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AMIRA 2013 Annual Report

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ANNUAL REPORT
2012–2013
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
2
ACHIEVEMENT
THROUGH LEADERSHIP
AND COLLABORATION
AMIRA International Limited
ABN: 60 176 687 975 ACN: 004 448 266
AGM Notification
The AMIRA International Limited Annual General Meeting will be held on Wednesday
4 December 2013 at 8:30am at MMG, 28 Freshwater Place, Southbank, Victoria.
Our Vision
AMIRA International is a member-driven resources industry organisation that is an
essential part of our Member’s search for innovative solutions that add value.
Our Mission
We provide access for our Members to valued solutions through connecting research
infrastructure to the needs of our Members and supporting that infrastructure’s growth.
Our Values
Zero Harm: To ourselves, others and the environment
Creativity: The essences of innovation
Excellence: The standard we set for ourselves in all we do
Ethical Behaviour: We demonstrate integrity, transparency and sensitivity
in all our activities
Collaboration: We respect cultural and individual differences of all participants
and work together to achieve mutually rewarding results.
Key Strategies
Building Relationships: Nurturing and developing the global resources industry
network for our Members and the research community
Delivering Value: Maximise the benefit of our services to all our stakeholders
Success Through People: Ensuring attraction and retention of energetic talented people
Cover image: Flinders Rangers (Provided by Scarlett Blewett)
This image: Kagbeni, Nepal (Provided by Scarlett Blewett)
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
3
Contents
Overview
4
Chairman’s Report
6
Board Of Directors
8
Managing Director’s
Report
10
Organisation Chart
12
Project Statistics
14
2012 – 2013
Member Listing
15
2012 – 2013
Researcher Listing
16
Projects Index
19
Data Metallogenica
48
AMIRA Offices
Back Cover
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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OVERVIEW
AMIRA International is a member based organisation of mineral
companies and suppliers, which develops, brokers and facilitates
collaborative research projects.
Our business platform is to strengthen the businesses of our
members by assisting their development and uptake of leading
edge science and technology by:
• Creating sponsor teams of member companies to share the
costs and the benefits of selected research projects
• Working with the best researchers around the world
• Nurturing and sustaining research resources for industry benefit
• Formally representing the industry in areas important to our
members
• Providing a forum for industry to meet, network and cooperate in
areas of mutual interest
While AMIRA International does not in general carry out research
itself, we broker collaborative projects between industry and worldleading researchers.
Our projects are funded by joint sponsorship from member
companies. However we also leverage these funds by applying
for government grants where appropriate. Our main role is to
identify, develop and oversee these projects to ensure that project
outcomes match sponsors expectations.
The Project Portfolio currently encompasses 25 projects with about:
• AU$55 million portfolio value
• AU$10 million new industry funds
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
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AMIRA INTERNATIONAL IS
AN INDEPENDENT MEMBER
BASED ORGANISATION
OF MINERAL COMPANIES
AND SUPPLIERS, CREATED
TO IDENTIFY, DEVELOP,
BROKER AND OVERSEE
COLLABORATIVE MULTICOMPANY RESEARCH
PROJECTS THAT BENEFIT
OUR MEMBERS.
Lolotoi Metamorphic Complex, Manatuto District, East Timor (Provided by Oskar Lindenmayer)
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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CHAIRMAN’S
REPORT
This last year has been a difficult year for the mining industry.
Companies continue to review their research spend as they seek
to extract more value from their assets. Although this brings
challenges to AMIRA and its research partners, it also presents
an opportunity for increased industry-wide collaboration, that it
should facilitate.
We will continue to
work with our many
research partners
around the world,
whilst at the same
time developing new
partnerships, to ensure
that the AMIRA team
develop world-class
research to address
the challenges of our
members.
In line with its members AMIRA has instituted cost control
measures during the year; these have ensured a positive
outcome for the fourth successive year. Also during the year
we reached a significant milestone with a total of 696 projects
successfully completed since 1960. These projects would
not have been possible without the energy, enthusiasm and
dedication of AMIRA’s staff over the years and the world class
research institutions that we have partnered with. AMIRA’s
contribution and the vision of its founders was a cornerstone
in advancing the Australian mining industry into a position of
world leadership in many areas and now in serving its members
throughout the world as well as assisting to build and nurture
research capacity where needed.
Despite the general slump in commodity prices during the year,
it is pleasing to see that companies continued to invest in
collaborative research. This is evidenced by twelve companies
supporting the continuing project series P420E Gold Processing
Technology, which commenced in April 2013, and the support
for the project P1087 Integrated Tailings Management which also
commenced during the year.
On the strategic front, during the year AMIRA embarked on a
series of developments. One such is AMIRA’s Low Grade Copper
Program aimed at changing the economic viability of low grade
ore resources. While the program has an initial copper focus,
the projects have significant application potential to other
commodities including nickel, uranium and gold.
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
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Membership numbers have held reasonably steady
despite the difficult industry situation. At the end
of the financial year we had a total of 94 members
one less than the previous year. This comes after
some 45% growth in membership since 2009. A
significant part of the growth has come from the
mining equipment, technology and services sector
and which currently make up some 35% of the
total membership.
