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Siyanuson Chanthaburi School Math Project

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Math n’ Roll!
A Math Project dedicated to explore the effect of music in learning inside the
Classroom
Created by:
Nichapa Engsiridumrongkul
Chayanan Chumnak
Chananthida Nanaibun
Advisors:
Mr. Tee-Jay Laceste Tulas
Siyanuson Chanthaburi School
Chanthaburi Secondary Education
Abstract
The goal of this project was to collect and review existing data on the relationship
between involvement in music and solving Math problems. Using this data to show the
benefits of music involvement, an argument for keeping or increasing
funding for music programs in Siyanuson School, Chanthaburi, Thailand is made.
Additionally, a survey to assess the relationship in students on Siyanuson School has been
constructed. Suggestions for how to conduct the survey and distribution are included.
Introduction
Everyone has heard that listening to Mozart makes you smarter. That is not correct.
However, research has shown that listening to Mozart, playing an instrument or
participating in a chorus over a long period of time can increase spatial temporal reasoning
that can lead to better performance in math and science. Evidences shows that listening to
Mozart changes the way the brain processes information. The importance of this
relationship in students’ and teens’ development is something to be further researched and
demands action on the part of schools and guardians. If a child’s development in math and
science can be augmented or encouraged through involvement in music, then educators
should take this to heart.
This Math Research Project provides compelling evidence that a music like Classical
and Rock music provides symbiotic gains in essential mathematical skills. It helps to
articulate what educators have always known: Music matters!
Chapter 1
Preface
1.1
Music and Mathematics: An Introduction to their Relationship
Mathematics, in some form, has been in existence since ancient civilizations. The Inca,
Egyptians and Babylonians all used mathematics, yet it was not studied for its own sake
until Greek Antiquity (600-300 BC) [1]. Mathematics is a vast subject that has been
approached, used and studied in different ways and forms for hundreds of years, by
different cultures and civilizations. It is a subject that constantly changes, and is thus
difficult to define. In the twenty-first century, a western view of mathematics is that it is the
abstract science of shape, space, change, number, structure and quantity [2].
Mathematicians seek out new patterns and new conjecture using rigorous deduction. They
use abstract thinking, logic and reasoning to problem solve. Mathematics can be studied for
its own pleasure, or can be applied to explain phenomena in other disciplines. Physicists,
for example, use mathematical language to describe the natural world.
In comparison, music is the art or science of combining vocal or instrumental (or both)
sounds to produce beauty of form and harmony [3]. It is an intrinsic aspect of human
existence. Like mathematics, music has been an integral aspect of cultures throughout
history. Music is an artistic way of expressing emotions and ideas, and is often used to
express and portray one’s self and identity. Different forms of music are studied,
performed, played and listened to.
Music theory is a beautiful subject that has been studied for thousands of years. Music
theory is simply the study of how music works and the properties of music. It may include
the analysis of any statement, belief or conception of or about music. Often music theorists
will study the language and notation of music. They seek to identify patterns and structures
found in composers’ techniques, across or within genres, and of historical periods.
Comparing the basic general definitions of mathematics and music implies that they are
two very distinct disciplines. Mathematics is a scientific study, full of order, countability
and calculability. Music, on the other hand, is thought to be artistic and expressive. The
study of these two disciplines, though seemingly different, however, are linked and have
been for over two thousand years. Music itself is indeed very mathematical, and
mathematics is inherent to many basic ideas in music theory. Music theorists, like experts
in other disciplines, use mathematics to develop, express and communicate their ideas.
Mathematics can describe many phenomena and concepts in music. Mathematics explains
how strings vibrate at certain frequencies, and sound waves are used to describe these
mathematical frequencies. Instruments are mathematical; cellos have a particular shape to
resonate with their strings in a mathematical fashion. Modern technology used to make
recordings on a compact disc (CD) or a digital video disc (DVD) also rely on mathematics.
The relationship between mathematics and music is complex and constantly expanding
1.2
Purpose of Mathematics Project
1.2.1
The purpose of this experiment was to determine if music affected the performance of
the students doing a math problem.
1.2.2
1.3
To determine if Classical Music or Heavy Metal Rock Music would make a difference.
