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Бекишева, Е., Барбашёва, С. - English for Dentists (СамГМУ 2015)

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С.С. Барбашёва
Учебно-методическое пособие
для студентов
стоматологического факультета
"
ENGLISH
FOR
DENTISTS
Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Самарский государственный медицинский университет»
Министерства Здравоохранения Российской Федерации
Кафедра иностранных и латинского языков
Бекишева Е.В., Барбашёва С.С.
ENGLISH FOR DENTISTS
УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ
СТОМАТОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ФАКУЛЬТЕТА
Самара 2015
1
УДК 616.31=20 (075.8)
Составители:
Бекишева Елена Владимировна, зав. кафедрой иностранных и латинского языков ГБОУ
ВПО СамГМУ, профессор, доктор филологических наук
Барбашева Светлана Сергеевна, доцент кафедры иностранных и латинского языков ГБОУ
ВПО СамГМУ, кандидат педагогических наук.
English for Dentists. Учебно-методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов
стоматологического факультета - Самара: Издательство «Криптен-Волга», 2015.- 184с.
Пособие составлено на основе
оригинальных текстов, подобранных из различных
англоязычных источников по стоматологии, а именно статей из научных и научнопопулярных журналов, изданных в Великобритании и США. Кроме того, данное пособие
содержит необходимый лексический материал, включающий стоматологическую
терминологию, и сведения по грамматике английского языка.
Учебный материал пособия соответствует требованиям ФГОС ВПО по направлению
подготовки «Стоматология», включает задания для аудиторной и внеаудиторной
самостоятельной работы студентов при изучении английского языка.
Учебно-методическое пособие утверждено ЦКМС ГБОУ ВПО
СамГМУ Минздрава России (протокол №6 от 17.06.2015)
Рецензенты:
М.М. Халиков, зав.кафедрой иностранных языков Сам ГУПС, доктор
филологическихнаук, профессор
А.Н. Морозова, зав.кафедрой английского языка и методики преподавания
иностранного языка ПГСГА, доктор филологических наук, профессор
УДК 616.31=20 (075.8)
ISBN 978-5-9904839-2-7
Бекишева Е.В.
Барбашёва С.С.
2
Введение
Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов стоматологического
факультета, продолжающих изучать английский язык в медицинском вузе, в
рамках базовой дисциплины «Иностранный язык».
Материал пособия представлен в виде двух больших тематических
разделов, которые, в свою очередь, имеют подразделы. Первый раздел
состоит из 11 подразделов и включает тексты, посвященные анатомии зуба,
а также
заболеваниям зубов. Во втором разделе 7 подразделов, где
представлены
статьи,
затрагивающие
вопросы
стоматологического
образования в Великобритании и США.
Все разделы имеют единообразную структуру и состоят из заданий для
аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы по освоению дисциплины. В каждый
раздел входит:
1) оригинальный текст стоматологической направленности;
2) серия разнообразных
тренировочных упражнений на активизацию
освоения изученного лексического материала;
3) грамматический блок, содержащий в себе грамматические правила и
тренировочные упражнения, направленные на закрепление
изученного
материала.
В пособии представлен блок дополнительных оригинальных текстов
для чтения стоматологической направленности, а также идиоматические
выражения по данной специальности.
Цели пособия:
1) расширить словарный запас студентов за счет овладения ими современной
терминологией, широко используемой в современной стоматологии;
2) активизировать грамматические умения и навыки, полученные на ранних
этапах, в результате выполнения разнообразных тренировочных упражнений;
3) подготовить студентов к чтению оригинальной литературы по
стоматологии;
4) развитие коммуникативных навыков.
3
Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие является дополнением к
учебнику Английский язык. English in dentistry: учебник для студентов
стоматологических факультетов медицинских вузов. Содержание учебного
материала соответствует ООП
подготовки
«Стоматология»
высшего образования по направлению
и
рабочей
«Английский язык».
4
программе
по
дисциплине
PART I. TEETH ANATOMY AND DENTAL DISEASES
Unit 1 Teeth Anatomy
1.1 Teeth Anatomy (Part 1)
1.2Teeth Anatomy (Part 2)
Grammar: Present Simple / Continuous
7
11
Unit 2 Dental Eruption
2.1 Dental Eruption ( Part 1)
2.2 Dental Eruption ( Part 2)
Grammar:Past Simple / Continuous
16
20
Unit 3 Sensitive Teeth
3.1The Cause of Sensitive Teeth
3.2 The Potential risk of teeth sensitivity
Grammar:Future Simple / Continuous
24
29
Unit 4 Dental Plaque
4.1 The Cause of Dental Plaque
4.2 How to check for plaque
Grammar: Present Perfect
34
38
Unit 5 Tooth Decay
5.1 The Cause of Tooth Decay
5.2 The Stages of Tooth Decay
Grammar: Past Perfect
42
46
Unit 6 Dental Calculus
6.1 How Dental Calculus is created
6.2 How to check calculus
Grammar: Future Perfect
51
54
Unit 7 Gum Disease
7.1 Gingivitis
7.2 The First Signs of Gum Disease
Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous
59
64
Unit 8 Tooth Abscess
8.1 The Cause of Tooth Abscess
8.2 The Types of Tooth Abscess
Grammar: Past Perfect Continuous
69
73
Unit 9 The Types of Tooth Discoloration
9.1 Yellow Teeth
9.2 Stained and Discolored Teeth
Grammar: Passive Voice.
78
81
Unit 10 Cosmetic Dentistry procedures
10.1 Tooth Whitening, Bonding, Porcelain Veneers
10.2 Enamel Shaping, Gingivoplasty, Dental Implants, Micro-abrasion
Grammar: Reported Speech
86
92
5
Unit11 Bad Breath
11.1 Halitosis
11.2 Halitosis Treatment
Grammar: Revision
98
104
PART II. CAREERS IN DENTISTRY
Unit 1 The Dentist
1.1 Job Description
1.2 How to become a Dentist
Grammar: Modal verbs
110
116
Unit 2 The Dental Hygienist
2.1 The Dental Hygienist's role in a dental office
2.2 How to become a dental hygienist
Grammar: Comparatives and superlatives
121
126
Unit 3 The Dental Assistant
3.1 Job Description
3.2 How to become a Dental Assistant
Grammar: Conditionals
129
133
Unit 4 The Laboratory Technician
4.1 Job Description
4.2 How to become a Laboratory Technician
Grammar: Infinitive or -ing forms
136
142
Unit 5 Dental Specialties
5.1 Orthodontist, Endodontist, Oral Pathologist, Oral surgeon
5.2 Orthodontist, Pediatric Dentistry, Periodontist
Grammar: Complex Subject
146
150
Unit 6 How to find a Good Dentist
6.1 Step1-3
6.2 Step4-5
Grammar: Complex Object
155
160
Unit 7 Dental Insurance
7.1 Dental Insurance Plan
7.2 Dental Financing
Grammar: Test
165
171
Dental Idioms
Additional Texts
176
177
6
PART I. TEETH ANATOMY AND DENTAL DISEASES
Unit 1.1 Teeth Anatomy
(Part 1)
Dental anatomy is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of human
tooth structures. Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form
from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth.
The teeth are a group of hard organs found in the oral cavity. We use teeth to
masticate (or chew) food into tiny pieces. They also provide shape to the mouth
and face and are important components in producing speech.
A tooth can be divided into two main parts: the crown and root. Found above
the gum line, the crown is the enlarged region of the tooth involved in chewing.
Like an actual crown, the crown of a tooth has many ridges on its top surface to aid
in the chewing of food. Below the gum line is the region of the tooth called the
root, which anchors the tooth into a bony socket known as an alveolus.
Roots are tapered structures resembling the roots of plants, and each tooth
may have between one to three roots. The exterior surface of the root is covered in
a bone-like mixture of calcium and collagen fibers known as cementum.
Cementum provides grip for the periodontal ligaments that anchor the root to the
surrounding alveolus.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Bone-like, oral, embryonic, gum, exterior, complex
mixture
line
cavity
surface
7
cells
process
2. Match the terms with the definitions.
1. Root
a a hole or a space inside something
2. Crown
b something artificial that is put intobody in a medical operation
3. Implant c the part of the tooth that is visible
4. Cavity
5. Pulp
d the portion of a tooth that is covered by cementum
e the part of the inside of a tooth
3. Complete the sentences using like or as.
Like is usedfor similarities. e.g. He works like a slave. (He isn't a slave.)
As is used to say what sb or smth really is. e.g. He works as a teacher. (He is a
teacher.)
1. He works
a waiter at a restaurant.
2. Joan bought a dress
mine.
3. Sometimes Mike behaves
a child.
4. Helen wants to find a job
5. He swims
a secretary.
a fish.
6. She sings
anangel.
7. I'm much better
you can see.
8. My sister is not at all
me.
9. My daughter is just
my sister.
10 . I use one of the bedrooms
11.I hope to qualify
an office
a surgeon.
12. We're late for the train. We'll have to run
13. I'm your friend and,
a friend, I advise you to think again.
14. You don't like confrontations,
15. I want to join the air force
the wind.
me.
a pilot.
8
4.Complete this table.
Noun
Verb
Adjective
bone
erupt
surface
divide
large
chew
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present
Continuous.
1.I
English exercises twice a week. ( write)
2. My friend
his homework in the afternoon as a rule. ( do)
3. My sister
her homework now. ( do)
4. Don't shout! The baby
. ( sleep)
5. The baby always
after dinner. ( sleep)
6. What
now? ( read)
you
7.What books
8.What
9.
10 .
you
for your literature lessons? ( read)
your mother usually
she
for lunch? ( cook)
a cake now? (cook)
(You, see) that man over there? —Which man? The man in the brown
jacket? — No, I
( talk) about the man who
9
( wear) the blue
shirt. —
Oh, that man!—
(You,
( not think) so. — I
know) him? — No, I
(not know,) him either.
2. Correct the verbs that are wrong.
1. Do you understand how this works?
2. I am not understanding her because she is speaking too fast.
3. What's the matter? Why do you cry?
4. Hurry up! Ann and Sally wait us.
5. I like this soup, it's tasting delicious.
6.You are looking a bit worried.
7. I am sorry but I am not agree with you.
8. I am study at Medical University.
9. I never drinking coffee.
10. He is at home. He doesn't work today.
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present
Continuous.
A: Can I help you, sir?
B: Yes, please. I (1)
(look) for a birthday present for my wife.
A: I see. What kind of things (2)
B: Oh, she (3)
she(4)
(she/like)?
(enjoy) reading books on interior decorating and
(love) listening to Latin music.
A: How about this book then? It (5)
(have) over a hundred pages
of different ways to decorate your home and lots of pictures, too.
B: I (6)
(not/know) about that. Is there anything else you could
show me?
A: Well, sir. I (7)
(believe) this set of CD's with Latin bands is an
excellent choice. Your wife will enjoy it very much.
B: How much is it?
A: It (8)
(cost) £25. They're on special offer.
10
B: Okay, then. I just (9)
because I (10)
(hope) she won't play the music too loud
(hate) Latin music!
Unit 1.2 Teeth Anatomy
(Part 2)
Each tooth is an organ consisting of three layers: the pulp, dentin, and
enamel.
^ The pulp of the tooth is a vascular region of soft connective tissues in the middle of
the tooth. Tiny blood vessels and nerve fibers enter the pulp through small holes in
the tip of the roots to support the hard outer structures. Stem cells known as
odontoblasts form the dentin of the tooth at the edge of the pulp.
^ Surrounding the pulp is the dentin, a tough, mineralized layer of tissue. Dentin is
much harder than the pulp due to the presence of collagen fibers and
hydroxylapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral that is one of the strongest materials
found in nature. The structure of the dentin layer is very porous, allowing nutrients
and materials produced in the pulp to spread through the tooth.
^ The enamel - the white, outer layer of the crown - forms an extremely hard,
nonporous cap over the dentin. Enamel is the hardest substance in the body and is
made almost exclusively of hydroxylapatite.
Teeth are classified into four major groups: incisors, canines, premolars, and
molars.
^ Incisors are chisel-shaped teeth found in the front of the mouth and have a flat
apical surface for cutting food into smaller bits.
11
• Canine teeth, also known as cuspids, are sharply pointed, cone-shaped teeth that
are used for ripping tough material like meat. They flank the incisors on both sides.
^ Premolars (bicuspids) and molars are large, flat-surfaced teeth found in the back of
the mouth. Peaks and valleys on the flat apical surface of premolars and molars are
used for chewing and grinding food into tiny pieces.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Connective, nerve, blood, stem, mineralized, hard
fibers
vessels
cells
substance
tissue
layer
2. Fill in the correct preposition where it is necessary.
1. She resembles .... her mother.
2. All students were involved
making costumes and scenery.
3.The eruption of volcano covered the states .... fine layer of ash.
4. It never entered .... my head.
5. A mixture consists ... water and flour.
6. 5 divides
30 6 times.
7. He is known .... a talented artist.
12
3. Study the notes.
Here is the most common order of adjectives in English.
Opinion
Size
Shape
Age
Nice
big
round old
Colour
blue
Origin
French
Material
glass
Purpose or type
fruit
Variation us possible when we focus on a particular feature, for example we can
say:
A round black shape ( normal order) or
A black round shape (focus on colour).
Some of the following are in the wrong order. Tick those which are correct
and rewrite the others in the correct order.
1. a birthday
big delicious cake
2. a round large ball
3. a big fat opera Italian singer
4. a discolored
crooked
tooth
5. a thin porcelain natural colour veneer
6.lower, wide, flat molars
7. long, sharp canine
8. white, tough, shiny outer surface of the tooth.
4. Match up the following containers with the contents.
Cream, plasters, solution, injection, ointment, lozenges, tape, soap, gauze swabs
1. a tube o f . . .
6. a tin of ....
2. a jar o f . . .
7. a packet o f . .
3. a bottle o f .
8. a bar o f .
4. a vial o f .
9. a roll of .
5. an ampule o f . .
10. a box o f . .
13
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present
Continuous.
Dear Mum and Dad,
(I)
(have) a wonderful time here with Grandpa. The weather (2)
lovely and warm. Grandpa's new house (3)
(4)
(be)
(look) fantastic. He
(build) a new fence around the garden at the moment. That (5)
all for now as we ( 6 ) .
(be)
(go) fishing in a minute.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense, Present Simple or Present
Continuous.
1. The river
(flow) very fast today — faster than usual.
2. You
(always complain) that waiters are rude.
3. You
(always
borrow) money! That's worrying because the
number of people without job
(increase).
4.Robert is a vegetarian. He
5.
(eat, not) meat.
(you, cook) your own dinner every day?
6.Holidays abroad
(become) increasingly popular.
7. Are you in a hurry? — No, I
(walk) quickly because I'm cold.
8. The neighbours forever
(slam) doors and
(shout)
during the night.
9. My sister
(take) part in the competitions almost every weekend.
10. You can borrow my dictionary. I
(not/use) it a lot and I
now.
11. Her new perfume
12. Peter
(smell) like spring flowers.
(meet) his girlfriend tonight.
13. Have you seen Mary's new haircut? It
14
(look) great.
(not / need) it
14. Did you put sugar in the coffee? It
(taste) bitter.
15. You haven't said a word. What
.(think) about?
16. My mother.
(listen) to her favourite radio program right now.
17. My brother
(not/enjoy) going to the cinema.
3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. Зуб состоит из коронки, одного или нескольких корней и шейки.
2. Врач измеряет сейчас давление пациенту.
3. Кого Вы ищете? Я ищу дежурную медсестру.
4. В норме у человека имеется 28-32 постоянных зуба.
5. Зубы человека образуют зубные ряды: верхний и нижний.Каждый
зубной ряд состоит из 16 зубов.
6. Сердце взрослого человека делает 60-72 удара в минуту.
7. Терапевт хочет продолжить курс лечения.
8. Сердце нагнетает кровь в сосуды.
9. У детей молочные зубы начинают прорезаться в возрасте от 3 месяцев.
10.Врач занят, он выписывает пациента.
11.Частота пульса зависит от физического напряжения.
12. Сейчас проходит вакцинация.
13. Сколько операций в день делает обычно хирург?
14. Основную массу зуба составляет дентин - вещество сходное с костью, но
более твердое.
15.Все постоянные резцы и клыки имеют по одному корню.
15
Unit 2.1 Dental Eruption
(Part 1)
Most people have two sets of teeth during their life: a set of primary or
"baby" teeth and the permanent or "adult" teeth. Besides helping children chew
and pronounce words, the primary teeth hold a place in the jaws for the permanent
teeth, which begin to push through the gums as the primary teeth are shed.
While most children have 20 primary teeth—10 in each of the upper and
lower jaws—these teeth eventually are replaced by 32 permanent teeth, 16 in each
jaw.
The first permanent molars usually erupt between ages 6 and 7 years. For
that reason, they often are called the "six-year molars." They are among the "extra"
permanent teeth in that they don't replace an existing primary tooth. These
important teeth sometimes are mistaken for primary teeth. However, they are
permanent and must be cared for properly if they are to last throughout the child's
lifetime. The six-year molars also help determine the shape of the lower face and
affect the position and health of other permanent teeth. Most children have 28 of
their permanent teeth by age 13 years. These include four central incisors, four
lateral incisors, eight premolars, four canines and eight molars.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Primary, lower, permanent, central, set, extremely
of teeth
jaw
teeth
hard
incisors
molars
16
2. Match the adjectives in column A with their opposites in column B
Column A
Column B
Permanent
interior
Lower
soft
Tiny
temporary
Hard
upper
Flat-surfaced
large
Exterior
convex
3. Match the words to the definitions.
Apron, disposable gloves, eye protection, mask, sharp box
1. This protects your mouth and nose.
2. This protects your clothes. You tie it around your waist.
3. This container makes it easy and safe to dispose of needles.
4. You wear these to protect your hands from patient's blood.
5. This helps you to protect your eyes.
4. Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.
1. The clock hangs on the wall, . the table. (above/under/on)
2. He has played Hamlet . the stage many times. (on/in/next to)
3. The bank is . the post-office and the beauty salon. (behind/at/between)
4. The ball has rolled . the bed. (on/under/above)
17
5. Bob and Jane were sitting in the cafe ... each other. (in front of
/behind/opposite)
6. The gym is . my college. (next to/on/between)
7. The monument is ... the right. (in/at/on)
8. The office address is ... the top of the page. (in/at/above)
9. He spends all his life ... work. (in/at/on)
10.The kettle is boiling ... the kitchen. (in/at/on)
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1.Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Continuous.
How did it happen?
1. How did Alice hurt herself? (play soccer)
She hurt herself while she was playing soccer
2. How did Martin burn himself? (iron his clothes)
3. How did Helen cut herself? (slice onions)
4. How did Jennifer meet her husband? (fix a flat tire)
5. How did Marvin break his arm? (skate)
6. How did you lose your wallet? (ride my bicycle)
7. How did Jeff meet his wife? (sunbath at the beach)
8. How did Bob get a black eye? (fight with his brother)
9. How did your children burn themselves? (make breakfast)
18
10. How did Martha fall?
(dance)
2. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Simple or Past Continuous.
1. As I
(do) my homework last night I
(hear) a strange noise
which
(come) from the garden. When I
what
(happen), I only (find) my cat chasing a rat.
2.
In
1972,
he
Tim
Carlisle
(see)
Elvis
(go) out to see
in
the
concert,
while
(travel) in the USA.
3. It
(snow) heavily on that cold and dark night when George
Bailey
(leave) his office and
4. She
(begin) his long journey.
(tidy) her room when suddenly the bell
5. Jasper
,
(watch) TV when the earthquake
6. As Mary
(strike).
(feed) the ducks, a small boy
and
(grab) her arm.
7. He
(be) unable to sleep because the wind
(ring).
(rush) up to her
(whistle) through the
trees in the forest outside.
8. I
(come) across Mary as I
9. Sharon
she
(walk) through the park with my dog.
(not/see) the car coming towards her because
(look) in the other direction.
10.The old lady
and
(get) onto the bus when she
(fall)
(break) her leg.
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple, Present Continuous or
Past Simple.
1. Paul: 1)
John: Yes. I 2)
drive now. 4)
(you/have) a new car John?
(buy) it last week. I 3)
( you/want) to come?
19
(go) for a
2. Sheila: What 1)
(you/do) this afternoon?
Diana: I 2)
(go) to the supermarket.
3)
(you/need) anything?
Sheila: Could you get me two cartons of milk and a kilo of sugar, please?
3.Tonia: 1)
(you/know) where my blue jacket is, Mum?
Mum: 2)
(it/not be) in your wardrobe? I (see) it yesterday in the
upper shelf.
Unit 2.2 Dental Eruption
(Part 2)
The last of the permanent teeth to appear are called "third molars," or
"wisdom teeth." They usually begin to erupt—pushing their way through the
gums—between ages 17 and 21 years. Because they are so far back in the mouth,
third molars often are not needed for chewing and are difficult to keep clean. Your
dentist may recommend their removal to prevent potential complications when
third molars are erupted. Heredity and other factors may influence the approximate
ages at which children's primary teeth shed and their permanent teeth emerge.
Thorough brushing and flossing help to remove food particles and plaque (a sticky
film of bacteria) from the smooth surfaces of teeth. But toothbrush bristles cannot
reach into the pits and fissures (depressions and grooves) of the chewing surfaces
to remove food and plaque. Dental sealants protect these vulnerable areas by
sealing out debris and plaque bacteria. A sealant is a plastic material that usually is
applied to the chewing surfaces of the back teeth—premolars and molars—where
decay occurs most often. The plastic resin bonds into the pits and fissures of the
chewing surfaces of back teeth. The sealant acts as a barrier, protecting enamel
from plaque and acids.
20
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Wisdom, approximate, smooth, vulnerable, plastic, dental, heredity, plaque
..material
sealants
..area
..
factors
.age
bacteria
. . teeth
..surface
2.Match the terms with the definitions.
1. Plaque
a process of becoming bad
2. Acid
b substance used to stop air entering smth
3. Decay
c crack in smth
4. Sealant
d substance that destroy things it touches
5. Fissure
e substance encourages growth of harmful bacteria
3. Use the word in capitals to form a word that fits in each space.
1
gun is banned in Singapore.
2. While going abroad, take
3.Follow the doctor's
measures to avoid illnesses.
and you'll feel better.
4. The vaccine may be given as
5. Plaque
CHEW
against influenza
is a painless procedure.
PREVENT
RECOMMEND
PROTECT
REMOVE
21
4. Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.
In, out, o f f , from, up, along, down, past, around, opposite, across, through, to, o f f ,
over
1. How far is it . t h e city centre to the airport?
2. Put the batteries . the camera.
3. Somebody looked . o f the window
4. The ward is
the lift.
5.The first person to swim . . t h e English Channel was Mathew Webb, in 1875.
6. A few children ran . and . the stairs.
7. Look! The plane's flown . t h e bridge.
8. I forgot my key, so I had to walk . the house and climb . a window.
9. Excuse me, how can I get . t h e station? Go . this street, . t h e hotel.
10. She broke her leg when she f e l l . the stairs.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Continuous.
Last night, while I was doing my homework, Angela (call). She said she
(call) me from her biology classroom. I asked her if she (wait) for the class, but she
said that the professor was at the front of the hall lecturing while she (talk) to me. I
couldn't believe she (make) a phone call during the lecture. I asked what was going
on.
22
She said her biology professor was so boring that several of the students
(sleep) actually in class. Some of the students (talk) about their plans for the
weekend and the student next to her (draw) a picture of a horse. When Angela
(tell) me she was not satisfied with the class, I (mention) that my biology professor
was quite good and (suggest) that she switch to my class.
While we were talking, I (hear) her professor , "Miss, are you making a
phone call?" Suddenly, the line went dead. I (hang) up the phone and went to the
kitchen to make dinner. As I (cut) vegetables for a salad, the phone rang once
again. It (be) Angela, but this time she wasn't sitting in class.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past
Simple or Past Continuous.
1. Fleming was studying influenza when he (discover) penicillin.
2. When I came into the room the children (cry).
3. He (work) high up on a ladder when he fell.
4. Today I (work) a night shift.
5. My doctor (prescribe) me antibiotics when I was ill.
6. When I came the students already (write) a test.
7. This car (belong) to you?
8. It was chaos at the airport last night. Thousands of people (wait) their flights.
9. You (see) that girl over there?
10.Who (make) that awful noise? I can't stand it.
3. Translate this joke.
Однажды утром в лондонском автобусе ехал в школу мальчик. Он был
очень простужен (have a bad cold) и шмыгал носом (sniff) все время так
громко, что все пассажиры смотрели на него и качали (shake) головами.
Рядом с мальчиком сидел пожилой джентльмен. Он спросил мальчика: «У
тебя есть носовой платок (handkerchief)?»
23
- «Да, у меня в кармане есть чистый носовой платок», - ответил мальчик. «Но я же не могу дать его вам. Мама говорит, что невежливо просить у коголибо носовой платок. Вы должны пользоваться своим собственным».
Unit 3.1 Sensitive Teeth
The Causes of Sensitive Teeth
Sensitive Teeth problem or dentinal hypersensitivity is called the condition
when a cold or hot, sweet or sour stimuli in the mouth or even regular brushing
causes an intense pain to some teeth.
The most usual causes of a tooth sensitivity problem are:
^ Exposed root areas due to receding gums or periodontal disease.
^ Dentin exposure caused by vigorous brushing with a hard bristled toothbrush or
incorrect way of brushing teeth.
^ Worm out enamel because of teeth grinding.
^ Enamel erosion caused by chemical agents or acidic diet.
^ Tooth decay, due to the lesions of the enamel surface. Sensitivity can occur
following routine dental procedures like teeth cleaning, root planning or tooth
restoration. Teeth sensitivity caused by dental procedures is temporary, usually
disappearing in 4 or 6 weeks.
^ Teeth whitening, as a result of high abrasivity or/and chemical action of the
whitening products' active ingredients on the tooth tissue. Teeth sensitivity
during bleaching process has become a very common problem due to the wide
spread use of at home whitening products.
What causes the pain in Tooth Sensitivity?
^ Sensitive teeth have become one of the most common teeth problems as
people keep their original teeth longer. Gums are receding by age exposing
24
the tooth below the gumline where dentin is covered by cementum that is
much softer than the enamel of the tooth crown.
^ The dentin contains a network of micro-tubules which run the full width of
the dentin, from the pulp in the center of the tooth up to the outer edge
below the enamel. If a tooth area loses its protective layer of the enamel or
cementum, the dentin (and also the pulp via the tubules) becomes exposed to
the outside oral environment.
^ Nerve cells of the pulp extending inside these tubules can be stimulated by
external heat, cold or touch applied from the outside.
^ The external simulation is thought to produce movement of the fluids within
the tubules and tension of the nerve, making the teeth sensitive to hot and
cold, and causing a strong pain signal to be sent by the nerve.