During the year, and for the first time, a special
Supplier Member only forum was convened. The
forum was convoked in recognition of the important
role this sector plays in many AMIRA projects.
The forum provided an important opportunity for
members to discuss issues around engagement
and participation in projects. Several important
messages came out of the forum which I am
pleased to say we are already acting on.
We intend to hold the forum annually.
During the year the Board composition changed
as we bid farewell and express appreciation for
their service to Mr Renato Costa (Vale), Dr Natalia
Streltsova (Vale), Dr Juan Carlos Salas (AMSA),
Mr Mick Henderson (Russell Mineral Equipment),
Mr Marcelo Bastos (MMG), Mr Kent Hoots (Boart
Longyear) and Mr Laurie Stonehouse (Alcoa).
This was Mr Stonehouse’s second stint on the Board
having served previously between 2002 and 2005.
Mr Storehouse has retired from Alcoa and on behalf
of the Board and AMIRA we thank him for his service
and wish him well for the future.
We welcome Mr Gustavo Gomez (MMG), Mr Alan
Muir (AngloGold Ashanti) and Dr John Russell
(Russell Mineral Equipment) to the Board.
AMIRA continues to enjoy the support of its
members through their representation on the
Board. We are grateful to Board members for
volunteering their valuable time.
We will continue to work with our many research
partners around the world, whilst at the same
time developing new partnerships, to ensure that
the AMIRA team develop world-class research to
address the challenges of our members.
Neville Plint
Chairman of the Board
AMIRA International Limited
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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BOARD
OF DIRECTORS
As at 30 June 2013
Neville Plint
Chairman
Aubrey Paverd
Vice - Chairman
Joe Pease
Peter Kondos
Marinus Du Plessis
Ian Sandl
Peter Lilly
Gustavo Gomes
Alan Muir
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
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Walter Valery
Rick Gilbert
Laurie Stonehouse
Dave Bentley
John Russell
Joe Cucuzza
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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MANAGING
DIRECTOR’S
REPORT
There are challenging
times ahead but with
the dedicated and
enthusiastic people
that we have in
AMIRA, the portfolio
of projects that we are
developing along with
the partnerships that
we have cultivated
in the research
community, AMIRA is
well positioned to serve
its members through
this cyclic downturn
and beyond.
During the year two major initiatives commenced. P420E
Gold Processing Technology and P1087 Integrated Tailings
Management. The former is the most recent in a series of
AMIRA gold research projects which have operated almost
continuously since 1983, commencing with P173 Carbon-in-Pulp
Technology – properties of activated carbon fouling, regeneration
(1984-86) at Murdoch University. The first project in the
P420 series started in March 1994 led by Dr Steve la Brooy
followed by Prof Ian Ritchie then with the A J Parker Cooperative
Research Centre. Murdoch University and CSIRO were involved
in this project through the CRC with in-kind contributions from
BRGM, University of Laval and Curtin University. Subsequently
Bill Staunton became manager of P420A project in 1997 and
remained leader for the successive projects until he stepped
down a year and a half ago. The project is now led by Prof.
Jacques Eksteen.
Interest in reducing the technical uncertainty around paste and
thickened tailings technologies, led to nine companies, three
being suppliers, supporting the new project P1087 Integrated
Tailings Management. The project is a collaboration between
CSIRO, University of WA, Monash University and ATC Williams
Pty Ltd. The latter is a private company with global expertise in
mine tailings storage and management. This project is a good
example of a supplier being directly involved with the research
program.
Work on a number of key strategic initiatives commenced during
the year. One that I wish to highlight is the Low Grade Copper
Program. This program has been developed in response to the:
• large, and growing, inventory of low grade copper resources
that fall below the cut-off grade for conventional concentrate
production, and
• relatively poor metal recovery from heap leaching, particularly
for primary sulphide minerals such as chalcopyrite.
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
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It is our view that successful development and
deployment of new technology in this area will
generate huge economic impact by making
extraction of low grade copper resources viable.
The Low Grade Copper Program comprises four
related projects: Heap leach scale-up for liquid
and gas dispersion; Continuous saturated coarse
particle (Vat) leaching; In-situ fracture stimulation
and leaching; and Micro-capsule leaching.
Proposals were also circulated on several important
new and extension projects. These include: P1031
Uranium, copper and precious metals in oxidising
sedimentary basins: controls on ore formation
and location; P934B West African Exploration
Initiative Stage 3; P705C Improving base metal
electrowinning; and P933B Long-Term Acid Rock and
Tailings Drainage Mitigation through Source Control.
We expect these projects to attract support and
start in the coming year.
Like many of our members during the year we
reviewed expenditures and implemented cost
control initiatives which helped us achieve a
modest surplus. For example, the finance team
was re-structured following the implementation
of a cloud based enterprise resource planning
software resulting in significant efficiencies and
cost reductions. It is worth noting that this was the
first time in many years that an operational surplus
was achieved without the significant contribution of
the upward revaluation of investments. This result
has further strengthened the balance sheet and will
help position AMIRA well in the face of uncertain
economic winds.
This year saw new staff joining AMIRA. We
welcomed Dr Chris du Plessis as Program Manager
– Extractive Metallurgy/Mineral Processing based
in Perth. Chris brings significant expertise in
the metallurgical area as well as energy and
enthusiasm. Chris also manages the Strategic
Business Development Group. Dr Robert
Gee was appointed as a part time consultant
Program Manager in January based in Newcastle.