Limitations of the Study
1.3.1
The population used in this study were the students of Siyanuson Chanthaburi School,
Muang district, province of Chanthaburi Secondary comprising of a total of 99 English
Program Students (EP Students).
1.3.2
The sampling used in this study are the English Program students from Mathayom 1 to
Mathayom 4 of Siyanuson Chanthaburi School who are enrolled in the first semester of
the first academic year of the year 2016, Muang district, Chanthaburi. The students are
chosen qualitatively.
1.4
Hypothesis
1.4.1
Our first hypothesis was that students would have better math scores with music than
without.
1.4.2
Our second hypothesis was that students would have better scores with classical music
than with heavy metal rock music.
1.5
Definition
1.5.1
Students mean students who are studying in Mathayom English Program from level 1 to
4 in the first semester of the academic year 2016 Siyanuson Chanthaburi School, Muang
district, Chanthaburi.
1.5.2
Classical Music means the playlist played (Mozart’s Instrumental Playlist) during the
survey is being conducted.
1.5.3
Heavy Metal Rock Music means the rock playlist played (Metallica: Black Album) during
the survey is being conducted.
1.5.4
Math Problem means a 4 set 6x6 Sudoku worksheet being distributed for the
participants to solve in a given period of time while a music is being played.
1.6
Expected Results
1.6.1
To determine whether music can have a positive effect on the performance of the
students in solving mathematical problems.
1.6.2
To determine on which genre does the students perform better and to use that result to
for future suggestions.
Chapter 2
Review of Literature
To carry out our project, we need to make ourselves aware of the mathematical concepts
and theories that are important to our project survey work. We are able to come up of the following
concepts with the aid of our Mathematical resources we have at school and the internet.
2.1 Arithmetic Mean
The arithmetic mean is a mathematical representation of the typical value of a series of
numbers, computed as the sum of all the numbers in the series divided by the count of all
numbers in the series. The arithmetic mean is sometimes referred to as the average or simply as
the mean. Some mathematicians and scientists prefer to use the term "arithmetic mean" to
distinguish it from other measures of averaging, such as the geometric mean and the harmonic
mean.
2.2 Percentage
A percentage is a portion of a whole expressed as a number between 0 and 100
rather than as a fraction. All of something is 100 percent, half of it is fifty percent, none of
something is zero percent.
2.3 Graphs
Two-dimensional drawing showing a relationship (usually between two set of numbers)
by means of a line, curve, a series of bars, or other symbols. Typically, an independent
variable is represented on the horizontal line (X-axis) and an dependent variable on the
vertical line (Y-axis). The perpendicular axis intersects at a point called origin, and are
calibrated in the units of the quantities represented. Though a graph usually has four
quadrants representing the positive and negative values of the variables, usually only the
north-east quadrant is shown when the negative values do not exist or are of no interest.
2.3.1 Pie charts
A graphic representation of quantitative information by means of a
circle divided into sectors, in which the relative sizes of the areas (orcentral angles) of the s
ectors correspond to the relative sizes orproportions of the quantities.
2.3.2 Bar charts
A bar graph is a chart that uses bars to show comparisons between categories of data.
The bars can be either horizontal or vertical. Bar graphs with vertical bars are sometimes
called vertical bar graphs. A bar graph will have two axes. One axis will describe the types
of categories being compared, and the other will have numerical values that represent the
values of the data. It does not matter which axis is which, but it will determine what bar
graph is shown. If the descriptions are on the horizontal axis, the bars will be oriented
vertically, and if the values are along the horizontal axis, the bars will be oriented
horizontally.
2.3.3 Types of Bar Graphs
There are many different types of bar graphs. They are not always interchangeable.
Each type will work best with a different type of comparison. The comparison you want to
make will help determine which type of bar graph to use.
Simple Bar Graph
2.3.4 Vertical Bar Graph
A simple vertical bar graph is best when you have to compare between two or more
independent variables. Each variable will relate to a fixed value. The values are positive and
therefore can be fixed to the horizontal value.
2.3.5 Horizontal Bar Graph
If your data has negative and positive values but is still a comparison between two
or more fixed independent variables, it is best suited for a horizontal bar graph. The
vertical axis can be oriented in the middle of the horizontal axis, allowing for negative and
positive values to be represented.
