Math n’ Roll! A Math Project dedicated to explore the effect of music in learning inside the Classroom Created by: Nichapa Engsiridumrongkul Chayanan Chumnak Chananthida Nanaibun Advisors: Mr. Tee-Jay Laceste Tulas Siyanuson Chanthaburi School Chanthaburi Secondary Education Abstract The goal of this project was to collect and review existing data on the relationship between involvement in music and solving Math problems. Using this data to show the benefits of music involvement, an argument for keeping or increasing funding for music programs in Siyanuson School, Chanthaburi, Thailand is made. Additionally, a survey to assess the relationship in students on Siyanuson School has been constructed. Suggestions for how to conduct the survey and distribution are included. Introduction Everyone has heard that listening to Mozart makes you smarter. That is not correct. However, research has shown that listening to Mozart, playing an instrument or participating in a chorus over a long period of time can increase spatial temporal reasoning that can lead to better performance in math and science. Evidences shows that listening to Mozart changes the way the brain processes information. The importance of this relationship in students’ and teens’ development is something to be further researched and demands action on the part of schools and guardians. If a child’s development in math and science can be augmented or encouraged through involvement in music, then educators should take this to heart. This Math Research Project provides compelling evidence that a music like Classical and Rock music provides symbiotic gains in essential mathematical skills. It helps to articulate what educators have always known: Music matters! Chapter 1 Preface 1.1 Music and Mathematics: An Introduction to their Relationship Mathematics, in some form, has been in existence since ancient civilizations. The Inca, Egyptians and Babylonians all used mathematics, yet it was not studied for its own sake until Greek Antiquity (600-300 BC) [1]. Mathematics is a vast subject that has been approached, used and studied in different ways and forms for hundreds of years, by different cultures and civilizations. It is a subject that constantly changes, and is thus difﬁcult to deﬁne. In the twenty-ﬁrst century, a western view of mathematics is that it is the abstract science of shape, space, change, number, structure and quantity [2]. Mathematicians seek out new patterns and new conjecture using rigorous deduction. They use abstract thinking, logic and reasoning to problem solve. Mathematics can be studied for its own pleasure, or can be applied to explain phenomena in other disciplines. Physicists, for example, use mathematical language to describe the natural world. In comparison, music is the art or science of combining vocal or instrumental (or both) sounds to produce beauty of form and harmony [3]. It is an intrinsic aspect of human existence. Like mathematics, music has been an integral aspect of cultures throughout history. Music is an artistic way of expressing emotions and ideas, and is often used to express and portray one’s self and identity. Different forms of music are studied, performed, played and listened to. Music theory is a beautiful subject that has been studied for thousands of years. Music theory is simply the study of how music works and the properties of music. It may include the analysis of any statement, belief or conception of or about music. Often music theorists will study the language and notation of music. They seek to identify patterns and structures found in composers’ techniques, across or within genres, and of historical periods. Comparing the basic general deﬁnitions of mathematics and music implies that they are two very distinct disciplines. Mathematics is a scientiﬁc study, full of order, countability and calculability. Music, on the other hand, is thought to be artistic and expressive. The study of these two disciplines, though seemingly different, however, are linked and have been for over two thousand years. Music itself is indeed very mathematical, and mathematics is inherent to many basic ideas in music theory. Music theorists, like experts in other disciplines, use mathematics to develop, express and communicate their ideas. Mathematics can describe many phenomena and concepts in music. Mathematics explains how strings vibrate at certain frequencies, and sound waves are used to describe these mathematical frequencies. Instruments are mathematical; cellos have a particular shape to resonate with their strings in a mathematical fashion. Modern technology used to make recordings on a compact disc (CD) or a digital video disc (DVD) also rely on mathematics. The relationship between mathematics and music is complex and constantly expanding 1.2 Purpose of Mathematics Project 1.2.1 The purpose of this experiment was to determine if music affected the performance of the students doing a math problem. 1.2.2 1.3 To determine if Classical Music or Heavy Metal Rock Music would make a difference. Limitations of the Study 1.3.1 The population used in this study were the students of Siyanuson Chanthaburi School, Muang district, province of Chanthaburi Secondary comprising of a total of 99 English Program Students (EP Students). 1.3.2 The sampling used in this study are the English Program students from Mathayom 1 to Mathayom 4 of Siyanuson Chanthaburi School who are enrolled in the first semester of the first academic year of the year 2016, Muang district, Chanthaburi. The students are chosen qualitatively. 1.4 Hypothesis 1.4.1 Our first hypothesis was that students would have better math scores with music than without. 1.4.2 Our second hypothesis was that students would have better scores with classical music than with heavy metal rock music. 1.5 Definition 1.5.1 Students mean students who are studying in Mathayom English Program from level 1 to 4 in the first semester of the academic year 2016 Siyanuson Chanthaburi School, Muang district, Chanthaburi. 1.5.2 Classical Music means the playlist played (Mozart’s Instrumental Playlist) during the survey is being conducted. 1.5.3 Heavy Metal Rock Music means the rock playlist played (Metallica: Black Album) during the survey is being conducted. 1.5.4 Math Problem means a 4 set 6x6 Sudoku worksheet being distributed for the participants to solve in a given period of time while a music is being played. 1.6 Expected Results 1.6.1 To determine whether music can have a positive effect on the performance of the students in solving mathematical problems. 