Unfortunately, Robert accepted a full time position
at ANSTO in June. We wish Robert all the very best
in his new position and look forward cultivating new
partnerships together.
There are challenging times ahead but with the
dedicated and enthusiastic people that we have
in AMIRA, the portfolio of projects that we are
developing along with the partnerships that we
have cultivated in the research community, AMIRA
is well positioned to serve its members through
this cyclic downturn and beyond.
Joe Cucuzza
Managing Director
AMIRA International Limited
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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Organisation
CHART
Joe Cucuzza
Managing Director
Katie Legge
Executive Assistant
Finance, HR & Legal
IT & Communications
Mineral Processing & Extractive Metallurgy
Daniel Vertes
Financial Controller, HR Manager
& Company Secretary
Imran Hussain
Information & Communications Technology Manager
Chris Ward
Program Director
Yen Woo
Finance Officer
Ileana Inocencio
Project Support Officer
Donna Copolov
Project Support Officer
Ann Woolley
Project Support Officer
(South Africa)
Mary Ann Tirona
Project Support Officer
Jacqueline Russell
Project Support Officer
(Chile)
Terry Braden
Program Manager & North
America Regional Manager
Bernard Xu
Assistant Program
Manager
Gray Bailey
Program Manager
Enrique Carretero
Program Manager & Latin
America Regional Manager
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
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Strategic Business Development
Exploration, Mining & Sustainability
Advisors & Consultants
Chris du Plessis
Manager Strategic Business Development
& Program Manager
Vacant
Program Director
Ray Shaw
Chief
Technology Advisor
Olga Verezub
Strategic Business
Development Coordinator
Alan Goode
Director Data
Metallogenica
Matthew Dalziel
Program Manager
Philip McInerney
Consultant Program
Manager
Adele Seymon
Program Manager
Kriba Reddy
Program Manager &
Africa Regional Manager
Edmundo Tulcanaza
Consultant Program
Manager
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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Project
Statistics
As at 30 June 2013
2013
2012
AU$000
AU$000
13,016
13,146
2,472
2,385
22,122
22,934
6,521
8,195
-
1,134
Multi-Disciplinary
10,704
11,370
TOTAL
54,835
59,164
3,154
4,235
522
661
Mineral Processing
4,344
3,559
Extractive Metallurgy
1,711
1,956
165
413
2,785
2,371
12,681
13,195
Universities
6,460
6,320
CSIRO
2,634
1,092
CRC
2,587
4,875
Other
1,000
907
12,681
13,194
TOTAL RESEARCH COMMITMENT
Geoscience
Mine Engineering
Mineral Processing
Extractive Metallurgy
Sustainability
ANNUAL RESEARCH SPENDING (BY MARKET)
Geoscience
Mine Engineering
Sustainability
Multi Disciplinary
TOTAL
ANNUAL RESEARCH SPENDING (BY RESEARCHER TYPE)
TOTAL
Project Numbers
Contracts in progress
Contracts commenced and additional sponsors
Contracts Completed
Number
Number
25
54,835
31
59,164
9
9,708
7
19,488
11
14,037
8
27,600
MEMBERSHIP
Members
94
95
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
2012 – 2013
MEMBER
LISTING
15
Producers
Alcoa Inc
Fortescue Metals Group
Newcrest Mining Limited
Anglo American Platinum Limited
Freeport McMoRan Mining Company
Newmont Australia Limited
AngloGold Ashanti Limited
GFL Mining Services Limited
Antofagasta Minerals S.A.
Northern Star Resources Ltd
Glencore Xstrata plc
Auginish Alumina Limited
OZ Minerals Limited
Golden Star Resources Ltd
Avocet Mining plc
Gryphon Minerals Limited
Randgold Resources Limited
Barrick Gold Corporation
BHP Billiton Limited
Boliden Minerals AB
Cameco Corporation
Cliffs Asia Pacific Iron Ore Pty Ltd
Codelco
Compania de Minas Buenaventura
S.A.A.
Harmony Gold Mining Company Ltd
Hydro Aluminium AS
Impala Platinum Ltd
IAMGOLD Corporation
Independence Group NL
Issara Mining Limited
Resolute Mining Limited
Rio Tinto Limited
Roy Hill Holdings Pty Ltd
Semafo Inc
Servicios Industriales Penoles
Shell Canada Energy
Kinross Gold Corporation
St Barbara Limited
Eldorado Gold Corporation
LKAB
Teck Resources Limited
Evolution Mining Limited
Lonmin plc
Total E & P Canada Ltd
Exxaro Resources Limited
Lundin Mining Corporation
Vale S.A.
First Quantum Minerals Ltd
Minerals and Metals Group Ltd
Votorantim Metais Ltda
ABITIBI Geophysique Inc
Hatch Australia Pty Ltd
Outer-Rim Exploration Services Pty Ltd
Australian Gold Reagents Pty Ltd
Industrie De Nora S.p.a.