2.4 Learning theory
Early childhood educators know the value of music in their classrooms. Most will
state that music contributes to the academic environment in ways that positively impact the
whole child. A large and growing body of scientific research supports such anecdotal
stories across the whole range of development. The research focuses on one critical aspect:
the positive effect of listening to music while answering a Mathematical Problem.
If we look at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum
Focal Point and Related Expectations, we can begin to see how many opportunities exist for
music education directly related to mathematics. The NCTM has clearly indicated that an
isolated “skill and drill” approach to mathematics is not considered the best practice.
Rather, the NCTM advocates for math learning in contexts that promote other types of
thinking and problem-solving at the same time. Music is certainly one such context.
2.5 Definition of Music
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound and silence. The
common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and
its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness),
and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a
musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit
some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and with vocal
techniques ranging from singing to rapping, and there are solely instrumental pieces, solely
vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine
singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of
theMuses"). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form include
the production of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of
music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient
Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and
vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is
music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to.
However, 20th-century composer John Cagethought that any sound can be music, saying,
for example, "There is no noise, only sound."[2]
2.6 Types of Music
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as
belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical
form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used
interchangeably. For our project, we have decided to only use Classical Music and Rock
music
2.6.1 Rock Music (Heavy Metal)
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late
1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots
in blues rock and psychedelic rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick,
massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos,
emphatic beats, and overall loudness. Heavy metal lyrics and performance styles are
sometimes associated with masculinity, aggression, and machismo.
2.6.2 Classical Music
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music,
including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more accurate term is also
used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the
broad span of time from roughly the 11th century to the present day, which includes the
Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became
codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. The
major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the early music period, which
includes the Medieval (500–1400) and the Renaissance (1400–1600) eras; the Common
practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750),Classical (1750–1820),
and Romantic eras (1804–1910); and the 20th century (1901–2000) which includes
the modern (1890–1930) that overlaps from the late 19th-century, the high modern (mid20th-century), and contemporary or postmodern (1975–2015) eras.
Number of Participants
Level
Number of Students
Mathayom 1
28 students
Mathayom 2
28 students
Mathayom 3
32 students
Mathayom 4
11 students
Total number of Participants
99 Students
The number of participants from Mathayom 1
to 4
Mathayom 4
11%
Mathayom 1
28%
Mathayom 3
33%
Mathayom 2
28%
Mathayom 1
Mathayom 2
Mathayom 3
Mathayom 4
The Percentage between Male and Female Participants
Gender
Number of Students
Male
3 male students
Female
96 female students
Total number of Participants
99 Students
The Percentage between Male and Female
Participants
Female participants
97%
Male participants
3%
Male participants
Female participants
The number of participants who are Music-lovers
Number of Students
Music lover
99 students
Not a music lover
0
Total number of Participants
99 Students
The number of participants who are music
lovers
Not a music lover
0%
Music lover
100%
Music lover
Not a music lover
Age Group
Age bracket
Number of Students
11 years old
1 student
12 years old
29 students
13 years old
26 students
14 years old
31 students
15 years old
11 students
16 years old
1 student
Total number of Participants
99 Students
The percetage between the Age Group of the
participants
26%
32%
11%
29%
1%
1%
11 years old
12 years old
13 years old
14 years old
15 years old
16 years old
Number of minutes the participants are listening to music
Time Range
Number of Students
Less than 5 minutes a day
11
6 to 30 minutes a day
35
31 to 60 minutes a day
16
More than an hour a day
37
Total number of Participants
99 Students
The amount of time the participants dedicate
in listening to music
37
35
40
35
30
25
16
20
11
15
10
5
0
Less than 5 minutes a
day
6 to 30 minutes a day
31 to 60 minutes a
