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Civilization

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Civilization
By Dr. OSAMA TAHA (PhD)
The Concept of Civilization
Introduction:
Civilization is an outcome of strong culture and religion of
the society. Strong culture and religion play an important role
because they give any society its strong identity leading other
small societies to join it. To know how strong a civilization is,
we consider the quality of life: behavior, art, ritual practices,
language, habits and food.
The Concept of Civilization:
The word civilization comes from the Latin word 'civitatis'
meaning state or city. Civilization refers to a number of
meanings: (1) an advanced state of intellectual, and, material
development in human society marked by use of recordingkeeping (e.g. writing) and the appearance of complex political
and social institution; (2) a particular type of developed society;
(3) modern society; (4) the act of civilizing; (5) cultural or
intellectual refinement.
Various Definitions of Civilization:
 Civilization is a society in an advanced state of social
development (e.g. with complex legal and political and
religious organizations).
 Civilization is a culture of a particular society at a
particular time and place.
 Civilization is refinement: the quality of excellence in
thought, manners and taste.
The Meaning of the Word Civilization:
The word civilization refers to a condition of relative
advancement in human society. A civilized society is usually
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marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of
writing, and the appearance of complex political and social
institution (American Heritage English Dictionary). Culture
precedes civilization. A human society will have distinct
meaning systems, including language and religious systems,
before these systems become institutionalized politically and
socially.
The Synonyms and Antonyms of Civilization:
The synonyms of civilization include advancement,
civility, cultivation, culture, development, education, elevation,
enlightenment, progress and refinement.
The antonyms of civilization include barbarism, savagery,
wilderness and wildness.
Nineteenth century English anthropologist E.B. Tylor
defined civilization as life in cities that is organized by
government and facilitated by scribes (which means the use of
writing).
Factors of the Success of Civilization:
The factors of the success of human civilization include:
religion, the desire to produce and the joy in production, the
balance between the material and the spiritual and the human
resources. The first factor of success is religion. It is the vital
force which makes our communities. Throughout history
religion was a component of any civilization. Without religion,
there would have never been any civilization.
The second factor is industry. It led to the invention of the
cotton gin, the sewing machine, the printing press, the steam
engine, etc. In fact, it is the desire to produce and the joy in
production which changed the face of the earth. The third factor
is the balance between the material and the spiritual. It is the
human soul upon which any material progress depends. The
greatest resources are the human resources. Prosperity is the
result of righteousness rather than of material things.
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