Outotec Oyj
Australian Laboratory Services Pty Ltd
INPPAMET Ltda
Quantec Geoscience Ltd
BASF Australia Ltd
ioGlobal Pty Ltd
QG Pty Ltd
Boart Longyear Pty Ltd
KEMIRA Chemicals Inc
RSR Technologies Inc
CAE Mining Corporate Ltd
Kemix (Pty) Ltd
Russell Mineral Equipment Pty Ltd
Cytec Australia Holdings Pty Ltd
KHUMSUP Pty Ltd
Senmin South Africa (Pty) Ltd
FL Smidth Minerals Inc
Magotteaux Pty Ltd
SGS Australia Pty Ltd
Gekko Systems Pty Ltd
Metso Corporation
Tenova Mining & Minerals
Geophysical Resources & Services
Pty Ltd
Nalco Australia Pty Ltd
WesTech Engineering Inc
Orica Limited
Zonge International Inc
Essel Mining & Industries Inc
Hidden Valley Services Limited
Queensland Alumina Ltd
G-Resources Group Limited
Minera San Crisobal S.A.
Suppliers
Individual Members
Junior Explorers
Azumah Resources Limited
Intrepid Mines Limited
Castle Peak Mining Ltd
Regis Resources Limited
Drake Resources Limited
SIPA Resources Limited
Volta Resources Inc
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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2012 – 2013
Researcher
Listing
Aarhus University
Lakehead University
Alford Mining Systems
Levay & Co Environmental Services
AMC Consultants Pty Ltd
Monash University
ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits
(CODES) - University of Tasmania
Murdoch University
ATC Williams Pty Ltd
Australian National University
Boojum Research
Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres
(BRGM)
Centre for Exploration Targeting - University of
Western Australia
Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation
Centre for Sustainable Resource Processing CRC
Chalmers University
Colorado School of Mines
CRC for Optimising Resource Extraction
CSIRO - Earth Science and Resource Engineering
CSIRO Minerals Down Under Flagship
CSIRO Process Science and Engineering
Curtin University of Technology
Czech Geological Survey
Deep Exploration Technologies Cooperative
Research Centre
Nancy Université
RMIT University
Sustainable Minerals Institute - University of
Queensland
TechnoImaging Inc
Tunra Bulk Solids Handling Research Associates
- University of Newcastle
Universidad de Concepción
Universidade de Sao Paulo
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Université de Toulouse
Université d’Orléans
Université Montpellier
University of Adelaide
University of Auckland
University of Cape Town
University of Melbourne
University of Oklahoma
University of Ouagadougou
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS)
University of South Australia
Ecole Nationale d’Ingeneurs
University of Tasmania
Fullagar Geophysics Pty Ltd
University of the Witwatersrand
Hacettepe University
University of Utah
Ian Wark Research Institute (IWRI)
University of Western Australia
Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine
US Geological Survey
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)
Vernadsky Institute (Moscow)
Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre University of Queensland
W H Bryan Mining Geology Research Centre University of Queensland
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
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Copper IsaSmeltTM plant at Mopani Copper Mines in Zambia (Provided by Glencore Xstrata)
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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PROJECTS
Flinders Ranges (Provided by Scarlett Blewett)
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
INDEX
19
GEOSCIENCE
COMPLETED
P778A Predictive Exploration Geochemistry in
Transported Overburden II
P498C Enhanced Selectivity in Flotation Using
Polymers
P934A West African Exploration Initiative
- Stage 2
P667B SAG Mill Monitoring Using Surface
Vibrations
P1004A DET CRC Implementation
P968
Flotation of Copper in Saline Waters
P1022 Rapid Inversion of TEM Data
P996
Advanced Instrumentation and Control
Strategies for Optimising Thickeners
P1036A Airborne Induced Polarisation - Stage 2
P1040 Building the Global Encyclopaedia
of Ore Deposits
EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY
P420E Gold Processing
P1041 Application of New Technologies to
Exploration of Gold Deposits
P507D Chemistry and Transport of Trace
Elements in Bayer Liquors
P1058 Spectral Induced Polarisation for 3D
Mineral Discrimination
P575C A Qualitative Investigation of Strength and
Breakage Behaviour of SGA Produced from
Refinery Hydrates
P1060 Enhanced Geochemical Targeting in
Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems
COMPLETED
P705B Improved Anode and Cathode Processes
in the Electrowinning of Base Metals
P972
P1110 Geometallurgy Roadmap
ATR Mineral Chemistry Applied to the
Characterisation and Exploration of
Andean Type Cu ± Au Ore Deposits
MINE ENGINEERING
P987
Scoping Study for ROES Development
COMPLETED
P420D Gold Processing Technology
P521D Quantifying the Effect of Solid Phase
Oxalate (SPO) on Gibbsite Agglomeration
P1037 Stope Optimisation and Stope Layout
P986
P1043 Framework for Rapid Automated
Underground Mine Optimisation
MULTI-DISCIPLINARY
MINERAL PROCESSING
P009P Optimisation of Mineral Processing by
Modelling and Simulation
P260F
Influence of Process Mineralogy and Pulp
Chemistry on the Flotation of Fine and
Coarse Minerals
P266G Improving Thickener Technology
P1087 Integrated Tailings Management
Improving Agglomeration of Crushed Ore
P843A Geometallurgical and Mine Modelling
P931A Reduced Erosion in Multiphase Flow
P1097 Systematic Evaluation of Transportable
Moisture Limit Measurement Methods for
Iron Ore Bulk Cargoes
COMPLETED
P599B High Concentration Suspension Pumping
SUSTAINABILITY
COMPLETED
P933A Alternative Treatment Options for Long
Term ARD Control
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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GEOSCIENCE
P778A - Predictive
Exploration Geochemistry
inTransported Overburden II
Value
USD $1,362,150
Commencement Date
November 2010
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Adele Seymon
Sponsors
AngloGold Ashanti Australia Limited;
Cameco Australia Pty Ltd; First Quantum
Minerals Ltd; Independence Group
(ex Jabiru Metals); Japan Oil, Gas and
Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC);
Newmont USA Limited; Regis Resources;
SGS Minerals Services; Teck Resources
Limited; Vale
The overall aim of this extension project is to develop guidelines for
how, where and why to use biota, gas and/or other shallow sample
media for mineral exploration in areas of transported overburden.