Potential risks of Teeth Sensitivity.
^ Whatever the sensitive teeth causes, the real problem is not the pain itself
but its consequences.
People who suffer from sensitive teeth problems, due to the pain caused during
brushing, usually start avoiding their regular oral hygiene. Gradually this may lead
to much more serious dental problems as tooth decay and gum disease.
^ Tooth sensitivity can also be a sign of tooth decay or cavities or a sign of a
broken tooth or cracked filling.
^ If you have problem with sensitive teeth, consult your dentist to identify the
root cause of the problem and advise you on the proper.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Receding, outer, bleaching, acidic, enamel, high, incorrect, dentin, teeth, root,
protective, strong
25
planning
abrasivity
gums
process
erosion
edge
way
pain
grinding
layer
diet
exposure
2. Underline the correct word.
1. Carla is on a strict/ serious diet.
2. Doctors help sick/ ill people.
3. The new manager worked hard to improve/ provide working conditions.
4. Traffic fumes / acids pollute the air in cities.
5. Child abuse occurs/ takes place in all classes of society.
3. Fill in the correct particle.
Run into: to meet sb by chance
Run out of: to finish; to have no more
Run after: to chase
Run over: to hit sb/sth with a car,etc
1. A car almost ran
my dog.
2. The ball rolled down the hill and children ran . . it.
3. While we were driving to Paris, the car r a n . petrol.
4. Guess what! I r a n . . Bill yesterday.
4. Fill in the correct prepositions.
To, from, for, by, about, of
1. Make sure you keep all medicine away
2. Due
his need
adventure he forgot
3. His injury prevented him
children.
the risk of parachuting.
the playing in the match.
4. Detectives are still looking . . the escaped prisoner.
26
5. Teeth sensitivity was caused
dental procedures.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1.Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple or Future Continuous.
1. I promise I (call) you as soon as I have any news.
2. This time tomorrow Tom (fly) over the Atlantic on his way to Boston.
3. Those bags look heavy. I (carry) one of them for you.
4. Alex and Eva are getting married next Saturday. All the guests (wear) white
clothes.
5. The week after the wedding they (enjoy) the sun in the Maldives.
6. The sky is a bit cloudy. It (rain) do you think?
7. If you look at this map you (see) where the islands are.
8. You should have no problem finding the musician. He (carry) a guitar.
2. Make sentences, as in the example:
* miss the train * make some tea * change it * crash
* shout at us * take some photos * play in the snow
* fall off * sell his house * make a cake
1. She can't stop the car!
She is going to crash
2. They are late.
They
3. The headmaster looks angry!
He
4. Jim has got his camera.
He
5. Mick's putting up a "For Sale" sign.
He
6. The car has got a flat tyre.
He
7. Mum's looking at a recipe.
27
She
8. Look! The ladder is broken.
Oh no, he
9. They're putting their hats and gloves on.
They
10. Kevin's putting the kettle on.
He
3. Fill in the blanks with the correct FUTURE forms:
(Will / Going to /Present Continuous / Simple Present)
1. A: What
you
B: I
2.
(do) when you grow up?
(be) an acrobat in a circus.
I
haven't
seen
him
for
a
long
time
but
I
think
I
(recognize) him.
3. A: I need some money to buy a present for my friend.
B: I
(give) you some.
4. I got the plane tickets. I
(fly) on Sunday.
5. A: Have you got any plans for the summer?
B: Yes, we
(go) to Italy in June.
6. Don't play with those matches; you
burn yourself.
7. A: Whose is that night dress?
B : It's mine. I
(wear) it at John's graduation party.
8. A: Why did you call your grandma?
B: I
(visit) her at the weekend.
9.If your passport isn't valid any more, you
month.
10.A: What are you doing with that brush?
B: I
(paint) my room.
11.A: Why are you wearing your coat?
B: I
(go) out.
28
(not / be able to) go abroad this
12.I don't know the meaning of this word so I
13. Look out! You
(look) it up in the dictionary.
(hurt) yourself with that knife.
14.A: I've got a terrible headache.
B: Have you? Wait there and I
(get) an aspirin for you.
15.Mother: Your face is dirty.
Child : All right. I ... (wash) it.
16.A: What time
the next bus
(arrive)?
B: 13 minutes later.
17
you
(open) the door for me, please?
18.We're early. The film .(start) at 2:30. Why don't we go and have something
to drink?
19.H e
(call) the police as soon as he gets home.
20.A: What
B: I
you
(do) with that dress?
(shorten) the skirt.
Unit 3.2 Sensitive Teeth
The Potential risk of teeth sensitivity.
As a remedy for sensitive teeth you should:
^ Maintain good oral hygiene. Keep your gums healthy to prevent gums
recession.
^ Use a soft bristled toothbrush.
^ Brush correctly without using excessive force. Horizontal movements of the
toothbrush can cause abrasions of the enamel or cementum along the gum
line.
^ Avoid very acidic foods and drinks to prevent teeth erosion.
29
^ Use a low abrasivity toothpaste. Whitening and anti-tartar toothpastes are
usual causes of tooth sensitivity.
Treatment for Sensitive Teeth problems.
A sensitivity toothpaste, is the simplest way to fight a tooth sensitivity problem.
Sensitivity toothpastes contain special ingredients as strontium or potassium which
are de-sensitising agents. Strontium chloride works by blocking the dentin
microtubules that enable cold and heat sensations to reach the tooth's nerve.
Potassium citrate and Potassium nitrate work in a different way by blocking the
mechanism of pain transmission between nerve cells.
For many years Sensodyne was considered as the best toothpaste for sensitive
teeth treatment. Today, you can find in the market many sensitivity toothpaste
brands. Due to the different way of action of the active ingredients between brands,
the best sensitivity toothpastes for each person can be identified only after trial.
When testing a toothpastes for sensitive teeth, you must have in mind that most of
the sensitivity toothpastes do not show results immediately but only after being
used for a period of at least two weeks.
Dentist prescribed fluoride gels or high fluoride level toothpastes, work by
enhancing the enamel remineralisation, 'closing' the dentine microtubules.
Fluoride varnishes may be applied on sensitive teeth by your dentist in more
severe cases of teeth sensitivity.
If none of these proves to be a successful sensitive teeth treatment, the last
solution is tooth bonding that covers the exposed surfaces and closes the pores of
the dentin.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Cracked, fluoride, successful, toothpaste, nerve, maintain, pain, heat
hygiene
cells
30
brands
treatment
varnishes
filling
transmission
sensation
2. Match the numbers to the letters.
1. advise
a) right
2. pain
b)difficulty
3. cause
c)serious
4. correct
d)show
5. problem
e)inform
6. severe
f)reason
7. expose
g) ache
3. Fill in the correct word.
apply - applicant - applicable - application.
The offer is only
to booking for double rooms.
We receive hundreds ofjob
each year.
Do the same rules . . .
to part-time workers?
He was one of 30
for the manager is job.
4. Match the idioms with their definitions.
1. Tooth and nail - rather old
2. Long in the tooth - to fight and struggle for smth
3. To get one's teeth into smth - to work with energy
4. To lie through one's teeth - to lie greatly
Fill in the gasps.
1. He is getting a bit
to play football
2. He wants a job he can . . .
3. He fought . . .
.
to get these plans accepted.
31
4. The witness seemed to
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple or Future Continuous
1. The tourists (go) sight-seeing in the country all next week.
2. I soon (tell) you what to do next.
3. They (be) here at exactly 7 p.m. tomorrow.
4. You (have) a prize if you come first in the examination.
5. We still (sail) through the Red Sea when you arrive at Cairo.
6. Where you (stay) this time next year?
7. Your shoes (be) ready in fifteen minutes.
8. He (sleep) when you come this afternoon.
9. It still (rain) when we leave.
10. They (attend) a meeting between 2 p.m. and 4 p.m. today.
11. This rule soon (put) into effect.
12. You (come) to tea with us this afternoon?
13. The travellers (cross) the desert this time tomorrow.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future forms.
1. Sandra: Where is Tim going to meet us?
Marcus: He (wait) for us when our train arrives. I am sure he (stand) on the
platform when we pull into the station.
Sandra: And then what?
Marcus: We (pick) Michele up at work and go out to dinner.
2.Ted: When we get to the party, Jerry (watch) TV, Sam (make) drinks, Beth
(dance) by herself, and Thad (complain) about his day at work.
Robin: Maybe, this time they won't be doing the same things.
32
Ted: I am absolutely sure they (do) the same things; they always do the same
things.
3. Florence: Oh, look at that mountain of dirty dishes! Who (wash) all of those?
Jack: I promise I (do) them when I get home from work.
Florence: Thanks.
Jack: When you get home this evening, that mountain will be gone and nice stacks
of sparkling clean dishes (sit) in the cabinets.
4. Doug: If you need to contact me next week, I (stay) at the Hoffman Hotel.
Nancy: I (call) you if there are any problems.
Doug: This is the first time I have ever been away from the kids.
Nancy: Don't worry, they (be) be fine.
5. Samantha: Just think, next week at this time, I (lie) on a tropical beach in Maui
drinking Mai Tais and eating pineapple.
Darren: While you are luxuriating on the beach, I (stress) out over this marketing
project. How are you going to enjoy yourself knowing that I am working so hard?
Samantha: I 'll manage somehow.
Darren: You're terrible. Can't you take me with you?
Samantha: No. But I (send) you a postcard of a beautiful, white sand beach.
Darren: Great, that (make) me feel much better.
3. Translate these sentences from Russian into English.
1. Мы не должны опаздывать. Они будут беспокоиться.
2.Мы завтра пойдём в кино. Я буду сидеть рядом с тобой.
3.Нам нужно вернуться в 10 часов. Мама будет ждать нас.
4.ТыможешьвстретитьСандру?- Да, но как я ее узнаю? На ней будет красное
пальто.
5.Не звони ему с 9до 11часов, он будет делать ежедневный обход пациентов.
33
б.Подождите минуту, я выпишу Вам рецепт.
7.Завтра в это время доктор Романов будет в операционной. Он будет делать
операцию.
8. Приходите завтра в 12 часов, я буду ждать.
9. Ты не будешь проходить мимо аптеки? Мне нужно лекарство.
10. Завтра утром его не будет в отделении, он будет делать доклад на
конференции.
Unit 4.1 Dental Plaque
The Cause of Dental Plaque
Dental Plaque is a sticky, soft and colorless film of bacteria that constantly
builds up on the surfaces of teeth and gums. Not removing tooth plaque bacteria
from the mouth regularly, can lead to tooth decay and dental cavities (caries) or
periodontal problems (such as gingivitis and periodontitis).
What causes dental plaque on teeth?
Dental plaque is comprised of colonies of bacteria and other microorganisms
mixed with
bacteria
by-products,
dead
cells
and
food
residuals.
Tooth plaque formation starts immediately after a tooth is cleaned. The
microorganisms of dental plaque are all naturally present in the oral cavity, and are
normally harmless.
Failure to remove dental plaque by regular tooth brushing allows its build up
in a thick layer. As it matures, different types of microorganisms appear. At the
lower layers of plaque, nearest the tooth surface, the composition of dental plaque
changes in favour of anaerobic bacteria.
34
Their anaerobic respiration is producing acids which consequently lead to : demineralization of the adjacent tooth surface, and dental caries, -irritation of the
gums around the teeth (gum inflammation), leading to gingivitis (red, swollen,
bleeding gums), periodontal disease and tooth loss, -tooth plaque build up can
also become mineralized and form calculus.
The main health problems of the oral cavity can be related to the
accumulation of dental plaque on teeth. Dental plaque removal is essential for
maintaining good oral health. It's easy to prevent plaque build up with proper care.
Follow
these
tips
on
how
to
remove
plaque
from
teeth
-Brush thoroughly at least twice a day, with a fluoride toothpaste, to remove plaque
from your teeth
-Use dental floss daily to remove plaque from between your teeth and under your
gum line, where your tooth brush may not reach
-Check your teeth with disclosing tablets to ensure removing tooth plaque.
-Control your diet. Limit sugary or starchy foods, especially sticky snacks
-Ask your dentist or dental hygienist if your plaque removal techniques are ok.
-Visit your dentist regularly for professional cleanings and dental examinations
You must know that some treatments are not always covered by dental insurance
plans. Learn how to check the terms and choose a dental insurance plan that will
provide the best coverage for you and your family.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct preposition.
... favour of, to be essential
, to be comprised
be mixed ...
2. Cross out one odd word in each line.
Calm
unhappy
miserable
depressed
35
, to be covered
, to
Sticky
soft
mild
gentle
Excited
joyful
moody
delighted
Frightened
relaxed
scared
uneasy
3. Fill in the correct word.
Thick, bleeding, dental, removal, tooth, disclosing, oral.
cavity
tablets
surface
care
layer
floss
gums
techniques
3. Fill in the correct preposition.
Cover for: to do the work that someone does, because they are not there
Cover over: to put sth on top of sth
Cover up: to make efforts to hide a mistake
1. The government is trying to cover
the full extent of the scandal.
2. Who's covering ... you while you're away?
3. We covered
a hole in the roof.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Tick Yes or No, then make sentences about yourself using the present
perfect simple, as in the example.
Have you ever had measles? No, I have not. I have never had measles.
Medical Survey
Have you ever ...
Yes
36
No
had the flu?
had toothache?
had measles?
had a tropical disease?
broken a bone?
had a serious burn?
twisted your ankle?
2. Rewrite these sentences in the Present Perfect.
1. The pupils are writing a dictation. - The pupils have already written a dictation.
2. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem.
3. I am learning a poem.
4. She is telling them an interesting story.
5. Kate is sweeping the floor.
6. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him.
7. I am eating my breakfast.
8. The children are putting on their coats.
9. Susan is making a new dress for her birthday party.
10. She is opening a box of chocolates.
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Present Perfect.
1. A: I
B: I
2. A:
B: No, I
(not/see) you for ages! Where
(return) from Malta three weeks ago.
(you/ever/read) this book?
(not/read) that one, but I
previous novel last year. I
3. A:
B:Yes, I
4. A:
(you/be)?
(read) the author's
(not/like) it much.
(you/speak) to Pam about your missing blouse yet?
(speak) to her five minutes ago she
(you/book) your holiday yet?
37
(not/see) it anywhere.
B: No, I
and
(not/decide) where to go. Last year
(go) to Spain
(have) a great time, so maybe I'll go there again.
Unit 4.2 Dental plaque
How to check for plaque - Plaque disclosing tablets
Patients often believe that they brush correctly and deny to accept that they
fail in tooth plaque removal, even if their dentist tells them about dental plaque
accumulation when examining their teeth. Plaque on teeth is usually
and
therefore
can
be
difficult
to
see
it
and
remove
colorless
it
during
brushing.
Dental disclosing tablets and solutions stain the plaque build up on your
teeth, allowing you to see how thoroughly you are brushing and flossing your
teeth. They stain the bacteria making it easier to see where you have to brush again
to remove dental plaque.
Disclosing tablets and solutions are available without prescription from most
pharmacies and they work by dyeing tooth plaque.
The active ingredients of disclosing products are usually dyes also used as
food colourings. Erythrosine is the most common dental plaque dye in disclosing
tablets and solutions.
How to use disclosing tablets?
- Use the
disclosing
tablets
or solution
after brushing
and
flossing,
following package instructions.
-Put some dental disclosing solution in your mouth or chew a disclosing tablet and
allow it to mix with your saliva.
Swish the mixture around
in your mouth for about 30 seconds
then spit it out.
38
and
-Gently rinse your mouth with water, and examine your teeth for plaque colored by
the dye. Because the dye stains all bacteria
also may
get
the
tongue
and gums
dyed.
-Check for stained (not properly cleaned) areas, usually the inside of the back teeth
and behind the front teeth. Clean the stained areas to complete dental plaque
removal. Next time you brush your teeth pay special attention to these areas.
-Use disclosing products regularly until you find no more areas of stained dental
plaque after you brush and floss. Recheck after some weeks.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Active, dye, package, pay, back, make
easy
ingredients
attention
teeth
stains
instructions
2. Underline the correct word.
1. Do you believe/ think in ghosts?
2. The rain avoided/ prevented us from having a picnic in the park.
3. This book tells/says you all you need to know about the buying the house.
4. Tim was (a) alone man/ lonely man who lived all by himself in a small
cottage.
5. She looked/saw at me and smiled.
3. Fill in the correct particle(s).
Put down: to write, to make a note
Put in: to fit or install sth
Put off: to cancel a meeting or an appointment
39
Put up: to offer, to show a particular level of skill
1. I'm having a party next Saturday - put i t . . in your diary.
2. The team put .... a splendid performance.
3. She put him
with the excuse that she had too much work to do.
4. We put the central heating .... when we moved.
4. Fill in the correct word.
Exam- examine- examination-examiner
1. The papers are sent to external
2. When do you take your final
3. The books
4. Careful
?
how attitudes have changed since the war.
of the ruins revealed an even earlier temple.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Complete the sentence with a verb from the box in the Present Perfect.
do stop rise get
lose
arrive
change leave
a Half an hour ago it was raining and now it isn't.
It has stopped raining
b John is at school. His homework is at home.
at home.
c Ten minutes ago you ordered a pizza by phone. The doorbell is now ringing:
Great! My pizza
d Last year the school had 540 pupils. This year there are 600.
The number of pupils
by 600.
e You can't find your revision notes.
notes.
40
f You're doing an experiment. You did the same experiment last week and the
week before.
This is the third time
g Philip Jones goes to your school. Last year he went to a different school.
schools.
h Last year your school work was easy. Now it's not.
The school work
more difficult this year.
2. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense, Present Perfect or Past Simple.
a. Carlos
(come) to London at Christmas. When he
(go) to stay with some friends. He
(arrive), he
(not/return) from London
yet, and he thinks he is going to stay there until the autumn.
b. A I am looking for Susan.
BI
you
(see) her?
(see) her yesterday, but not today.
you
(look) in
the coffee bar?
c. A John, you know I
I
(borrow) your bicycle last night. Well, I am afraid
(lose) it.
B That is awful! Where
you
(go)? What time
it
(happen)?
A Well, I
(leave) your house at 8.00, (go) home and
(chain) it
outside my house. Someone must have taken it during the night. I already
(phone) the police, and they are coming soon.
3. Underline the correct form.
The world famous author of the Harry Potter books, JK Rowling, was born in 1965
in England. She a studies/studied/has studied French at Exeter University and then
b works/worked/has worked as a bilingual secretary. When she was 26 she c
moves/moved/has
moved to Portugal where she d teaches/taught/has
41
taught
English and e works/has worked/worked on a story about a wizard. She f
returns/returned/has returned to the UK and g lives/lived/has lived in Scotland
since then. For a while she h teaches/taught/has taught French but since the first
Harry Potter book was published she i makes/made/has made her living from
writing. In fact, she is at the top of the best sellers lists and j is/was/has been for
several years. JK Rowling says she k enjoys/enjoyed/has enjoyed writing stories
since she was a child and it is only now, after many years of hard work, that she l
achieves/achieved/has achieved success.
Unit 5.1 Tooth Decay
The Cause of Tooth Decay
Tooth Decay or Cavities or Dental Caries is one of the most common human
diseases. Main cause of dental caries is the loss of minerals from the tooth enamel
due to the action of acids produced by dental plaque.
Cavities are most likely to develop in pits on the chewing surfaces of the back
teeth, and near the gum line or at the unprotected root if it is exposed by gum
recession. If left untreated the tooth decay can destroy the tooth through the
enamel, to the dentin and down to the pulp of the tooth.
Factors as nutrition habits, quality of oral hygiene, dry mouth problems,
presence of fluoride in water or toothpaste and heredity play a significant role in
how susceptible your teeth may be to tooth decay.
The Cause of Tooth Decay
Dentists use the term 'acid attack' to summarize the cause of tooth decay. After
having a meal, snack or drink, the bacteria of the dental plaque start to convert
sugar and carbohydrates of foods into acids. The normal mouth pH of 6.2 to 7.0
starts to drop to acidic values. If the mouth environment becomes too acidic (pH
below 5,5-6,0), the acids start to dissolve the mineral (calcium and phosphate) of
the tooth's surface creating microscopic lesion on tooth enamel (demineralization),
42
weakening its structure. Streptococcus mutants is the most destructive bacterial
strain in the mouth as it attaches easily to teeth and produces a lot of acid. Other
common but less destructive acid -
producing bacteria are lactobacillus and
actinomyces. After all the sugars are consumed by the bacteria, acid production
eventually stops and the tooth has a chance to repair itself (remineralization)
helped by the minerals of saliva and toothpaste's fluoride. If dental plaque is not
removed regularly, or if sugar is consumed too often, then the remineralization
periods are not enough to repair the damage. Eventually a small cavity appears on
the tooth enamel. The continuous exposure of the tooth to acidy is what causes
tooth decay. Tooth decay can then penetrate through the protective enamel down to
the softer, vulnerable dentine and continue to the soft tooth pulp and the sensitive
nerves within it. Although the metabolic activity of plaque bacteria in our mouth is
what actually causes dental caries, the underlying causes of tooth decay are in most
cases the poor oral hygiene and high sugar consumption.
Symptoms - How to check for Dental Caries - Diagnosis.
Early caries may have no symptoms. Tooth decay begins with a small patch of
demineralized enamel at the tooth surface, often hidden from sight in the fissures
or in between the teeth. At this phase tooth decay can be visually only by your
dentist. When the decay has progressed deeper in the enamel, the teeth may be
sensitive to foods or to hot and cold temperatures. The dentist will examine the
teeth for damaged by probing teeth with a special instrument called explorer. Later,
when the cavity has reached the pulp, the acute pain or swelling will be a clear sign
of dental caries. The best way to spot dental caries and treat them before they
become serious cavities is by visiting your dentist regularly for check-ups.
43
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Chewing, gum, back, nutrition, significant, unprotected, acidic, microscopic,
destructive, metabolic
... habits
... teeth
... surface
... root
.
.
recession
activity
. values
. role
. lesions
. bacteria
2. Choose the correct item.
1. It's clear/clean that the drug does benefic some patients.
2. Keep those medicines out of reach/rich of the children.
3. Young children have a particularly acute/accurate sense of smell.
4. The patient had a painful lesion/harm on his skin.
5. The doctor was examining /noticing a patient.
3. Fill in the correct word.
treat - treatment - treatable
1. The best ... for a cold is to rest and drink lot of fluids.
2. Certain forms of ulcer are ... with drugs.
3. It was difficult to ... patients because of a shortage of medicine.
4. Read and translate these words.
Knee, ankle, finger, ear, arm, head, hand, wrist, foot, shoulder, elbow, leg.
Which of the items can you break, sprain, hurt or cut?
break
sprain
hurt
44
cut
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Join the sentences below using the word(s) in brackets and the Past Perfect.
Ann called for a taxi. She packed her suitcase. (after)
Ann calledfor a taxi after she had packed her suitcase.
1. We arrived at the harbour. The boat left. (by the time, already)
2.Thomas entered the stadium. The football match started, (when, already)
3. I didn't start reading my book. I did all the washing-up. (until)
4.She went to sleep. Her brother came round to see her. (when)
5. The burglar left with the painting. The police arrived.(before)
6. The mechanic fixed the car. The customer returned to the garage, (already,
when)
2. Match the items in column A to those in column B. Then say which actions
happened first and which second in each sentence.
A
B
1.
After he had finished his homework,
2.
They went to bed
3.
Rosie had just set off for her doctor's
b. she heard the phone ring
appointment
c. he went for a walk on the beach.
4.
As
soon
as
cancel it.
she
had
finished
vacuuming the carpet,
5.
a. when his receptionist called to
d. after the burglars had left.
e. as soon as their guests had left.
The police arrived at the house
45
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or the Past Perfect.
1. Henry
(return) home by the time Rachel phoned.
2. She (not/go) to bed until she had taken a shower.
3. After Jim (water) the plants, it started to rain.
4. As soon as the plane had landed, the captain
5. By the time Vicky woke up, the children
6. Michelle
(turn off) the seat-belt sign.
(already/make) breakfast.
(wash) the dishes after everyone had gone home.
7. Diana
(never/see) an elephant before she went to Africa.
8. Don and Ellen had just finished eating when the doorbell
9. He didn't read the newspaper until he
(ring).
(take) the dog for a walk.
10. By the time Martin completed his report, everyone
(go) home.
ll.She
(not/want) to watch the film as she had seen it before.
12.We
(lock) the door as soon as everyone had left.
13.To m
(already/have) dinner at his friend's house, so she didn't need to cook
for him.
14. Anne took Simon to the doctor's because he
(cut) his finger.
Unit 5.2 Tooth Decay.
The Stages of Tooth Decay.
The pictures of tooth decay below, provide an explanation of the destructive
process of teeth decay, from the initial stages acid attack up to the total decay of
tooth tissues.
1. The first indication of tooth decay are white spots on the enamel caused by
the loss of calcium. Acids have started to dissolve and weaken the tooth enamel
(demineralization). At this stage the tooth can remineralize and fix the weakened
area itself the help of minerals in saliva and fluoride.
46
2. If the demineralization process outruns the natural remineralization process,
the lesion grows. Over time, the tooth enamel begins to break down beneath the
surface while the surface remains intact. Once the decay continues and breaks
through the surface of the enamel, the damage is permanent.
3. Left untreated, the decay will continue to dentine. When enough of the sub surface collapses, forming a cavity. The decay must be cleaned out and the cavity
filled by a dentist.
4. The living part of the tooth, the pulp, becomes damaged. The bacteria invade
and infect the pulp of the tooth. The blood vessels and nerves may die due to the
infection. Root canal therapy is required to repair the tooth.
5. The infection can then spread to from a tooth abscess (collection of pus)
around the root tip. As the infection inside the tooth's root canal builds up, the
bone around it gets infected. The tooth pain is consistent, especially during the
night.
6. If the infection is not stopped on time and a root canal therapy is not carried
out by the dentist, the tooth might be lost or need to be extracted.
Types of tooth decay.
Coronal cavities is the most common form in all ages. Coronal cavities are
cavities of the visible part of the tooth (crown), usually on chewing surfaces or
between teeth. Root caries is more common in older adult as they are more likely
to have receding gums that leave part of the tooth root exposed. Recurrent caries is
decay that forms beneath or around existing dental fillings or crowns. Bacteria and
food particles can get tooth and the dental fillings if a filling hasn't been placed
properly or if the filling is cracked. Baby bottle tooth decay, a very destructive
form of dental caries is common in children who use fall asleep with a bottle of
milk or other sweet liquid in the mouth. Caries may be acute or chronic, depending
on how fast they progress in destroying the enamel. In children and young adult
acute decay can create a cavity in a few months while in older adults with chronic
caries the process of tooth decay can last for years.
