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explanation, example, data

I. Select your Example
A university should spend a lot of money on social
activities to attract good students.
Example: During the orientation week, I worked
as a volunteer to show the way to new students
and parents ...
I. Select Your Example
She once worked with her group on a history
assignment on WW2
I. Select your Example
• If you are a college student, don't interview your roommate.
With all due respect for what terrific roommates you've got,
they probably don't have much to say that the rest of us want
to hear. To learn the craft of nonfiction you must push
yourself out into the real world -- your town or your city or
your country... Choose as your subject someone whose job is
so important, or so interesting, or so unusual that the average
reader would want to read about that person.
-- On Writing Well (P 104)
I. Select Your Example - scientists
• Body 1: When a Sweden chemist applied heat on the mixture
of manganese(IV) dioxide and hydrochloric acid, he
confirmed the existence of chlorine gas. However, he was
not the person who invented the gas chamber and used the
chlorine gas to wipe out millions of Jews during the
Holocause. ... Nazis...
• Body 2: The more fundamental their discovery is, the more
uncertainty there is. For example, when Einstein discovered
the formula E=mc^2, he might have never expected ...
I. Select Your Example
The way people dress is a reflection of their personality
and character.
EG: “NP”
II. Representing America and American core value
• Not only is man the only creature capable of significantly
improving the physical environment, he is also unique in his
capacity to destroy it. As a litterbug he throws beer cans in to
the Grand Canyon while his kids decorate Highway 91 with
discarded candy wrappers. His factories discharge a neverending stream of industrial waste in to the Ohio and
Mississippi and have created patches of ‘dead water’ in Lake
Erie. Automobiles are the chief culprits in producing smog in
Los Angeles while offshore oil drilling have been guilty of
polluting shorelines in the Gulf of Mexico and Nova Scotia.
II. Representing America and American core value
Constructing your personalized pool of examples
Familiar to Americans and better not over-used in TOEFL
E.G. Curry > James > Kobe (Basketball stars)
Navajo > Obama (ethnic groups)
II. Representing America and American core
• People who stay in villages can gain the sense of
achievement and happiness by feeding healthy
fowls or by building a new house near the lake.
•enjoying the tranquility and spiritual
transcendence as Emerson and Thoreau once did
beside the Walden Pond.
III. Details > general information
• I was lucky enough to be put in a group with four
great individuals, but the problem was that
everybody has a different idea of how we should
do the project. We were all trying to decide the
main topic of the project. Thus, we spent the first
week to figure out the topic of our team members
while other teams were making plans and
III. Details > general information
• ... For example, one of my friends and her
family went to Beijing last summer and
visited the Palace Museum. All they wanted
to see was a painting painted by a painter
they are interested in, and that is the only
reason why they visit the Palace Museum.
III. Details > general information
One of my relatives
• my soon-to-be twelfth-grade cousin
Go to a good university
• attend a prestigious medical school (school name)
Failed an exam
• failed his midterm analogy exam
例:I have to shell out a ridiculous amount of
the money- up to $8- for a ticket. That entitles
me to sit while my shoes seal themselves to a
sticky floor coated with spilled soda, bubble
gum, and crushed Raisinets.
John Langan, College Writing Skills
例:Firstly, digital books are significantly cheaper than
paper books.
Paper, printing, and transportation all go into the
costs of paper-based books. In contrast, digital
books do not have these costs at all. For instance,
the paperback version of Harry Potter sells for 15
dollars, while readers can download its PDF or Doc
version to their iPads or Kindles for only half the
3. 举例子:如何具体化
“We sat at a picnic table
on the banks of the lake,
eating boiled eggs with
kofta, meatballs and
pickles wrapped in naan.”
(Khaled Hosseini, The Kite
III. Details > general information
• In 2013, an asteroid hit Russia countryside and caused great
damage. What if it landed in metropolitan like New York,
London or Shanghai? Some asteroids are large enough to
destroy the whole civilization we know.
• A lake near Russia's Ural mountains
• More than 1,200 people have been injured
• 985 people had sought medical treatment, including 204
• unleashing a tremendous shock wave that smashed windows,
collapsed roofs
III. Details > general information
• Admittedly, friends with similar salary or saving may
have more common in their daily lives and activities.
However, if two people have different interest and
thoughts about life, how could they become good
friends just because of their similarity on money saving.
In contrast, if two persons have many similar points of
view on thing and share a lot in their hobbies, the
difference of their saving cannot stop them to become
good friends. It is things like interest influences the
friendship of two people instead of money.
III. Details > general information
• Admittedly, two people will more easily become
friends when they are in similar situations, which
imply similar amount of money. They may
become friends because they may rely on each
other to support them financially. However, the
real and lasting friendship is usually built on
their common passions or personalities instead
of a mutual financial support.
• 56
• 1.What we did yesterday afternoon was lots of
• The trip to the mall and the ride on the roller
coaster were lots of fun.
• 2. I have strong feelings about the attitude you
are expressing on that topic.
• I feel very worried when I hear how stubbornly
you defend the bullies who tease children.
• 3.That is my favorite performer singing that song
on the radio.
• That is my favorite singer, Miley Cyrus, singing
"See You Again" on the radio.
To begin with, teachers may have
prejudicial views to those social or
political events, which will mislead
students. Such views may prevent
students from grabbing the truth. Take
my history teacher in junior school as an
When I was in grade nine, I was crazily interested in the
history classes and was eager to know every detail about it,
especially some great achievements of the great people. I
remembered that in one class, Mr. Jackson, my history
teacher, mentioned Chairman Mao Zedong, the first
chairman of People’s Republic of China.
Mr. Jackson told us numerous stories
about Chairman Mao and concluded
to us that he was such a perfect
leader that he had hardly made any
mistakes throughout his entire life. As
I was so fond of Mr. Jackson’s classes,
I believed him completely.
However, as I grew older and read more books about
Chairman Mao, I realized that what Mr. Jackson told me is not
totally true- Chairman Mao was indeed a great military and
political leader, but great as he was, he actually made a few
mistakes in his late years, such as starting the Cultural
Revolution, which persecuted thousands of innocent people.
4. 个人事例的写法
As Mr. Jackson
admired Chairman
Mao very much,
he inserted his
own political views on us, which is
obviously a prejudicial perspective.
• Compared with parents, other factors can play
bigger roles in children’s education. School
teachers can teach children more effectively
than their parents. It is because teachers have
more knowledge, time and training.
1 举一例——进行详细分析 (推荐)
2 举多例——进行简略分析
Should we treat pets like family members?
• Besides the friendship that children enjoy with animals, pets
can substitute for the absence of other family members.
Sometimes a couple who is unable to have children will
adopt pets and treat them like babies. They shower the love
on their cats that they might have provided a child, and
receive affection and companionship in return. Many people
who are living alone enjoy the companionship of a pet
instead of loved ones who are at a distance or have passed
away. The pet becomes a family member for these people
and deserves the same kind of treatment that a family
member would receive. Old people...