженного
основой
отсутствие качества или
свойства, выраженного
основой
educational, medical,
natural, chemical
various, dangerous,
nervous
climatic, scientific,
academic
dirty, healthy, stormy,
sleepy
flexible, comparable,
reliable, curable, visible
recurrent, different,
dependent, evident
active, effective,
progressive
muscular, regular,
ordinary, auxiliary
winged, experienced
useful, powerful,
successful, painful
useless, helpless,
sleepless
Основные префиксы прилагательных:
Префикс
antisemiin-, il-, im-, iruninterundernonprepostmulti-
Значение
анти-, противополуне-, дисвзаимо-, интер-, межпод-, недонедо-, предпосле-, пост много-
Примеры
antiseptic, antisocial
semiautomatic, semicovered
inaccurate, illogical, impossible, irregular,
unusual
international, interchangeable
underground, underdeveloped
non-logical, non-nuclear
prewar, pre-historic, preoperative
postoperative, post-war
multichannel, multiform
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Основные суффиксы наречий
- ly - самый продуктивный суффикс, образующий наречия от прилагательных, причем
почти всегда сохраняется значение исходного прилагательного: loudly, actively;
- wise - в сочетании с существительным и прилагательным образует наречия,
указывающие на то, каким образом, способом производится действие: stepwise (постепенно),
clockwise (по часовой стрелке);
- ward(s) - образует наречия, указывающие на то, в каком направлении совершается
действие: seawards (по направлению к морю), backward (назад), outward(s) (наружу).
The Numeral (Имя числительное)
Количественные числительные
1. Числительные от нуля до десяти:
Zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten.
2. Второй десяток до двадцати. Русскому суффиксу -надцать соответствует
английский суффикс -teen, который обозначает числительные второго десятка до 20 (кроме:
11 — eleven, 12 — twelve). При чтении этих числительных следует делать два ударения:
13- thirteen, 14- fourteen, 15- fifteen, 16- sixteen, 17- seventeen, 18- eighteen, 19- nineteen.
3. Десятки до ста. Cуффикс -ty обозначает десятки до 100. При чтении этих
числительных следует делать только одно ударение — на первом слоге:
20- twenty, 30- thirtу, 40- forty, 50- fifty, 60- sixty, 70- seventy, 80- eighty, 90- ninety.
Запомните:
a hundred
— сто, сотня
a thousand
— тысяча
a million
— миллион
а billion
— миллиард, биллион
4. Чтение многозначных чисел. Многозначные числа читаются по разрядам, причем
слова hundred, thousand, million не ставятся во мн. числе и после сотен используется союз
and, например:
4,631 — four thousand six hundred and thirty-one
6,254,798 — siх million two hundred and fifty four thousand, seven hundred and ninetyeight.
Если числительные hundred, thousand, million употребляются в ед. числе, перед ними
обязательно ставится или неопределенный артикль а, или слово one:
104 — one hundred and four
1,136 — one thousand one hundred and thirty six.
Обратите внимание на то, что в английском языке в многозначных числах сотни,
тысячи и т. д. отделяются запятой, а не пробелом или точкой, как в русском языке.
5. Ври чтении хронологических дат (лет) четырехзначная цифра делится на две
двузначные, например:
1917 - nineteen seventeen
1845 - eighteen forty -five.
Если в дате встречается ноль, то при произнесении он или опускается, или читается как [ou].
Порядковые числительные
1. Порядковые числительные образуются прибавлением суффикса -th к
количественному числительному, отвечают на вопрос какой по счету? и перед ними обычно
стоит определенный артикль the, который относится к определяемому существительному.
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Запомните порядковые числительные, которые образуются не по общему правилу: first —
первый, second — второй, the third – третий.
4th - fourth, 5th - fifth, 6th – sixth, 7th - seventh, 8th – eighth, 9th – ninth, 10th – tenth
2. В порядковых многозначных числительных суффикс -th присоединяется к
последней цифре, например:
the one hundred and twenty sixth book — сто двадцать шестая книга.
Примечание
Выражения типа двадцатые годы, семидесятые годы передаются не порядковыми
числительными, а количественными с добавлением -s (как показателя мн. числа), которое
присоединяется к цифрам через апостроф, при этом используется определенный артикль the,
например: the 70’s - the seventies — семидесятые годы
Дроби
1. Простые дроби. В простых дробях, как и в русском языке, в числителе
используются количественное числительное, а в знаменателе — порядковое. Если числитель
больше единицы, то знаменатель принимает мн. число, например:
1/2— one half , a half — одна вторая, (одна) половина
2/3 — two thirds — две трети
3/8 — three eights — три восьмых
2/115 — two one hundred and twenty fifth - две сто двадцать пятых.
В смешанных числах целое число читается как количественное числительное, а дробь
присоединяется к нему союзом and:
3 2/3 — three and two thirds — три целых и две третьих
4 1/7 — four and а (one) seventh — четыре целых и одна седьмая.
2. Десятичные дроби. В десятичных дробях дробные числа отделяются от целых
точкой, а не запятой, как в русском языке. Каждая цифра дробных чисел читается отдельно, а
точка — point [poınt]. Ноль читается как nought [no:t] или [ou]. Ноль целых можно совсем не
читать, произнося только point, например:
0.2 — nought (point two, или point two
0.003 — 0 point 00 three, или point nought nought three
1.22 — one point two two
The Verb (Глагол)
Общие сведения
1. Глаголы можно разделить на четыре группы по выполняемой в предложении
функции:
а) смысловые — выражают действие, состояние, процесс, поэтому всегда переводятся;
б) модальные — выражают не само действие, а отношение к действию (нужно,
необходимо сделать что-то, должно быть что-то сделано), поэтому за ними всегда следует
смысловой глагол. Эти глаголы тоже всегда переводятся;
в) вспомогательные — не выражают никакого действия, поэтому обычно не
переводятся. Эта глаголы служат для образования сложных (состоящих из нескольких слов)
форм глаголов;
г) глаголы-связки — не выражают действия, служат для связи подлежащего со
смысловой частью сказуемого и показывают время, число, лицо.
2. В предложении глаголы употребляются в двух формах:
а) в личной форме — это сказуемое, оно указывает на то, что действие реально
происходит (в настоящем, прошлом и будущем);
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б) в неличной форме — эта форма самостоятельно (без вспомогательных глаголов)
никогда не бывает сказуемым. В английском языке три неличных формы глагола:
Infinitive — инфинитив, неопределенная форма глагола, отвечает на вопрос что
делать? что сделать? В английском языке признаком инфинитива является частица to.
Participle I, II — причастие I (c окончанием –ing) и причастие II (с окончанием –ed.
Gerund — герундий (с окончанием -ing). Такой части речи в русском языке не существует.
Сказуемое – личная форма глагола
Сказуемое в английском предложении согласно твердому порядку слов обычно
находится после подлежащего и может быть в одном из трех наклонений:
а) в повелительном — выражает побуждение, приказание, приглашение к действию,
поэтому времени не имеет (действия еще нет);
б) в изъявительном— выражает (реальное) действие в настоящем, прошедшем и
будущем времени и может иметь повествовательную, вопросительную и отрицательную
форму;
в) в сослагательном — выражает предполагаемое, возможное, желаемое действие
(реального действия еще нет), поэтому времени не имеет.