47
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Destructive, initial, first, weakened, living, blood, root, visible
part
part
process
stages
vessel
area
indication
canal therapy
2. Fill in the table with worlds from the list below.
What
is
the How
problem?
1. I've
did
it Result
Solution
happen?
cut
my Using a knife
it' is bleeding
A plaster
finger
2.
3.
it' is swollen; rest, playing football; I am confused; special cream, I twisted my
ankle, it is painful; running for a bus; ice pack; I hit it on the side of desk; I can not
walk easily; I burnt my hand; I've got a bruise; taking something out of a hot over;
I've got a concussion; plaster and rest.
3. Fill in the correct word.
Weak - weakness - weaken - weakly - weakling
Julia was
Do not be such a
She has a
by her long illness
!
for chocolate
She smiled
You must be
in the head if you believe that.
48
4. Fill in the correct particle.
Build in : to make smth so that is a permanent part of a wall, etc.
Build into : to put part together to form smth; to create
Build on : to add smth
Build up : to develop or increase gradually
1. Let's build this country
a great nation
2. The new wing was built
to the hospital
3. This exercise will build
your strength
4. We have wardrobes build
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple, Past Perfect.
1. By two o'clock the teacher (to examine) all the students.
2. On my way to school I (to remember) that I (to leave) my report at home.
3. My friends (to be) glad to hear that I (to pass) all the exams successfully.
4. He (to open) his eyes, (to look) around and (to try) to remember what (to
happen) to him.
5. By the time we (to come) to see him, he (to return) home.
6. During the holidays my friend (to visit) the village where he (to live) in his
childhood.
7. When they (to enter) the hall, the performance already (to begin).
8. When I came home, my mother (to tell) me that she (to receive) a letter from
grandfather
49
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past simple, Past Perfect tor Past
Continuous.
1.Lisa was having a cup of coffee at a cafe when someone
(call) her
on her mobile phone.
2.After they
3.Ji m
(play) tennis, they had some juice.
(plant) flowers when we arrived.
4.Mike and Gary won the first prize because they
5. By 3 pm Steve
6.H e
(catch) the biggest fish.
(already/fall) asleep.
(fix) his bicycle when I saw him.
3. Open the brackets using Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple;
Present Continuous, Past Continuous; Present Perfect, Past Perfect.
1. My friend ( like) pies. He (to eat) pies every day. When I (to meet) him in the
street yesterday, he (to eat) a pie. He (tell) me that he ( buy) that pie at the corner
of the street. Look at my friend now! He (eat) a pie again.
2. Tomorrow Nick (not go) to the cinema with us because he ( go) to the cinema
yesterday. He already ( be) to the cinema this week. He ( stay) at home and ( play)
a computer game.
3. My father ( work) in an office. It ( be) Sunday now. He (not work), he ( read) at
home.
4. I (not see) you for a while! You (be) busy at work? - I ( have) an awful week,
you ( know).
5. What he (do) at ten o'clock last night? - He (not do) anything really. He just (
look) at some magazines.
6. We (have) rather a difficult time at the moment. - I ( be) sorry to hear that.
7. Something awful (happen). Her little daughter ( swallow) a coin.
8. She ( ask) me if I (to see) her backpack which she (buy) in Spain.
9. After the boys ( do) all the work, they ( go) to the garden.
10. She (leave ) the house by the time he (phone) her.
50
Unit 6.1 Dental Calculus or Dental Tartar
How dental calculus is created
Dental Calculus or Dental Tartar is a yellow or brown layer of mineral
deposits on the teeth surface created by hardened dental plaque. Besides the
cosmetic problem, dental plaque that is accumulated on calculus causes
inflammation of gums, and can lead to gum recession and gum disease.
Dental tartar is too hard to be remove by normal toothbrushing or by
flossing.
Only professional teeth cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist can remove it.
Dentists use special instruments to remove tartar (above and below gumline) in a
procedure called tooth scaling.
How dental calculus is created
^ The bacteria of dental plaque produce acids that cause the loss of calcium from
the tooth enamel (demineralization).
^ Calcium, phosphorus and other minerals from saliva form crystals and harden
the plaque structure. The main ingredient of this compound is calcium
phosphate. It is a hard insoluble material that bonds to the tooth enamel along
the gum line.
^ Tartar's calcium deposits on teeth, make the surface of the tooth rough
providing an ideal medium for further accumulation and growth of dental
plaque.
^ The repeating new cycles of acid production, calcium loss and calcium
phosphate composition results to the build-up of new dental calculus layers on
teeth.
Types of dental calculus.
^ Calculus above the gum margin (supra-gingival calculus) is the most
common. This form of tartar is less harmful as it is visible and can be
identified easily allowing us to visit our dentist early.
^ The below the gums type (sub-gingival calculus) is more dangerous as it
forms pockets between teeth and gums, harboring plaque under the gum
51
margin and preventing it from being brushed off. As it is hidden, we might
be unaware of its existence until suddenly some serious dental problem as
periodontitis reveals it.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct preposition.
To be accumulated ..., to prevent
, to be removed ..., to bond
sth, to
result..
2. Match the term with the definition.
1. Tartar
a removal of plaque and calculus from the surface of teeth
2. Inflammation b the hard smooth outer surface of your teeth
3. Floss
c a hard substance that forms on your teeth
4. Enamel
d swelling or pain in part of your body
5. Scalling
e type of thin thread used for cleaning between teeth
3. Fill in the correct word.
Prevent-
preventive-prevention
1. While travelling abroad, take
2. The rules are intended to . . .
measures to avoid illness.
accidents.
3. Education new drivers is important for .... of accidents.
4. His back injury may .... him from playing in tomorrow's game.
5. You know what they say,
is better than cure.
4. Fill in the correct particle.
Result from: to occur as a result
Result in: to cause sth; to have sth as a result
1. The incident resulted
2. The injury resulted
his being dismissed from his job.
the fall.
52
3. Improved technology has resulted. bigger and better harvest.
4. We are still dealing the problems resulting . .
errors made in past.
5. Our efforts resulted .... success.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Perfect.
1. By 9 o'clock, we (finish) our homework.
2. They (leave) the classroom by the end of the hour.
3. We (go) home by next week.
4. She (return) from the excursion by 6 o'clock.
5. (buy / he) the new house by October?
6. The sun (not / rise) by 4 o'clock.
7. (you/do) the shopping by 3 o'clock?
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Continuous or Future Perfect.
1. This time next month I
2. Sue
3. I
4.I
5. I
6
(ski) in the Alps.
(finish) her Master's degree by next year.
(work) in the garden on Sunday as usual.
(attend) a meeting in Glasgow on Monday, so I won't be at the reception.
(read) the whole book by the end of the week.
(you/finish) the timetable by the end of the day?
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future forms.
1. Janet has just bought an old house, and for the next year or so she 1)
it up soon. The first thing she 2)
she hopes she 3)
(fix)
(do) is have the roof repaired, and then
(be able) to live there. She is afraid she 4)
(not/finish) by next Christmas, but she hopes she 5)
come and celebrate with her anyway.
53
(invite) her friends to
2. By the end of the year Sally 1)
(work) for the same company for
thirty years. She hopes that she 2)
.. (be able) retire after two more
years. After she retires, she imagines that she 3)
time, and she believes she 4)
(travel) most of the
(visit) at least fifty countries by the
time she is seventy years old.
Unit 6.2 Dental calculus
How to check for calculus / tartar.
Instead of dental plaque that is an almost invisible thin layer, supra-gingival tartar
deposit are easier to detect.
^ Look for yellowish and rough areas along the gumline and between teeth.
^ Usually tartar stars to accumulate on the lingual (inside) surface of the
bottom front teeth (incisors) and on the outside of the upper, anterior molars.
^ But be aware that the most harmful sub-gingival (below the gums) dental
calculus is very hard to detect without a visit to the dentist.
How to Prevent Tartar Buildup.
^ Proper brushing and flossing are necessary to reduce plaque and tartar
buildup.
^ Regular dental cleaning visits to the dentist should also be scheduled.
^ Preventive tooth scaling once a year is recommended if you teeth tend to
accumulate tartar.
^ Use Tartar Control toothpastes.
Tartar Control Toothpastes.
^ Tartar Control toothpastes can help in reducing new tartar build-up but they
can't remove the already formed tartar.
^ The special ingredient of Tartar Control toothpastes are the pyrophosphates.
54
^ Pyrophosphates as Tetra sodium Pyrophosphate (TSPP) are water-softening
agents that bond to the calcium phosphate in the saliva, creating a soluble
compound that is dissolved by water and washed away during brushing.
^ By this way calcium phosphate is removed from the saliva and it can't create
calcium deposits on teeth forming new tartar.
^ Most of the tartar control toothpastes also contain fluoride and antibacterial
agents to fight the root cause of the problem, the bacteria of dental plaque.
While tartar control toothpastes can significantly reduce tartar buildup on teeth
above the gumline, they show only minimal results on preventing dental calculus
formation below the gumline.
^ A tartar control toothpastes, in some cases, may cause sensitivity to hot
and/or cold in some teeth or irritation to the soft tissues of the mouth.
^ Those who are prone to canker sores formation should avoid toothpastes
with
high
levels
of
sodium-based
compounds,
like
the
sodium
pyrophosphate contained in tartar control toothpastes.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct preposition.
P r o n e . . , to be dissolved
water, sensitivity .... sth, tend
reducing, instead . , l o o k . . yellowish
2. Match the numbers to the letters.
1 reveal
a now
2. find out
b decent
3. ideas
c take away
4. proper
d painful
5. currently
e beliefs
6. sore
f show
7. remove
g discover
55
, help..
3. Fill in the correct particle.
Provide against: to make plans in order to deal with a bad situation that might
happen
Provide for: to give someone the things they need
1. Without work, how can I provide
my children?
2. Health insurance will provide .... Loss of income if you become ill.
3. He didn't provide
his wife and children in his will.
4. Fill in the correct word.
Prevent, dissolve, remove, reduce, accumulate
1. Fat tends to
2
around the hips and thighs.
the tablet in water.
3. Giving up smoking significantly
4
(s) your risk of heart disease.
the old wallpaper and fill in holes in the walls.
5. Nobody can
us getting married.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Read the following predictions and reasons for life in the future and
decide which are optimistic and which pessimistic. Then, expand these
ideas into complete sentences by joining them with because, as or since.
Finally, using the ideas and appropriate linking words, give a short speech
on how life will be different by the year 2050.
Ж Pollution levels in cities decrease - scientists invent environmentallyfriendly cars
Ж There be no more rainforests - we cut them all down
Ж People live in cities under the sea - normal cities become too crowded
Ж People live longer - scientists find cures for many diseases
Ж We go on holiday to other planets - space travel improve
Ж We do more creative jobs - computers do the most boring jobs
Ж More poor people - there be fewer jobs
Ж Crime increase - more people without work
56
e.g. By the year 2050 pollution levels in cities will have decreased because
scientists will have invented environmentally-friendly cars. However, there will
be no more rainforests. Furthermore, people ...
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future forms.
1. Margaret: Do you think everything will be finished when I get back from the
store?
Jerry: Don't worry. By the time you get back, I (pick) up the living room and
(finish) washing the dishes. Everything will be perfect when your parents arrive.
Margaret: I hope so. They (arrive) around 6 o'clock.
Jerry: Everything (be) spotless by the time they get here.
2. Nick: I just have two more courses before I graduate from university. By this
time next year, I (graduate) , and I will already be looking for a job.
Stacey: Does that scare you? Are you worried about the future?
Nick: Not really. I (go) to a career counselor and get some advice on how to find a
good job.
Stacey: That's a good idea.
Nick: I am also going to do an internship so that when I leave school, I (complete,
not only) over 13 business courses, but I (work, also) in the real world.
3. Stan: Did you hear that Christine (take) a vacation in South America this
winter?
Fred: I can't believe how often she goes abroad. Where exactly does she want to
go?
Stan: She (visit) Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador.
Fred: At this rate, she (visit) every country in the world by the time she's 50.
4. Judy: How long have you been in Miami?
57
Elaine: I have only been here for a couple of weeks.
Judy: How long do you plan on staying?
Elaine: I love Miami, so I (stay) here for an extended period of time. When I go
back home, I (be) here for more than three months.
Judy: Wow, that's quite a vacation! You (see, definitely) just about everything
there is to see in Miami by then.
5. Jane: I can't believe how late we are! By the time we get to the dinner, everyone
(finish, already) eating.
Jack: It's your own fault. You took way too long in the bathroom.
Jane: I couldn't get my hair to look right.
Jack: Who cares? By the time we get there, everyone (left) . Nobody (see, even)
your hair.
3. Translate these sentences from Russian into English.
1.Мы закончим эту работу к Зчасам, а затем пойдем в парк.
2.Я надеюсь, мы сдадим все экзамены к 20 июня.
3. Сейчас у меня короткая стрижка, но к концу лета волосы отрастут.
4. Катя будет дома в 7часов, если я перезвоню ей? Я думаю, она придет к
этому времени.
5.Все анализы будут готовы к понедельнику.
6. Я думаю, что закончу свою научную работу к концу года.
7. Завтра он будет работать весь день, а вечером мы вместе пойдем в бассейн,
потому что, я думаю, он закончит свою работу к тому времени.
8. Это очень сложный раздел анатомии, и, я думаю, я не выучу весь этот
материал к завтрашнему семинару.
9. В следующей лекции профессор будет рассказывать об анатомическом
строении сердца человека.
58
10. Нас не будет завтра в институте. Мы будем выступать с докладом на
конференции. Конференция закончится только к 5 часам.
Unit 7.1Gum disease
Gingivitis or periodontal disease
Gum disease, (gingivitis or periodontal disease), starts as an inflammation of
the gums that if left untreated affect and gradually destroy the tissues surrounding
and supporting the teeth.
Periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontal tissues, which include
the gums, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Gingivitis and periodontitis are
the two main stages of gum disease. Without proper treatment of gum disease, the
teeth will finally become loose, fall out or have to be removed by a dentist.
General health risks caused by Periodontal Diseases
Over the recent years there is increasing evidence to support the fact that
dental problems like periodontal diseases can cause serious health problems.
As stated by the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal disease is a
bacterial infection, and all infections cause concern. Periodontal bacteria can enter
the blood stream and travel to major organs and begin new infections.
Research is suggesting that periodontal disease may:
• Contribute to the development of heart disease, a leading cause of death.
• Increase the risk of stroke.
• Increase a woman's risk of having a preterm, low birth weight baby.
• Pose a serious threat to people whose health is compromised by diabetes,
respiratory diseases, of osteoporosis.
If you value your oral health as well as your overall health, a periodontal
evaluation is s good idea that might prove especially important.
59
The cause for periodontal disease
• The accumulation of dental plaque and tartar is usually what causes gingivitis,
and it's almost always the result of inadequate brushing and flossing.
• If poor oral hygiene promotes the overgrowth of bacterial plaque, changes in the
composition of the plaque occur. The bacterial balance shifts over to gram negative
anaerobic bacteria, which are responsible for inflammatory diseases.
• The bacteria also invade the crevices between the gum and tooth (sulcus) and
infect the periodontal tissues. These bacterial form dental plaque and tartar release
toxins that stimulate the body's immune system to over produce powerful
infection-fighting called cytokines.
Gingivitis symptoms-First sings of Gum Disease
Many people visit their dentist with serious periodontal disease because they are
not aware of what gum disease looks like early stages. There are some early sings
of gum disease that help us to detect it and fight it before it becomes a serious
problem:
• Bleeding gums during brushing or glossing;
• Red, tender or swollen gums;
• Loss of attachment between teeth and gums- pocket creation;
• Receding gums that make teeth look longer than normal;
• Sensitive teeth or pain on chewing;
• Persistent bad breath or bad taste in the mouth;
• Increased mobility of teeth;
• Pus coming from between your teeth and gums (abscess).
60
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word
Main, blood, recent, inadequate, major, immune, connective, infected.
years
organ
stream
tissue
stage
brushing
factors
cells
2. Match the opposites
1 Increase
a minor
2 Negative
b narrow
3 Major
c right
4 Include
d low
5 Incorrect
e decrease
6 High
f minor
7 Outside
g mild
8 Temporary
h exclude
9 Wide
i inside
10 Severe
j permanent
3. Complete this table. Write all possible forms you can think of.
noun
verb
adjective
harm
lead
nature
61
include
nervous
care
4. Study note
Trauma - an emotional shock producing a lasting harmful effect
Wound - an injury to a part of the body by a weapon with cutting or tearing of the
flesh
Harm- physical, mental or moral injury caused by actions or by an event
Damage - physical harm that is done to smth or a part of the body
Breakage - something that someone breaks
Injury - a physical harm to a person or an animal caused by an accident or an
attack
Fill in the gaps
1. Motorcyclists without helmet run the risk of serious
2. The fire caused so much
to the house that owners had to rebuild it
3. I think that it will be hard for Andy to recover from the
of witnessing
such a terrible accident at such young age
4. The soldier had a deep bullet
in his leg.
5. Luckily, the collapsed roof did no serious
to the little give who had been
hiding under the bed
6. These fragile items are insured against
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1.Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Continuous.
1) She (work) here for five years.
2) I (study) for all day.
62
3) You (eat) a lot recently.
4) We (live) in London for six months.
5) He (play) football, so he's tired.
6) They (learn) English for two years.
7) I (cook) so I'm really hot.
8) She (go) to the cinema every weekend for many years.
9) It (rain), the pavement is wet.
10) You (sleep) for twelve hours.
2.Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect and Present Perfect
Continuous.
1. I (paint) this room for five days now. It's a never-ending job.
2. How long (you/know) Mike?
3. I (have) this watch for twenty years. It's as accurate as it was the day I bought it.
4. I (never/be) to Sweden.
5. How long (you/live) in this house?
6. Hi, John. Sorry I'm late. I hope you (not/wait) long.
7. So, Michael, what (you/do) since I last saw you?
8. It (rain) for all day today.
9. This strategy seems to be good. Sales of our products (increase) for some time.
10. The manager (visit) our branch office three time so far this year.
3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect, Present Perfect
Continuous, Past Simple and Past Continuous.
1. How long (live) in Canada?- I (study) here for more than three years.
2. I (have) the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking about buying a new
one.
3. What (you, do) when the accident occurred? - I (try) to change a light bulb that
had burnt out.
4. I (love) chocolate since I was a child. You might even call me a "chocoholic."
63
5.Sebastian (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be, not)
there. She (study) at the library for her final examination in French.
6. Matt and Sarah (have) some difficulties in their relationship lately, so they (go)
to a marriage counselor. I hope they work everything out.
7. John (work) for the government since he graduated from Harvard University.
Until recently, he (enjoy) his work, but now he is talking about retiring.
8.When I (walk) into the busy office, the secretary (talk) on the phone with a
customer, several clerks (work, busily) at their desks, and two managers (discuss,
quietly) methods to improve customer service.
9. Lately, I (think) about changing my career because I (become) dissatisfied with
the conditions at my company.
10.The Titanic (cross) the Atlantic when it (strike) an iceberg.
Unit 7.2 Gum Disease
The stages of Periodontal Disease
Gingivitis
1. The dental plaque produced toxins that irritate the gum tissue. Gingivitis is
the inflammation of the gums characterized by redness, swelling, and
sometimes bleeding during brushing.
2. The gums start receding and bleeding, loosening their attachment to the
tooth and exposing previously covered enamel or part of the tooth root.
At this early stage of gum disease, damage can be reversed with proper dental
hygiene, since the teeth are still firmly planted in their sockets without any bone or
connective tissue damage.
64
Periodontitis
3. Plaque bacteria start to penetrate between the teeth and gums. The
environment becomes suitable for the establishment of anaerobic bacteria
under the receding gums. Gingival pockets are formed below the gumline.
4. The surrounding connective tissues and alveolar bone become infected.
Bacterial toxins and the body's enzymes fighting the infection start to break
down the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place.
At this stage, the supporting bone and fibers that hold the teeth in place are
irreversibly damaged. Proper dental treatment and improved dental hygiene can
usually help prevent further damage.
Advance Periodontitis
5. As the periodontal disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum
tissue and alveolar bone are destroyed. Ultimately all the supporting
structures of the tooth may be lost.
6. The tooth gradually loosens and, if periodontitis is left untreated, the tooth
will eventually be lost (fall out or have to be removed a dentist).
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Early, bad, pocket, look, bleeding, further, supporting, become
breath
like
creation
gums
signs
damage
bone
infected
65
2. Complete the crossword
ACROSS
© T h e whole physical structure of a person including the head, arms and legs.
© T h e soft part on each side of your face below your eyes.
©Existing or being produced in large amounts.
© T h e part of your body between your hand and your arm.
© A large room in a hospital with beds for people to stay in.
© A long loose piece of clothing that a doctor wears in a hospital.
@ T h e condition of your body, whether or not you are ill.
© T h e organ in your body that helps to control your blood supply.
© T h e organ in your chest that pumps blood around your body.
66
© A serious disease affecting your stomach and intestines. It is caused by drinking water
or eating food infected with bacteria.
DOWN
© The process of cutting into someone's body for medical reasons.
© A sign that someone has an illness.
©Unable to see.
© T h e part in the middle of your leg, where it bends.
© A doctor who is trained to perform operations involving cutting.
© A break or crack in a bone.
© A n y of the hard white objects inside your mouth that you use for biting and for chewing
food.
© T h e bones of the head.
3. Fill the correct particle.
Break down : to stop working
Break into : to enter the place by force
Break out : to begin suddenly
Break up : to stop for holidays
1. World war II broke
in 1939
2. School is going to break
3. My car broke
4. Burglars broke
for Christmas on the 22nd of December
so I took it to the garage
my house last night and stole all my jewellery
4. Fill in the correct word.
Infect - infection - infectious - infected
1. Flu is highly
2. People with the virus may feel perfectly well, but they can still
3. Clean the wound so it does not get
4. Disease and
were spread through poor sanitary conditions.
67
others
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1.Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Present Perfect and Present
Perfect Continuous forms.
1. The arterial pressure (not reduce) yet.
2. The temperature 38,7 C ( persist) for 3 days.
3. The scientists ( not identify) a new virus yet.
4. Scientists (try) to find the vaccine for this virus for 6 month.
5. The new patient (have) diabetes since childhood.
6. She (take) sleeping pills for a week.
7. This patient (be) unconscious for several minutes.
8. The doctor already (give) me all the information I need.
9. She (suffer) from flu since Monday.
10.He just (finish) his course of antibiotics and doesn't need it any more.
2. Write questions from the words in brackets.
1. (How long/ you/ live here)?
2. (How many pages/ you /read)?
3. (What / you /do at 5 p.m.)?
4. (He / translate the article already)?
5. (How long /you /wait )?
6. (What /you/ do /for all this time)?
7. (Where/ you/ be / all the morning)?
8. (How long /you/ learn English)?
3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1.Она соблюдает диету уже несколько месяцев.
2.Врач уже выписал мне лекарство.
3 .Операция длится уже 2 часа.
4. Он работает хирургом в уже 15 лет.
68
5. У вас была когда-нибудь аллергия на лекарства?
6. Пациент принимает это лекарство уже 5 дней.
7. Хирург уже закончил операцию.
8. Он никогда не жаловался на боль в груди.
9. Артериальное давление резко повысилось.
10.Я обращаюсь к этому стоматологу уже 7 лет.
Unit 8.1 Tooth abscess
The Cause of tooth abscess
A dental abscess can cause serious health complications, if left untreated. If
you suspect that you might have an abscessed tooth, see your dentist right away.
A tooth abscess will not heal itself - it requires treatment.
An abscess is actually a result of the immune system's effort to contain an
infection and prevent it from spreading to other areas. The body sends white blood
cells to the area of the infection to fight the bacteria. During this process pus forms,
which is an accumulation of fluid, living and dead white blood cells, liquefied dead
tissue and live and dead bacteria. If the pus is collected in a small, contained space
with no way for pus to drain, it forms a pocket of infected liquid that is called an
abscess. In the mouth, abscesses form around the root tips of a tooth or in the gum
tissue surrounding the teeth. As pus is accumulated, the pressure increases and the
abscessed tooth often becomes increasingly more painful.
Sometimes the infection spreads even more causing a swollen face or forming a
visible bump on the gum overlying the root (gumboil). The swollen area can
rupture, allowing the pus to drain in the mouth. Once the abscess ruptures, the pain
often decreases significantly, but the infection remains and dental treatment is still
necessary.
69
As a tooth abscess develops, the infection can spread into the ligaments that
secure the tooth to the jawbone and the jawbone itself. The bacteria and the
immune system's response cause rapid destruction of connective tissues around the
tooth and into the jawbone, and bone loss may occur. This causes teeth to become
loose and may lead to tooth loss.
You must know that some treatments are not always covered by dental insurance
plans. Learn how to check the terms and choose a dental insurance plan that will
provide the best coverage for you and your family.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word from the list below.
Health, developing, white, infected, swollen, visible, rapid, immune, decrease,
contained.
.
blood cell
... complication
.
fluid
.
face
.
bump
.
abscess
... system's response
.
destruction
.
.
significantly
space
2. Cross out one word in each line.
Abscess: cold, warm, hot
Tooth: temporary, constant, permanent
Dentition: elementary, milk, primary
Occlusion: abnormal, deep, small
3. Fill in the correct derivatives of the word in bold.
1. Your eyes were ... (swell) from crying.
70
2. Pneumonia is one of the common ... (complicate) of the.
3. Clean the wound so it doesn't get ... (infection).
4. Scientists have already ... (accumulation) enough evidence to show a clear link
between smoking and cancer.
5. There has been a ... (vision) change in his attitude.
4. Study notes.
A compound noun consists of two or three words that function like one word.
There are very many compound nouns in English.
Tooth decay is an example of a compound noun, when two nouns combine
together.
Match numbers to the letters.
1. heart
a card
2. junk
b ache
3. blood
c attack
4. credit
d food
5. stomach
e pressure
What compound nouns can you think of? Give 5 examples.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Fill in the following sentences by using Past Perfect Continuous.
1. We
2. I
3. She
(play) football for half an hour when it started to rain.
(study) English for a short time when the electricity went off.
(do) her homework for 20 minutes before you came in.
4. His knees and hands were very dirty. He
5. I
(drive) the car for five years when I sold it.
6. We were very tired. We
(travel) for about sixteen hours.
7. They were out of breath. They
8. He
(crawl)in the garden.
(run) for along time.
(live) in London for ten years when he had an accident.
71
9. He was tired because he
10. He
(write) letters all morning.
(repair) the radio for an hour when you arrived.
2. 1.Fill in the following sentences by using Past Perfect and Past Perfect
Continuous.
A: 1. It was a relief to find the documents. I (look) for them all afternoon.
2. He was dismissed, even though, in his opinion, he (not/do) anything wrong.
3. It was not the first time I'd met him. We (meet) many times before.
4. He called me at eleven in the evening to tell me that he (find) finally a solution.
5. After he (finish) his speech, he waited for the reaction of the audience. But no
one said a word.