The project builds on the results of P778 by undertaking further
research into the biotic, gaseous and capillary mechanisms of
vertical migration of metals from buried mineral deposits through
transported overburden to surface in a variety of environments in
Australia.
The principal deliverables of this new project will include continuous
progress reports as well as technical reports describing the work
completed at each study site.
A final project report describing the mechanistic models to account
for observed metal migration or its absence, integrating all aspects
of the study including different regolith and palaeo-climatic controls
on migration, and variations with respect to different commodity
elements will be prepared.
Research Providers
CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering - Dr Ravi Anand;
Curtin University of Technology
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
GEOSCIENCE
P934A - West African
Exploration Initiative
– Stage 2
Value
USD $3,399,547
Commencement Date
March 2010
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Joe Cucuzza
Sponsors
AngloGold Ashanti Limited; AusAID;
Azumah Resources Limited; Bureau des
Mines et de la Géologie du Burkina;
Castle Peak Mining; Centre de Recherches
Géologiques et Minières - Niger;
Department of Mines and Geology of
Togo; Direction National de la Géologie
République de Guineé; Direction Nationale
de la Géologie et des Mines - Mali; Drake
Resources Limited; First Quantum Minerals
Ltd; Geological Survey Department Ghana; Gold Fields International Services
Ltd; Goldbelt Resources Limited (Avocet);
Golden Star Resources Ltd; Gryphon
Minerals Ltd; IAMGOLD Corp.; Lihir Gold
Limited (Now Newcrest); Ministère des
Mines et de L’Industrie Senegal; Ministry
of Land, Mines and Energy - Liberia;
OMRG l’Office Mauritanien de Recherches
Geologiques; Red Back Mining (now
Kinross Gold); Resolute Mining Limited;
Rio Tinto; SEMAFO Inc; Vale; Volta
Resources Inc; Votorantim Metais
This project will build on Stage 1 of WAXI by developing a new
geological framework to generate new exploration insights which will
assist company sponsors to explore in this region.
The principal deliverables of this project will be:
• A craton-scale GIS product showing the craton-wide geophysical
stitches, sample locations, mineral deposits, interpretative layers of
structures with fully attributed movement events, and the principal
tectonic elements that control and divide domains of distinct
mineralisation characteristics.
• A space-time chart cross linked to the GIS showing all of the
existing and newly acquired geochronological data, with summaries
of crustal growth, metamorphic, deformation and mineralisation
events.
• An understanding of the landscape evolution and surficial processes
characteristic of the particular climatic setting of West Africa over
the last 60 Ma that will help to define exploration strategies for a
wide variety of deposit types.
• Training of African Geoscientists in the techniques of exploration
geology via a suite of six short courses over the life of the project,
an annual symposium and workshops as necessary to facilitate
transfer of knowledge of the outcomes of the project to sponsors.
• Training of young African Geoscientists via a suite of MSc and PhD
projects directly funded by this project or in partnership with other
funding sources.
• An improved capacity and confidence in the Geological Surveys and
Universities in West Africa to respond to the short and long term
requirements of the minerals industry.
Research Providers
Centre for Exploration Targeting - University of Western Australia Professor T. Campbell McCuaig; Czech Geological Survey; Institut
de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) - Dr Mark Jessell; Nancy
Universite; Université de Toulouse; Université d’Orléans; Université
Montpellier; University of Ouagadougou - Professor Martin Lompo;
University of the Witwatersrand - Professor Kim A.A Ncube-Hein;
Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM); Dublin
Institute for Advanced Studies; Ecole Nationale d’Ingeneurs
21
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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GEOSCIENCE
P1004A - DET CRC
Implementation
Value
AUD $900,000
Commencement Date
July 2010
Duration
8 years
Program Manager
Joe Cucuzza
Affiliate Members
ABM Resources NL; Australian Drilling
Industry Association Limited; Australian
Training Alliance; BASF Australia Ltd;
Blackthorn Resources (BTR); Bureau
Veritas Australia; Carpentaria Exploration
Limited; Corporaal Enterprises; CSA Global
Pty Ltd; Diarotech; Downhole Surveys Pty
Ltd; DPI VIC Earth Resources; Drillco Tools;
Geological Survey of NSW; Geological
Survey of Queensland; Geological Survey
of Western Australia; Geomole Pty
Ltd; Geoscience Australia; Globaltech;
Hardcore Diamond Products; Heathgate
Resources Pty Ltd; HiSeis; Investigator
Resources; ioGlobal; JK Tech Pty Ltd; LKAB
Wassara AB; Minotaur Exploration Ltd;
Monax Mining Limited; Moog Australia
Pty Ltd; Nautilus Minerals Inc; Northern
Territory Geological Survey; Olympus
Innov-X; Paladin Energy Ltd; Rex Minerals
Limited; Sage Automation; Sandvik Mining
and Construction Australia Pty Ltd; Teakle
Composites
AMIRA is managing the Affiliate program is continuously working
with the CRC to recruit additional Affiliate members. The DET CRC
officially commenced operations in May 2010.