Повелительное наклонение
1. Образование повелительного наклонения. Повелительное наклонение выражает
приказ, просьбу, команду, приглашение к действию и может быть образовано двумя
способами:
а) инфинитив глагола без частицы to ставится в начале предложения, например:
Help me, please! — Помогите мне, пожалуйста!
Come here! — Иди сюда!
Be careful! — Будьте внимательны!
Эта форма повелительного наклонения довольно строгая, в отличие от другой формы
— более мягкой, выражающей приглашение к действию и образуемой:
б) при помощи глагола let (давайте, пусть), после которого идет местоимение в
объектном падеже: me, us, him, her, them, it (реже, существительное) и инфинитив без to, например:
Let her read the text once more! — Пусть она прочтет текст ещё раз!
Let them do it! — Пусть они сделают это!
Let it be so! —Пусть это будет так!
При приглашении к совместному действию с говорящим используется let us (let's),
при этом в русском варианте местоимение нам (us) опускается, например:
Let us help her! — Давайте поможем ей!
Let's go home! — Давайте пойдем домой!
В некоторых случаях основное значение глагола to let — разрешать, позволять
сохраняется, например:
Let me do it. — Разрешите мне сделать это.
2. Отрицательная форма повелительного наклонения всегда образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола do, после которого стоит частица not (do not, don't), например:
Do not do that! — He делай этого!
Do not let her go! — He разрешайте ей уйти!
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Примечание
Если в повелительном наклонении перед смысловым глаголом стоит глагол do без
частицы not, то в этом случае do усиливает основной глагол и имеет значение обязательно,
непременно, пожалуйста:
Do give me the book! — Пожалуйста, дай мне эту книгу!
Do be careful! — Пожалуйста, будь осторожен!
Do come to see me! — Непременно приходи навестить меня!
Изъявительное наклонение
В английском предложении сказуемое в изъявительном наклонении имеет три
характеристики:
Tense (время):
Present, Past, Future
Aspect (вид):
Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous
Voice (залог):
Active, Passive
Напоминаем: любое сказуемое всегда несет три вида информации: время, вид, залог,
например:
I go to the University every day. — Я хожу в Университет каждый день.
go — сказуемое: Present Indefinite Active
Глагол to be
Если вы откроете английскую книгу, то увидите глагол to be (в той или иной форме)
почти в каждой строчке. Это происходит потому, что этот глагол может выступать в роли
четырех типов глаголов: смыслового, глагола-связки, вспомогательного глагола и
заменителя модального глагола must.
Спряжение глагола to be
Во-первых, следует знать, что глагол to be, в отличие от остальных глаголов,
изменяется по лицам и числам, и, во-вторых, он — неправильный, поэтому следует
запомнить его основные формы: to be — was, were — been.
Спряжение глагола to be во временах группы Indefinite
Лицо
1-e
2-e
3-e
Местоимение
I
We
You
He, She, It
They
Present Indefinite
am
are
are
is
are
Past Indefinite
was
were
were
was
were
Future Indefinite
shall be
shall be
will be
will be
will be
1. То be в роли смыслового глагола. В этой роли глагол to be имеет значение
находиться, быть (например, дома), так как за ним всегда стоит существительное с
предлогом, которое указывает место. Например:
I shall be at home. — Я буду (находиться) дома.
2. То be в роли глагола-связки. Глаголы - связки не передают никакого действия, они
служат только для соединения подлежащего со смысловой частью составного сказуемого,
которая может быть выражена разными частями речи. Итак, если после to be используется
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существительное (без предлога), прилагательное, числительное или инфинитив, то в этом
случае to be является глаголом связкой, который:
а) перед инфинитивом имеет значение значит, заключается в том, чтобы, например:
Our task is to read the text twice. — Наше задание заключается в том, чтобы прочитать
текст дважды.
б) во всех остальных случаях глагол to be имеет значение быть, являться и в
настоящем времени в русском варианте может опускаться, например:
I am а student. — Я (есть) студент.
We were five. — Нас было пятеро.
3. То be в роли вспомогательного глагола. В этом случае глагол to be обычно не
переводится, он служит для образования двух форм:
а) Continuous — за ним идет Participle I (с окончанием –ing):
Не is sitting at the table. — Он (сейчас) сидит за столом.
б) Passive — за ним идет Participle П (с окончанием -ed, 3-я форма):
I was given the book yesterday. — Мне дали эту книгу вчера.
4. То be в роли заменителя модального глагола must. В этом случае за глаголом to be
идет инфинитив смыслового глагола с частицей to, и он имеет значение должен, обязан,
например:
Не is to do it. — Он должен сделать это.
I am to help her. — Я обязана помочь ей.
Вопросительная и отрицательная форма предложений с глаголом to
be
Глагол to be образует вопросительную и отрицательную форму без помощи
вспомогательных глаголов
1. Вопросительная форма
Общий вопрос:
а) если глагол be имеет простую форму (состоит из одного слова: am, are, is, was,
were), тогда он выносится вперед и ставится перед подлежащим.
Не is a good student. — Он хороший студент.
Is he a good student? — Он хороший студент?
Yes, he is. — Да (он хороший студент).
No, he is not. — Нет (он не хороший ученик).
He is to do it. — Он должен сделать это.
Is he to do it? — Должен ли он делать это?
Yes, he is. - Да, должен.
No, he is not. - Нет, не должен.
б) если глагол be имеет сложную форму (т.е. имеет вспомогательный глагол,
например shall be, will be, can be, would be …), вперед выносится именно этот глагол (он же
используется в кратком ответе), а be остается на месте:
Не will be there tomorrow.— Он будет там завтра.
Will he be there tomorrow? — Он там будет завтра?
Yes, he will. - Да, будет.
No, he will not. - Нет, нe будет.
2. Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после
глагола to be, например:
Не is not a good student. — Он не хороший студент.
They were not in the hall. — Они не были в зале.
Если глагол be имеет вспомогательный глагол, то not ставится после него:
Не will not be there tomorrow. — Его не будет там завтра
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Оборот There + to be
1. Если нужно сказать, что что-то имеется, существует (или не существует), то
используется оборот there to be. В этом обороте перед сказуемым (to be) стоит слово there,
которое занимает место подлежащего, но не переводится. Глагол to be может иметь любое
число и время (настоящее, прошедшее и будущее) и обычно имеет значение иметься,
находиться, существовать, например:
There is a picture on the wall. — На стене (есть) картина.
There are many people in the street. — На улице много народа.
2. Как уже говорилось, слово there только занимает место подлежащего, но не
является им. Настоящее подлежащее находится после глагола be и всегда используется с
неопределенным артиклем (или без него в случае мн. числа) или с неопределенным
местоимением some, any, no, например:
There is a thing on the table. — На столе (находится) какая-то вещь.
There were some children in the room. — В комнате было несколько детей There are nо
people in the street. — На улице нет людей.