6. By the time I came back from my business trip, a lot of things (changed).
7. The doctor asked me how long I (have) the symptoms.
8. It was more than a month before we realised what (happen) to him.
9.Laura needed a break because she (study) all morning.
10.You got sick because you (eat) the whole time.
B: I'm sorry I left without you last night, but I told you to meet me early because
the show started at 8:00. I (try) to get tickets for that play for months, and I didn't
want to miss it. By the time I finally left the coffee shop where we were supposed
to meet, I (have) five cups of coffee and I (wait) over an hour. I had to leave
because I (arrange) to meet Kathy in front of the theater.
When I arrived at the theater, Kathy (pick, already) up the tickets and she
was waiting for us near the entrance. She was really angry because she (wait) for
more than half an hour. She said she (give, almost) up and (go) into the theater
without us.
Kathy told me you (be) late several times in the past and that she would not
make plans with you again in the future. She mentioned that she (miss) several
movies because of your late arrivals. I think you owe her an apology. And in the
future, I suggest you be on time!
72
3. Fill in the following sentences by using Present Perfect, Present Perfect
Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous.
1. It is already 9:30 PM and I (wait) here for over an hour. If John does not get here
in the next five minutes, I am going to leave.
2. I was really angry at John yesterday. By the time he finally arrived, I (wait) for
over an hour.
3. Did you hear that Ben was fired last month? He (work) for that company for
more than ten years and he (work) in almost every department. Nobody knew the
company like he did.
4. I (see) many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. Pictures of the
monuments are very amazing.
5. Sarah already (climb) the Matterhorn, (sail) around the world, and (go) on
safari in Kenya. She is such an adventurous person.
6. Sarah (climb) the Matterhorn, (sail) around the world and (go) on safari in
Kenya by the time she turned twenty-five. She (experience) more by that age than
most people do in their entire lives.
7. When Melanie came into the office yesterday, her eyes were red and watery. I
think she (cry)
Unit 8.2 Dental Abscess
The Types of Dental Abscesses
There are two main types of dental abscess based on the location where they
form:
-Periapical (root-tip) abscess - located at the apex of an infected tooth.
A periapical abscess is what we usually call tooth abscess. A periapical abscess is a
pocket of infection at the tip of a tooth's root, near the jawbone, as a result of an
infection of dental pulp. If this tooth root infection goes untreated (the diseased
73
tissue in the pulp is not removed) pus can begin to build up in the root of the tooth
forming an abscess. The infection can spread to the bone surrounding the tip of the
root.
- Periodontal abscess- located in the periodontal ligament surrounding the tooth.
A periodontal abscess is what is usually called gum abscess. In this case, the
infection comes from outside the tooth instead of from within. A gum, or
periodontal, abscess is usually caused by an infection in the pocket between the
teeth and gums. This may happen either when food particles get trapped between
the gum and tooth or in cases of periodontal disease, when bacteria build up in
deep
pockets
under
the
surface
of
the
gums.
-A third, not so common, type is the pericoronal abscess, which is related in most
cases with the wisdom teeth. It is a kind of dental abscess that occurs when the flap
of tissue covering a partially erupted tooth becomes inflamed and infected.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word from the list below.
Located, deep, food, periodontal, become, erupted, get, flap.
... tooth
.
.
. infected
at the apex
pocked
... particles
.
ligament
.
.
of tissue
trapped
2. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.
1. Do you know who discovered / invented penicillin ?
2. Scientists do investigation / research.
74
3. The company is currently developing / inventing a more powerful microchip.
5. Several girls were sitting around / round looking bored.
3. Fill in the correct word.
Cement, pulp, crown, dentine, enamel
1. ... is a brilliant white layer forming a sort of a cap of the tooth.
2. ... is the upper part of the tooth.
3. ... is a soft part of the tooth.
4. ... is a part of the tooth.
5. ... , or tooth bone, is simply a thin layer of bone covering the dentine.
4.Add the correct prefixes to make the opposites of the adjectives.
HEALTYPOSSIBLE LOYAL ACTIVEHONEST REGULARLEGAL COMPLETE EFFECTIVE POPULAR FORTUNE DIFFERENT KIND POLITE-
75
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1.Complete the sentences with the verb from the box in the correct from: the
Past Perfect Continuous or the Past Continuous.
stand
1.
The
run
boy
write
was
sitting
wait (+2)
near
the
talk
tree,
out
of
breath.
He
very fast.
2.
He
came
into
the
kitchen.
His
parents
stopped
talking.
They
at
desk.
about him.
3.
She
came
into
the
room.
Her
husband
was
his
He
4.
When
the
newlyweds
arrived
at
the
restaurant,
their
guests
for them.
5.
Julia
at the bus stop for twenty
minutes when he drove up and got out of the car.
2.Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple, the Past Continuous, the Past
Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous.
1.
Mary (speak)
to Mr. Boxwell when I (see)
her in the corridor this morning.
2.
John (park)
the car in 5th Avenue when a
from nowhere
young man in black glasses (appear)
before him.
and (stand)
3.
to the village where he (live)
He again (come)
in his childhood.
4.
While
we
(talk)
,
a loud knock at the door.
76
there
(come)
5.
He (look)
into the drawing-room. The old
man (sleep)
peacefully in the armchair at the fire-
place.
6.
While she (read)
this notice, a middle-
aged woman (appear)
7.
in the doorway.
When he (come)
back to the conference
room, he (see)
8.
that the situation (change)
She (sit)
at the table only for five
minutes when a car (come)
9.
Their father (be)
still silent, even when
they (have)
10.
coffee.
He scarcely (get)
outside the door
when he (hear)
11.
I
knew
Wardle's voice talking loudly.
right
away
that
that
was
the
place
I
(look
for)
all my life.
3.Translate these sentences from Russian into English.
1. Когда я пришел, лекция длилась уже 15 минут.
2. Они были очень уставшие. Они работали целый день.
3. Мы ждали около 20 минут, когда наконец-то приехала скорая помощь
4. Пациент Петров принимал это лекарство 5 дней и затем почувствовал
себя лучше.
5. Ученые работают над этой вакциной уже полгода.
6. Сколько времени вы принимаете это лекарство?
7.У вас когда-нибудь была аллергическая реакция на это лекарство?
8. Хирург обследовал пациента 30 минут, когда смог поставить точный
диагноз.
9. У него же было 3 сердечных приступа.
10. Она соблюдает диету уже несколько месяцев.
77
Unit 9.1 The Types of tooth discoloration
Stained or yellow teeth
Stained Teeth is a very common dental problem that makes a lot of people to
feel uncomfortable when they have to talk or smile, due to the colour of their teeth.
Discolored teeth require teeth whitening treatment.
The acquisition of coloured substances onto the tooth pellicle is the main
reason that makes teeth to lose their natural white colour. Human teeth naturally
vary in colour. Not all people are lucky to have a bright white as the natural colour
of their teeth. Slightly yellow teeth is normal for most people. Tooth enamel is
more or less translucent, so it is the underlying dentin's color that actually
determines the tooth colour. Normal variations in dentin structure can affect the
colour of the reflected light, resulting in not perfectly white teeth.
Types of tooth discoloration
Tooth discoloration may be classified into three main categories:
-Extrinsic tooth discoloration. This occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (the
enamel) is stained as by some drinks or foods or by smoking. These external stains
can usually be removed through the use of non-bleaching whitening products such
as whitening toothpastes that contain abrasive ingredients which help remove
surface stains. A thorough dental cleaning by a dentist or hygienist will also
remove most of the extrinsic tooth stains.
-Intrinsic tooth discoloration. This is when the inner structure of the tooth (the
dentin) darkens or gets a yellow colour. Fluorosis or tetracycline stains are
examples of common intrinsic stains. Intrinsic stains are best removed through the
use of whitening products that can bleach the tooth and change the natural
tooth
colour. Tooth bleaching or dental veneers may also be required for
extrinsicly stained teeth if the stains have remained on the teeth for a long period of
time allowing them to penetrate to the inner tooth structures.
-Age-related discoloration is usually a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic
factors. Teeth change with age. Their mineral structure changes becoming less
porous and making teeth to appear darker. The enamel that covers the teeth gets
78
thinner with age, allowing the underlying layer of yellowish dentin to show
through. The continuous accumulation of extrinsic stains also contributes to the
natural yellowing of the teeth over time. 'Cosmetic' dental treatments are not
always covered by dental insurance plans. Learn how to check the terms and
choose a dental insurance plan that will provide the best coverage for you and your
family.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word from the list below.
Vary, discolored, external, abrasive, inner, get, become, continuous.
... ingredients
... tooth
... in colour
... structure
.
.
stains
. less porous
accumulation
. thinner
2. Fill in the correct word.
Ache, brush, paste, plague
1. The dentist recommended me to change my tooth ... for Lacalut sensitive.
2. I had terrible tooth . .
3. Clinical research proves that a new tooth ... can remove up to 80% of tooth ... .
3. Fill in the correct prepositions.
In, by, at, with, from.
1. He was ... the apex of his correct.
2. The tourist office is located ... the city centre.
3. His work is characterized ... its imagery and humour.
4. Can I change seats . you?
5. They were removed ... English class.
79
4. Fill in the correct word.
Discover, develop, pioneer, invent, study.
1. Florence Nightingale
effective nursing care and improvement in public
health.
2. I wonder who .... the first computer?
3. Pierre and Marie Curie
4. Einstein
the element radium.
the theory of relativity which replaced Newton's theory of
gravity.
5. Scientists are
photographs of the planet for signs of life.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put these sentences into the passive. By + agent is not necessary.
1. The postman delivers the letters at 8.00.
2. Someone built this hotel two years ago.
1. They use a lot of preservatives in food these days.
2. Somebody found your keys on top of the photocopier.
3. A scientist discovered penicillin in 1928.
2. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable passive tense.
1. The printing press
(invent) by Johan Gutenberg.
2. The new cinema
3. Mr. Smith
(build) last year.
(interview) for the job at the moment.
4. A speech
(give) by the President tomorrow.
5. When she came out of the supermarket her car
6. A film
(record) when the video recorder broke down.
7. Bread
8. The missing boy
(stole).
(make) from wheat.
(not/see) since yesterday afternoon.
80
9. The car .
(repair) next week.
10. Our house
(always/clean) on Fridays by Mrs. Green.
3. Rewrite these questions in the passive.
1. Have you mended the broken chair?
2. Will Charles water the plants?
3. Who posted the letters?
4. Which candidate are they going to elect president?
5. Did you send the parcel to Mary?
6. Had they informed the police about the accident?
7. Who wrote Macbeth'?
8. What damaged the roof of your house?
9. Who invented the first radio?
10. Who stole your car?
Unit 9.2 The Types of tooth discoloration
What causes stained and discolored teeth?
Stained teeth, that have lost their natural white colour and need teeth
whitening, may be the result of many different reasons. Tooth stains can be
categorized as either extrinsic (external) or intrinsic (internal). The success of a
tooth whitening treatment depends on choosing the proper whitening method per
case, based on the type of stains that cause the tooth discoloration.
Extrinsic tooth stains:
Colored organic compounds from some foods and drinks - tea, coffee, red wine,
blueberries, curry and other - are absorbed on teeth enamel, resulting in yellow
teeth. Other foods that contain much chlorophyll may result in green stains.
81
Common dental restorative materials, as the amalgam in silver-colored fillings,
may turn adjacent areas of teeth black or gray. Prescribed antiseptic mouthwashes
containing chlorhexidine are associated with causing yellow-brown stains on teeth.
Repeated use of stannous fluoride can result in a light brown or yellowish stain.
Iodine-containing solution medications may also cause similar stains. Metallic
stains can be caused by metallic salts, such as in iron supplements. Other habits as
smoking or chewing tobacco are also responsible for stained teeth, creating brown
to black stains on the tooth surface. Accumulation of dental plaque and tartar may
alter the natural appearance of the tooth.
Intrinsic tooth stains:
Systemic disorders (as alkaptonuria, erythropoietic porphyria, hyperbilirubinemia
etc.) are also causes of stained teeth. Enamel hypoplasia causes tooth discoloration
and pitting of the enamel. In rare cases, children with dentinogenesis imperfecta
are born with gray, amber
or purple discolorations. In fluorosis, chalky white
spots or brown marks are caused by excessive fluoride intake, (tooth whitening
does not actually remove the white spots but lightens the background so they are
less noticeable). Trauma may cause tooth discoloration by allowing hemosiderin to
enter to dentinal tubules. Trauma may change a tooth to a pink, yellow, or dark
grey colour. Chips or other injuries that damage the pulp of a tooth can also cause
discoloration and yellow teeth. Some medications, such as the antibiotics
tetracycline and minocycline, may become incorporated into the structure of a
tooth, causing intrinsic staining of the teeth with a brown-grey colour. Use of
tetracycline should be avoided during the period of tooth formation, from 4th
month of pregnancy until 7 years of age. After root canal treatment, a tooth may
start to darken, especially if the pulp chamber area is not thoroughly cleaned from
dead or infected pulp tissue.
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VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word from the list below.
Stained, success, organic, repeated, antiseptic, chalky, fluoride, tooth.
... compounds
... of treatment
.
teeth
.
discoloration
.
mouthwashes
.
intake
.
white spots
use
2. Complete each phrase using a correct form of the words in brackets.
1. a great ... (achieve)
2. highly ... (benefit)
3. recent ... (develop)
4. important .
(discover)
5. useful ... (invent)
6. a ... fact (science)
7. a ... to a problem (solve)
3. Choose the correct word or phrase to complete each sentence.
1. They have complained for / about the noise.
2. I don't approve of / with his behaviour.
3. My father said he's going to help me with / at the fees.
4. The airline is legally responsible for / about the safety of its passengers.
5. We were prevented from / for entering the site.
4. Croup the following words according to the titles in the table.
Absorber, clip, brad, sterile storage, forceps, drill, clasper, centrifuge, acrylic,
hydraulic chair
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instrument
equipment
material
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verb in brackets in the correct form, active or passive.
Last night a man was arrested (arrest) outside Buckingham Palace.
Police saw (see) him climbing the walls.
A Have you heard the news today?
B No, why?
A Well, the police (a)
(arrest) Ronald Bloggs.
B Who is he?
A He was one of the man who (b)
(rob) a train in Britain about thirty years ago.
B Good Lord! I remember that. It was one of biggest robberies. How much money
(c)
(steal)?
A Millions. And it (d)
(never find). Bloggs (e)
but soon he (f)
(send) to prison
(escape). Anyway, he (g)
yesterday. He (h)
(arrest)
(live) in Brazil for the past fifteen
years, and the British police have been trying all this time to bring him back, but
they could not, because Britain does not have an extradition treaty with Brazil.
B So who (i)
(arrest) him, the British police or the Brazilian police?
A The Brazilian police. Apparently he (j)
(catch) because of
shoplifting. He put something in his pocket, and he did not know that a store
detective (k)
(see) it.
B But why is this in all press? It is not very important, is it?
A Because now he will have a criminal record, and under Brazilian law he could
(l)
(send) back to Britain. If that happened, he would (m)
( imprison) here to finish his sentence.
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2. Answer the questions using the passive form of the verbs.
Who was the inventor of the light bulb?
The light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison.
1. Which currency replaced the peseta, the franc, and the lira in 2002?
2.How many countries form the United Kingdom?
3.Who was the author of Hamlet?
4.Who discovered penicillin?
3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1.Ее выпишут из больницы завтра.
2.Студентам только что рассказали об анатомической структуре сердца
человека.
3. Коронка зуда покрыта эмалью, а корень зуба - цементом.
4. Наука о физической культуре была разработана проф. Лесгафтом.
5. Дентин пронизан огромным числом тончайших канальцев.
6. Двух
пациентов переводят из терапевтического в хирургическое
отделение.
7.
Возбудители
этой
болезни
были
обнаружены
в
результате
многочисленных экспериментов.
8.Пациенту назначили курс витаминов.
9.Было установлено, что эмаль по прочности приближается к алмазу.
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10. Курс лечения этого больного был изменен в начале недели.
Unit 10.1 Cosmetic Dentistry Procedures.
Tooth whitening - Bleaching.
Teeth whitening is the most popular cosmetic dentistry procedure because it
can significantly improve the appearance of teeth at much less cost than other
techniques.
Stained or discolored teeth are caused by many different reasons. Regular
tooth brushing can only remove some of the extrinsic stains from the outer surface
of the tooth enamel. Only 'teeth bleaching' can actually whiten teeth removing deep
intrinsic stains and lightening their colour. The procedure can be done in the dental
office or at home.
Bonding
Bonding can provide the treatment for a variety of dental aesthetic problems
such as chipped, gapped, discolored or oddly shaped teeth. Bonding consists in the
application of a tooth-colored dental composite resin (plastic) material that looks
like the natural enamel to the surface of the tooth, where it is sculpted into shape
and contoured.
The material is hardened and bonded on the enamel with a special highintensity blue light and finally it is polished, making the crack or chip invisible.
Sometimes, bonding also is used to make teeth look longer, to change their shape,
or to cover a part of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gums recession.
Porcelain Veneers.
Veneers offer the most revolutionary (but also the most expensive)
advancement in aesthetic dentistry. Porcelain veneers are made of a thin layer of
porcelain only around half a millimeter thick which is glued to the front of the
86
tooth to restore its natural appearance. They are custom made by the same material
used to make tooth-coloured crowns or caps, which once cemented to the tooth,
looks like natural tooth structure.
Veneers can be used to improve a wide variety of cosmetic dental problems.
They can repair chips and cracks, whiten stained or discolored teeth, close gaps
between teeth, and they can even correct slightly crooked or misaligned teeth
without the need for braces. While porcelain veneers offer excellent aesthetic
results, they require adequate remaining tooth structure for their support.
Orthodontic treatment.
Orthodontics are not just for kids. More and more adults are seeking
treatment from orthodontists in order to improve their smile, especially after the
introduction of clear brackets. Orthodontists can address problems such as
overcrowded, overlapping, crooked or severely gapped teeth that affect the
patient's appearance.
Moving teeth to their proper position is done with the use of special corrective
appliances called braces. The procedure is very time consuming and may last for
several years. For this reason orthodontic treatment is recommended for adults
mainly in cases of severe misalignment problems or gaps that can not be corrected
with other cosmetic treatments such as bonding or veneers.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word from the list below.
Advance, make, gum, natural, close, revolutionary, corrective, misalignment
recession
. in dentistry
visible
.
appliances
... advancement
.
problems
.
.
appearance
.
gaps
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2. Focus on look(s) / look(s) like.
look(s) + adjective
You look tired
look(s) like + noun
She looks like a student.
Complete the sentences with look(s) or look(s) like.
1. My dad
2. I
young his age.
English.
3. He
about fifty. He
4. The material
5. She
a banker.
the natural enamel.
a famous top model.
3. Complete these sentence with the words
swallow bite
1. Stop
chew.
(-ing) your nails!
2. She sat
(-ing) on the end of a pencil, waiting for inspiration.
3. Taking pills is easy - just put them in your mouth and
.
4. Match the numbers to the letters and explain these expressions.
a) as strong as
1. lion
b) as brave as
2. bird
c) as light as
3. an ox
d) as free as
4. rock
e) as good as
5. a snail
f) as solid as
6. the sea
g) as slow as
7. gold
h) as old as
8. feather
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GRAMMAR EXERCISES
STUDY THESE GRAMMAR RULES
Say- Tell
Say is used in direct and reported speech. In reported speech, it is followed by a
that -clause. E.g. " I won't go to Japan," she said. She said that she wouldn't go to
Japan.
Tell is used in reported speech and has to be followed by a personal direct object
(me, you, her)
E.g. She told me (that) she wouldn't go to Japan.
Expressions with Say, Tell
Say
say good morning/ evening, say something, say one's prayers, say a few
words, say so, say no more, say for certain, say for sure, etc.
Tell
tell the truth, tell a lie, tell (sb) the time, tell one's name, tell a story, tell sb
secret, tell sb the way, tell the difference, etc.
1. Read the information about Heinrich Schliemann. Then complete the text
by writing said or told in each space.
Heinrich Schliemann was a German archaeologist who excavated a city in
Turkey in 1871 and decided that it was ancient Troy. He found evidence of
destruction
by war, and also discovered
some gold
objects.
Nowadays
archaeologists believe that his methods of excavation were unscientific, and they
also believe that some of his discoveries were false.
Recently many experts have a.
said
that Schliemann had a
habit of not telling the truth, and this has raised doubts about his work. For
example, he b
everyone he was a US citizen, but in
fact this wasn't true. He also c
he had a degree from the
University of Rostock, but in fact the university rejected his thesis. He d
he had found gold jewellery at Hissarlik, but some people
believe these were modern pieces. In fact, his servant later e
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people that no jewellery has been found in the places that Schliemann
claimed to have found it. He also f
the authorities in
Turkey that he was an archaeologist, but he didn't have any qualifications. When
he talked about his work, he always g
people that he had
dreamed of finding Troy when he was a small boy, but many people feel that he
invented this story later. However, although many archaeologists at the time h
that his work was inaccurate, we have to remember that
archaeology was not a science in Schliemann's time. He may not have always i
the truth, but he brought a lot of energy to the discovery
of the ancient world, and devoted his life and his wealth to his excavations.
2. Read the information about the Trojan War. Rewrite these sentences using
reported speech and put the verbs and pronouns in correct form.
Model: 'I love you, Helen, and I want you to come with me to Troy', Paris told
Helen.
Paris told Helen that he a loved her and he b wanted her to go to Troy with c him
1. 'I'm going to attack Troy and get my wife back because she loves me best!'
Menelaus told his brother.
2. 'We'll come with you to Troy and get you wife back', the Greek heroes told
Menelaus.
3. 'We've been fighting here for nine years and we want to get back to our
families', the Greek said.
4. 'I'm going to take some soldiers with me inside this wooden horse', Odysseus
told them.
5. 'My plan has worked, and the city is ours', Odysseus told the Greeks.
3. Report the sentences.
Sally went to see a landlady called Mrs Mawby about a flat. Now she is telling her
friend, Paul, about it.
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Example
«The rent is &50 a week».
The landlady said the rent was &50 a week.
a.«It's a quiet flat, and the neighbours are nice».
Mrs Mawby said
b.«The rent includes gas and electricity».
She told me that
c.«I need & 100 deposit».
Then she said
d.«I decorated the living room recently».
She told me that
e.«Other people have been to see the flat».
She said
f.«You'll have to make up your mind soon».
She told me
g.«The previous occupants looked after it very well».
She said that
h.«I've replaced all the carpets».
She told me that
i. «You can move in immediately».
She told me
j. «I'll give you a ring soon,» said Sally.
I told Mrs Mawby that
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Unit 10.2 Cosmetic Dentistry Procedures.
Enamel shaping.
Tooth shaping is an effective way to correct minor flaws, such as slightly
uneven, crowded, overlapping or crooked teeth. It can also be used to round off
pointed teeth or shorten long teeth, so that they follow the contour of the lower lip,
restoring the symmetry of the mouth. The fact that the method may involve
removing a small amount of enamel sets some limitations on using tooth
recontouring, as it can not be used if the enamel layer is too thin.
Gingivoplasty.
It is also known as crown lengthening, gum contouring or gum lift. It is a
surgical procedure that modifies the shape of the gums by cutting away excessive
gum tissue. Gingivoplasty is recommended when the gums cover a large part of the
tooth crown resulting in teeth that look shorter or smaller (gummy smile).
Dental implants.
Dental implants are artificial tooth root replacements that are used for
replacing missing teeth. A small titanium screw is surgically fixed into the jawbone
and then a crown, bridge or denture can be fitted on it. In time, the screw becomes
fused with the bone of the jaw. Dental implants are permanent providing a much
more convenient and naturally looking replacement of missing teeth compared to
bridges or dentures.
Tooth-colored fillings.
Previous generations of dental fillings that dentists used to treat tooth decay
were composed by gold, amalgam and other materials that were very obvious when
you smile. Today, you can select fillings made of porcelain or composite materials
that match the natural color of your teeth. Many people decide to replace their old
gold or dark amalgam fillings with new tooth-colored once, to restore the natural
92
appearance of their teeth and smile. However, especially in case of extensive and
deep fillings there is increased risk of structural or nerve damage (inlays - onlays).
Micro-abrasion.
Discolored enamel can be gently ground away using an abrasive, acid-based
paste. Such treatment can impact on the strength of the teeth, so it should only be
conducted by a qualified dental professional.
Crowns.
Crowns, also referred as caps, are dental restorations more suitable for
natural teeth that have sustained significant loss of structure, or for dental implants
used to replace missing teeth. They have a metal body custom made to fit over the
whole tooth that can withstand the biting pressure, covered by a thin layer of toothcolored porcelain to match the look of existing teeth. With a minor loss of cosmetic
result crowns can offer greater strength and durability than veneers.
Each individual has different cosmetic problems that can be treated with
various combinations of different cosmetic dentistry procedures. If you want to
improve your smile's appearance you should first visit an experienced cosmetic
dentist for consultation.
Cosmetic dentists have the expertise to analyze your cosmetic needs, and
propose a complete plan of cosmetic treatments that will best fit to both your
expectations and finances.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Crooked, artificial, titanium, previous, composite old, natural, experienced.
... screw
... teeth
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filling
materials
replacement
dentist
colour
generations
2. Fill in the correct word.
Erupt, sealants, prevent, inflammation, maintain.
1. The goal of treatment is to preserve the tooth and
2.
complications
are plastic - like coating applied to the chewing of the molars.
3. Gingivitis is the
4. The first teeth
of the gums.
between 6 or 9 month.
5. Oral hygiene is necessary to
the health of the teeth and mouth.
4. Complete this table. Include all possible form you can think of.
Noun
Verb
Adjective
solve
eruption
fill
sensitive
appear
combination
provide
apply
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4. Match numbers to the letters to make sentences.
1. Simon has applied.
2. I'm sorry if I c a u s e d .
3. She complained...
4. Running your own business involves .
5. We hope the injury will provide.
a any confusion.
b for a job in the local newspaper.
c about amount of work to do.
d an explanation for the accident.
e working long hours.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Make these sentences in Reported Speech
A) Statements:
Example: The boy said, "My name is Mark."
The boy said (that) his name was Mark.
Do the same:
1. The woman said, "It's not my umbrella, mine is red."
2. Tom said, "I have a sports car. It is red."
3. Mr. Brown said, "I don't drive a car in the rush hour."
4. Terry said, "I eat toasts for breakfast. They are made by my mother."
5. Sue said, "The boy is looking at us. I don't know him."
6. John said, "I can swim well but I don't have enough time to swim."
7. The teacher said, "If you don't study regularly, you'll fail."
B) Imperatives:
Examples: * The teacher always says to us, "Study very hard."