There are three Affiliate colleges: METS Suppliers, Junior Explorers
and Government Geological Surveys. Members of each college see
all the research outcomes but importantly can get actively involved
in some of the research activity from technology development
through to trialling and testing of the prototype technologies and
finally potentially in commercialisation in the case of Suppliers.
Research Providers
Professor Richard R Hillis - Deep Exploration Technologies
Cooperative Research Centre
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
GEOSCIENCE
P1022 - Rapid Inversion
of TEM Data
Value
AUD $557,874.54
The aims of this project are to further advance the development of rapid
approximate inversion of TEM data and to fully develop practical tools
for integrated interpretation of multiple data sets in the VP software
environment. The algorithms that have been developed currently provide
3D inversion results from TEM data two orders of magnitude faster than
any other method currently available.
Research Providers
ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, University of Tasmania Dr Peter Fullager Fullagar Geophysics Pty Ltd
Commencement Date
August 2010
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Philip McInerney
Sponsors
AngloGold Ashanti Australia Limited; Gold
Fields Australasia Pty Ltd; Mira Geoscience;
Rio Tinto Exploration Pty Limited
P1036A - Airborne Induced
Polarisation – Stage 2
Value
AUD $279,000
Commencement Date
February 2012
Duration
1 year
Program Manager
Philip McInerney
Sponsors
Abitibi Géophysique; Anglo American
Spectrem Pty Ltd; BHP Billiton; OuterRim Exploration Services Pty Ltd; Teck
Resources Limited
Induced Polarisation is a key, but expensive, geophysical methodology
in the search for deeply buried minerals (and indeed in other shallow
geophysical applications). While magnetics, gravity, radiometrics and
electromagnetics have airborne alternatives to ground surveying,
IP does not. Airborne IP (AIP) is an often-expressed desire of many
explorationists. Building on the successes of Stage 1, Stage 2 has
successfully achieved its aim of ground and airborne testing of relevant
sensors.
Research Providers
RMIT University - Dr James Macnae
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GEOSCIENCE
P1040 - Building the
Global Encyclopaedia
of Ore Deposits
Value
AUD $1,407,000
Commencement Date
June 2012
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Alan Goode
Sponsors
Alkane Resources Ltd; Altan Rio Minerals Ltd.;
AMC Consultants Pty Ltd; Anglo American
Services (UK) Ltd; AngloGold Ashanti Limited;
Barrick (Australia Pacific) Limited; Boliden
Minerals AB; British Columbia Geological
Survey; Centerra Gold Inc; Coffey Mining;
Compania de Minas Buenaventura; CSIRO;
Department for Manufacturing Innovation
Trade Resources and Energy (SA); DPI VIC
Earth Resources; Drake Resources Limited;
Encounter Resources Limited; Energia
Minerals Limited; ENRC; Evolution Mining;
Geological Survey of Canada; Geological
Survey of Western Australia; Geoscience
Australia; Gold Fields Ltd; Indophil Resources;
Innova Resources Limited; Integra Mining
Limited; Intrepid Mines; ioGlobal; Issara
Mining Limited; Lundin Mining Corporation;
Mawson Resources Ltd; Mincor Resources
NL; New Gold Inc.; Newcrest Mining Limited;
Newmont Mining Corporation; NSW Trade
and Investment; Perilya Limited; Randgold
Resources; Rio Tinto Exploration Pty Limited;
Sandfire Resources NL; Saracen Mineral
Holdings Pty Ltd; Saskatchewan Geological
Survey; SolGold plc; SRK Consulting; St
Barbara Ltd; Stratex International Plc; Tasman
Metals Ltd; Terra Search Pty Ltd; Tigers Realm
Minerals Pty Ltd; United States Geological
Survey (USGS); Vale; Votorantim Metais;
Xstrata Copper Limited
Data Metallogenica (www.datametallogenica.com ) involves
progressively building the global web-based encyclopaedia of ore
deposits. It is a not-for-profit community enterprise owned by AMIRA
International on behalf of the minerals industry. The initial seed
funding from 1999 to 2004 to do this via AMIRA International
projects (P554 and P554A) was provided by over 100 large and
small companies plus government groups.