В роли фактического подлежащего часто используются производные oт some, аnу, nо:
somebody, something, nothing и т.д.:
There is something in the box. — В коробке что-то есть.
There was nobody in the hall. — В зале никого не было.
There will be somebody in the room. — В комнате кто-нибудь будет.
3. В предложениях с оборотом there to be обычно имеется обстоятельство, стоящее в
конце предложения; русский вариант этого предложения следует начинать с обстоятельства:
There is something in the box. — В коробке что-то есть
Если обстоятельство выражено словом there — там, то в предложении с таким
оборотом оказывается два there: первое — формальное подлежащее (there не переводится), а
в конце предложения обстоятельство места (there — там), с которого надо начинать перевод
предложения:
There were many people there. — Там было много людей.
Вопросительная и отрицательная форма предложений с оборотом
there to be
1. Для образования вопросительной формы оборота there to be надо поставить глагол
be перед словом there (в кратком ответе сохраняется вся конструкция), например:
Is there a book on the table? — На столе есть (какая-нибудь) книга?
Yes, there is.
No, there is not.
Да, есть.
Нет, там книги нет.
Если to be имеет вспомогательный глагол, то этот глагол выносится в начало
предложения (он же сохраняется в кратких ответах), a be остается на месте:
Will there be a lecture tomorrow? — Завтра будет лекция?
Yes, there will.
No, there will not.
Да, будет.
Нет, не будет.
2. Отрицательная форма оборота there + to be образуется двумя способами:
а) при помощи отрицательного местоимения nо, которое ставится перед основным
подлежащим, или с помощью отрицательных производных (nothing, nobody, no one),
например:
There is no book on the table. — На столе нет (никакой) книги,
There was nobody in he hall. — В зале никого не было.
There is nothing in the box. — В коробке ничего нет.
б) при помощи отрицательной частицы not, которая используется со словами much —
много (перед неисчисляемыми существительными), many — много (перед исчисляемыми),
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any — какой-нибудь (и его производными), single — один, единственный, enough —
достаточно и в кратких ответах, например:
There are not many books on the table. — Нa столе немного (мало) книг.
There is not much water in the glass. — В стакане немного (мало) воды.
There was not a single question to the speaker. — К оратору не было ни одного
вопроса.
Was there anybody in the room? — Кто-нибудь был в комнате?
Nо, there was not. — Нет. There was not anybody in the room. — В комнате никого не
было.
Is there enough presents for everybody? — Достаточно ли подарков для всех?
No, there is not enough presents for everybody. — Нет, на всех подарков не хватит
(недостаточно).
Основные функции глагола to do
1) смысловой глагол — делать, выполнять, действовать, подходить:
То do is to be. — Действоватъ — значит быть.
Не will do for us. — Он нам подходит.
It will only do you good. — Это вам будет только на пользу.
2) вспомогательный глагол — не переводится:
The rule does not work. — Это правило не работает.
Do you read much? — Ты много читаешь?
3) слово - заместитель — используется вместо ранее упомянутого сказуемого:
I know English better than he does. — Я знаю английский лучше, чем он (знает).
4) усиливает значение сказуемого — стоит перед смысловым глаголом в инфинитиве
без to: I do like it. — Это мне действительно нравится.
Времена группы Indefinite Active
Present Indefinite Active
(Настоящее неопределенное действительного залога)
1. Present Indefinite Active образуется из инфинитива глагола без частицы to для всех
лиц и чисел (кроме 3 л. ед. числа):
They help me. — Они помогают мне.
We like music. — Мы любим музыку.
В 3 л. eд. числа сказуемое имеет окончание -s или -es (если глагол оканчивается: на -s,
-ss, -sh, -ch, -x или гласную):
plans — (он, она, оно) планирует
does — (он, она, оно) делает
uses — (он, она, оно) использует
Глагол to have в 3 л. ед. числа имеет форму has. Например:
He has mаnу mistakes. — У него много ошибок.
2. Present Indefinite Active передает действие, которое происходит в настоящее время
(в отличие от прошедшего и будущего), время действия точно не определено, не ограничено,
такое действие происходит обычно, а не в определенный момент, час и не соотносится с
другим действием (до него или после него).
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Past Indefinite Active
(Прошедшее неопределенное действительного залога)
1. Past Indefinite Active образуется прибавлением окончания -ed к инфинитиву глагола
без частицы to для всех лиц и чисел.
2. Past Indefinite Active передает действие, которое происходило в прошлом; время
действия точно не определено, не ограничено, такое действие происходило обычно, и оно
могло быть закончено или не закончено: значит, глагол в форме Past Indefinite можно переводить совершенным и несовершенным видом, в зависимости от смысла предложения.
Не changed his point of view. — Он изменил свою точку зрения (совершенный вид).
Не often changed his point of view. — Он часто менял свою точку зрения
(несовершенный вид).
3. Неправильные глаголы. Не все английские глаголы образуют прошедшее время
прибавлением окончания -ed. Довольно большое количество глаголов имеют особую форму
прошедшего времени, которую приходится просто запоминать, например:
to go — went;
to come – came.
По способу образования Past Indefinite и Participle II все английские глаголы делятся
на две группы:
правильные — образуют прошедшее время и причастие II одинаково: прибавлением
окончания -ed;
неправильные — образуют прошедшее время и причастие II не по общему правилу,
их формы надо запоминать.
Future Indefinite Active
(Будущее неопределенное действительного залога)
1. При образовании Future Indefinite Active требуется вспомогательный глагол (shall –
для подлежащих 1 лица, will – в остальных случаях) и Infinitive смыслового глагола без
частицы to.
Вспомогательные глаголы shall и will не имеют собственного значения, но они
показывают, что смысловой глагол стоит в будущем времени:
2. Future Indefinite Active передает действие, которое произойдет в будущем, при этом
время этого действия точно не определено, оно может быть закончено и не закончено в
будущем, а подлежащее активно (Active), оно само совершает действие, например:
She will go there. — Она уедет (поедет, уйдёт) туда.
They will begin the classes at 9 o'clock. — Они начнут (будут начинать) занятия в 9
часов.
3. Говоря о будущем времени следует сказать, что:
а) в современном английском языке вспомогательный глагол will может
использоваться для любого лица и числа (а не только для второго и третьего), например:
We will see them tomorrow. — Мы увидим их завтра.
б) для передачи будущего времени может использоваться словосочетание to be going,
за которым следует инфинитив с частицей to и которое означает собираться (сделать что-то),
например:
I am going to read this book next year. — Я собираюсь прочитать эту книгу в будущем
году.
We were going to help them. — Мы собирались помочь им.
Действия, выраженные словосочетанием to be going (to), планируются заранее. Кроме
того, глагол to be в этом словосочетании никогда не употребляется в будущем времени.
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Modal verbs (Модальные глаголы)
Модальные глаголы can, may, must
1. Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs) выражают не действие, а отношение к действию
(возможность, вероятность или необходимость совершения какого-то действия), поэтому не
употребляются самостоятельно, а только в сочетании со смысловым глаголом.
Сan (could — форма прошедшего времени) — умею, физически могу сделать что-то, например:
Не can speak English. — Он может (умеет) говорить по-английски.