95
The teacher always tells us TO study hard.
* The teacher says, "Don't talk in the class."
The teacher tells us NOT TO talk in the class.
Do the same:
1. Woman to the porter: "Carry my suitcases."
2. Policeman to a man: "Describe your car."
3. Mother to the boy: "Don't hurt yourself."
4. The robber to the man: "Give me your money."
5. Teacher to the student: "Give me your book."
6. The man to us: "Don't park here."
7. Woman to her husband: "Don't forget to take your key."
C) Wh- questions:
Examples: * "What is the time?" he asked.
He asked me what the time was.
* "Where do you live? " he asked Mary.
He wanted to know where Mary lived.
Do the same:
1. He asked, "How long does it take you to have lunch?"
2. He asked me, "What are you doing at the weekend?"
3. She asked, "Why are you late, Tom?"
4. My mother asked me, "Where is your umbrella?"
5. The secretary asked the man, "Who do you want to see, sir?"
6. The students asked, "What time does the bell ring?"
7. He asked Tom, "What kind of films do you like watching?"
D) Yes / No questions:
Examples: * "Are you busy? " he asked me.
He asked me IF I was busy.
* "Do you like banana? " he asked his friends.
He asked his friends IF they liked banana.
Do the same:
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1. She asked, "Do you live with your family, Helen?"
2. He asked, "Can I borrow your pen, Linda?"
3. He asked me, "Does your uncle live in England?"
4. Mary asked Lucy, "Will you come to my party tomorrow?"
5. Mark asked, "Did you phone me last night, John?"
6. He asked, "Is this yours or mine, David?"
7. She always asked me, "Must you always ask me what I'm doing?"
2.Translate the story from Russian into English paying special attention to the
words in italics.
Совет врача
Медсестра спросила меня, ожидаю ли я доктора Грея, и пригласила к нему в
кабинет (surgery).
Доктор Грей поинтересовался, что меня беспокоит (to bother) . Я сказал, что
ужасно переутомлен (be run down) . Он спросил меня, поздно ли я ложусь
спать (stay up late) , и я сказал, что да. Тогда он задал вопрос, почему я не
соблюдаю нормальный режим (keep regular hours), и я объяснил, что почти
каждый вечер я встречаюсь с друзьями. Доктор захотел узнать, как я провожу
время, и я сказал, что в основном (mostly) я хожу на вечеринки. Доктор меня
спросил, удается ли (have the chance) мне отдохнуть (to recover) в выходные
дни, но я вынужден был признать (admit), что в выходные дни наши
вечеринки длятся всю ночь.
Он спросил меня, курю ли я, когда я сказал, что курю, доктор хотел знать,
сколько сигарет в день я выкуриваю. Он был поражен, когда услышал мой
ответ. Тогда врач спросил меня, занимаюсь ли (take)
я гимнастикой для
поддержания своего здоровья (to keep fit).Я ответил, что для этого у меня нет
времени.
«Вы поджигаете свечу (burn the candle) с обоих концов, - сказал доктор Грей
и добавил: - Но я завидую (envy) вам, что вы так весело проводите время».
97
3. Turn Direct Speech into indirect Speech with all necessary tense changes.
1.
«Я посмотрела результаты ваших анализов», - сказал доктор Лестер.
2.
«Вы очень поправились», - заметила она.
3.
«Вы набрали (gain) пять с половиной килограммов за шесть месяцев», -
объяснила она.
4.
«Если вы будете продолжать в том же духе, вы сильно поправитесь (get
fat)», - предупредила она меня.
5.
«Я вынуждена посадить вас на строгую диету (put on a strict diet); вы
должны есть очень мало», добавила она.
Unit 11.1 Bad breath
Halitosis
Halitosis or bad breath is the condition when breath has an unpleasant odor.
Halitosis is an embarrassing social problem more than it is a dental health problem.
The problem with people who suffer from halitosis is that they don't know it
unless somebody tells them. But others who come close to them certainly know.
Cleaning your teeth usually helps but it won't always stop bad breath.
How to understand that you have a bad breath problem
1. If you notice that when you speak, people around you try to keep you at a
distance or take a step back, you have a first hint.
2. Put your hands in front of your mouth and nose, and exhale.
3. Lick the back of your wrist, let it dry for a minute or two and then smelt it.
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4. Ask a close friend if your breath is unpleasant.
5. Ask your dentist.
6. Use a halimeter (measures the levels of volatile sulfur compounds in the breath)
Certain foods, health conditions and habits are among the causes of halitosis.
Most people can find a cure for halitosis with proper dental hygiene. If bad breath
persists despite good oral hygiene, you have a chronic halitosis problem and you
should visit your dentist or doctor to rule out a more serious condition that may be
causing your bad breath.
The causes of halitosis/bad breath
Halitosis is an oral health problem mainly caused by excessive amount of volatile
sulfur compounds (thiols) that give breath its foul odor.
1. Food. Eating foods containing volatile sulfur compounds, like garlic and onions
or some spices, is one of the most common causes of temporary halitosis. After
these foods are digested, the sulfur compounds are absorbed into the bloodstream,
they're carried to the lungs and exit from the body during exhale, causing bad
breath.
2. Poor dental hygiene. Infrequent or improper brushing and flossing can leave
food particles to decay inside the mouth. Their breakdown can cause a foul odor.
3. Dental problems. Periodontal disease or an abscess at the base of a tooth can be
the causes of bad breath due to bacteria emitting hydrogen sulfur vapors.
4. Dry mouth (xerostomia). Saliva helps cleanse and moisten the mouth. A dry
mouth enables the accumulation of dead cells on tongue, gums and cheeks. These
cells then decompose and cause odor. Even for a short period of time like sleep, the
reduce of saliva flow makes the mouth dry causing what is called 'morning breath.
5. Systemic diseases._ Several illnesses can cause a distinctive breath odor. Kidney
failure can cause a urine-like odor and diabetes may cause a fruity breath odor.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), liver failure or lung infections also can
cause bad breath.
Systemic diseases and dry mouth are the most common causes of chronic halitosis.
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6. Smoking is another bad breath cause, as it dries out the mouth and causes
unpleasant mouth odor.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word
Keep, foul, volatile, dead, saliva, morning, kidney, lung
.odor
..flow
..distance
..cell
..failure
. . breath
. . s u l f u r compounds
..infection
2. Fill in the correct prepositions.
Over, down, at, in, for, on, from
There are a lot of hospitals and clinics . the area.
1 . . first, the doctor was worried that the cut would not head
2. I have had a bad cold . the last two week s
3. The doctor wrote . me the medicine I had to buy
4. The nurse comes . duty at 10 o clock
5. John had chickenpox and had spots all . h i s body
6. Make sure you keep all medicines away .children
3. Study notes
Dis + verb=negative (dislike)
Mis+ verb= wrongly/badly( mistook)
Over+ verb= too much (overdo)
Post+ verb/ noun/adjective = after (postgraduate)
Un+ verb/noun/adjective=negative/opposite (unlock)
100
properly
Add a correct prefix to the following words.
1
approve
6
cook
2
believe
7
natal
3
inform
8
zip
4
understand
9
interpret
5
behave
10
work
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in the list.
Repair, cure, head, treat
The cut on my . well. But I have got a scar now
Grandmas remedy of hot tea and honey managed to . my sore throat
The doctor .
the patient for mind burns and bruises
The cottage roof collapsed during the earth quake, so they had to . it.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Continuous.
1. Charles Lindberg
company when he
(work) as a pilot for the Chicago St Louis airline
(make) the first non-stop flight around the world in 1927.
2. Mahatma Gandhi
3.
(die)in 1948 after a terrorist
Alexander Fleming
,
(shoot) him.
(discover) penicillin by accident while he
(work) at St Mary's Hospital in London.
4. After the painter Degas
(go) blind
in the late
1890s,
he
(give up) painting.
5.
Ernest Hemingway
(get) many of his ideas while he
(live) in
Spain during the Spanish Civil War.
6. Newton
(make)his great discovery when he
101
(sit) under the apple tree.
2. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Continuous, the Present Simple,
the Past Simple, the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous.
1.
He
(not/phone)
him
since
he
(arrive)
2.
I
(think)
your
a
(see)
real
daughter
beauty
(become)
since
I
her last.
3. What you (do)
with the knife? The point is
broken off.
4. For these last three years I (save)
nearly every
penny for my trip to that country.
5. Well, dear, what you (do)
all day long? You
(look)
tired. Come and sit here by the fire.
6. "Hello," he (say)
holding out his hand, " I (look)
for you for a long time. I never (have)
the chance to thank you for what you (do)
for my brother".
7. You see, I (do)
this kind of thing for the last
thirty years.
8. I (think)
of it ever since Molly (tell)
me about your decision to go to the sea.
9. Do come in and join us. We (have)
coffee and
(watch)
TV.
10. A: I hear your brother (come)
back. He (be)
in the East all this time?
B: No, he (be)
in Europe for the last year.
11. A: I just (be)
to the cinema. You (see)
The last film by N. Mikhalkov?
B: Yes.
A: When you (see)
it?
102
B: A week ago.
A: Who you (go)
with?
B: With Tanya.
12. A: The children (return)
yet?
B: Yes, Tom Burton (bring)
them back in his car
five minutes ago.
A: Well, then we can have dinner now
B: No, we can't. I (not/cook)
it yet.
A: What you (do)
all this time?
B: Worrying.
3. Correct the mistakes.
1. Fantastic! My boss just gives me a promotion!
2. This is the most beautiful garden I've ever saw.
3. Where did you be on your holidays?
4. Who wrote this book?
5. My sister want to be a doctor.
6. What's your father doing? He reads a newspaper.
7. How much people were watching this match?
8. Thank you- you've done this job well.
9. When I saw you yesterday you was sitting in the park
10.There was 2 banks in the city center last year.
11.I not understand you. What you mean?
12.We have been knowing each other for 5 years.
13.The train arrives at 10.35 tomorrow.
14.How long have you been living in Moscow before you moved?
15.Not forget to check the price!
16.I'm translating this text for 30 min.
17.Nobody doesn't know what to do.
18.When we arrived, we realized that somebody has been here.
103
19.How much these shoes cost?
20.The company has grown by more than 10% this year
Unit 11.2 Bad breath
Halitosis treatment
If you are looking for a cure for halitosis, try the following bad breath
remedies :
1. Maintain good oral hygiene. Brush properly every morning and after every meal
to remove bacteria from the teeth and cure halitosis. Proper flossing, at least once a
day, removes food particles and dental plaque from between the teeth.
2. Proper diet. Be careful with what you eat, avoid foods like onions and garlic.
3. Increase saliva flow. Saliva acts as nature's mouthwash by keeping the mouth
moist, washing away left-over food particles and bacteria, and dissolving foul
smelling volatile sulfur compounds.
4. Drink a lot of water to keep your mouth moist and stimulate saliva flow, making
the mouth less hospitable to odor causing bacteria.
5. Chew sugarless gums. Chewing action helps cleanse the teeth, stimulates the
flow of saliva and freshen breath.
6. Use mouthwashes containing chlorine dioxide which attack and neutralize the
sulfur compounds. Conventional mouthwashes mask bad breath odor only
temporarily.
7. Brush your tongue. It has been found that almost 50% of the bacteria which
cause halitosis reside on the tongue. Use a soft bristled toothbrush or a special
device called a tongue cleaner for tongue scraper) to gently clean the tongue.
8. Have a dental check up every 6 months. Your dentist can diagnose other
problems which cause bad breath as abscesses, periodontal disease or systemic
diseases. Visit your dentist if you start to have a chronic halitosis problem.
104
Increased attention on diet and oral hygiene can usually be an easy cure for
halitosis, but in case of a chronic halitosis problem the required bad breath
treatment might be much more difficult.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct prepositions
For, away, out, for, from.
1. In summer, water the plants regularly and let the soil dry
2. There is still no cure
AIDS
3. The events in the newspaper article were far removed
4. That is just the word I was looking
5. Floods in Bangladesh have washed hundreds of homes
2.Cross out one add word in each line
Worse
slowed
better
further
elder
People
children
adults
men
women
Hit
put
win
let
split
eat
answer
chat
dance
drink
kept
swam
tried
left
went
3. Fill in the correct particle.
Give back : to return to it is owner
Give o f f : to send out or discharge
Give out: to distribute or hand out
Give up : to stop doing or having smth
1. The doctor advised me to give
2. Could you give me
eating fatty foods.
my black pen?
105
reality
3. The teacher gave
the examination paper
4. The fire does not seem to be g i v i n g . . much heat
4. Fill in the correct word
Maintain, increase, dissolve, chew, cause, require, avoid.
1. Smoking is one of the main
2. Try to
(s) of heart disease
accidents!
3. The meat is so tough I can hardly .... it!
4
the tablet in water
5. It is important to . . .
a constant temperature inside a laboratory
6. Over 40% of patients in the hospital
7. Too much fat in a diet
long-term care
(s) the risk of heart disease.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Use the correct form of the verbs:
1. The Bartons
(go) to the mountains last weekend. While they
(have) lunch, a man
(take)
(fall) down the tree. They
him
to
the
hospital
in
their
car.
They
(visit) him twice in the hospital since that
time. The man
(be) better now and the doctors say he
(leave) the hospital soon. When The Bartons
(visit) him yesterday, they
bunch
of
flowers.
The
(take) him a
man
(thank)
(be)
them.
Mr.
Barton
very
now
happy
and
says
he
(spend) the next weekend at the seaside and he
106
(hope) there
(not /
be) any more accidents.
2.
I
(finish)
school
last
month
and
I
(not / have) a job yet, but fortunately I
(have)
a
job
interview
tomorrow.
(get) up early so often
half past ten. I
I
usually
(sleep) at around
(be) a little excited last night and because of this I
(want
/
watch)
(go) to bed. There
TV
before
(be) a film about
birds on TV and while I
(sit) on the sofa, I
(fall) asleep
you
terrible dream? Well, I
(have) a
(have) one last night. In my dream I
(be) a parrot and my apartment flat
(be) on the tenth
floor of a big building. A big cat
catch)
me
so
(want /
I
(begin
(have) nowhere
/
fly).
It
I
(go) because the door
(be) locked. Suddenly the cat
me.
I
(attack)
nearly
(kill)
me.
While
(shout) in pain,a voice
you
I
(say), "
(see) my books? I can't find them."
When I
(open) my eyes, I
happy
(see)
(not
(feel) very
my
sister.
Of
/
understand)
the
course
reason
she
but
I
(give) her a big kiss.
2. Fill in the blanks using the Correct tense or Voice:
1. Listen! An old tune
(play) on the radio. 2.
Nobody
(help) Mr. Green while the garage
(paint). 3. Mary
a bath before she
(have)
(call) by one of her friends yesterday. 4.
107
The
accountant
(look)
(pay)
yet.
5.
(realize)
sad
He
that
because
felt
his
sorry
when
stamp
bills
he
collection
(steal). 6. If I
I
the
(be) him,
(not / treat) my father like that. He will be
sorry for that in the future. 7. If she
she
(see) me,
(get) angry with me, because I had promised
to call her out but I didn't. 8. He
since he
(stop / smoke)
(have) a heart attack. 9. As soon as she
(finish / change) the baby's nappy, she
(take) the children to school. 10. He said his car
already
(mend). 11. She said she
(open) her first exhibition the following month.
12. Mary and Joe want
(sound)
(go) to the shore which
like
(not
a
/
good
wake
idea
up)
on
to
me.
time
(use) an alarm clock.
3. Report questions with question words
Mrs. Mawby and Sally both asked a lot of questions.
Sally also told Paul about them. Report the questions.
Example
'Where do you live?'Mrs Mawby asked. She asked me where 1 lived.
a.«How many bedrooms are there? » Sally asked.
I asked her
b.«When do you want to move in? » Mrs Mawby asked.
She asked me
c.«What sort of heating is there? » Sally asked.
I asked her
d.«How often do you want the rent? » Sally asked.
108
13.
He
unless
he
I asked her
e. «How far is it to the shops? » Sally asked.
I asked her
f.«What do you think of the flat? » Mrs Mawby asked.
She asked me
109
CAREERS IN DENTISTRY
Unit 1.1 -The Dentist
The Dentist. Job description.
Dentists diagnose and treat diseases, injuries and malformations of the teeth
and gums and related oral structures. They treat diseases of nerve, pulp and other
dental tissues.
A general dentist is the primary care dental provider. If the patient
experiences dental problems that require a specialist's treatment, the general
dentist will refer him to a dental specialist.
A dentist must undergo additional postgraduate training to become a dental
specialist. Nine dental specialties are recognized in areas of dentistry where
advanced knowledge and skills are essential to maintain or restore oral health.
The Dentists-Job description
Dentists diagnose and treat teeth and tissue problems. A dentist will:
-Take and examine x-rays
-Administer anesthetics
-Remove tooth decay and fill cavities
-Treat gum disease
-Extract teeth
-Repair fractured teeth
-Make models and measurements for dentures to replace missing teeth
-Place protective plastic sealants on children's teeth
-Place instructions on diet, brushing, flossing, use of fluorides, and other aspects of
dental care
-Straighten teeth
-Write prescriptions for antibiotics and other medications.
Dentists use a variety of equipment, including x-ray machines, drills and
instruments such as mouth mirrors, probes, forceps, brushes and scalpels.
110
Dental schools award the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or of
Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD). DDS and DMD are different titles for the same
education and degree.
Following dental schools, the majority of dentists choose to move
immediately into practice as a general or family dentist. Others follow
postgraduate training to become a specialty dentist. Most dentists are "solo
practitioners", meaning they own their own businesses and work alone or with a
small staff. Some dentists have partners, and a few work for other dentists as
associate dentists.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Match the number to the letter
1. to diagnose -
a knowledge
2. experience -
b to make smth continue
3. to advance
- c ability
4. skill
-
d to find out
5. essential
-
e to develop
6. to mountain -
f extremely important
2. Study notes.
Injury - a wound or damage to part of your body caused by an accident or
attack.
Wound - an injury, especially a deep cut made in your skin by a knife, bullet
etc.
Cut - a small wound made when a sharp object cuts your skin.
Scrape - a mark or slight injury caused by rubbing your skin against a rough
surface.
Bruise- a dark mark on your skin you get when you fall or get hit.
111
Sprain - an injury to a joint in your body, caused by suddenly twisting it.
Bump - an area of skin that is swollen because you have hit it on something.
Fracture - a crack or broken part in a bone.
Fill in the correct word.
1. The nurse bandage a deep
2. He was covered in
in his leg.
(s) after falling off his bicycle.
3. Old people's bones are more prone to
4. He died after receiving two bullet .... in the head.
5. I thought I broke my ankle but it was a bad
3.Fill in the blanks with the correct word.
Extract- extraction- extractor- to extract
1. Dentists will only resort to
of a tooth when all other treatments have
failed.
2. Scientists are able to
DNA from bones and teeth.
3. There are lots of cosmetic made with natural
4. A new modern
was presented at the last exhibition.
4.Fill in the correct word from the list below. Use the words only once.
Dental, to provide, to fill, to restore, to remove, postgraduate, missing
1
training
2
tooth decay
3
health
4
tissue
5
cavities
6
instruments
7
teeth
112
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Modal verbs
Модальные глаголы can и may и их эквиваленты, выражающие
Возможность, Способность, Умение
Глагол
Present
Past
can
can
could
to be able
am
is . able to
are
was
were г able to
may
might
выражает
возможность,
или
способность
Future
Will be able to
реальную
физическую
умственную
may
(употребляется
в
косвенной речи)
Will be allowed
am
to be allowed (to)
is
was
allowed to
to
were J allowed to
are
выражает
допущение
возможности,
разрешение
совершить действие
Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, выражающие
Долженствование
Глагол
must
должен
сделать
Present
must
обязательно
Past
had to
что-то
113
Future
have to
have to (have got to)
должен, приходится поневоле, has to
вынужден (в силу обстоятельств)
be to
должен
(я
обещал,
запланировал
по
расписанию,
по
договоренности
should
должен (следует по моему
мнению, совету)
ought to
следует, должен (это твой
моральный долг, когда мы
говорим о законе, правилах)
needn't
нет никакой необходимости
(нужды)
am to
are to
is to
had to
shalll
will J have to
was to
were to
Will be to
should
ought to
need
1. Fill in the correct modal verb may or can and their equivalents.
1 . . you see anything in this inky darkness? 2. You ... go when you have finished
your compositions. 3. What shall we do if the train is late? It . b e late, you know,
after the terrible snowstorms we've had. 4. When ... you come and see me? - Let
me see: I ... not come tomorrow, for I must be at the meeting, but on Sunday about
two o'clock. Will that be all right? 5. You ... come in when you have taken off
your boots. 6. Be careful: you ... spill the milk if you carry it like that. 7. Most
children ... slide on the ice very well. 8. I don't think I ... be here by eleven
o'clock tomorrow, but I ... be.
2. Put an appropriate verb in its correct form into each gap.
The verbs are can, could, to be able.
The forms are positive and negative.
a. In my country you
b. Women
c. Last night I
get married when you are 16.
vote in England until 1922.
get into my house because I had forgotten my key.
114
d. I phoned the Gas Board because I thought I
smell gas, which is very
dangerous.
e. "Hello.
Is that the dentist?
I make an appointment to see you,
please?"
f. I am learning car mechanics because I want
to service my own car. It
costs a fortune if you send in to the garage.
g. Many night animals
see very well, but they have a highly developed
sense of smell.
h. If you
do this exercise, you are very clever!
3. Choose the modal verb and translate these sentences.
1. Нам пришлось уйти с бейсбольного матча, так как мы боялись опоздать на
последний автобус.
а) were to b) had to c) must
d) should
2. Мы должны (договорились) встретиться у стадиона.
a) have to
b) are to
c) must
d) ought to
3. Вы должны быть на занятиях в школе и за партой до того, как прозвенит
звонок.
a) must
b) have to
c) ought to
d) should
4. Вам следует делать домашнее задание ежедневно.
a) must
b) have to
c) should
d) ought to
e) are to
5. Следует стучаться перед тем, как Вы входите.
a) must
b) ought to
c) should
d) have to
e) needn't
6. Не нужно приходить сегодня на занятия.
a) don't have to
b) mustn't
c) are not
d) needn't
7. Ученикам запрещено играть на улице.
a) must not
b) don't have to
c) needn't
8. Вам не нужно покупать эту книгу. Она у меня есть.
a) needn't b) mustn't
115
Unit 1.2
The Dentist
How to become a Dentist - Dental School requirements
Educational requirements for becoming a dentist vary depending on which
the country one lives. In some countries, high school graduates can enroll directly
in dental school. In the other countries medical school graduates are trained to
specialize in dentistry.
Educational Requirements for Dentists in USA
To become a dentist in United States one must attend a dental school that is
accredited by the American Dental Association (ADA). To be accepted into one of
the over 50 dental schools in the U.S, one must complete at least two years of predental education. Most dental school applicants must have a bachelor's degree.
All dental schools require applicants to take the Dental Admissions Test
(DAT). There is a great deal of competition for admission to dental school.
Dental school usually lasts 4 academic years. Dental school is intensive,
incorporating much of the same curriculum as a typical medical school.
Studies begin with classroom instruction and laboratory work in sciences,
including anatomy, microbiology, biochemistry, and physiology. Beginning
courses in clinical sciences, including laboratory techniques, are also completed.
During the last 2 years, students treat patients, usually in dental clinics, under the
supervision of licensed dentists.
Before graduating, students must pass the National Board Dental
Examinations (NBDE) in order to become licensed dentists. After passing the
NBDE, the dentists in most dental schools are awarded the degree of Doctor of
Dental Surgery (DDS). Some dental schools award an equivalent degree, Doctor of
Dental Medicine (DMD). DDS and DMD are different titles for the same education
and degree.
Following dental school, the majority of dentists choose to move
immediately into practice as a general of family dentist. Others follow
postgraduate training to become a specialty dentist.
116
Educational Requirements for Dentists in UK
Those who want to become dentists in UK and most of the other European
countries must attend four or five years of dental school after high school. There
are thirteen dental schools in the UK that offer dental courses usually lasting five
years and lead to a bachelor's degree either BDS or BCHD).The academic
requirements for entrance to dental school are high. They vary according to the
school and so should be checked individually.
VOCABULARY
EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct prepositions
d e p e n d . . smth
to begin . .
specialize . s m t h
a great deal . .
accredited .
supervision of smb
2. Match the letter to the number.
1 .a great deal of
a suggest
2. typical
b various
3. different
c at once
4. immediately
d average
5. offer
e a lot of
3. Fill in the gaps with one of these words.
Look- watch- see- notice
1. Can you
2. I always
3
that girl? She is hiding behind the tree.
my favourite TV programme on Saturday afternoon.
at this statue! It's gorgeous.
117
4. Did you
him leaving the party early?
4. Circle the words in the wordsearch.
j
m
g
r
a
v
e
r
e
r
y
p
e
x
p
e
r
i
e
a
o
s
e
h
c
l
g
f
u
y
h
g
s
n
b
n
b
n
g
n
t
i
d
j
y
e
k
t
t
a
t
r
e
a
t
n
c
j
i
c
a
l
l
j
r
t
a
e
r
e
y
s
d
d
m
e
t
t
r
i
a
h
c
m
e
e
f
m
p
j
n
i
u
q
f
c
o
r
g
d
i
a
c
a
r
a
a
u
v
e
i
n
o
r
r
r
k
w
l
l
u
k
s
c
s
c
s
v
u
c
e
d
e
y
g
o
l
o
c
e
a
n
y
g
e
m
i
l
d
d
h
p
m
n
o
c
t
e
s
j
w
u
d
u
n
t
g
b
n
c
o
u
v
t
o
r
u
b
r
e
a
x
t
w
t
b
r
u
a
r
c
u
k
n
u
h
h
r
h
t
h
i
c
a
l
o
o
m
t
u
l
j
a
e
t
i
o
l
o
g
y
i
j
y
n
w
o
t
s
s
i
o
n
s
s
h
x
y
s
i
t
i
h
c
y
u
s
1. Студент академической группы вуза, колледжа, являющейся формальной главой
группы и выполняющий некоторые административные функции, промежуточное
звено между студентами и администрацией учебного заведения.
2. Раздел медицины, изучающий причины болезней. В профессиональной
медицинской среде термин употребляется также как синоним причины.
3. Отрасль медицины, изучающая заболевания, характерные только для организма
женщины, прежде всего - заболевания женской репродуктивной системы.
4. Костная часть головы у позвоночных животных, костный каркас головы,
защищающий её от повреждения и служащий местом прикрепления её мягких
тканей.
5. Организм животного и человека в ранний период развития.
6. Основная форма диссимиляции у человека, животных, растений и многих
микроорганизмов
7. Комплекс научно-практических дисциплин, изучающих проблемы создания,
безопасности, исследования, хранения, изготовления, отпуска и маркетинга
лекарственных средств (прилаг.)