The initial phase involved purchasing and moving the original
physical collection of representative samples from Canada and
expanding it by 40% to cover over 3000-4000 deposits through
70,000 samples around the world, digitally photographing at high
quality and placing on the web, together with spectral mineralogy
of alteration for about 10% of the collection. Self-supporting growth
since then has greatly increased the coverage of supporting data
such as reports, maps, sections, photographs of field, core and
petrography, as well as a full listing of all Australian geological
theses from the Australian Geoscience Thesis Database (P874).
About 70 full PhD and MSc theses from around the world have also
been added to date. Much of the high quality material in DM is
original, unique and irreplaceable.
The next phase of building the global encyclopaedia of ore deposits
will involve much faster growth of several main activities through
increased annual funding through a new AMIRA project (P1040):
• Data Additions – an extremely large backlog of high quality
supporting digital technical material has already been
accumulated from many sources, mainly companies, surveys
and research groups for individual deposits and global
overviews, the main limiting growth factor being labour to add
the material to the web. This growth is very likely to continue,
and may be augmented by geochemical analyses of relevant
parts of the collection, as well as regional geological overviews.
• Global Geoscience Thesis Database – a progressive building of
a digital listing of geological theses from other areas around the
world (P1018) to supplement the upgraded Australian version.
• Website Upgrade – improved, simplified and expanded
navigational arrangement of material on the web, as well as
increased and sophisticated searchability and translation
options for all global languages.
• Expansion Of Physical Collection – continued growth of coverage
and photography from missing key deposits around the world.
• Increased Interaction With Other Databases – assessment and
implementation of linked web facilities with other supporting
quality international databases.
Research Providers
AMIRA International Limited - Dr Alan Goode; P1040 Advisory Panel
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
GEOSCIENCE
P1041 - Application of New
Technologies to Exploration
and Evaluation of Gold
Deposits
Value
AUD $591,000
Commencement Date
February 2010
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Adele Seymon
Sponsors
AngloGold Ashanti Limited; G-Resources
Group; Issara Mining Limited; Newcrest
Mining Limited; Newmont USA Limited;
Northern Star Resources Ltd; Sipa
Resources Limited
The project builds upon the results from the successful AMIRA project
P923 and will undertake a series of short term site specific pilot studies
nominated by the sponsor companies to focus on gold mineralogy and
micro-geochemistry of pyrite utilising new technology advances. Four pilot
study sites will be investigated and reported each year of the project.
A group of three halo/vector study sites requiring more comprehensive
research by the team will be selected on the basis of the pilot studies.
This project is only now possible due to recent technology breakthroughs
in the application of LA-ICPMS to rocks and ores.
These include:
• multi-element laser trace analysis to finger print different pyrite
generations in a province and ore system,
• 2D and 3D laser mapping of invisible gold and other trace elements
throughout the paragenesis of ores and altered rocks,
• laser Pb and S isotope analysis on various sulfide minerals in ores
and host rocks,
• a new technique for rapid very low level gold and PGE analysis on
rocks, minerals, organic matter and matrix material, and
• comprehensive analysis of gold mineralogy to determine the nature
and siting of gold in ores and rocks; refractory gold, invisible gold,
free gold, gold tellurides, gold-PGE minerals, gold-bearing organics
etc.
These technologies have been developed in the CODES Centre of
Excellence Laboratories, and are now available for application in a
comprehensive and integrated manner.
The project framework will involve two integrated themes:
Theme 1:
Pilot studies – testing the application of the new laser technology to
exploration case study sites provided by sponsors.
Theme 2:
Gold pyrite halos and vectors to ore - based on selected study sites
from Theme 1.
Research Providers
ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits - Professor Ross Large
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GEOSCIENCE
P1058 - Spectral Induced
Polarisation for 3D Mineral
Discrimination
Value
USD $648,000
Commencement Date
July 2011
Duration
1.5 years
Program Manager
Philip McInerney
Sponsors
Abitibi Géophysique; Anglo Operations
Limited; AngloGold Ashanti Australia
Limited; Barrick (Australia Pacific)
Limited; BHP Billiton; BHP Billiton SSM
Development Pty Ltd; First Quantum
Minerals Ltd; Geophysical Resources
and Services Pty Ltd; Khumsup Limited;
Quantec Geoscience Ltd; Teck Resources
Limited; Zonge Engineering and Research
Organisation
One of the major challenges for mining geophysics is the ability
to confidently distinguish between economic and uneconomic
mineralisation. While mineral explorers routinely use different
geophysical methods to locate if not delineate mineralisation,
there has been no reliable technological methods for mineral
discrimination that avoid drilling.
The goal of this Project was to develop techniques for mineral
exploration and mineral discrimination based on spectral induced
polarisation.
The objective was to develop such techniques based on spectral
induced polarisation data using distributed acquisition systems and
advanced methods of 3D modelling and inversion. In this project,
TechnoImaging introduced new techniques for remotely determining
the same IP parameters from both frequency- and time-domain field
surveys.