1.6.2 To determine on which genre does the students perform better and to use that result to for future suggestions. Chapter 2 Review of Literature To carry out our project, we need to make ourselves aware of the mathematical concepts and theories that are important to our project survey work. We are able to come up of the following concepts with the aid of our Mathematical resources we have at school and the internet. 2.1 Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is a mathematical representation of the typical value of a series of numbers, computed as the sum of all the numbers in the series divided by the count of all numbers in the series. The arithmetic mean is sometimes referred to as the average or simply as the mean. Some mathematicians and scientists prefer to use the term "arithmetic mean" to distinguish it from other measures of averaging, such as the geometric mean and the harmonic mean. 2.2 Percentage A percentage is a portion of a whole expressed as a number between 0 and 100 rather than as a fraction. All of something is 100 percent, half of it is fifty percent, none of something is zero percent. 2.3 Graphs Two-dimensional drawing showing a relationship (usually between two set of numbers) by means of a line, curve, a series of bars, or other symbols. Typically, an independent variable is represented on the horizontal line (X-axis) and an dependent variable on the vertical line (Y-axis). The perpendicular axis intersects at a point called origin, and are calibrated in the units of the quantities represented. Though a graph usually has four quadrants representing the positive and negative values of the variables, usually only the north-east quadrant is shown when the negative values do not exist or are of no interest. 2.3.1 Pie charts A graphic representation of quantitative information by means of a circle divided into sectors, in which the relative sizes of the areas (orcentral angles) of the s ectors correspond to the relative sizes orproportions of the quantities. 2.3.2 Bar charts A bar graph is a chart that uses bars to show comparisons between categories of data. The bars can be either horizontal or vertical. Bar graphs with vertical bars are sometimes called vertical bar graphs. A bar graph will have two axes. One axis will describe the types of categories being compared, and the other will have numerical values that represent the values of the data. It does not matter which axis is which, but it will determine what bar graph is shown. If the descriptions are on the horizontal axis, the bars will be oriented vertically, and if the values are along the horizontal axis, the bars will be oriented horizontally. 2.3.3 Types of Bar Graphs There are many different types of bar graphs. They are not always interchangeable. Each type will work best with a different type of comparison. The comparison you want to make will help determine which type of bar graph to use. Simple Bar Graph 2.3.4 Vertical Bar Graph A simple vertical bar graph is best when you have to compare between two or more independent variables. Each variable will relate to a fixed value. The values are positive and therefore can be fixed to the horizontal value. 2.3.5 Horizontal Bar Graph If your data has negative and positive values but is still a comparison between two or more fixed independent variables, it is best suited for a horizontal bar graph. The vertical axis can be oriented in the middle of the horizontal axis, allowing for negative and positive values to be represented. 2.4 Learning theory Early childhood educators know the value of music in their classrooms. Most will state that music contributes to the academic environment in ways that positively impact the whole child. A large and growing body of scientific research supports such anecdotal stories across the whole range of development. The research focuses on one critical aspect: the positive effect of listening to music while answering a Mathematical Problem. If we look at the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum Focal Point and Related Expectations, we can begin to see how many opportunities exist for music education directly related to mathematics. The NCTM has clearly indicated that an isolated “skill and drill” approach to mathematics is not considered the best practice. Rather, the NCTM advocates for math learning in contexts that promote other types of thinking and problem-solving at the same time. Music is certainly one such context. 2.5 Definition of Music Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound and silence. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and with vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping, and there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of theMuses"). In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form include the production of works of music (songs, tunes, symphonies, and so on), the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cagethought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."[2] 2.6 Types of Music A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. For our project, we have decided to only use Classical Music and Rock music 2.6.1 Rock Music (Heavy Metal) Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. Heavy metal lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with masculinity, aggression, and machismo. 2.6.2 Classical Music Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more accurate term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from roughly the 11th century to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the early music period, which includes the Medieval (500–1400) and the Renaissance (1400–1600) eras; the Common practice period, which includes the Baroque (1600–1750),Classical (1750–1820), and Romantic eras (1804–1910); and the 20th century (1901–2000) which includes the modern (1890–1930) that overlaps from the late 19th-century, the high modern (mid20th-century), and contemporary or postmodern (1975–2015) eras. Number of Participants Level Number of Students Mathayom 1 28 students Mathayom 2 28 students Mathayom 3 32 students Mathayom 4 11 students Total number of Participants 99 Students The number of participants from Mathayom 1 to 4 Mathayom 4 11% Mathayom 1 28% Mathayom 3 33% Mathayom 2 28% Mathayom 1 Mathayom 2 Mathayom 3 Mathayom 4 The Percentage between Male and Female Participants Gender Number of Students Male 3 male students Female 96 female students Total number of Participants 99 Students