118
8. Тягучая, вязкая масса, выделяемая некоторыми клетками живых организмов,
слизистыми железами.
9. Одна из частей туловища. Образуется грудиной, ребрами, позвоночником, а так же
мышцами.
10. Резкое непроизвольное сокращение мышц; судорога.
11. Воспаление бронхов.
12. Полый мышечный орган, расположенный между пищеводом и двенадцатиперстной
кишкой
13. Острое инфекционное заболевание, для которого характерно воспаление
лимфоидных образований окологлоточного кольца.
14. Основное объединение научно-преподавательского состава вуза по одной или
нескольким родственным учебным дисциплинам; является административноструктурной составляющей вуза.
15. Оказывать медицинскую помощь.
16. Знание, приобретённое в процессе непосредственных переживаний, впечатлений,
наблюдений, практических действий, в отличии от знания, достигнутого
посредством абстрактного мышления; единство знаний и умений.
17. Выполнение лечебно-профилактических мероприятий, необходимых при
несчастных случаях и внезапных заболеваниях
18. Мутная, богатая белком и клетками гематогенной и гистогенной природы
жидкость, которая образуется в месте воспаления.
19. Центральная в анатомическом отношении часть тела у животных, не включающая
голову, шею, конечности и хвост.
20. Человек с нарушением анатомической целостности покровных или внутренних
тканей на всю их толщину, а иногда также и внутренних органов, вызванных
механическим воздействием.
21. Один из видов монологической речи, публичное, развёрнутое, официальное
сообщение по определению вопросу, основанное на привлечении документальных
данных.
22. Кровеносный сосуд, несущий кровь к сердцу.
23. Звонок в больницу.
GRAMMAREXERCISES
1. Choose the correct form.
1. That may /must be John's calculator but I'm not sure.
2. That can / could be Italian because of her accent.
3. There's still no answer so they must / can't be out for the evening.
4. You never know, it can / could be sunny tomorrow.
5. That information can / might be correct but I'm going to check on the Internet.
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6. The Loch Ness monster may /can't exist. It's impossible.
7. I can't/might go to the football match but I don't know yet.
8. This must / could be the right answer - I'm certain.
9. It can / might be difficult to get a job without a good education.
10 He's been working on the book 14 hours a day for a month. He could/ must be
exhausted.
11. He can't / may be from Austria. He doesn't speak German.
2. Complete the sentence with an appropriate modal verb.
1. She speaks with a London accent, so she ....must....be from England.
2. She
be a model, but I don't think so. She's not really tall
enough.
3. That
4. She
5. Young children
6. We
7. He
be John. He always calls when we're having lunch!
be a teacher. I know she has long holidays.
be quite difficult to control.
go to Ibiza this summer, but it's not certain.
run a hundred metres in 11 seconds.
8. It
be difficult to find somewhere to park sometimes.
9. I
understand a word he said.
10. He
11. You
be fourteen. He's got a beard!
leave early if you finish all the exercises.
3. Rewrite these sentences using must mustn't, should, shouldn't, have to or
don't have to.
Parking in this street is prohibited.- You mustn'tpark in this street.
1. Did the teacher tell you to see him tomorrow?
2. It's not a good idea to swim immediately after a meal.
3. (Doctor to patient) It's really important to take this medicine three times a day.
4. Is it necessary for me to do this exercise?
5. It's Saturday tomorrow, so it's not necessary for me to get up early.
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6.
It's a good idea to listen to the weather forecast before you go hill walking.
7. I can recommend this book to you - I think you would like it a lot.
8. It's a good idea to have a medical check-up every two years.
9. It's very important not to drink the water there. It will make you ill.
10. Is it really necessary for us to finish the work today?
Unit 2.1 The Dental Hygienist
The Dental Hygienist's role in a dental office.
Registered dental hygienists (RDH) are licensed oral health professionals
who assist the doctor, thoroughly clean your teeth, screen for decay and disease,
and help educate you about how to maintain great oral health.
They often work side by side with the dentist to efficiently complete your
care. The profession of the dental hygienist is a recognized profession in US and
several other countries but not in all.
Duties of a Dental Hygienist in USA.
The duties performed by a dental hygienists will vary by state. However in
many cases, they will perform some or all of the following:
- Perform dental cleanings, removing hard and soft deposits on teeth;
- Teach patients good oral hygiene practices;
- Apply fluoride and dental sealants;
- Take and process X-rays;
- Administer nitrous oxide;
- Prepare diagnostic tests;
- Apply filling materials, temporary fillings, and periodontal dressings;
- Smooth and polish metal restorations;
- Collect dental history and complete dental charts.
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Screen tests. Screening for signs of tooth decay? Oral cancer and periodontal
disease is one of the most important services your hygienist provides. But did you
know that symptoms of conditions like heart disease and diabetes can show up in
your mouth as well? If your RDH detects any signs to suggest larger health issues,
he or she may recommend that you see a physician right away.
Register Dental Hygienist in USA
Not just anyone can by a registered dental hygienist. By the time dental
hygienists begin treating patients, they've gone through extensive training and
testing to become an expert in the field - this makes them an invaluable part of
your dental team, ensuring your teeth stay healthy and look and feel great for years
to come.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word from the list below. Use the word only once.
Temporary, apply, soft, perform, invaluable, take, polish, extensive.
X-ray
part
sealants
filling
deposits
cleaning
training
restorations
2. Match the terms with the definitions.
1symptom
a the natural chemical change that causes the slow destruction of
something
2 restoration
b a sign that a serious problem exists
3 sealant
c tests or checks that are done to make sure that people or things
are acceptable for a particular purpose
4 decay
d the return to a previous state or condition, as of health
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5 screening
e a coating material capable of mechanically bonding to the
surface of a tooth
3. Read and translate the adjectives. When do you feel like this?
Scared, sad, miserable, pleased, depressed, furious, frightened
e.g. Ifeel scared when I go to the dentist.
4. Fill in the correct particle(s).
Look after: to take care of sb/sth
Look for. to try to find
Look forward: to expect sth with please
Look up: to try to find a word, name in a reference book
1. I don't remember his phone number- let me look it
2. Kate looks
my children while I'm at work.
3. John is looking
a new house.
4. I am really looking
my sister' wedding.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Open the brackets using correct form.
1. Jill's a far
2. Kate was the
3. Greg felt
4. This wine is the
5. Jack was the
(intelligent) person than my brother.
(practical) of the family.
_ (bad) yesterday than the day before.
(good) I've ever tasted.
(tall) of the two. Jack is the
three brothers.
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(clever) of the
6. If you need any
(far) information, please contact our head office.
7. The sinking of Titanic is one of
(famous) shipwreck stories of
all time.
8. Please, send the books back without
(far) delay.
9. The deposits of oil in Russia are by far the
10. Could you come a bit
11.I like this song
(rich) in the world.
(early) tomorrow?
(well) than the previous one.
12. Which of these two performances did you enjoy
(much)?
2. Complete the sentences with the superlative from of the adjectives below.
You will have to use some of them more than once.
deep
high
a. The
low
deepest
great
large
small
short
long
wet
spot in the oceans is called the Mariana Trench is
35,979 feet deep in the Pacific Ocean. That's deeper than the height of the
world's highest mountain, Mount Everest, which is 29,002 feet high.
b. Lake Titicaca in Peru is the
navigable lake in the world. It is about
12,500 feet (3,810 metres) above sea level.
c. The
lake is the Dead Sea (it's considered a lake but it's called a sea),
which is in the Jordan Valley of Israel. The surface of water is 1,302 feet
below sea level. It is also the saltiest lake in the world. Almost nothing can
survive in it besides some special green algae.
d. Lake Superior is the freshwater lake that covers the
surface area in the
world. It covers over 82,000 km2 of land.
e. The
lake in the world is north of the Mongolian border and is 5,712
feet (1,741 metres) deep - more than one mile straight down. It is Lake Baikal
and is fou4nd is found in Siberia, Russia.
f. The
ocean in the world, the Pacific Ocean, covers a third of the
Earth's surface.
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g. The
ocean is the Arctic Ocean, which is one tenth the size of the
Pacific Ocean.
h. The Nile River in Egypt is the Pacific
i. The world's
river and is 4,145 miles long.
river, according to the Guinness Book of
World Record, is the Roe River. It is only 200 feet (61 metres) long and flows
between Giant Springs and the Missouri River near Great Falls, Montana.
j. The Amazon Basin in South America is the
river because it has the
greatest water flow. This is because it flows through the Amazon rain forest the largest and
rainforest on Earth.
k. Angel Falls (Salto Angel) in Canaima National Park, Venezuela is the
waterfall in the world at 3,212 feet (979 metres).
3. Study the information about three countries.
Canada
Brazil
India
Area (sg km)
9,984,670
186,112,794
3,287,590
Coastline (km)
202,080
7,491
7,000
Population
32,805,041
182,032,604
1,080,264,388
age 38.54
27.81
24.66
1000 10.84
16.83
22.32
0.94%
1,4%
71.69
64.35
$1.58 trillion
$3.678 trillion
Average
(years)
Births/
population
Population growth 0,9%
rate
Life
expectancy 80.1
(years)
GDP
(Gross $1,047 billion
Domestic Product)
GDP per capital
$32, 800
$8,500
$3,400
GDP growth rate
2.8%
2.6%
7.1%
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Unemployment
6.8%
9%
9.9%
Complete the sentences with the comparative or superlative form of the
adjective in brackets.
a. India is smaller than Brazil (small)
b. The coastline of
is
c
population.(big)
has
than the coastline of Brazil. (long)
d. Brazil and India have
e
population than
has
birth-rate. (high)
f. People in
g
(young)
have
lives than people in Brazil. (short)
is
country of the three. (poor)
h. The economy of
has
Unit 2.2
growth rate. (slow)
The Dental Hygienist
How to become a Dental Hygienist - Dental Hygienist School
requirements
A dental hygienist typically works in a dentist's office and assists patients
with maintaining proper dental hygiene.
While dental hygienists in many countries can perform procedures as teeth
cleaning and polishing or administering anaesthesia, in some other countries only
the dentists are authorized to do these procedures. The profession of the dental
hygienist is a recognized profession in US and several other countries but not in
all.
126
Though dental hygienists typically work in a dentist's office, a degree in
dental hygiene can also create opportunities for careers in a variety of work
environments.
Educational Requirements for Dental Hygienists in USA
To become a dental hygienist in United States one must attend a dental
hygienist school that is accredited by the American Dental Association (ADA).
All dental hygienists in the United States must be licensed by the state which
they practice, after completing a minimum of two years of school.
To receive a dental hygienist's license, graduation from an accredited dental
hygiene school program is required. With either an associates degree (most
common), a certificate, a bachelor's degree or a master's degree. Dental hygienists
typically complete a two-year program that awards an associate's degree or
certification.
Dental hygienists school programs usually require both general education
courses specific to the field of dental hygiene. General education courses important
to dental hygiene degrees include college level algebra, biology and chemistry.
Courses specific to dental hygiene may include dental pharmacology, radiography,
and periodontology.
A Bachelor's of Science in Dental Hygiene is typically a four-year
program. Students entering a bachelor's degree program are required to have a
high school diploma or equivalent, but many dental hygienists with an associate's
degree or certification enter the bachelor's degree programs to expand their clinical
expertise and help advance their careers. With a bachelor's degree in dental
hygiene, a dental hygienist may qualify to become a health educator of work in
healthcare management.
Graduate degrees in the field of dental hygiene are typically two-year
programs and are completed after the bachelor's degree. Common graduate courses
in dental hygiene include Health Management, Lab Instruction and Clinical
Instruction. A graduate degree in the dental hygiene field creates the potential for
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careers in healthcare management, teaching, or faculty positions in dental hygiene
programs and schools.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct prepositions, then choose any three and make
sentences.
To assist ....
opportunity ... smth
graduation
potential .... smth
specific .. smth
degree .... smth
2. Cross out one odd word in each line.
Polish peel
brush clean
Require demand expect request
Scared
Power
miserable thrilled
degree
Opportunity
frightened
award grant
opinion chance
possibility
3. Fill in the correct word.
Profession, attend, quality, receive, equivalent, common, administer.
1. He had to
hospital treatment for a cut over his eye.
2. These unit teachers students how to
First Aid.
3. She was a lawyer by
4. Use only high
ingredients.
5. Please let us know if you are unable to attend.
6. Doctors are still trying to find a cure for the
7. Dolphins' brains are roughly
cold.
in size to a human brain.
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4. Fill in the correct word.
Administer- administration- administrative- administrator
1. We are looking for someone with the experience in
2. Why didn't he
painkillers?
3. She is a brilliant organizer and
4. The job is mainly
Unit 3.1The Dental Assistant
Job description
Dental assistants perform a variety of patient care, office and laboratory
duties. But they are not licensed to perform the extended tasks that dental
hygienists can perform.
About one-third of all dental assistants in US work part-time, sometimes
working for more than one dental practice. Some dental assistants become office
managers, dental-assisting instructors, or dental product sales representatives.
Duties of a Dental Assistant
Dental assistants work chair side as dentists examine and treat patients.
Their duties include:
-Make patients as comfortable as possible in the dental chair, prepare them
for treatment, and obtain dental records;
-Hand instruments and materials to dentists, and keep patients' mouths dry
and clear by using suction or other devices;
-Sterilize and disinfect instruments and equipment, prepare tray setups for
dental procedures;
-Instruct patients on postoperative and general oral health care;
-Expose radiographs, and process dental x-ray films as directed by dentist.
-Office administrative duties of a dental assistant include:
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-Schedule and confirm appointments;
-Receive patients;
-Keep treatment records;
-Send bills and receive payments;
-Order supplies and materials.
Dental assistants should not be confused with dental hygienists, who are
licensed to perform different clinical tasks.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word from the list. Use the word only once.
Make, keep, confirm, order, hand, records.
1
supplies
4. obtain
1
records
5
2
instruments
6
appointments
comfortable
2. Match the uses of get (a-e) with the examples (1-5).
Some uses of get
Examples
a) get + adjective = become
1) Did you get my message?
b) phrasal verb with get
2) It doesn't get dark till 10 p.m. In
summer.
He's getting better at English.
c) get + noun= buy, obtain
3) What time go you get to work?
I'll never get there in time.
d) get = arrive
4)
Where
can
I
get
They got married in a hotel.
130
changed?
e)
Expression
with
get
past participles
+ 5) He neve r gets up at 8 a.m.
We don't get on with our neighbors
3. Match the number to the letter.
1. confirm
a gadget
2. receive
b carry out
3. device
c timetable
4. perform
d prove
5. schedule
e get
4. Fill in the correct word.
Instruct- instructor- instructive- instruction- instructional
1. In this course, students receive
in basic engineering.
2. Greater efforts are needed to
children in road safety.
3. I found the visit the most
4. The curse comes with a free
video.
5. I am waiting for my driving
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Underline the correct answer.
l.If I have/will have time this evening, I call/will call you.
2. If you are/ will be out, I see you/will see you tomorrow.
3.Where do /will you wait, if you get/will get there earlier?
4.I Mark has/will have a car, do/will you ask him to give you a lift home?
5. If somebody will criticize/criticizes you, try/will try to listen calmly.
2.Open the brackets using First and Second Conditionals.
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1. He almost fell from the balcony. I'm sure that if he had fallen, he (break) his leg
or something.
2. If I leave now, I (be) home in two hours.
3. If you (like) , I'll lend you my car for two days.
4. If we increased the price, we (run)
the risk of pricing ourselves out of the
market.
5. If you (ask) your boss, I'm sure he would have considered your proposal.
6. The radio is broken. When you turn it on, it (make) a strange noise.
7. I'd set them the task if they (be)
more reliable. However, I don't think they're
capable of doing it.
8. If you (not/manage) to finish the catalogue on time, we'll have to postpone the
printing until next month.
9. If it ( rain) tomorrow, our game will be cancelled.
10. Let's take a taxi to the railway station: we have a lot of luggage. If we (not
have) so much luggage, we ( walk).
3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. Вы бы чувствовали себя лучше, если бы больше гуляли.
2. Если бы ты занимался спортом, ты был бы крепче и не болел так часто.
3. Если бы вы правильно и регулярно питались, у вас не было бы проблем с
желудком.
4. Если ты съешь много мороженого, у тебя заболит горло.
5. Если вы будете проводить так много времени за компьютером, у вас
ухудшится зрение.
6. А что бы вы сделали на моем месте? - Я бы просто уехала.
7. Если вы извинитесь, я думаю, он простит вас.
8.На вашем месте, я бы сходил к стоматологу.
9. Мы сможем закончить эту работу сегодня, если ты не будешь отвлекать
нас.
10. Если ты дашь мне свои лекции сегодня, я верну тебе их в субботу.
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Unit 3.2 The Dental Assistant
How to become a Dental Assistant
Dental assistant usually learn their skills on the job, although some receive
training from dental assisting programs offered by community and junior colleges,
trade schools, technical institutes, or the Armed Forces. In some states, dental
assistants must be licensed or registered.
Educational Requirement for Dental Assistants in USA
While, in some states, dental assistants can work in the field without a
college degree, in other states, dental assistants must be licensed or registered.
They may be required to pass a written or practical exam. Dental assistants are
usually trained at community colleges, vocational schools, technical institutes,
universities, or dental schools. After completing a program that takes about nine to
11 months, plus an exam, dental assistants receive a certificate or diploma in dental
assisting. Two-year programs offered in community and junior colleges lead to an
associate degree. All programs require a high school diploma or its equivalent, and
some require science or computer-related courses for admission.
To become a Certificated Dental Assistant, or CDA, dental assistant must
take the CDA examination after they have completed an accredited dental assisting
program, or have at least two years of full-time on-the-job training as a dental
assistant. The Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental
Association is the agency that accredits dental assisting school programs, of which
there are over 200 in the United States. Your chosen dental assistant education
program should meet any prescribed criteria. Dental assistant training includes
areas of study such as administrative tasks, patient care and lab skills necessary for
your certification and to ensure your value to an employer. Most dental assistant
education programs include practical instruction or provide supervised training in a
dental office. High school students interested in a future career as a dental assistant
should take courses in biology, chemistry, health, and office practices.
133
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct prepositions.
S k i l l . . the job, train .... college, c o u r s e . . Biology, lead ... degree, interested.
sth
2. Underline the correct word.
1. This hospital has high experiences/ standards of health care.
2. Dianne has treated/ trained thousands of people in Angola.
3. What was the cause/ reason of the accident?
4. Your doctor should be able to offer/ suggest advice on diet.
5. She is a student so she's looking for full/ part time job.
3. Fill in the correct word.
Employ- employer- employee- employment-employable
1. The shoe factory is the largest
2. Mexican law prohibits
in this area.
of children under 14.
3. The training scheme aims to make people more
4. The firm has 450
5. The police had to
force to enter the house.
4. Match the number to the letter.
a to prescribe
1 to make certain that something will happen properly
b to provide
2 to finish doing or making something
c to complete
3 to give something to someone or make it available, because
they need it
d to supervise
4 to say what medicine or treatment a sick person should have
e to ensure
5 to be in charge of an activity or person
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GRAMMAREXERCISES
1.Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.
1. If I didn't go to the university tomorrow, I
2. If I won lmillion dollars, I
3. If I have a choice of a free trip I
4. If I could change my profession I
5. If I were a president of the Russian Federation I
2. Open the brackets using First, Second and Third Conditionals
1. If Tom saw a car crash, he ( telephone) the police and ( help) the people in the
cars.
2. If you are not sure, what to say, you ( have) to guess.
3. If she (not be) very ill, she wouldn't have been absent from English classes all
last week.
4. If my parents had had good seats, they ( enjoy) the play last night.
5. If a robber ( attack) him in a dark street, he would defend himself.
6. If he hadn't been so careless, he (not fall) into this trap.
7. If you (not smoke), you would feel more energetic.
8. If her alarm clock ( ring), she would have been on time for work this morning.
9. He is not ill: if he ( be) ill, he (not play) tennis so much.
10.You say that you did not read yesterday's papers; if you (to read) them, you (to
see) the announcement of Professor X's coming to our town.
3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1.На вашем месте, я бы назначил повторную сдачу анализов.
2. Если бы ты бросил курить, ты бы чувствовал себя лучше.
3.У вас не болела бы голова так часто, если бы вы больше проводили
времени на открытом воздухе.
4. Вы бы чувствовали себя лучше, если бы послушали совет врача.
135
5.Если бы ты выпил это лекарство сразу, боль бы уже прекратилась.
6. У вас бы не заболел живот, если бы вы не съели так много острого.
7. Она бы не упала и не подвернула ногу, если бы не торопилась.
8. Если бы он надел теплую одежду, он бы не простудился.
9.Он бы не сломал руку, если бы был более осторожен.
10.У вас бы не повысилось давление, если бы не выпили так много кофе.
11.Если бы у него был гепатит, анализ мочи показал бы присутствие желчи.
12. Если бы он не растянул ногу, то принял бы участие в соревновании.
13. Если бы не его ангина, он, конечно же, присоединился бы к нам.
Unit 4.1 The Dental Laboratory Technician
How to become a Dental Laboratory Technician
Dental laboratory technicians fill prescriptions from dentists for crowns,
bridges, dentures, and others dental prosthetics. Dental technicians fabricate the
requested prosthetic appliances, based on dentists specifications and an impression
(mold) of the patient's mouth or teeth taken by the dentist.
Educational Requirements for Dental Technicians
Most dental laboratory technicians learn their craft on the job, beginning
with simple tasks, such as pouring plaster into an impression, and progress to more
complex procedures, such as making porcelain crowns and bridges.
Becoming a fully trained technician requires an average of 3 to 4 years,
depending upon the individual's aptitude and ambition, but it may take a few years
more to become an accomplished technician.
Training in dental laboratory technology also is available through
community and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and the Armed
136
Forces. Formal dental technician training programs vary greatly both in length and
in the level of skill they impart. In 2006, 20 programs in dental laboratory
technology
were
approved
(accredited)
by
the
Commission
on
Dental
Accreditation in conjunction with the American Dental Association (ADA).These
programs provide classroom instruction in dental materials science, oral anatomy,
fabrication procedures, ethics, and related subjects. In addition, each student is
given supervised practical experience in a school or an associate dental laboratory.
Accredited programs normally take 2 years to complete and lead to an associate
degree. A few programs take about 4 years to complete and offer a bachelor's
degree in dental technology. Graduates of 2-year training programs need additional
hands-on experience to become fully qualified.
The National Board for Certification, an independent board established by
the National Association of Dental Laboratories, offers certification in dental
laboratory technology. Certification is voluntary. Dental technicians can work for
dental laboratories, as individuals or as in-house dental technicians for dental
clinics.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct prepositions.
Prescriptions .... crowns, depend
.,
, impression . . t h e patient's mouth, based
available .... community, vary .... length,
addition, to be ...
conjunction.
2. Fill in the correct derivatives of the words in bold.
1. There are
( vary) ways to answer the question.
2. Candidates should have training and . .
( practice) experience in basic
electronic.
3. Arriving late won't create a very favourable
137
(empress).
4. The exhibition was only a
5
(part) success.
(addition) information can be obtained from the center.
3. Fill in the correct particle.
Take over: to take control of sth
Take after: to look like
Take up: to begin sth new
Take off: to leave the ground
1. John has decided to t a k e , tennis.
2. The plane will be taking .... in 10 minutes.
3. Helen really takes
her mother.
4. A large firm has t a k e n . our company.
4. Fill in the correct word.
Request, appliance, specialize in, approve, related, associated.
1. I don't
cosmetic surgery.
2. There are plenty of place for all the usual kitchen .
3. Poverty and crime are closely
4. He suffers with memory loss
to his disease.
5. They have made an urgent . for international aid.
6. Anderson
in contract law.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Infinitive or -ing form?
STUDY THESE GRAMMAR RULES
Verb + to-infinitive
138
1.We usually use to-infinitive after verbs which express plans, decisions,
expectations and commitments (ideas about actions which follow).
arrange
forget
learn
plan
ask
help
manage
promise
decide
hope
offer
refuse
expect
intend
prepare
want
He asked to leave the class early.
My brother promised to help me with my homework.
2. Other verbs which take to-infinitive are those connected with the idea of
making people think something: appear and seem.
He seems to be tired.
Verb + -ing form (gerund)
We use -ing form after some common verbs.
avoid
feel like
mind*
risk
delay
give up
miss
dislike
practice
suggest
enjoy
keep
put off
understand
spend
Please avoid arriving late for class tomorrow.
My tutor suggested revising for the exam.
How much time do you spend watching TV every day?
(*) We use mind in questions and negative sentences.
Did he mind lending you his notes?
I don't mind being alone when I'm busy.
Verb + to-infinitive or -ing form: little or no change in meaning
After like, love, hate, prefer, start, intend, begin, continue and prefer we can
use either the to-infinitive or -ing form with little or no change in meaning.
He started to play /playing the piano when he was four.
Why do you continue to behave / behaving in this way?
I like to get getting up early in the morning.
Note: After would like, would love, would hate, and would prefer
we use to-infinitive.
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I'd love to go the party.
I'd hate to fail the exam.
Would you like to have a coffee?
Verb + to-infinitive or -ing form: different meanings
After other verbs (such as like, try, remember, forget, stop) can use a to-infinitive
or an -ing form but the meaning changes.
I remembered to buy a pen on the way to school. (I didn't forget to buy it.)
I remember locking the door when I left home. (I know I locked it.)
He stopped having lunch at school. (Now he has lunch at home.)
At twelve we stopped to have lunch. (The reason for stopping was to have
lunch.)
We tried to call you but your mobile was o f f . (We made an attempt to call
you.)
The scientist tried using different materials but none worked. (He did
experiments with different materials to get a result.)
1. Underline the correct form.
a. They expect you to work / working hard all year.
b. We decided to go / going into town in the afternoon.
c. Jane enjoys to write / writing poetry.
d. They seem to be / being very kind.
e. He enjoys to write / writing cycling at the weekend.
f. We hope to see / seeing you again soon.
g. I can't imagine your mum to get / getting angry.
h. His parents agreed to let / letting him stay out late.
i. Laura should stop to smoke / smoking.
j. He wants to buy /buying a new computer game.
k. Jenny practices to play /playing the piano every day.
l. Would you mind to pay /paying for my lunch?
m. Please avoid to make / making silly mistakes in this exercise.
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n. It is not worth to worry / worrying about.
o. I suggested to go / going out for a walk.