I can swim. — Я могу (умею) плавать.
May (might — форма прошедшего времени) — разрешено, есть возможность,
предположение. Этот глагол используется для того, чтобы попросить разрешения или дать
разрешение, высказать предположение
You may take the book. — Вы можете взять эту книгу.
Не may be а good friend. — Он может быть хорошим другом.
Не might be а good friend. — Он мог {бы) быть хорошим другом.
Must (формы прошедшего времени нет) — нужно, необходимо, должно быть сделано что-то:
I must stop smoking. — Я должка перестать курить (это необходимо).
You must know English. — Вы должны знать английский (это вам нужно).
Как видно из примеров, после модальных глаголов стоит инфинитив смыслового глагола без
частицы to
2. Запомните еще некоторые модальные глаголы, выражающие отношение к
действию:
need — нужно. Этот модальный глагол чаще всего используется в отрицательной форме, например:
You need not tell me about it. — Тебе не нужно говорить мне об этом (я сам знаю);
should — должен (следует, сделать что-то), например:
You should see her. — Тебе следует (ты должен) повидать её;
ought to — следовало бы, выражает вежливое настояние, совет. В отличие от остальных
модальных глаголов, за этим глаголом следует инфинитив с частицей to, например:
You ought to be more attentive. — Тебе следовало бы быть более внимательным.
Можно сказать, что should и ought to являются более слабыми, менее категоричными формами долженствования, чем глагол must.
Сравните:
You ought to see a dentist. — Тебе следовало бы сходить к зубному врачу.
You should see a dentist. — Тебе следует пойти к зубному врачу.
You must see a dentist. — Ты должен пойти к зубному врачу.
Заменители модальных глаголов can, may, must
Модальные глаголы иногда называют недостаточными, так как им «недостает инфинитива» (не бывает: to can, to must). А это значит, что они не могут образовывать сложные
формы с использованием вспомогательных глаголов, например, будущего времени. Чтобы
передать будущее время модальных глаголов (или построить другие сложные формы),
используются «заменители», которые имеют инфинитив и, значит, могут образовывать
любое время. Заменители модальных глаголов требуют после себя инфинитив с частицей to:
саn — to be able to (able — способный) — уметь, быть способным сделать что-то:
Не will be able to do it. — Он сможет сделать это.
Не was able to do it. — Он смог сделать это.
Не is able to do it. — Он способен сделать это.
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may — to be allowed to (to allow — разрешать) — иметь разрешение, возможность сделать
что-то, например:
You will be allowed to go home. — Ты сможешь (тебе будет разрешено) уйти домой.
I was allowed to take part in the discussion. — Я смог (мне разрешили) принять участие
в
дискуссии.
must — to have to — должен, приходится,
— to bе to — должен, обязан, положено (в будущем временя не употребляется).
Два заменителя глагола must (to have to и to be to) имеют одинаковое значение должен, однако с разными оттенками долженствования. Русскую фразу “Я должен поехать туда” можно
перевести тремя способами:
I must go there— Я должен (обязательно, мне нужно) поехать туда.
I am to go there, — Я обязан (должен по плану, и по договоренности) поехать туда.
I have to go there. — Я вынужден поехать туда (должен вместо А, который заболел).
Отрицательная и вопросительная форма сказуемых, включающих
модальные глаголы
1. Отрицательная форма сказуемых образуется при помощи частицы not после
модального глагола или его заменителя (кроме глагола to have), например:
Не cannot play football.— Он не умеет играть в футбол.
You may not go. — Вы не можете уйти (не разрешено).
You should not say such words. — Вам не следует говорить такие слова.
Не is not to do it. — Он не обязан делать это.
Обратите внимание на разное значение глаголов must и need в отрицательной форме:
You must not go there. — Вы не должны ходить туда (строгое запрещение).
You need not go there. — Вам не нужно ходить туда (там нет ничего интересного).
Исключением является модальный глагол to have, требующий в отрицательной форме вспомогательный глагол do, после которого ставится частица not, например:
Нe had to change his plan.— Ему пришлось изменить свой план.
Не did not have to change his plan. — Ему не пришлось менять свой план.
Не will have to change his plan. — Ему придется изменить свой план.
Hе will not have to change his plan. — Ему не придется менять свой план.
2. Вопросительная форма сказуемых образуется постановкой модального глагола
перед подлежащим (кроме глагола to have, который требует вспомогательный глагол do), он
же используется в кратком ответе, например:
Can he play football? — Он умеет играть в футбол?
Yes, he can.
No, he cannot.
Да (умеет).
Нет (не умеет).
Мay I go home? — Можно я пойду домой?
Yes, you may.
No, you may not.
Да, можно
Heт, нельзя.
Глагол to have требует do, если у него нет своего вспомогательного глагола, например:
Не had to go there. — Ему пришлось поехать туда.
Did he have to go there? — Ему пришлись поехать туда?
Yes, he did.
No, he did not.
Да (пришлось).
Нет (не пришлось).
Но:
Не will have to go there. — Ему придется поехать туда.
Will he have to go there? — Ему придется поехать туда?
Yes, he will.
No, he will not.
Да (придется).
Нет (не придется).
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Passive Voice (Страдательный залог)
Мы знаем, как образуются времена Present, Past и Future группы Indefinite в форме
Active (действительный залог), а теперь перейдем к форме Рassive (страдательный залог).
1. Passive образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола bе, за которым идет
Participle II (причастие страдательного залога) смыслового глагола:
Глагол be изменяется, так как он является вспомогательным: он выражает вpeмя,
число, лицо и обычно не переводится. Participle II смыслового глагола не изменяется, но всегда переводится, причем в том времени, в котором стоит глагол bе, например:
am asked— Present Indefinite Passive— (меня) спрашивают
was written — Past Indefinite Passive —(был) написан
will be invited — Future Indefinite Passive — (тебя, вас, его, ее, их, нас) пригласят.
2. Форма Passive показывает, что подлежащее пассивно и не само выполняет
действие, а на него переходит действие сказуемого, имеющего пассивную форму, сравните:
I invite them (Active). — Я (сама) приглашаю их
I аm invited (Passive). — Меня приглашают.
Не asked a question (Active). — Он (сам) задал вопрос.
Не was asked a question (Passive).— Ему задали вопрос.
Сравните:
Обратите внимание на то, что подлежащее (I, he, she) в английском предложении со
сказуемым в страдательном залоге не является подлежащим в русском предложении, а
сказуемое в русском переводе имеет активную форму (меня приглашают, мне задали, ей
пришлют).
Сказуемое в форме Passive может также соответствовать русскому глаголу в
страдательном залоге с окончанием -ся или -сь и иногда краткому прилагательному,
например:
Answers are given in the written form — Ответы даются в письменном виде.
The new buildings are built of bricks. - Эти новые здания построены из кирпича
3) Подлежащее, стоящее перед сказуемым в форме Passive, не совершает действия
этого сказуемого, его совершает кто-то (или что-то) другой, который чаще всего не
указывается. Но если необходимо обратить внимание на то, кем или чем осуществляется
действие, тогда существительное (одушевленное или неодушевленное) или местоимение (в
объектном падеже) вводится предлогом bу после сказуемого в страдательном залоге,
например:
The letter was written by my brother.