The Percentage between Male and Female Participants Female participants 97% Male participants 3% Male participants Female participants The number of participants who are Music-lovers Number of Students Music lover 99 students Not a music lover 0 Total number of Participants 99 Students The number of participants who are music lovers Not a music lover 0% Music lover 100% Music lover Not a music lover Age Group Age bracket Number of Students 11 years old 1 student 12 years old 29 students 13 years old 26 students 14 years old 31 students 15 years old 11 students 16 years old 1 student Total number of Participants 99 Students The percetage between the Age Group of the participants 26% 32% 11% 29% 1% 1% 11 years old 12 years old 13 years old 14 years old 15 years old 16 years old Number of minutes the participants are listening to music Time Range Number of Students Less than 5 minutes a day 11 6 to 30 minutes a day 35 31 to 60 minutes a day 16 More than an hour a day 37 Total number of Participants 99 Students The amount of time the participants dedicate in listening to music 37 35 40 35 30 25 16 20 11 15 10 5 0 Less than 5 minutes a day 6 to 30 minutes a day 31 to 60 minutes a day More than an hour a day The commonly used device Device Number of Students MP3/MP4 20 Computer/ Desktop 53 Cellphone 82 Tablet 17 Others: Radio and Ipad 1 Chart Title 82 90 80 70 53 60 50 40 20 30 17 20 1 10 0 MP3/MP4 Computer/ Desktop Cellphone Tablet Others: Radio and Ipad Genre Time Range Number of Students Pop music 77 Rock 22 Jazz 20 Classical 42 Others: Hiphop, Love songs, Japanese music, Rap, Country Disco, Soul and Ballad 17 Most common Genre that is being listened to 80 70 60 77 50 42 40 30 20 22 17 20 10 0 Pop music Rock Jazz Classical Others Participants that agrees or disagrees that music has a positive effect on the student’s mathematical performance Music has a positive effect on the student’s mathematical performance Number of Students Participants who agrees 88 Participants who disagrees 11 Total number of Participants 99 Students Participants who agrees/disagrees that music has a positive effect on ones Math Performance 89% 11% Participants who agrees Participants who disagrees Comparison between the speed of the first participant to solve the Math Problem Time Mathayom 1 Mathayom 2 Mathayom 3 Mathayom 4 Classical Music 7.45 minutes 6.55 minutes 3.7 minutes 9.1 minutes Rock Music 10.57 minutes 7.2 minutes 4.57 minutes 9.26 minutes A comparison between the speed of the first participant to complete the Math Problem Rock Music Classical Music 9.26 Mathayom 4 9.1 4.57 Mathayom 3 3.7 7.2 Mathayom 2 6.55 10.57 Mathayom 1 7.45 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Conclusion From this data, it can be concluded that there is some positive relationship between listening to music; specially rock music, and increased math scores on standardized testing. There are many theories as to why and what effect listening to music has that it can affect ability in these disciplines. The stimulation of multiple parts of the brain while listening music is thought to correlate where the spatial –temporal reasoning important to math reside, possibly explaining increased ability in that area. Another possible explanation could be that music, when listened to before performing certain cognitive tasks, ‘primes’ the brain as it engages different parts of the brain, some of which are used for those functions. Additionally, there could be external factors contributing to how listening to music improves standardized test scores. Some examples could be personality factors of the individuals, increased socioeconomic status of those involved in music long term as opposed to those not involved, or increased parental or guardian involvement in the development of the child. All these factors contribute to the result that the brain reacts to exposure to Music in such a way that it processes mathematical information in a more efficient or accessible way. This conclusion can and has been statistically tested and proved. Bringing learning to life with music Our team do believe that the intentional use of music in the classroom will set the scene and learning atmosphere to enhance our teaching and learning activities. Plus, using music for learning makes the process much more fun and interesting! Music, one of the joys of life, can be one of the joys of learning as well. With these techniques, teachers and as well as fellow students can orchestrate a classroom environment that is rich and resonant-- and provide learners with a symphony of learning opportunities and a sound education! Music helps us learn because it will- establish a positive learning state create a desired atmosphere build a sense of anticipation energize learning activities change brain wave states focus concentration increase attention improve memory facilitate a multisensory learning experience release tension enhance imagination align groups develop rapport provide inspiration and motivation add an element of fun accentuate theme-oriented units Recommendations: After reviewing our conclusion, we have deduced the following to provide helpful guidelines for our intentional use of music, especially with solving Math problems in the classroom. We have deduced these three areas of learning where integrating music can be highly effective. I. Learning Information Music can be used to help us remember learning experiences and information. When information is put to rhythm and rhyme these musical elements will provide a hook for recall. II. Attention, Attitude and Athmosphere Certain music will create a positive learning atmosphere and help students to feel welcome to participate in the learning experience. In this way it also has great affect upon students' attitudes and motivation to learn. III. Personal Expression Music is the doorway to the inner realms and the use of music during creative and reflective times facilitates personal expression in writing, art, movement, and a multitude of projects. Creation of musical compositions offers a pathway to expressing personal feelings and beliefs in the language of musical sound. References Arithmetic Mean Definition | Investopedia http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/arithmeticmean.asp#ixzz4Di6nCf4y http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/graph.html#ixzz4Di9K02KK http://www.dictionary.com/browse/pie-chart https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy_metal_music https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_music