2. Complete the sentence with the to-infinitive or -ing form of the verb in
brackets.
a. I prefer
to play
b. I prefer
music than to listen to it. (play)
music to listening to it. (play)
c. Do you remember
him the key? (give)
d. Did you remember
him the key? (give)
e. You should stop
chocolate - it's bad for you. (eat)
f. You should stop
something - you need energy. (eat)
g. I'll never forget
my first computer. (buy)
h. Don't forget
some bread on your way home. (buy)
3. Complete the sentences using the words in the box.
mind
offered
a. Would you
b. I'd
c. They
like
remember
mind
intend
learn
to speak to Mr Davis, please. Is he there?
to build houses on the school playing fields.
telling him about the party.
e. When I'm 18 I'll buy a car and
g. I really
h.
i. He
stop
closing the window? It's cold.
d. She doesn't
f. He's
planning
to drive.
to go to university when he leaves.
buying this computer - it's useless.
making that noise! It's really irritating.
to help her but she said no.
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regret
Unit 4.2 The Dental Technician
How to become Dental Technician
Step 1: Research Dental Technician Job Duties and Educational Requirements
Dental Technicians create dental prosthetics, including dentures, crowns, bridges
and veneers, using molds taken from the patient's mouth and small tools. The
Dental Technician crafts each prosthetic device individually to fit the patient
exactly, matching both the shape and colour of the original tooth. Some employers
hire Dental Technicians without any formal training and teach them the necessary
skills on-the-job. Other technicians complete a dental technology program and then
complete a shorter period of training with their employer.
Step 2: Apply for a Dental Technician Program
Community colleges, vocational schools and some schools of dentistry offer
programs in dental technology. The Commission on Dental Accreditation, in
conjunction with the American Dental Association (ADA), accredits dental
technology programs which meet their standards. Currently, there are 24 accredited
programs, according to the ADA.
Step 3: Earn a Dental Technician Degree
Dental technology programs cover oral anatomy, fabrication procedures and dental
materials science. Students often have the opportunity to participate in a supervised
practical experience in a dental laboratory. Programs vary in length and in the
depth of skills they impart. Associate's degree programs, such as an Associate of
Applied Science in Dental Technology, generally take two years to complete.
Step 4: Get a Job as a Dental Technician
The ADA expects ample job opportunities for Dental Technicians over the next ten
years. The increase in demand for cosmetic and restorative dentistry has led to job
growth in this field. Dental Technicians most often find employment with
commercial dental laboratories. Dental offices, dental schools and hospitals
occasionally employ Dental Technicians as well.
Step 5: Complete Job Training and Certification
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Even Dental Technicians who have completed a degree program will need to go
through a period of on-the-job training. Each laboratory has its own unique
procedures and techniques that the technician must learn. Dental Technicians may
choose to pursue certification to help advance their careers. The National Board for
Certification in Dental Laboratory Technology, offers a Certified Dental
Technician designation to Dental Technicians who meet the education or
experience requirement and pass the exam. Dental Technicians have the option of
certifying in one of five specialties, including complete dentures, partial dentures,
orthodontics, ceramics and crowns and bridges.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1.Fill in the correct word.
Necessary, formal, accredit, supervised, increase in, find, job, pursue
growth
certification
skills
training
programme
practical experience
employment
in demand
2.Put the verbs in the correct form.
Determine, cause, induce, lead to, demand, request, require
1. The cause of death was never ...
2. Medicinal plants are sometimes used to ... pregnancy.
3. HIV often . t h e death of the patient.
4. Their epilepsy . them anxiety.
5. This topic clearly . f u r t h e r study.
6.Students are . to pass eight examinations in their first year.
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7. We were politely . t o leave.
3. Fill in the correct particle(s)/ word(s).
Treat smb with smth - treat smb for smth
1. Malaria can be treated
drugs.
2. It is generally accepted that if people are depressed, they should be treated
. . depression.
Cure - treat
1. The doctors managed to
him of asthma.
2. The doctors asked the nurse to
the wound with some special cream.
Duty- task
1. I was given the
of cleaning the instruments.
2. We feel it's our . to help her.
Education- training
1. She also hopes her children will get good
2. On the course we received
in every aspect of the job.
4. Complete this table.
Noun
Noun (person)
Verb
Invention
produce
Design
observe
develop
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Adjective
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Complete the dialogue between two friends with the to-infinitive or -ing
form of the verb in brackets.
-Hey! Stop a (work)
working
so hard. It's bad for you.
-It's my math homework. I forgot b (do)
it last night.
- Did you? What happened?
-I wanted c (finish)
something on the computer and it took ages.
-I know what you mean. I always put of d (start)
my homework until
the last minute.
-My parents keep e (ask)
about it all the time.
-I don't mind f (study)
, but it's hard to get started. I should
do it because I want to go to university.
-Yeah, I want g (go)
to university too. I'm trying h (finish)
that geography project, but I've still got lost to do.
-Me too. I'm planning i (do)
it this weekend. Anyway, see you later.
2. Complete the text with the to-infinitive or -ing form of the verb in the box.
do be
go
study
get
spend
improve
benefit
A homework evaluation
Some children do too much homework. According to data from the US
Department of Education, if you spend more two hours a
doing
your
homework, it can be bad for your marks.
Researchers looked at the Maths scores of students in the eighth grade and the
amount of homework they did. Then the results were compared with similar
studies of homework in other countries.
They expected the results b
similar around the world but they weren't.
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In the US scores are best for students when they do about one hours of homework
each night. When they keep c
longer than two or more hours
their marks begin fall.
In Japan when students study for more than two hours their marks start d
down - but only slightly.
Canadian students seem e
from between one and two hours
of homework - but when they do more, they don't manage f
their results. They are about the same as when they work for only one hour!
German students get higher marks when they do two to three hours homework a
night, but risk g
lower scores when they do three or more
hours.
The conclusion seems to be that you should avoid h
too
much time on your homework!
Unit 5.1 Dental Specialties
( Part 1)
General Dentist.
Most people go to a general dentist for the majority of their dental needs. A
general dentist takes care of all kinds of patients, young and old, from "baby teeth"
to "wisdom teeth". But there are some dental conditions for which he may ask to
see a specialists. In this case your general dentist will rely on the recommendations
and guidance of the specialist to bring your mouth back to health.
Endodontist.
This specialist is concerned with the diagnosis and cause of diseases
affecting the pulp or nerve of the tooth, or the tissues on tooth. These nerves,
arteries and veins inside the tooth help keep the tooth alive. The most common
procedure the endodontist performs is called root canal therapy. Root canal
treatment consists of removing the infected tissue inside the tooth, sterilizing the
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inside, and filling the entire internal cavity with a special filling material. The tooth
is now considered "non-vital".
Oral Pathologist.
This dentist studies the nature of the diseases altering and affecting all the
oral structures (teeth, lips, cheeks, jaw bones) as well as parts of the face and neck.
In most cases the oral pathologist does not see you, but your dentist would send
them a biopsy or any questionable tissue or lesion.
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon.
The oral surgeon diagnoses and surgically treats diseases, defects or injuries
of the mouth, head and neck. Most patients think of oral surgeons removing
wisdom teeth, and this is one of the most common procedures of oral surgeons. But
they are involved with many other treatments such as of temporomandibular joint
disorders (TMJD). In accident cases they are called on to help with broken bones
of the face and jaw. And in working with other specialists, they will be asked to
intentionally realign bones for a better position of the jaws for improved esthetic's
or function. Many are now involved with placing dental implants, or the root part
of missing teeth. The general dentist will build a new tooth "crown" on this
implanted root form.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct prepositions, then choose any three and make
sentences.
To rely . , to be concerned . . , to fill . . material, . . better position, to be
involved . , . . this case.
2. Put a preposition into each gap.
1. I'm waiting . . t h e ward nurse.
2. Look . this diagram.
3. I'm looking . the porter.
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4. She works . GP.
5. If you have a problem, ask . h e l p .
3. Fill in the correct word.
Wisdom, take common, cause, oral, filling, broken, infected
of the disease
material
procedure
bone
teeth
care
tissue
structure
4. Fill in the correct particle.
Bring back: to return sth or sb to an early condition
Bring into: to cause sb or sth to be in a particular situation
Bring out: to take sth out of a place
Bring up: to look after and influence a child until he or she is grown up
1. A week by the sea brought her
to health.
2. He was brought . . by his grandmother.
3. The work brought me
a contact with a lot of interesting people
4. Jenny opened a cupboard and brought . . a couple of bottles.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
ComplexObject
Somebody
want
expect
would like
wish
hear
see
us
me
him
her
the girl
their colleagues
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to do smth.
do (doing) smth.
feel
notice
let
make
my friends
our relatives
Olga
Peter and John
do smth.
1.Open the brackets and use the Complex Object.
Model: He expected (they, arrive) at 5. — He expected them to arrive at 5.
1. Do you want (they, stay) at the hotel or with us? 2. I'd like (the professor,
look through) my report. 3. Do you want (I, show) you the sights of the city? 4. We
expect (he, arrange) everything by the time we come. 5. I want (she, tell) me the
news in brief. 6. He expected (the meeting, hold) in the Red Room. 7. I would like
(they, fix) an appointment for me for Tuesday. 8. We want (she, introduce) us to
the president. 9. I don't want (they, be late) for dinner. 10. He expected (she, invite)
to the party by the Smiths. 11. I'd like (the dress, buy) by Saturday. 12. I don't want
(she, treat) like Alice. 13. We considered (he, be) an honest person. 14. I don't like
(she, prevent) me from doing it. 15. I suspect (he, help) by her.
2. Combine the sentences using the Complex Object.
Model: I did not see him. He entered the house. — I did not see him enter the
house.
1. They did not notice us. We passed by. 2. He heard her. She was playing
the piano. 3. He saw her. She burst into tears. 4. I felt her hand. It was shaking. 5.
He hasn't heard us. We called his name. 6. They haven't seen the accident. It
occurred at the corner. 7. I heard them. They were arguing. 8. She heard the
footsteps. They were dying away. 9. She felt something. It was crawling around
her neck. 10. We many times heard him. He told this story. 11. She noticed the
expression of his face. It changed suddenly. 12. I heard somebody. He mentioned
my name. 13. I felt something hard. It hurt my leg.
3.Change sentences with the Complex Object into complex sentences.
1. I did not expect that she would forget about my birthday. 2. She saw how
the children were playing in the park. 3. Do you know that he went abroad two
days ago? 4. I like to watch how she dances. 5. She could hardly I believe that he
149
had been rescued. 6. He expects that everybody will be ready to do this work. 7. I
don't like when the children are late for dinner. 8. Don't consider that he is a hero.
He is an ordinary man. 9. I've heard how he was arguing with his father. 10. I
suspect that he has taken my money. 11. She likes to watch how the sun sets. 12. I
hate when people shout at each other. 13. They suppose that he will cope with this
work. 14. I've heard how she was crying. 15. We expect that he will solve this
problem soon.
Unit 5.2 Dental Specialties
(Part 2)
Orthodontist.
This specialist moves teeth within the jaw bone to correct forms of
malocclusion or bite irregularities. Most children are sent to the orthodontist to
correct their "bad bites" while they are still growing. But many adults see this
specialist to correct bite problems before they undergo extensive crown or bridge
work. The most common method of correcting a "bad bite" is with the use of
braces, but at times only a removable tooth positioning guard is needed.
Pediatric Dentistry (Pedodontist).
Having been specially trained to handle the fears of children as well as
watch the growth patterns of a child's mouth, the pedodontist treats children from
birth through adolescence, though the most common age for a child to start seeing
a pedodontist is age three. Usually the physical, and/or emotional problems.
Periodontist.
The periodontist diagnoses and treats diseases of the gum and supporting bone
surrounding the teeth. Most people think of this type of dentist treating infections
of the gums which causes teeth to become loose. Most times the general dentist
will send a patient to the periodontist for an evaluation to check the "foundation"
150
of the teeth before any major reconstruction is started. The periodontist also is
involved with the placement of implants for areas of missing teeth and can
surgically make changes in the gum tissue for a more natural gum smile line. He
works closely with the general dentist to bring a patient's mouth back to full bite
function with a full healthy smile.
Prosthodontist
Prosthodontists are specialists dealing with the repairing of natural teeth and/or
the replacement of missing teeth on a much larger scale than the general dentist.
The prosthodontist uses artificial teeth (dentures), gold crowns (caps), or ceramic
crowns to replace the missing or extracted teeth. They work with the general
dentist on more complicated dental reconstruction cases. Not everyone needs the
extensive care of a prosthodontist.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Common, make, removable, healthy, extensive, dental, extracted, bite
tooth
teeth
reconstruction
changes
care
smile
problem
age
2. Study notes.
Care about sth/sb: think that sb/sth is import
He's very selfish. He doesn't care about other people.
Care for sth/sb: - 1)like sth( usually in questions and negative sentences)
Would you care for a cup of coffee?
2)look after sb
Albert is 85 and lives alone. He needs somebody to care for him.
151
Put in the correct preposition after care. If no preposition is needed, leave the
space empty.
1. Are you hungry? Would you care
2. She doesn't care
something to eat?
the examination. She's not worried whether she passes or
fails.
3. Please let me borrow your camera. I promise I'll take a good care .... it.
4. "Do you like this coat?" " Not really. I don't care .... the colour."
5. I want to have a good holiday. I don't care
the cost
3. Match the opposites.
Internal
small
Large
expensive
Awful
hard
Cheap
artificial
Natural
fantastic
Common
narrow
Broad
irregular
Regular
rare
Easy
external
4. Fill in the correct word.
Correct- to correct - correction- corrective
1. Your work contains a lot of mistakes which needs
2. Please
3. He needs
my pronunciation if I'm wrong.
surgery for a deformed leg.
4. Do you have the
time?
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GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1.Open the brackets and use the proper form of the Complex Object.
1. Where is Nick? — I saw (he, talk) to Kate a few minutes ago. 2. Parents
always want (their children, be) the best. 3. I wouldn't like (such valuable presents,
give) to me. 4. I noticed (he, write) something and (pass) it to Alice. 5. We suppose
(they, apologize) to us. 6. She watched (the stars, sparkle) in the dark sky. 7. I did
not expect (he, behave) in such a way. 8. We don't want (our planet, pollute). 9. I
heard (he, work) in his study at night. 10. They expected (he, buy) a more
expensive car.
2. Make sentences to the model.
a) Model:
I believe that Van Clibern is a great pianist. -1 believe Van Clibern to be a great
pianist.
1. He believes it is a mistake. 2. I consider that this business is very profitable. 3. I
don't expect you will understand me. 4. They know that he is a responsible person.
5. We consider that he is a good professional. 6. She regards that he is a superman.
7. We all think that he is a gentleman. 8. They consider that it is the right decision.
b) Model:
Does Charlie play golf? - No, I have never seen (heard, saw, noticed) him play
golf.
1. Did he get on that Glasgow bus this evening? 2. Did you ever see Pat's smile? 3.
Did your brother really pat the dean on the shoulder? 4. Did you notice how this
boy parked his car near our house? 5. Did you hear that George broke the Safety
Code? 6. Did you see how Dylan was deliberately knocked down by another
153
football-player? 7. Did you notice a beautiful girl who drove Nick to the station? 8.
Did you watch how Jack was entertaining the guests last night? 9. Did you see him
when he stopped for dinner at the pub? 10. Did you hear that he bought a new
stereo?
c) Model:
Ann didn't have money. (Jim/lend) - Ann wanted /wished /expected Jim to lend
her some.
1. Someone told Sue I was going to visit her. (it / to be a surprise) 2. My parents
were upset when I left home. (me / to stay with them) 3. Everybody tried to
persuade Tom to play tennis. (Tom / to play tennis) 4. There will be a football
match between Scotland and England soon. (England / to win) 5. In your place I
would tell the police about it. (you / to inform) 6. She received a letter, but nobody
knew who it was from. (anybody / know) 7. Tom was sure Jane would be late.
(Jane / not to come in time) 8. Jack asked me to post the letter. (me / to post it) 9.
He advised me to take an aspirin. (me / to take an aspirin) 10. Nobody is allowed to
smoke in our office. (anyone / not to smoke)
3. Translate into English using the Complex Object.
1. Я не ожидал, что этот полицейский будет таким невежливым
(impolite) человеком. 2. Мы бы хотели, чтобы вы доставили (deliver) товары к
концу июня. 3. Я ожидал, что ее пригласят туда. 4. Они не ожидали, что его
спросят об этом. 5. Я слышал, как его имя несколько раз упоминалось на
собрании. 6. Он не заметил, как мы подошли к нему. 7. Вы видели, как они
над чем-то смеялись? 8. Мы не ожидали, что об этом объявят (announce) по
радио. 9. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы она сказала нам, что она будет делать
сегодня вечером. 10. Я думаю, что сегодня вы услышите, как она поет. 11.
Когда он услышал, что его сын плачет, он встал и пошел в детскую комнату
(nursery). 12. Я бы хотел, чтобы никто не брал мои вещи. 13. Он хочет, чтобы
154
мы пришли к нему сегодня. 14. Я хотел бы, чтобы вы подождали меня здесь.
15. Он хочет, чтобы его сын стал врачом. 16. Хотите ли вы, чтобы он вам
помог? 17. Я никогда не слышал, как он говорит по-французски. 18. Он не
слышал, как я постучал в дверь.19. Я слышал, что он уже вернулся домой. 20.
Я никогда не видел, как он плавает.
Unit 6.1 How to find a good dentist
Finding and choosing a dentist
(Part 1)
Are you wondering how to find a good dentist, because you have just
moved to a new place or you are not satisfied by your current dentist? The
following tips will help you to choose the right dentist for you and your family.
How to find a good dentist
Take recommendations - Step 1
The best way to find a dentist is to get recommendations from people you
know and trust (family, friends, neighbors, co-workers, your family physician or
pharmacist). If you're moving, ask your current dentist to make a recommendation.
Other resources for finding a dentist are the yellow pages and internet
dentist directories, where you can find out information, addresses and phone
numbers of dentists in your area.
What kind of dentist do you need?
One of the first things to know, before you start looking for a dentist, is the
kind of dentist you need (general dentist, cosmetic dentist, endodontist or other
dental specialties). Normally, if you don't have any special dental problem, you
should choose a general dentist as your regular dentist. A general dentist is
155
licensed to diagnose dental issues and oral conditions, develop a treatment plan and
perform the treatment as necessary.
If you experience dental problems that require a specialist's treatment, the
general dentist will refer you to another specialist.
How to find a good dentist - Step 2
Some of the first things to consider before choosing a dentist are:
What are the office hours? Is the appointment schedule convenient for
you?
Is the dentist office easy to get to from your home or job? How long will it
take you to get there?
If you already have a dental health plan, is the dentist participating in it?
Avoid choosing a dentist just because he offers the lowest prices.
Excessive advertising and exaggerated claims should make you cautions.
Visit the dentist's website, if he has one. Besides useful info as office
hours and map directions, search for more. Check for his education, has specialized
training and his professional affiliations.
If in doubt for any reason, check for he is a certified dentist or has the
claimed specialty by contacting the local dental society.
It is suggested to visit more than one dentist. You might have to visit
several dentists before you find the one that you are comfortable with and you feel
you can build a good long-term relationship with.
How to find a good dentist Step- 3
Schedule a consultation
After the initial research has narrowed your search, it is time to schedule a
consultation appointment with one or more dentists. Try to learn :
If you have dental phobias, find out what kind of relaxation techniques the
dentist offers such as nitrous oxide or dental sedation.
If you have children, check if the dentist treats children as well as adults.
156
Ask for estimated fees on preventive visits and some common procedures
such as dental cleaning and filling a cavity.
Does the dentist charge for missed or broken appointments?
Are special arrangements made for handling emergencies outside of office
hours? What about evening hours and weekends?
If you are looking for a dentist to have a specialized procedure, try to learn
more about his experience on this kind of procedures.
Does the dentist offer the latest in dental technology?
Notice the office environment. Does the office appear to be clean, neat and
orderly?
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1.Fill in the correct word.
The best, find, diagnose, appointment, office, long-term, professional, make.
issues
relations
hours
out information
recommendations
schedule
way
affiliations
2.Chose the correct word.
1. Try to avoid/ invite driving in the rush-hour.
2. While traveling abroad, try preventive/ previous measures to avoid illness.
3. Does she have much teaching experience/ experiment?
4. The fog disrupted airline scheme/ schedule.
5. My initial /original reaction was to refuse.
6. Please make your own agreement/arrangement for accommodation.
7. You must see/check your work more carefully-it's full of mistakes.
157
3.Fill in the correct prepositions.
From, in, out, with, for.
1. Why don't you ask
a pay increase?
2. How many countries will be participating
3. I've made an appointment
in the Olympic Games?
my dentist.
4. Try to get letters of recommendations
5. We found
bosses and colleagues.
later that he had been lying us.
4.Complete this table.
Noun
Noun(person)
Verb
Adjective
donate
Survival
explainable
advert
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Complex Subject
1. Complex Subject употребляется со следующими глаголами в Passive Voice:
is said to - говорят, is heard - слышно, is seen - видно, is known - известно, is
reported - сообщают, is expected - ожидают, is believed - полагают, is
considered - считают, was announced - объявили.
He is
said to
go
to
London.-Говорят,
что
он
поедет
в
Лондон.
Clyde is expected to arrive at the week-end. -Полагают, что Клайд прибудет в
выходные.
2. Complex Subject употребляется со следующими глаголами в Active Voice:
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to appear - казаться, to seem - казаться, to happen - случаться, to prove оказаться, to turn off- оказаться.
She appears to
be
very
busy.-Кажется,
она
очень
занята.
We happened to meet them in the library. - М ы случайно встретили их в
библиотеке.
3.Complex Subject употребляется со следующими прилагательными:
likely - вероятный, unlikely - невероятный, certain - несомненный, sure верный.
He is likely to arrive soon.- Он, вероятно, скоро приедет.
We are certain to meet them.-Мы несомненно встретим его.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Translate the sentences with Complex Subject
1. Many books are known to be published in our country every year. 2. You are
supposed to graduate in five years. 3. This device was known to have been
designed in that laboratory. 4. His invention is considered to be of great
importance. 5. The sun is known to represent a mass of compressed gases. 6. The
new rocket is reported to go into operation next year. 7. For a long time the atom
was thought to be indivisible. 8. I did not know what I was expected to say to that,
so I said nothing. 9. He was said to be one of the most promising nuclear
physicists. 10. The number of the unemployed is reported to be increasing with
every year.
2. Open the brackets and use the proper form of the Complex Subject.
1. He seems (to know) French very well: he is said (to spend) his youth in Paris.
2. The article is likely (to appear) in the next issue of the journal.
3. He is sure (to tell) me all about this even I don't ask him.
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4. Не (to say) to know all about it.
5. It seemed (to snow) heavily since early morning: the ground was covered with a
deep layer of snow.
6. Irving turned out (to be) a long, pale-faced fellow.
7. He (to believe) to be innocent of the crime.
8. He (to expect) to pass the mathematics exam but he failed.
9.True friends (to know) to be like diamonds, precious but rare. False friends (to
say)to be like autumn leaves found everywhere.
10.Leonardo da Vinci (know) to be a great Italian painter of the Renaissance. The
Mona Lisa (consider) to be one of his most famous works.
3. Translate the sentences.
1. Он, кажется, сердится на меня.2. Вряд ли он будет принимать участие в
крнференции.3. Они, вероятно, вернутся осенью. 4. Он оказался не очень
надежным человеком. 5.Перваяработаоказаласьнеудачной. 6. Она, вероятно,
забыла о своем обещании. 7. Вряд ли он знает ее адрес. 8. Она, кажется, не
знает этого вопроса. 9. Его, наверняка, спросят об этом. 10. Вряд ли он
вернется сюда.
Unit 6.2 How to find a good dentist
Finding and choosing a dentist
(Part 2)
How to find a good dentist Step 4 Make an appointment
After the consultation, set up an appointment for an exam and dental
cleaning.
Did the dentist and his staff followed infection control procedures such as
wearing gloves and masks, and sterilized instruments?
Was your medical and dental history recorded and filed?
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Did the dentist performed a thorough examination of your teeth, gums and
mouth?
Did he used periodontal probe between the gums and teeth to check for
periodontal pockets?
Was he talking notes? Good dentists chart their findings in detail.
Did the dentist explain techniques that will help you prevent dental health
problems? Is dental health instruction provided?
Is information provided about fees and payment plans before treatment is
scheduled?
It's a lot to find out before you choose a dentist for the longterm, so feel
free to take notes. The more you know the better the choice you'll make.
How to find a good dentist- Step 5
A treatment appointment (i.e. filling)
Pay attention to the time the dentist takes for each procedure. You can not
expect quality work in a 'fast-food' style dentist office.
Do not proceed if the dentist suggests unconventional treatments? At least
not before taking a second opinion from another dentist.
After the treatment it is time for evaluation. In a high quality dental work,
no issues are expected in the following questions:
How does your bite feel?
Is any of the dental work irritating your gum?
Does the treated tooth buccal surface look like a natural tooth?
Does dental floss or your tongue catch on the filling?
Did the dentist take time to polish the filling?
Do you feel pain when drinking hot or cold liquids?
Was any debris left in your mouth after treatment?
Was the fee charged for the treatment, what you expected to pay, or there
were additional fees charged?
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Some dentists offer guaranteed services, so if a filling or crown fells off,
they will replace it at no extra charge. What about yours?
Once current treatment has been completed, you should be placed on a
recall schedule and notified in 6 month when the next check-up is due.
What about kids?
Parents should be looking for a dentist office that provides a fun
environment for children, so that they are excited about coming to the dentist's
office. Many dentists have a children-friendly design into their dentist office. They
provide entertainment - such as books, video and other games - for their children
patients. The dentist should be friendly and know how to handle children. If a
general dentist fails to make the child to cooperate, you might have to visit a
pediatric dentist.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1.Fill in the correct word.
Initial, dental, relaxation, special, set, pay, health, prevent
. techniques
phobias
research
instructions
up appointment
problems
attention
arrangements
2.Fill in the correct derivatives of the words in bold.
1. She gave us detailed
( instruct).
2. This door should only be used in an
3. Her
( emergent).
( appoint) to a manager is expected soon.
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4. This text
is interesting and
(information) without being too .... (
technique).
5. . .
( pay) should be done to the club secretary.
3.Guess the meaning of the following idioms and fill in the gaps.
Armed to the teeth
to be fed to the teeth
throw smth in smb's teeth
long in the tooth
by the skin of their teeth.
1. " Whom have you got in mind for this committee?"- " Marquees of
Shroshire."
-" Yes. He is
2. I am
"
with routine.
3. We found them all
4. Two others made it
5. You wanted to
and accused me of disrespect.
4.Fill in the correct particles.
Set down: write down on paper
Set in : start and seem likely to continue
Set o f f : begin or start
Set up: establish
1. The society was set
2. This has set
in 1906.
a chain reactions.
3. Could you set .... your reasons in writing?
4. Winter seems to be setting . early this winter.
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GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Make sentences to the model.
We heard that a car stopped outside the door.-A car was heard to stop outside the
door.