The work will be done by our friends.
Если действие совершается с помощью какого-то предмета, тогда употребляется предлог
with, например:
Не was shot with a revolver. —Он был убит из револьвера.
Образование формы Passive сказуемых с модальным глаголом
В сказуемых, в состав которых входят модальные глаголы или их заменители, форму
страдательного залога берет на себя инфинитив, стоящий после модального глагола. Пассивная форма инфинитива образуется по общему правилу: глагол to be (в нужной форме) и
Participle II смыслового глагола, а глагол be как вспомогательный берет на себя признак
инфинитива — частицу to, например:
to take — to be taken
to see — to bе seen.
She may be asked many questions. — Ей могут задать много вопросов.
Не should be invited — Его следует пригласить.
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Общее правило образования отрицательной и
вопросительной формы сказуемого
Отрицательная форма сказуемого (кроме глагола to be) образуется при
помощи частицы not, которая всегда ставится после вспомогательного глагола (а если их
несколько, то после первого):
We shall do the work. — We shall not do the work.
The work was done on time. - The work was not done on time.
You may take the book. — You mау not take the book.
Если сказуемое состоит из одного слова (это только две формы: Present Indefinite
Active и Past Indefinite Active), то используется вспомогательный глагол do (который не
переводится), чтобы выполнить общее правило: not ставится после (первого)
вспомогательного глагола:
I know the rule. — I do not know the rule. — Я не знаю это правило.
Если сказуемое имеет окончание -s (Present Indefinite, 3-е л. ед. число) или -ed (Past
Indefinite), то вспомогательный глагол do принимает эти окончания, принимая форму does и
did, a смысловой глагол остается в инфинитиве без to, например:
Не knows the rule. — Не does not know the rule.
They corrected the program. — They did not correct the program.
Если сказуемое в прошедшем временя выражено неправильным глаголом, то, поставив отрицательную частицу not после did, далее следует использовать инфинитив этого
глагола, например:
I saw him yesterday. — I did not see him yesterday
They knew about the decision. — They did not know about the decision.
Примечание
Существуют сокращенные формы сочетания глагола do и других вспомогательных
глаголов с частицей not, которые чаще всего используются в устной речи:
do not = don’t
does not = doesn't
did not = didn’t
have not = haven't
cannot = can't
will not = won' t
shall not = shan' t
is not = isn't
are not = aren't
Общие вопросы. При образовании вопросительной формы следует выяснить,
каким количеством слов выражено сказуемое:
а) если сказуемое выражено двумя (или более) словами, тогда действует правило
первого вспомогательного глагола: первый вспомогательный (или модальный) глагол
выносится перед подлежащим (он же используется при кратких ответах), а смысловой глагол
остается после подлежащего, например:
Не will enjoy the book. – Will he enjoy the book?
She was invited to the meeting. - Was she invited to the meeting?
I may take the book. – Мау I take the book?
б) если сказуемое выражено одним словом, то вопросительная форма образуется с
помощью вспомогательного глагола do, который ставится перед подлежащим и выражает
признаки времени, числа и лица; смысловой глагол остается на меcте после подлежащего в
инфинитиве без частицы to:
They like the film. — Do they like the film?
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Не gave her the book yesterday. — Did he give her the book yesterday?
He always comes on time. — Does he always соmе on time?
Вопросы, которые начинаются с вспомогательного (или модального) глагола,
относятся ко всему предложению и требуют краткого ответа «да» или «нет». Они
называются общими вопросами. Все приведенные выше вопросы являются общими.
Специальные вопросы. Если вопрос задается не ко всему предложению, а к
отдельному члену предложения, он называется специальным вопросом, и в этом случае
перед вспомогательным (или модальным) глаголом ставится вопросительное слово,
например:
When did he give her the hook?
Where shall we go tomorrow?
Why do you cry every day?
What can I do for you?
Если специальный вопрос ставится к подлежащему или его определению, то порядок
слов утвердительного предложения не меняется, только вместо подлежащего ставится вопросительное слово what — что или who — кто, например:
Не helped me to translate the text. — Who helped you to translate the text?
The book is on the table. —What is on the table?
На специальный вопрос к подлежащему также можно дать краткий ответ, который
состоит из подлежащего и первого вспомогательного (или модального) глагола, если
сказуемое выражено не одним словом, например:
Не will come here. — Who will come here?
My brother can speak French. —Who can speak French?
Альтернативные вопросы. Такие вопросы предлагают выбор из нескольких
предметов, понятий, вариантов. В составе этого вопроса всегда присутствует слово оr —
или, например:
Would you like sweets, cake, chocolate or ice-cream?
Which ice-cream would you like: chocolate, vanilla or strawberry?
Разделительные вопросы. Такие вопросы состоят из двух частей. Первая часть
представляет собой утвердительное или отрицательное повествовательное предложение, а
вторая часть является общим вопросом, который состоит из вспомогательного (или
модального) глагола, входящего в состав сказуемого первой части, и местоимения, которое
соответствует подлежащему первой части предложения. Вторая часть разделительного
вопроса в русском варианте выражается словами не так ли?, например:
Bob is a good boy, isn't he?
Маrу doesn't know English, does she?
Обратите внимание на то, что если сказуемое в первой (повествовательной) части
имеет утвердительную форму, то во второй части (в вопросе) сказуемое принимает
отрицательную форму, и наоборот:
Не likes opera, doesn't he?
Не doesn't like opera, does he?
Времена группы Perfect
Мы уже знаем, как образуются времена группы Indefinite, знаем, что сказуемые в
форме Indefinite можно переводить совершенным и несовершенным видом в зависимости от
смысла предложения. Теперь рассмотрим времена группы Perfect.
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Основное значение слова Perfect — законченный, совершенный. Значит, сказуемое в форме
Perfect должно выражать действие, которое уже закончено к определенному моменту
времени или до другого действия в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем. Другими словами,
форма Perfect показывает, что одно действие происходит до настоящего момента или до
начала другого действия.
Для образования этой формы требуется вспомогательный глагол have, за которым
следует смысловой глагол в форме Participle II. Вспомогательный глагол изменяется,
указывая на время и лицо, но не переводится; Participle II смыслового глагола не изменяется,
но переводится в том времени, на которое указывает вспомогательный глагол:
have played – сыграли (к настоящему моменту) – Present Perfect Active
have played – сыграли (до определенного момента в прошлом) – Past Perfect Active;
will have played – сыграют (до определенного момента в будущем) - Future Perfect
Active.
Когда указывается время, до которого происходит действие сказуемого в форме
Perfect, используется предлог by, который в этом случае имеет значение к, до, например:
I had finished the work bу 3 o'clock. — К трем часам я уже закончил работу.
Поскольку форма Perfect указывает на действие, которое произошло до другого действия или до настоящего момента, сказуемое в форме Perfect обычно следует переводить
совершенным видом, часто со cловом уже, например:
We have done it.— Мы уже сделали это
We had done it bу 6 o'clock. — К шести часам мы уже сделали это.
We shall have done it before he comes. — Мы уже сделаем это до того, как он придет.