day
More than an hour a
day
The commonly used device
Device
Number of Students
MP3/MP4
20
Computer/ Desktop
53
Cellphone
82
Tablet
17
Others: Radio and Ipad
1
Chart Title
82
90
80
70
53
60
50
40
20
30
17
20
1
10
0
MP3/MP4
Computer/
Desktop
Cellphone
Tablet
Others: Radio and
Ipad
Genre
Time Range
Number of Students
Pop music
77
Rock
22
Jazz
20
Classical
42
Others: Hiphop, Love songs, Japanese
music, Rap, Country Disco, Soul and Ballad
17
Most common Genre that is being listened to
80
70
60
77
50
42
40
30
20
22
17
20
10
0
Pop music
Rock
Jazz
Classical
Others
Participants that agrees or disagrees that music has a positive effect on the
student’s mathematical performance
Music has a positive effect on the
student’s mathematical performance
Number of Students
Participants who agrees
88
Participants who disagrees
11
Total number of Participants
99 Students
Participants who agrees/disagrees that music
has a positive effect on ones Math
Performance
89%
11%
Participants who agrees
Participants who disagrees
Comparison between the speed of the first participant to solve the Math
Problem
Time
Mathayom 1 Mathayom 2 Mathayom 3 Mathayom 4
Classical Music
7.45 minutes
6.55 minutes
3.7 minutes
9.1 minutes
Rock Music
10.57 minutes
7.2 minutes
4.57 minutes
9.26 minutes
A comparison between the speed of the first participant to
complete the Math Problem
Rock Music
Classical Music
9.26
Mathayom 4
9.1
4.57
Mathayom 3
3.7
7.2
Mathayom 2
6.55
10.57
Mathayom 1
7.45
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Conclusion
From this data, it can be concluded that there is some positive relationship between
listening to music; specially rock music, and increased math scores on standardized testing.
There are many theories as to why and what effect listening to music has that it can
affect ability in these disciplines. The stimulation of multiple parts of the brain while
listening music is
thought to correlate where the spatial –temporal reasoning important to math reside,
possibly
explaining increased ability in that area. Another possible explanation could be that music,
when
listened to before performing certain cognitive tasks, ‘primes’ the brain
as it engages different parts of the brain, some of which are used for those
functions.
Additionally, there could be external factors contributing to how listening to music
improves standardized test scores. Some examples could be personality
factors of the individuals, increased socioeconomic status of those involved in music long
term
as opposed to those not involved, or increased parental or guardian involvement in the
development of the child.
All these factors contribute to the result that the brain reacts to exposure to
Music in such a way that it processes mathematical information in a more
efficient or accessible way. This conclusion can and has been statistically tested and
proved.
Bringing learning to life with music
Our team do believe that the intentional use of music in the classroom will set the
scene and learning atmosphere to enhance our teaching and learning activities. Plus, using
music for learning makes the process much more fun and interesting! Music, one of the
joys of life, can be one of the joys of learning as well. With these techniques, teachers and
as well as fellow students can orchestrate a classroom environment that is rich and
resonant-- and provide learners with a symphony of learning opportunities and a sound
education!
Music helps us learn because it will-


establish a positive learning state
create a desired atmosphere
build a sense of anticipation













energize learning activities
change brain wave states
focus concentration
increase attention
improve memory
facilitate a multisensory learning experience
release tension
enhance imagination
align groups
develop rapport
provide inspiration and motivation
add an element of fun
accentuate theme-oriented units
Recommendations:
After reviewing our conclusion, we have deduced the following to provide helpful
guidelines for our intentional use of music, especially with solving Math problems in the
classroom.
We have deduced these three areas of learning where integrating music can be
highly effective.
I.
Learning Information
Music can be used to help us remember learning experiences and
information. When information is put to rhythm and rhyme these musical
elements will provide a hook for recall.
II.
Attention, Attitude and Athmosphere
Certain music will create a positive learning atmosphere and help students to
feel welcome to participate in the learning experience. In this way it also has
great affect upon students' attitudes and motivation to learn.
III.
Personal Expression
Music is the doorway to the inner realms and the use of music during
creative and reflective times facilitates personal expression in writing, art,
movement, and a multitude of projects. Creation of musical compositions offers
a pathway to expressing personal feelings and beliefs in the language of musical
sound.
References
Arithmetic Mean Definition |
Investopedia http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/arithmeticmean.asp#ixzz4Di6nCf4y
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/graph.html#ixzz4Di9K02KK
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/pie-chart
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_metal_music
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_music
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