1. People consider the climate there to be very healthy. 2. It was announced that
the Chinese dancers were arriving next week. 3. It is expected that the performance
will be a success. 4. It is said that the book is popular with both old and young. 5.
It is believed that the poem was written by an unknown soldier. 6. It is supposed
that the well-known playwright is working on a new play. 7. It is reported that the
flood has caused severe damage to the crops. 8. It was supposed that the crops
would be rich that year. 9. It has been found that this mineral water is very good
for the liver. 10. Scientists consider that electricity exists throughout space. 11. It is
said that the weather in Europe was exceedingly hot last summer. 12. It was
reported that five ships were missing after the battle.
2. Translate the phrases in brackets to complete the sentences.
1. He seems (доволен твоим докладом ). 2.He is likely
( придет поздно
вечером ). 3. He turned out (талантливым ученым ). 4.
They are sure (
согласятся принять участие в нашей работе
представляет для них большой интерес
).
). 5. The problem appears (
6. Ihappened ( встретил их в
Москве ).7. This book seems (очень популярна Европе).
3. Translate the sentences using Complex Subject.
1. Говорят, что это здание было построено в XVIIвеке. 2. Предполагают, что
заседание закончится в десять часов. 3. Оказалось, что мы уже когда-то
встречались. 4. Вы, кажется, устали. 5. Условия работы оказались более
трудными, чем предполагалось. 6. Вы случайно не знаете этого человека? 7.
Книга, которую вы мне дали, оказалась скучной. 8. Новые автобусы
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оказались очень удобными. 9. Ваш приятель, кажется, очень интересуется
древней историей. 10. Я случайно встретил его в Москве.
Unit 7.1 Dental Insurance
Dental Insurance plan
The mere thought of out-of-pocket expenses prevents many Americans from
securing dental treatment. Today's dental treatments may range in cost from $300
per tear for simple professional dental hygiene visits, to $25,000 or more for
restorative dental work or cosmetic dentistry. Additionally, compared to medical
insurance coverage, dental insurance plans generally offer reduced benefit
structures.
Today, however stronger financing options are available for out-of0porcet
dental treatment costs, and dental insurance plants still reduce your financial
burden in some ways.
Dental Insurance Plans: What's Available?
Various types of dental insurance plans are available for individuals in the
U.S. In fact, some employers offer programs whereby a certain portion of income
is allocated to a special flexible spending account before taxes are assessed. The
employer benefits from less taxation and is able to use these funds for dental or
medical treatment.
You may not be aware that you have flexible spending account options
available through your employer for dental or medical needs. Check with your
employer to see if a flexible spending account is an option for you.
No two dental insurance plans offer identical benefits. Each plan has specific
limitations and exclusions. Get to know your plan. For example, if you require a
dental filling and would prefer a composite material, evaluate the benefits allocated
in the plan for composite fillings. Many insurance companies will only reimburse
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composite filling costs at rate equal to that of an amalgam filling. You would be
required to pay the remaining balance.
Cosmetic dental procedures are not traditionally covered by dental
insurance. However, if you have insurance and require veneers for restorative
purposes, ask your dentist about the possibility of filing reimbursement for a
percentage of the costs.
Dental Insurance Plan Choices:
• Indemnity Plan: AN indemnity dental insurance plan allows you to select your
own dentist. The plans are considered fee-for-service and come with limitations
and copayment options. This means that you pay a flat fee for the dental visit, but
you have an annual limit on coverage for dental spending, and specific coverage
limits may apply to individual dental procedures.
• Self-Insurance Plan: Self-insurance dental plans may be similar in nature to
indemnity plans, though you may or may not have the option to select your own
dentist.
• Closed Panel Plan: Closed panel dental plans limit you to using a specific group
of facilities and the number of dentists available to you.
• Capitation Plan: Capitation dental plans designate specific dentists for intervals
of treatment. These dentists have a contract indicating that they will be paid a fee
regardless of whether dental treatment was required.
• Preferred Provider Organization (PPO): PPO dental plans are limited to a group
of dentists who are available to provide dental care at a reduced cost.
• Direct Reimbursement Plan: Direct reimbursement dental plans are employers to
directly reimburse employees for dental services they receive.
• Dental Care Service Plan: Dental care service plans make use of a group of
dentists who form a non-profit organization to provide dental services at set fees.
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VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1.Fill in the correct word.
Out of- pocket, restorative, benefit, special, flexible, insurance.
work
limitations
account
expenses
structures
companies
2.Study notes.
Expressions with MAKE and DO.
MAKE
Money
a complaint
a mistake
War
an excuse
a discovery
Sure
an offer
the bed
A trip
a choice
certain
Noise
notes
progress
Impression
coffee
effort
DO
Good
work/job
a favour
Harm
housework
a test
Damage
housework
an experiment
Business
one's duty
the washing up
Exercise
research
shopping
At school
badly/well
one's best
Complete these sentences with Do and MAKE
1. Do you always .... Your homework?
2. Which subjects do you
well at school?
3. How do you fell when you . . a mistake?
4. Do you
notes while you are listening to the cassette in English?
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5. What kind of exercises do you like .... in class?
6. Would you like .... job which involved responsibility for people's lives?
3.Fill in the correct word.
Tax
fee
insurance
Account
benefits
bonus
1. He pays 40% ... on his income.
2. My salary is paid into my bank . .
3. Do you have
on your house?
4. We offer an excellent medical . .
5. The insurance company paid all my medical . .
6. Company employee received Christmas . .
4.Fill in the correct particles.
Come across: find or meet by chance
Come off: succeed
Come round: visit
Come to: regain consciousness
1. When I came ... after my operation, I realized what had happened.
2. I came . .
an old school friend in Oxford street in the morning.
3. Her attempts to break the world record nearly come . .
4. Will you come
and see us?
FINAL TEST 1
1. I
the Star Wars films.
A) have never seen B) have ever seen C) have never saw
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2. They
for Google
2004.
A) worked / for B) 've worked / since C) 're working / since
3.
Neil
that he didn't get the job?
A) Did / tell B) Have / told C) Has / been told
4. If you
that expensive car, you
enough money to go on holiday.
A) buy / won't have B) bought / don't have C) don't buy / won't have
5. What
if you
a mobile phone?
A) will you do / haven't B) would you did / had C) would you do / didn't have
6. Alison has worked for a month without a day off — she
be exhausted.
A) might B) must C) can't
7. I know he speaks French, German and Italian so he
be Swiss.
A) can't B) could C) should
8. Hundreds of trees were blown over in the night so the wind
very strong.
A) can't B) could C) must
9. "I'm not very sociable.
."
A) I don't B) So am I C) Neither am I
10. "Sorry I'm late.
for a long time?"
A) Have you waited B) Are you waiting C) Have you been waiting
11. Leo's French isn't very good. He
it for very long.
A) has been learning B) hasn't been learning C) hasn't learned
12. Ellen
that she needs to do more exercise.
A) has been realizing B) is realized C) has realized
13. Henry worked for the bank
2001 and 2006.
A) between B) while C) until
14. Could you tell me where
?
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have been
A) the library is B) is the library C) if the library
15. Do you know
this train goes to Cardiff?
A) does B) if C) how
16. It's lovely day,
?
A) is it B) does it C) isn't it
17. John
your school, wasn't he?
A) was at B) went to C) wasn't at
18. The interviewer asked
drive.
A) can I B) if I could C) if I was
19. The dentist
to make another appointment.
A) told B) said me C) told me
20. The police officer
the robber to put down his gun and put his hands above
his head.
A) ordered B) advised C) reminded
21. You'll need to
an answer to this problem.
A) get on with B) run out of C) come up with
22. I want to watch the television news. Could you
, please?
A) look it up B) turn it on C) look for it
23. You must try that restaurant. The food is
.
A) very delicious B) absolutely delicious C) absolutely tasty
24. We are hated the film — it was really
.
A) hilarious B) superb C) awful
25. The kids
over the garden wall to get their football back.
A) climbed B) hugged C) chewed
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Unit 7.2 Dental Insurance
Dental Financing
It is important to ask the dentist's finance manager about dental treatment
cost prior to receiving treatment. Dental finance managers can call your insurance
provider to pre-determine the out-of-pocket costs associated your procedure.
Dental insurance plans differ in the level of reimbursement offered for
certain procedures and on annul dental spending caps. Some plans may limit the
waiting period before certain dental treatments are rendered. Additionally, plans
typically have exclusions, meaning that costs for certain dental procedures will not
be reimbursed.
Usual, Customary, and Reasonable (UCR) Fees
The most common term used to identify the fee for dental treatment is called
Usual, Customary, and Reasonable (UCR). UCR fees are determined by insurance
providers based on the typical costs associated with various dental procedures.
Here's an example: Assume your procedure costs $90. Your dental
insurance provider may have a UCR for the procedure of $60. You would therefore
be responsible for payment of the difference: $30.
Dental Financing
Numerous independent finance plans and reputable finance companies offer
a wealth of options to meet the budget and credit limit requirements for most
applications. Funds received from dental finance companies may be used for outof-pocket dental costs or for the dental procedure itself. There are «same-as-cash»
finance options with 0 percent interest rate options requiring monthly installments
with little or no down-payment.
Treatment plans may begin the day of tour initial consultation or up to 60
days after application approval. In order to determine the right finance option,
contact your dentist and ask if the practice has made an agreement with one or
more finance companies.
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You may complete a dental finance application when you visit your dentist,
online at a finance company website, or through a toll-free number. Usually,
finance approval arrives within minutes. Many times, credit history does not
influence the approval process. Of course, with any finance agreement, read the
fine print to check for hidden fees. If you do not have dental insurance, dental
financing may make sense. At the same time, resources are available to help lowincome, uninsured individuals dental treatment.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES
1. Fill in the correct word.
Non-profit, self-insurance, group of, reduced, dental, direct.
reimburse
plan
organization
limit
facilities
cost
2. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word.
Lie down, hurt, fainted, aching, had, painless, symptoms.
1. I felt so dizzy that I nearly
2. I had to have an internal examination but it was quite
3. I'm feeling ill- I think I'd better to go and
4. They gave me injection and it really
5. The symptoms are a high temperature and rash.
6. He . . a heart attack and had to be rushed to the hospital.
7. The doctor prescribed me some drops for my earache but it's still.
3. Study notes.
We add ful to a noun to show that the quality exists:
She's very careful about what she eats.
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We add less to a noun to show that the quality is lacking:
You shouldn't be so careless when you write.
Here are common pairs of words which use FUL and LES.
Harmful- dangerous
Harmless- not dangerous
Painful- full of pain
Painless- without pain
Useful-helping
Useless- not of any use
Hopeful- full of hope
Hopeless- without hope
Fill in the correct suffixes.
1. All this traffic pollution is h a m . . to our health.
2. The situation is difficult but I'm still h o p e .
3. It will be a p a i n . . operation- she has nothing to worry.
4. The guide gave us some u s e . . advice.
5. Don't be afraid - the dog is harm
4. Fill in the correct prepositions.
For, from, with, against
1. Children should be vaccinated
2. Paul has gone down
measles and rubella.
flu.
3. Pollution in cities is causing more and more children to be treated
asthma.
4. If you have a fever, there is definitely something wrong . you.
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FINAL TEST2
1. In Britain you
drive a car when you're 17.
a) will b) can c) must d) have to
2. Have you lived in London
a long time?
a) since b) for c) in d) from
3. "
green tea?" "Yes, every morning!"
a) Drink you b) Are you drinking c) Do you drink d) Are you drink
4. I am very pleased
that you passed your exams.
a) to hear b) hear c) hearing d) to hearing
5. Oh no! The phone's not working and I have to call my mother - it's her birthday
today.
Is it? Don't worry.
you use my mobile.
a) I am letting b) I'll let c) I'll be letting d) I'm going to let
6. "How long
chess?" "Since 1998"
a) have you playing b) do you play c) are you playing d) have you been playing
7. Printing
in ancient China.
a) has been invented b) was invented c) was been invented d) invented
8. I
stop at the traffic lights because they were red.
a) must b) had to c) should d) had
9. You look very tired! What
?
a) did you do b) have you donec) had you done d) have you been doing
13. I was really
after I watched that film.
a) depressed b) depressing c) depress d) depression
14. We arrived at the cinema late. The film
.
a) is already started b) was already started c) had already started d) had already
been started
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16. It's Sunday and so
go to work.
a) I don't have to b) I mustn't c) mustn't to d) shouldn't to
17.Next year, I hope
speak French fluently.
a) I'm possible to b) I'll be able toc) I'll manage d) I could
18. "I took my car to the garage yesterday because
strange noises."
a) it was making b) it made c) it had made d) it makes
19. "There is too
traffic on the roads of New York."
a) many b) much c) lots of d) huge amount of
20. Andrew bought Susan
roses.
a) a little b) little c) few d) a few
21. Because of the bad economic situation, 200 workers
redundant last
month.
a) have been made b) were made
22. You mustn't
c) were being made d) had been made
photographs inside this church.
a) take b) make c) do d) create
23. When I was a boy I
live in Sydney.
a) would b) did c) used to d) was to
24. Her husband
is a famous artist.
a) , who is quite old, b) whose quite old
c) who is quite old d) , whose quite old,
25. If I win the national lottery, I
a sports car.
a) would buy b) will buy
c) would be bought d) would have bought
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DENTAL IDIOMS
Armed to the teeth- вооружен до зубов.
Be fed to the teeth- сыт по горло.
Cast smth in smb's teeth- упрекать кого-либо в чем либо.
Cut one's teeth in- приобрести жизненный опыт в чем-либо
Draw its teeth- вырвать у змеи жало, обезвредить.
Get one's teeth into smth- грячо взяться за что-либо.
Have a sweet tooth- быть сластеной.
If you can not bite, never show your teeth-если не можешь кусаться не
показывай зубы.
In the teeth of smth - вопреки, несмотря на.
Long in tooth- старый, «песок сыплется»( длинные зубы у лошади- признак
старости)
Put smb's teeth on edge- действовать на нервы, резать слух.
Put teeth in smth- сделать что-либо опасным.
(as) Scarce as hen's teeth- редкий, кот наплакал.
Set one's teeth- стиснуть зубы, проявить стойкость.
(as) Sharp as a serpent's tooth- « ядовитый как укус змеи».
Show one' teeth- показывать зубы, угрожать.
Sow dragon's teeth - сеять раздоры.
To one's teeth- в лицо, в глаза.
Tooth and nail- не жалея сил , до последней капли крови.
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ADDITIONAL TEXTS
Text 1
Dental fast track: prenatal enamel growth, incisor eruption, and weaning in human infants
The research found that incisor teeth grow quickly in the early stages of the second trimester of a
baby's development, while molars grow at a slower rate in the third trimester. This is so incisors
are ready to erupt after birth, at approximately six months of age, when a baby makes the
transition from breast-feeding to weaning.
Weaning in humans takes place relatively early compared to some primates, such as
chimpanzees. As a result, there is less time available for human incisors to form, so the enamel
grows rapidly to compensate.
This research can increase our understanding of weaning in our fossil ancestors and could also
help dentists as dental problems do not register in all teeth in the same way. Enamel cells deposit
new tissue at different times and different rates, depending on the tooth type.
Exactly when early weaning in humans first began is a hotly debated topic amongst
anthropologists. Current dental approaches rely on finding fossil skulls with teeth that are still
erupting - which is an extremely rare find. Anthropologists will now be able to explore the start
of weaning in an entirely new way because 'milk teeth' preserve a record of prenatal enamel
growth after they have erupted and for millennia after death.
Text 2
The history of gum diseases
The Roman-British population from c. 200-400 AD appears to have had far less gum
disease than we have today, according to a study of skulls at the Natural History Museum led by
a King's College London periodontist. The surprise findings provide further evidence that
modern habits like smoking can be damaging to oral health.
Gum disease, also known as periodontitis, is the result of a chronic inflammatory response to the
build-up of dental plaque. Whilst much of the population lives with mild gum disease, factors
such as tobacco smoking or medical conditions like diabetes can trigger more severe chronic
periodontitis, which can lead to the loss of teeth.
The study, published in the British Dental Journal, examined 303 skulls from a Romano-British
burial ground in Poundbury, Dorset for evidence of dental disease. Only 5% of the skulls showed
signs of moderate to severe gum disease, compared to today's population of which around 1530% of adults have chronic progressive periodontitis.
However many of the Roman skulls, which form part of the collections in the Palaeontology
department of the Natural History Museum, showed signs of infections and abscesses, and half
had caries (tooth decay). The Poundbury population also showed extensive tooth wear from a
young age, as would be expected from a diet rich in coarse grains and cereals at the time.
The Poundbury cemetery community, genetically similar to modern European populations, was
made up of countryside dwellers as well as a Romanised urban population. This was a nonsmoking population and likely to have had very low levels of diabetes mellitus, two factors that
are known to greatly increase the risk of gum disease in modern populations. Among the people
who survived infancy, childhood illnesses and malnutrition into adulthood, the peak age at death
177
appears to have been in their 40s. Infectious diseases are thought to have been a common cause
of death at that time.
Professor Francis Hughes from the Dental Institute at King's College London and lead author of
the study said: "We were very struck by the finding that severe gum disease appeared to be much
less common in the Roman British population than in modern humans, despite the fact that they
did not use toothbrushes or visit dentists as we do today. Gum disease has been found in our
ancestors, including in mummified remains in Egypt, and was alluded to in writings by the
Babylonians, Assyrians and Sumerians as well as the early Chinese."
Text 3
Periodontitis
A total 12 million Germans suffer from periodontitis. If the inflammation remains untreated, this
could lead to tooth loss. However, it is also suspected of triggering many other diseases, like
cardiopulmonary diseases. Researchers are studying the interactions, and developing compounds
to combat the causative agents.
If the gums bleed when brushing one's teeth or biting into an apple, this condition could be
pointing to periodontitis -an inflammatory disease of the periodontal apparatus. Bacterial plaque
attacks the bones; over time, the tooth could loosen. Leaving the disease untreated could lead to
tooth loss. Periodontitis, also known as periodontal disease or "shrinking gums," is also a source
of disease for the entire body: If the to some extent highly aggressive bacteria make their way
into the blood circulation, they could cause additional damage. Medical studies highlight the
interaction between periodontal disease triggers and various diseases like cardiopulmonary
disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence
shows that the affected patient has an elevated risk of cardiovascular constriction, as well as
Alzheimer's.
According to the World Health Organization, around 60 percent of all adults suffer from gum
inflammation and are in need of treatment - which is a rather high figure. In the EU project
known as "TRIGGER," eleven European research institutions from nine countries are dedicated
to the study of the widespread disease. They investigate the influence of periodontitis pathogens
on the aforementioned diseases. The goal is to explain and prove the connections between
periodontitis and other inflammatory diseases, and that effective oral hygiene and treatment of
the periodontal disease can improve the status of one's general health.
"We are searching for the active ingredients to battle the highly toxic bacteria known as
Porphyromonasgingivalis. This aggressive lead pathogen resides in the gingival pockets of the
gums. It is responsible for gingivitis - the gum disease of the mouth that can lead to the
development of periodontitis," explains Dr. Hans-Ulrich Demuth, head and initiator of the
project group in Halle.
Text 4
The prevalence of tooth decay as a result of sugar intake
The team's recommendations come from an analysis of public health records from different
countries. They compared dental health and sugar consumption over time among large
populations of adults and children.
178
They found that adults had a significantly higher incidence of tooth decay than children, and this
incidence soared with any sugar consumption over 0% of total daily calories. But even among
children, the team found that moving from consuming almost no sugar to 5% of total daily
calories doubled the rate of tooth decay. This rose with every increase in sugar intake.
"Tooth decay is a serious problem worldwide and reducing sugar intake makes a huge
difference," says study author Aubrey Sheiham, of the Department of Epidemiology & Public
Health at University College London. "Data from Japan were particularly revealing, as the
population had no access to sugar during or shortly after the Second World War. We found that
decay was hugely reduced during this time, but then increased as they began to import sugar
again."Furthermore, the team found that in Nigeria, only 2% of people at all ages had tooth
decay when they consumed almost no sugar - approximately 2 g per day. "This is in stark
contrast to the US, where 92% of adults have experienced tooth decay," adds Sheiham.
Commenting on their results, the researchers say:
"These findings imply that public health goals need to set sugar intakes ideally at <3% energy
intake per day with <5% energy intake as a pragmatic goal, even when fluoride is widely used.
Adult as well as children's caries burdens should define the new criteria for developing goals for
sugar intake."
Other strategies to combat the prevalence of tooth decay
As well as their call for the target daily sugar intake to be reduced to 3%, the team sets out a
number of other recommendations they believe should be considered in the fight against tooth
decay.They say that sugar-sweetened treats and fruit juices should not be marketed at children.
Instead, there should be focus on the harm they can cause.Furthermore, they say vending
machines containing confectionary and sugary drinks should be removed from areas that are
supported or controlled by central or local governments.
"We are not talking draconian policies to 'ban' such sugar-rich products, which are available
elsewhere," says co-author Prof. Phillip James, of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical
Medicine, "but no publicly-supported establishment should be contributing to the expensive
problems of dental caries, obesity and diabetes." They note that there should also be a review of
food labeling, and new food labels should state a food's sugar content as "high" if it is above
2.5%.
Last year, Medical News Today reported on a study by researchers from the Universities of
Oxford and Reading in the UK, in which they claimed a sugary drink tax of 20% could reduce
obesity.
Text 5
Antibiotics in treatment dental diseases
Scientists at the University of Sheffield have identified a significant rise in the number of people
diagnosed with a serious heart infection alongside a large fall in the prescribing
of antibiotic prophylaxis to dental patients. The pioneering study is the largest and most
comprehensive to be conducted with regards to the National Institute for Health and Care
Excellence (NICE) guidelines, which recommended dentists should no longer give antibiotics
before invasive treatments to people considered at risk of the life threatening heart infection,
Infective Endocarditis (IE), which in 40 per cent of cases is caused by bacteria from the mouth.
179
The team of international researchers, led by Professor Martin Thornhill at the University of
Sheffield's School of Clinical Dentistry, discovered that since the NICE guidelines were
introduced in March 2008, there has been an increase in cases of Infective Endocarditis above
the expected trend. By March 2013 this accounted for an extra 35 cases per month.
They also identified that the prescribing of antibiotic prophylaxis fell by 89 per cent from 10,900
prescriptions a month, before the 2008 guidelines, to 1,235 a month by March 2008.
Martin Thornhill, Professor of Translational Research in Dentistry at the University of Sheffield,
said: "Infective Endocarditis is a rare but serious infection of the heart lining. We hope that our
data will provide the information that guideline committees need to re-evaluate the benefits, or
not, of giving antibiotic prophylaxis.
Professor Thornhill stressed that healthcare professionals and patients should wait for the
guideline committees to evaluate the evidence and give their advice before changing their current
practice.He added: "In the meantime, healthcare professionals and patients should focus on
maintaining high standards of oral hygiene. This will reduce the number of bacteria in the mouth
which have the potential to cause Infective Endocarditis and reduce the need for invasive dental
procedures to be performed."The data analysed by an international collaboration of experts from
the University of Sheffield, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Taunton and Somerset NHS
Trust, and the University of Surrey in the UK, as well as from the Mayo Clinic and the Carolinas
HealthCare System's Carolinas Medical Center in the USA, is published in The Lancet and will
be presented to more than 19,000 delegates from across the world at the American Heart
Association annual meeting in Chicago.The research was funded by a grant from national heart
charity Heart Research UK, healthcare provider Simplyhealth and the National Institute for
Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR).
Barbara Harpham, National Director of Heart Research UK, said: "The findings play an
important part in the ongoing exploration of the link between dental and heart health.
"Projects such as this one are vital to the ongoing collation of evidence to support our
understanding of how oral health can impact upon the heart and other conditions within the
body. We are committed to furthering medical research in the UK and welcome these new
findings."
180
Answers
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Wordsearch
Староста - monitor
Этиология -aetiology
Гинекология -gynaecology
Эмбрион - germ
Череп - skull
Дыхание - breath
Фармацевтический - pharmaceutical
Слизь - mucus
Грудная клетка - chest
Конвульсия - convulsion
Бронхит - bronchitis
Желудок - stomach
Ангина - quinsy
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Кафедра - chair
Лечить - treat
Опыт - experience
Помощь - aid
Гной - pus
Туловище - trunk
Раненный - wounded
Доклад - report
Вена - vein
Вызов - call
182
РЕКОМЕНДОВАННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА
Основная
1.Английский язык. English in dentistry : учебник для студентов стоматологических
факультетов медицинских вузов / Под ред. Л.Ю. Берзеговой. - 2009. - 272 с.
2. Муравейская М.С., Орлова Л.К.. Английский язык для медиков. - М.: Наука, 2001.
Дополнительная
1. Авраменко А.А., Барбашёва С.С. Англо-русский словарь современных медицинских
аббревиатур. Самара: ООО «Криптен-Волга», 2011. - 112 с.
2. Акжигитов Г.Н., Бенюмович М.С., Чикорин А.К. Англо-русский медицинский словарь
терминов. 4-е изд., стереотип. М.: РУССО, 2000. - 608 с.
3. Берзегова Л.Ю., Ковшило Д.Ф., Кузнецова О.В., Соломенцева Л.Н. Новый англорусский словарь для стоматологов: Учебное пособие. - М.: ГЭОТАР-медиа, 2009.—400с.
4. Большой англо-русский фразеологический словарь; Около 20000 фразеологических
единиц/А.В. Кунин.- 5-е изд., исправл.-М.: Живой язык, 2011.-944с.
5. Галицинский Ю.Б. Грамматика сборник упражнений.-6-е изд.,- СПб.: Каро, 2009.-544с.
6. Дроздова Т.Ю., МаиловаВ.Г., БерестоваА.И. EnglishGrammar: ReferencesandpracticeСПб. :Антология, 2012-424с.
7.
Электронныйресурс.www.jstoma.com
8.
Электронныйресурс.www.stomaedu.com
9. Электронныйресурс. www.everydayhealth.com/dental...
10. Alison Pohl. Test your Professional English. Medical. Person Education Limited, 2007.105p.
11. I. Dorland, W.A. Newman. Medical Illustrated Dictionary. Saunders. An Imprint of
Elsevier.2009.2190 p.
12. English Grammar in Context. Essential. Macmillan. 2010. 256p.
13. Grammar Practice for Pre-intermediate Students. Person Education Limited, 2014.190 p.
14. Hornby. Oxford Advanced learner's Dictionary. OxfordUniversity Press.2013.1428 p.
15. Longman Exam Dictionary. Person Education Limited, 2007.1836 p
16. Mosby's Dental Dictionary, St. Louis, 2004, Mosby.
17. Woelfel Julian B., Ricne C.Scheid. Dental Anatomy. Its Relevance to Dentistry., Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2002.
183
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184
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