Рассмотрим каждое из трех времен группы Perfect более подробно.
Present Perfect Active
Форма Present Perfect Active требует особого внимания, так как вспомогательный
глагол hаvе стоит в настоящем времени, а переводить смысловой глагол обычно приходится
прошедшим временем и совершенным видом (иногда со словом уже). Это происходит
потому, что речь идет об уже законченном к настоящему моменту действии, а в русском
языке такое действие можно передать только прошедшим временем, например:
They have answered all the questions. — Они ответили на все вопросы.
She has lost her money. — Она потеряла свои деньги.
I have read the book. — Я уже прочитал эту книгу.
Теперь мы уже знаем, что в английском языке существуют две формы сказуемого,
которые соответствуют прошедшему времени в русском языке: Past Indefinite и Present
Perfect. Какая между ними разница? Запомните: если говорящего интересует результат
действия, а не время его совершения (и оно не указывается), то используется Present Perfect,
а если его интересует главным образом, когда совершилось действие в прошлом (время
обычно указывается), то используется Past Indefinite.
Past Perfect Active
Для образования Past Perfect вспомогательный глагол have должен иметь форму прошедшего времени — had и это значит, что смысловой глагол следует переводить прошедшим
временем (иногда со словом уже), например:
had written — уже написал; hаd done — уже сделал.
Past Perfect используется в тех случаях, когда имеются два действия в прошлом (одно
произошло до другого): то, которое происходит раньше, имеет форму Perfect, а то, которое
происходит позже, имеет форму Indefinite, например:
I had written the letter before he came. — Я написал письмо до того, как он пришел.
Законченность действия в прошлом можно передать указанием точного времени с
помощью предлога by, например:
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I had finished the work by 5 o'clock. — К пяти часам я уже закончил работу.
They had fulfilled the plan by the end of the last year. — Они выполнили этот план к концу прошлого года.
Future Perfect Active
Для образования Future Perfect нужно вспомогательный глагол havе поставить в будущее время — will (shall) have, и это будет означать, что смысловой глагол следует
переводить будущим временем:
I shall have written — напишу, напишем;
will have done — сделает, сделают.
Future Perfect используется в тех случаях, когда имеются два действия в будущем
(одно произойдет до другого): то, которое произойдет раньше, имеет форму Perfect, а то,
которое произойдет позже, имеет форму Indefinite, например:
I shall have written the letter before he comes. – Я напишу письмо до того, как он придет.
Обратите внимание на то, что в придаточном предложении, которое начинается с
союза before, сказуемое имеет форму Present Indefinite (comes), но переводится будущим
временем. В таких случаях настоящее используется вместо будущего, чтобы не повторять
вспомогательные глаголы shall и will, которые уже были использованы для образования
будущего времени сказуемого главного предложения (shall have written).
Законченность действия в будущем можно передать указанием точного времени с
помощью предлога by, например:
I shall have finished the work by 5 o'clock tomorrow. — Завтра к пяти часам я закончу
эту работу.
They will have fulfilled the plan bу the end of the year. — Они выполнят план к концу
этого года.
Функции глагола to have
1) иметь — смысловой глагол.
I have time to do it. — Я имею (у меня есть) время сделать это.
2) должен — модальный глагол, за которым следует инфинитив с частицей to.
I have to do it. — Я должен (вынуждeн) сделать это.
3) вспомогательный глагол для образования формы Perfect, за которым идет Participle
II.
I have done it. — Я уже сделал это.
Времена группы Continuous Active
Основное значение слова continuous — непрерывный, длительный. Значит, сказуемое
в форме Continuous выражает действие, которое протекает (длится) в определенный отрезок
или момент времени в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем.
Форма Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола be, за которым
следует Participle I смыслового глагола.
Вспомогательный глагол be изменяется, указывая на время, число и лицо, и не переводитcя; Participle I смыслового глагола не изменяется, но переводится в том времени, на
которое указывает глагол be, например:
am writing — Present Continuous Active — (сейчас) пишу
were making — Past Continuous Active — делали (в определенный момент в прошлом)
shall be making — Future Continuous Active — буду (будем) делать (в определенный
момент в будущем).
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Английскому сказуемому в форме Continuous в русском языке соответствует
сказуемое несовершенного вида (поскольку Continuous говорит о продолжающемся
действии). При этом момент или отрезок времени, в течение которого происходит действие,
определяется либо указанием точного времени с помощью предлогов at — в или from ... till
— с (от) ... до, либо другим действием. Обратите внимание на разницу в использовании
времен группы Indefinite и группы Continuous:
Не was working from 12 till 5 yesterday. — Он работал вчеpa с двенадцати до пяти. Но:
Не worked hard yesterday. — Он вчера много работал.
At this time tomorrow I shall be delivering a lecture. —В это время завтра я буду читать
лекцию. Но:
I shall deliver mу lectures next year. — Я буду читать (свои) лекции в будущем году.
В том случае, когда сказуемое имеет форму Present Continuous, всегда имеется в виду
настоящий момент, поэтому в русском варианте такого предложения могут быть
использованы слова типа сейчас, в настоящее время, например:
Don't disturb him — he is working. — He беспокойте его, он сейчас работает.
Отрицательная и вопросительная форма сказуемых в форме Continuous образуется по
общему правилу первого вспомогательного глагола, поскольку сказуемое в этом случае
всегда состоит по меньшей мере из двух слов, например:
Не was not working from 12 till 5 o'clock. —
С двенадцати до двух часов он не работал.
Is he working? — Он сейчас работает?
Yes, he is.
No, he is not.
Да (работает).
Нет (не работает).
Времена группы Perfect Continuous Active
В английском языке существует еще одна сложная форма сказуемого — Perfect Continuous. Казалось бы, форма Perfect, которая говорит о законченности действия, и форма
Continuous, которая говорит о продолжающемся действии, несовместимы. Однако такое
сочетание можно объяснить: Perfect означает, что действие уже началось (до начала речи), a
Continuous означает, что это действие продолжается в момент речи в настоящем, прошедшем
и будущем.
Perfect Continuous образуется от формы Continuous, в которой вспомогательный
глагол be берег на себя форму Perfect: have been + Participle I .
Глагол have, являясь первым вcпомогательным глаголом, обозначает время, число и
лицо; оба вспомогательных глагола (have, been) не переводятся; Participle I смыслового
глагола переводится с учетом времени глагола have, например:
have been playing — Present Perfect Continuous — играю (уже некоторое время и продолжаю сейчас)
had been playing — Past Perfect Continuous — играл, играли (уже некоторое время и
продолжали играть в тот момент в прошлом, о котором идет речь)
will have been playing — Future Perfect Continuous — будет (будут) играть (уже некоторое время к определенному моменту в будущем)
При использовании этой формы сказуемого обычно указывается, сколько времени
длится действие, с помощью слов for — в течение или since — с (при любом указании на
время), например:
I have been reading the bооk for three hours. — Я читаю эту книгу уже три часа.
I have been reading the book since 5 o'clock. — Я читаю эту книгу с 5 часов.
