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1. How would you define “organization development”?
a. Organization development comprises the long-range efforts and programs aimed at
improving an organization’s ability to survive by changing its problem-solving and
renewal processes. Organization development involves moving toward an adaptive
organization and achieving corporate excellence by integrating the desires of individuals
for growth and development with organizational goals. Organization development
efforts are planned, systematic approaches to change. They involve changes to the total
organization or to relatively large segments of it. Organization development is not a
micro approach to change, is not any single technique, does not include random or ad
hoc changes, and is not exclusively aimed at raising oral or attitudes. Organization
development is also an emerging discipline aimed at improving the effectiveness of the
organization and its members by means of a systematic change program.
2. How does OD differ from a single-change technique such as management training?
a. Single-change techniques such as management training differ from OD because OD is
not a micro approach to change. Management development, for example, is aimed at
changing individual behavior, whereas OD is focused on the macro goal of developing an
organization-wide improvement in managerial style. OD is not a single technique but
uses many different techniques, such as total quality management or job enrichment,
and none of them by itself represents the OD discipline.
4. Explain the difference between pivotal and peripheral norms.
a. Norms are generally enforced only for the behaviors viewed as most important by most
group members. Norms essential to accomplishing the organization’s objectives are call
pivotal norms. Norms that support and contribute to the pivotal norms but are not
essential to the organization’s objectives are called peripheral norms. Pivotal and
peripheral norms constantly confront individuals in an organization, and they must
decide whether or not to conform.
5. Explain three basic responses an individual may have to socialization.
a. A new member may choose to conform to all the norms of the organization, resulting in
uniformity of behavior and complete acceptance of organizational values. This
conformity may result in stagnation, non-responsiveness, and a loss of creativeness. At
the other extreme, a new member may choose to rebel, to reject all the values, or to
leave the organization altogether. A less obvious alternative is for the new members to
accept the pivotal norms and seriously question the peripheral norms, which can be
termed creative individualism. This is the ideal behavior for a healthy and effective
organization, but it is often difficult for a newcomer to correctly determine which norms
are peripheral and which are pivotal.
1. What is the implication of organization renewal for today’s organizations?
a. Organizational renewal is important. The organization must continuously adapt to its
environment and without renewal, management cannot maintain excellence.
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Organizational renewal may be defined as an ongoing process of building innovation
and adaptation into the organization. Because the environment is composed of systems
outside the immediate influence of the organization, the organization must be
composed of systems outside the immediate influence of the organization; the
organization must adapt itself to these forces by introduction internal changes or renew
itself.
Contrast the differences between a stable and a hyper turbulent environment.
a. A stable environment is characterized by unchanging basic products and services, a
static level of competition, a low level of technological innovation, a formalized and
centralized structure, and a slow, steady rate of growth. Such an environment remains
relatively stable over long periods. In contrast, a hyperturbulent environment, on the
other hand, is characterized by rapidly changing product lines, an increasing and
changing set of competitors, rapid and continual technological innovation, and rapid
market growth.
Compare and contrast the four types of management orientations used in relating to the
environment.
a. There are four types of management orientations used in relating to the environment.
They include Sluggish-Thermostat Management, Satisficing Management, Reactive
Management, and Renewing/Transformation Management. Sluggish Management
refers to a managerial style based on low risk, with formalized procedures and a high
degree of structure and control. This type of management has a stable environment and
low adaptation. On the contrast the Satisficing Management is a term related to the
word “satisfactory,” which is management that is adequate and average. Satisficing
Management is a stable environment and has high adaptation. Reactive Management
refers to te style of reacting to a stimulus after conditions in the environment have
changed. Reactive Management is a hyperturbulent Environment with low adaptation.
In comparison, the last management type is Renewing/Transformational Management
which refers to introducing change to deal with future conditions before these
conditions actually occur. This Renewing/Transformational Management style unlike the
rest has a hyperturbulent environment but high adaptation.
Using companies who compete with one another (for example, Apple and Microsoft), position
them on the adaptive orientation model in Figure 2.2. Support your position.
a. Apple and Microsoft are both Renewing/Transformational Management companies
given they both have a hyperturbulent environment and high adaption qualities. Both
organizations exist in this hyperturbulent environment so they not only respond to
change, they must proactively take advantage of new opportunities and innovation.
They rapidly do this because the other company is rapidly doing the same thing and if
they don’t compete constantly one could take the lead and the effects could be critical
to the livelihood of the other company.
Explain a sociotechnical system and its five components.
a. A sociotechnical system is coordinated social and technical activities. As the social and
technical functions are interdependent, they need to be jointly optimized to provide the
best outcome for an organization. The sociotechnical system has five primary
components. The first component is the goals and values subsystem. This is the basic
mission and vision of the organization. The second component ins a sociotechnical
system is the technical subsystem which includes the primary functions, activities, and
operations, including the techniques and equipment, used to produce the output of the
system. The third component is the structural subsystem that is the formal design,
policies, and procedures. The fourth component is the psychosocial subsystem (culture)
which is the network of social relationships and behavioral patterns of members, such
as norms, roles, and communications. The final and fifth component is the managerial
subsystem which spans the entire organization by directing, organizing, and
coordination all activities toward the basic mission.
6. What lessons can future shock provide for organizations?
a. Lessons from future shock can provide insight for organizations through managers
developing new organizational models and find novel ways of motivating employees.
Each day brings a new set of conditions, and internal realignment is often required.
Product and market strategies need to be more flexible and must depend upon the
ability of a company to recognize the need for change. Other lessons and changes in
finance, economics, technology, and social values tend to come up and are dealt with
when future shock comes to an organization.