1. How would you define “organization development”? a. Organization development comprises the long-range efforts and programs aimed at improving an organization’s ability to survive by changing its problem-solving and renewal processes. Organization development involves moving toward an adaptive organization and achieving corporate excellence by integrating the desires of individuals for growth and development with organizational goals. Organization development efforts are planned, systematic approaches to change. They involve changes to the total organization or to relatively large segments of it. Organization development is not a micro approach to change, is not any single technique, does not include random or ad hoc changes, and is not exclusively aimed at raising oral or attitudes. Organization development is also an emerging discipline aimed at improving the effectiveness of the organization and its members by means of a systematic change program. 2. How does OD differ from a single-change technique such as management training? a. Single-change techniques such as management training differ from OD because OD is not a micro approach to change. Management development, for example, is aimed at changing individual behavior, whereas OD is focused on the macro goal of developing an organization-wide improvement in managerial style. OD is not a single technique but uses many different techniques, such as total quality management or job enrichment, and none of them by itself represents the OD discipline. 4. Explain the difference between pivotal and peripheral norms. a. Norms are generally enforced only for the behaviors viewed as most important by most group members. Norms essential to accomplishing the organization’s objectives are call pivotal norms. Norms that support and contribute to the pivotal norms but are not essential to the organization’s objectives are called peripheral norms. Pivotal and peripheral norms constantly confront individuals in an organization, and they must decide whether or not to conform. 5. Explain three basic responses an individual may have to socialization. a. A new member may choose to conform to all the norms of the organization, resulting in uniformity of behavior and complete acceptance of organizational values. This conformity may result in stagnation, non-responsiveness, and a loss of creativeness. At the other extreme, a new member may choose to rebel, to reject all the values, or to leave the organization altogether. A less obvious alternative is for the new members to accept the pivotal norms and seriously question the peripheral norms, which can be termed creative individualism. This is the ideal behavior for a healthy and effective organization, but it is often difficult for a newcomer to correctly determine which norms are peripheral and which are pivotal. 1. What is the implication of organization renewal for today’s organizations? a. Organizational renewal is important. The organization must continuously adapt to its environment and without renewal, management cannot maintain excellence. 2. 3. 4. 5. Organizational renewal may be defined as an ongoing process of building innovation and adaptation into the organization. Because the environment is composed of systems outside the immediate influence of the organization, the organization must be composed of systems outside the immediate influence of the organization; the organization must adapt itself to these forces by introduction internal changes or renew itself. Contrast the differences between a stable and a hyper turbulent environment. a. A stable environment is characterized by unchanging basic products and services, a static level of competition, a low level of technological innovation, a formalized and centralized structure, and a slow, steady rate of growth. Such an environment remains relatively stable over long periods. In contrast, a hyperturbulent environment, on the other hand, is characterized by rapidly changing product lines, an increasing and changing set of competitors, rapid and continual technological innovation, and rapid market growth. Compare and contrast the four types of management orientations used in relating to the environment. a. There are four types of management orientations used in relating to the environment. They include Sluggish-Thermostat Management, Satisficing Management, Reactive Management, and Renewing/Transformation Management. Sluggish Management refers to a managerial style based on low risk, with formalized procedures and a high degree of structure and control. This type of management has a stable environment and low adaptation. On the contrast the Satisficing Management is a term related to the word “satisfactory,” which is management that is adequate and average. Satisficing Management is a stable environment and has high adaptation. Reactive Management refers to te style of reacting to a stimulus after conditions in the environment have changed. Reactive Management is a hyperturbulent Environment with low adaptation. In comparison, the last management type is Renewing/Transformational Management which refers to introducing change to deal with future conditions before these conditions actually occur. This Renewing/Transformational Management style unlike the rest has a hyperturbulent environment but high adaptation. Using companies who compete with one another (for example, Apple and Microsoft), position them on the adaptive orientation model in Figure 2.2. Support your position. a. Apple and Microsoft are both Renewing/Transformational Management companies given they both have a hyperturbulent environment and high adaption qualities. Both organizations exist in this hyperturbulent environment so they not only respond to change, they must proactively take advantage of new opportunities and innovation. They rapidly do this because the other company is rapidly doing the same thing and if they don’t compete constantly one could take the lead and the effects could be critical to the livelihood of the other company. Explain a sociotechnical system and its five components. a. A sociotechnical system is coordinated social and technical activities. As the social and technical functions are interdependent, they need to be jointly optimized to provide the best outcome for an organization. The sociotechnical system has five primary components. The first component is the goals and values subsystem. This is the basic mission and vision of the organization. The second component ins a sociotechnical system is the technical subsystem which includes the primary functions, activities, and operations, including the techniques and equipment, used to produce the output of the system. The third component is the structural subsystem that is the formal design, policies, and procedures. The fourth component is the psychosocial subsystem (culture) which is the network of social relationships and behavioral patterns of members, such as norms, roles, and communications. The final and fifth component is the managerial subsystem which spans the entire organization by directing, organizing, and coordination all activities toward the basic mission. 6. What lessons can future shock provide for organizations? a. Lessons from future shock can provide insight for organizations through managers developing new organizational models and find novel ways of motivating employees. Each day brings a new set of conditions, and internal realignment is often required. Product and market strategies need to be more flexible and must depend upon the ability of a company to recognize the need for change. Other lessons and changes in finance, economics, technology, and social values tend to come up and are dealt with when future shock comes to an organization.