Поскольку в этой сложной глагольной форме есть Continuous, значит, в русском
предложении ей будет соответствовать сказуемое, выраженное глаголом несовершенного
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вида (что делать?), при этом можно добавить слово уже, которое сопровождает форму
Perfect, например:
I have been living in Moscow since 1986. — Я живу в Москве с 1986 г.
I had been living in Moscow for 10 years by that time. — К тому времени я уже жил в
Москве в течение десяти лет.
I shall have been living in Moscow for 10 years by the time he comes. — Я буду жить в
Москве уже в течение десяти лет к тому времени, когда он приедет.
Неличные формы глагола
В английском языке есть три неличные формы глагола:
a) Infinitive – неопределенная форма глагола (to plan);
б) Participle I — причастие действительного залога (planning); Participle II —
причастие страдательного залога (planned);
в) Gerund - герундий(planning).
Вспомним, личная форма глагола — это сказуемое, которое имеет показатель времени
и наклонение. Неличная форма глагола не имеет времени и, значит, не может быть
сказуемым (если только не используется в сочетании со вспомогательными глаголами).
Рассмотрим каждую из неличных форм глагола отдельно.
Infinitive (инфинитив)
Инфинитив — это неопределенная форма глагола, которая отвечает на вопрос что делать? что сделать? В английском языке признаком инфинитива является частица to перед
глаголом, например:
Infinitive — это глагол, который произошел от существительного с предлогом to, значит, он имеет признаки и глагола, и существительного и поэтому может переводиться как существительным, так и глаголом (обычно неопределенной формой):
To study English is useful. – Учить английский полезно. (Изучение английского языка
полезно)
Как глагол инфинитив может иметь после себя дополнение и определяться наречием:
to write letters
to build roads
to speak loudly
to read aloud
Поскольку инфинитив обладает признаками существительного, он может играть роль
любого члена предложения:
1) подлежащее — в. этой роли инфинитив находится в начале предложения, перед
сказуемым, и может переводиться или неопределенной формой глагола, или
существительным, например:
То learn English is not very difficult. — Учить английский не трудно.
То choose the right time is to save time. — Выбрать правильное время — значит сберечь
время.
2) дополнение — в этой роли инфинитив стоит после сказуемого и переводится на
русский язык неопределенной формой глагола, например:
Anyone саn learn to speak English. — Любой может научиться говорить по-английски.
3) обстоятельство (цели или следствия) — в этой роли инфинитив может стоять в
начале и в конце предложения, и в обоих случаях его следует переводить неопределенной
формой глагола с союзами для того чтобы, чтобы.
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То know English well one must study hard. — Чтобы знать английский хорошо, надо
упорно заниматься.
Не came to Moscow to enter the Medical Institute. — Он приехал в Москву, чтобы поступить в Педагогический институт.
The rule is too difficult to be used. — Это правило слишком трудное для использования.
4) определение — в этой роли инфинитив стоит после определяемого слова и может
переводиться или неопределенной формой глагола, или определительным придаточным
предложением, например:
Everyone had a possibility to ask a question. — Каждый имел возможность задать
вопрос.
Не was the first to realize the situation. — Он был первым, кто понял ситуацию.
5) сказуемое — с этой ролью инфинитив самостоятельно не справляется, поскольку
не выражает времени. Для этого ему нужен вспомогательный глагол, который берет на себя
признаки времени. Вспомогательные глаголы могут быть разными в зависимости от того,
какая форма глагола образуется. Кроме того, инфинитив может использоваться с частицей to
и без частицы to. Приведем основные случаи использования инфинитива в составе
сказуемого:
Infinitive с частицей to:
а) являясь смысловой частью сказуемого, стоит после глагола-связки be, который
переводится словами значит, заключается в том, чтобы :
То do two things at once is to do neither, — Делать два дела одновременно — значит не
делать ни одного.
Our task is to do the work well. — Наша задача состоит в том, чтобы сделать эту работу
хорошо;
б) стоит после глаголов be и have, которые являются заменителями модального
глагола must и имеют значения должен, нужно и иногда можно, например:
They are to attend lectures. — Они должны (обязаны) присутствовать на лекциях.
We had to check the plan. — Мы должны (вынуждены) были проверить план,
Infinitive без частицы to употребляется:
а) для образования будущего времени, стоит после вспомогательного глагола shall или
will, например:
Не will do it well. — Он сделает это хорошо.
6) для образования повелительного наклонения, например:
Look at the picture! — Посмотри на (эту) картину!
Let us do it together! — Давайте сделаем это вместе!
в) после модальных глаголов, например:
Good can never grow out of bad. — Из плохого никогда не может получиться хорошее.
One must see the difference. — Нужно видеть различие.
г) для образования сослагательного наклонения после вспомогательных глаголов
should, would, could, might, например:
I should like to do it. — Мне хотелось бы сделать это.
Не might help me. — Он мог бы помочь мне.
Инфинитивные обороты
Complex Object (Сложное дополнение)
В русском переводе этот оборот образует придаточное предложение, в котором инфинитив становится сказуемым.
Возьмем пример, в котором дополнение выражено инфинитивом:
I want to go there. — Я хочу пойти туда.
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В этом примере два глагола (want, to go) связаны с одним действующим лицом —
подлежащим (I). И если после сказуемого мы поставим еще одно действующее лицо —
дополнение, выраженное существительным в общем падеже или местоимением в объектном
падеже, то получим предложение с двумя действующими лицами:
I want him to go there. — Я хочу, чтобы oн пошел туда.
В этом предложении два действующих лица (I и him — he) и у каждого есть свой
глагол.
В русском варианте этого предложения появился союз (чтобы) и инфинитив to go
стал сказуемым придаточного предложения (пошел).
В русском варианте такого предложения между сказуемым и дополнением ставится
союз что или чтобы, иногда как, для соединения главного и придаточного предложения.
Например:
I hate her to use these words. — Мне не нравится, что она использует такие слова.
Иногда порядок слов английского предложения с оборотом «дополнение с
инфинитивом» полностью совпадает с порядком слов русского варианта этого предложения,
например:
I allowed her to take the book. — Я позволила ей взять эту книгу.
Если сказуемое выражено глаголом чувственного восприятия - to see — видеть, to hear
— слышать, to feel — чувствовать, или глаголами to let — разрешать, to make — заставлять,
то инфинитив после дополнения используется без частицы to например:
I heard your sister know English well. — Я слышал, что твоя сестра хорошо знает
английский язык.
We let him do it. — Мы разрешили ему сделать это.
They made her come. — Они заставили ее прийти.
Complex Subject (Сложное подлежащее)
В русском варианте этот оборот образует придаточное предложение, в котором
инфинитив становится сказуемым.
Возьмем английское предложение с таким оборотом:
Не is known to be a good sportsman.
Чтобы получить русский эквивалент этого предложения, надо подлежащее соединить
с инфинитивом и перевести придаточным предложением с союзом что (что он является
хорошим спортсменом). А сказуемое (is known) вынести вперед, в положение перед
подлежащим, и перевести главным предложением (известно). Итак, на русском языке это
предложение звучит так:
Известно, что он является хорошим спортсменом.
The text is said to be very difficult. — Говорят, что этот текст очень трудный.
Обратите внимание на то, что сказуемое в предложении с таким оборотом выражено
глаголом в страдательном залоге (is said, is known). Но есть ряд глаголов, которые используются в такой конструкции в активной форме:
to seem – казаться
to appear – казаться
to prove — оказываться
to happen — случаться
to be likely—вероятно
to be unlikely — маловероятно.
Например:
He seems to be a good worker. — Кажется, (что) он хороший работник.
The text appears to be very interesting. — По-видимому, текст очень интересный.
I happened to meet him in the street. — Случилось так, что я встретила его на улице.
She is likely to come. — Возможно, (что) она придет:
Не is unlikely to help me. — Маловероятно, что он поможет мне,
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He proved to be a good friend. — Оказалось, что он хороший друг.
Participle I (Причастие действительного залога)
Образование Participle I. Причастие I образуется от инфинитива без частицы to
прибавлением окончания -ing. Participle I соответствует русскому причастию
действительного залога:
to play — playing — играющий, игравший
to have — having — имеющий, имевший
to plan—planning — планирующий, планировавший.
Participle (в отличие от инфинитива) является чисто глагольной формой, поэтому
имеет только признаки глагола: может иметь прямое дополнение и определяться наречием,
например:
reading books — читающий книги
reading aloud — читающий вслух.
Роль Participle I в предложении. Поскольку причастие не имеет признаков существительного, оно может играть роль двух членов предложения: определения и обстоятельства, а
в роли сказуемого — только в сочетании со вспомогательными глаголами.
В роли определения одиночное причастие обычно стоит перед определяемым словом, например:
a reading boy — читающий мальчик
a crying girl — плачущая девочка.
Если причастие имеет дополнение и другие относящиеся к нему слова, оно образует
при-частный оборот, который ставится после определяемого слова, например:
the boy reading a book — мальчик, читающий книгу
the girl speaking loudly — девочка, говорящая громко.
People living at that time in the town could see a great fire. — Люди, жившие в то время в
этом городе, могли видеть огромный пожар.
Обратите внимание на то, что Participle I (living) переводится причастием или
сказуемым в прошедшем времени (жившие, которые жили). Это происходит потому, что
сказуемое английского предложения стоит в прошедшем времени (could see).
Сравните:
People living now in the town can see many new buildings. — Люди, живущие (которые
живут) сейчас в этом городе, могут видеть много новых зданий.
Participle I (living) переводится причастием или сказуемым в настоящем времени
(живущие, которые живут), потому что сказуемое английского предложения стоит в
настоящем времени (can see)
В роли обстоятельства причастий I может стоять в начале или в конце предложения
и иногда вводится словами when и while. В русском языке причастию I в этой роли
соответствует:
Writing dictations I make many mistakes. — Когда я пишу диктанты, я делаю много
ошибок.
Participle II (Причастие страдательного залога)
Образование Participle II. Причастие П (3-я форма глагола) образуется прибавлением
окончания -ed к инфинитиву правильных глаголов без частицы to. Форму причастия
неправильных глаголов следует запомнить, так как она обрадуется не по общему правилу.
Participle II соответствует русскому причастию страдательного залога (сделанный,
предлагаемый, взятый).
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Роль Participle II в предложении. Причастие П, как. и причастие I, может играть роль
двух членов предложения: определения и обстоятельства, а в роли сказуемого — только в сочетании со вспомогательными глаголами.
В роли определения одиночное причастие обычно находится перед определяемым
словом, а причастный оборот после определяемого слова, например:
the changed plan — измененный план
the invited guests — приглашенные гости
the girl invited tо the party — девушка, приглашенная ни вечеринку.
В роли обстоятельства причастие II находится в начале или в конце предложения и
может вводиться словами when, if, though и др.
Participle II в роли обстоятельства всегда следует переводить сказуемым в страдательном залоге придаточного обстоятельственного предложения, для которого союз подбирается
по смыслу:
Written in pencil the text was difficult to read. — Так как текст был написан карандашом,
его трудно было читать.
В этом примере причастие П (written) переводится сказуемым придаточного
предложения в прошедшем времени (был написан), так как сказуемое английского
предложения имеет форму прошедшего времени (was).
If invited I shall go with them. — Если меня пригласят, я пойду с ними.
Здесь причастие II (invited) переводится будущим временем (пригласят), так как
сказуемое английского предложения имеет форму будущего времени (shall go).
Мы уже знаем, что причастие II участвует в качестве смыслового глагола в
образовании двух форм сказуемого:
а) Passive (страдательный залог) — в этом случае Participle II стоит после
вспомогательного глагола be, например:
The text was translated into English. — Текст был переведен на английский язык.
б) Perfect (перфектная форма) — в этом случае Participle II стоит после
вспомогательного глагола have, например:
They have come — Они уже пришли
Gerund (Герундий)
Третьей неличной формой глагола является Gerund.
Образование герундия. Герундий образуется так же, как и причастие I: к инфинитиву
без частицы to прибавляется окончание -ing, например:
to read — reading — чтение
to sing — singing — пение.
Различие этих двух внешне одинаковых глагольных форм заключается в том, что
причастию I соответствует русское причастие действительного залога, а герундию
соответствует существительное с окончанием -ание, -ение: swimming — плавание.
Герундий в отличие от Participle I, который имеет только признаки глагола, имеет
признаки двух частей речи: глагола и существительного (как и инфинитив).
Признаки глагола:
в) может иметь прямое дополнение (без предлога), например:
reading books — чтение (чего?) книг
singing songs — пение (чего?) песен;
б) может определяться наречием, например
reading books aloud — чтение книг (как?) вслух.
Этими глагольными признаками обладает и Participle I. Однако у герундия есть еще и
некоторые признаки существительного.
Признаки существительного:
121
а) может иметь притяжательное местоимение, например:
his reading books — его чтение книг
their singing — их пение;
б) перед ними может стоять предлог:
by reading — путем чтения (прочтения);
в) может иметь определение в виде существительного в притяжательной форме:
my friend's reading — чтение (чье?) моего друга
mу sister's singing — пение (чье?) моей сестры.
Запомните:
Герундий никогда не имеет артикля и формы мн. числа и этим он отличается от
существительного.
Перевод герундия. Аналогичной части речи в русском языке нет. Но так как герундий
имеет признаки существительного и глагола, значит, в русское языке можно найти два способа его перевода:
а) существительным, передающим процесс, например:
Smoking is bad for you. — Курение приносит вам вред;
б) глаголом, чаще всего инфинитивом, а иногда (если есть предлог) деепричастием,
например:
Saying is one thing and doing is another. — Сказать — это одно, а сделать— это другое.
By doing nothing we learn to do ill, — He делая ничего, мы учимся делать зло.
Некоторые глаголы, после которых используется герундий:
to begin {working) — начинать (работать)
to start (running) — начать (бег)
to continue (doing) — продолжать (делать)
to go on (reading) — продолжать (чтение)
to finish (testing) — закончить (проверку)
to give up (smoking) — перестать (курить)
to keep (helping) — продолжать (помогать)
to stop (writing) — прекратить (писать)
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