Research Providers
TechnoImaging - Dr Masashi Endo; Dr Michael Zhdanov
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
GEOSCIENCE
P1060 - Enhanced
Geochemical Targeting in
Magmatic-Hydrothermal
Systems
Value
AUD $3,570,000
Commencement Date
June 2011
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Adele Seymon
Sponsors
Anglo American Exploration Australia
Pty Ltd; AngloGold Ashanti Australia
Limited; Barrick (Australia Pacific)
Limited; BHP Billiton Marketing Asia
Pte Ltd; Codelco; Compania de Minas
Buenaventura; Eldorado Gold Corporation;
First Quantum Minerals Ltd; FreeportMcMoRan Australasia Inc; Gold Fields
Ltd; G-Resources Group; Inmet Mining
Corporation; Intrepid Mines; Lundin Mining
Corp; MMG Australia Limited; Newcrest
Mining Limited; Newmont USA Limited;
Rio Tinto Exploration Pty Limited; Teck
Resources Limited; Vale Exploration Pty
Ltd; Xstrata Copper Limited
P765A produced a series of mineral chemistry vectors within porphyry
copper systems to allow the primary deposits to be “seen” from much
further away than previously. The project focused on two problematic
environments surrounding or overlying mineralised systems – “green
rocks” and lithocaps. An unusual and popular feature of the project
was to allow sponsors to actively test the vectors in real situations by
submitting blind test sites to the research team. As an example, the
giant high-grade Resolution deposit in Arizona was accurately detected
from early exploratory drill holes under 1 km of barren cover. P1060
continues this work by looking at other simple minerals which are
commonly found in such systems and which can be easily identified
by field geologists. Other new aspects will also be researched to
complement the earlier investigations, including a continuation of blind
testing.
Research Providers
ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits - Professor Bruce Gemmell;
Professor David R Cooke; Imperial College of Science, Technology &
Medicine; Lakehead University
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GEOSCIENCE
P972 - ATR Mineral
Chemistry Applied to
the Characterisation and
Exploration of Andean type
Cu ± Au Ore Deposits
Value
USD $555,000
Commencement Date
January 2009
Duration
COMPLETED
The overall objective of this proposal was to compile a
comprehensive database in order to develop new robust and cost
effective “mineralo-chemical” tools that will not only permit a better
understanding of mineralising systems but more importantly offer
explorers a new method of vectoring into mineral deposits. A key
output from the project was a large database of the analytical
results.
Research Providers
Universidad de Concepcion - Dr Osvaldo Rabbia Dalmasso, Dr Laura
Hernandez; Aarhus University - Dr Thomas Ulrich; University of
Oklahoma
3 years
Program Manager
Joe Cucuzza
Sponsors
Barrick (Australia Pacific) Limited; BHP
Billiton Metals; Codelco; Newmont USA
Limited; Rio Tinto Exploration Pty Limited;
Vale Exploration Pty Ltd
Mt Mulga (Provided by Data Metallogenica Website, Peter Laznicka)
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Mine Engineering
P987 - Scoping Study
for ROES (Remote Ore
Extraction System)
Development
Value
AUD $87,000
Commencement Date
April 2013
Duration
6 months
Program Manager
Matthew Dalziel
The ROES™ mining method is unique. It is the only mining method
proposed to industry in the last decade that removes personnel from
the production area. The method is very sympathetic to any overall
mine automation plan. The proposed study will define the scope for a
demonstration project that should, on completion provide sponsors with
the confidence to trial the ROES™ mining system in one of their own
mines.
The study will address the following items:
• The particular needs of each sponsor from the mining method
• The risks associated with the enabling technologies and the options
proposed to minimise such risks
• The scope for the resulting demonstration project
• The route to market for the technology
Research Providers
CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering - Mr Jock Cunningham
Sponsors
Newcrest Mining Limited; VALE Canada
Ltd; Xstrata Nickel Limited;
P1037 - Stope Optimisation
and Stope Layout
Value
AUD $1,035,000
Commencement Date
April 2011
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Matthew Dalziel
Sponsors
Barrick Gold Corporation; BHP Billiton;
Boliden Minerals AB; CAE Mining; Deswik
Mining Consultants Pty Ltd; Maptek
Pty Ltd; Minerals and Metals Group Ltd
(MMG); MineRP (Australia) Pty Limited;
Newmont Mining Corporation; VALE
Canada Ltd; Xstrata Nickel Limited
The stope design portion of P884 - PRIMO from which this project was
developed, was focused more at strategic planning, and feasibility
studies. Industry sponsors have identified the need for greater levels of
detail and improved stope design solutions for medium and short term
planning. The optimisation techniques being employed are amenable
to more complex stope shapes, and additional design criteria that
would follow as greater levels of detail are modelled and optimised. The
choice of optimisation criteria, cutoff, penalties and shape geometry
parameterisation can all be extended further. This project seeks to
develop a complete solution for the optimisation of stope design and
stope layout, covering strategic, tactical and operational planning.
Research Providers
Alford Mining Systems - Mr Chris Alford; AMC Consultants Pty Ltd
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Mine Engineering
P1043 - Framework for Rapid
Automated Underground
Mine Optimisation
Value
AUD $1,350,000
This new project brings together a team of applied researchers,
industry consultants and software suppliers (who were participants
in the PRIMO project) who can deliver an integrated set of tools
for rapid, automated optimisation of underground mining projects,
where the goal is to evaluate hundreds of scenarios and identify the
best set of design criteria and parameters in a strategy optimisation
project.
Research Providers
Alford Mining Systems - Mr Chris Alford; AMC Consultants Pty Ltd
Commencement Date
April 2011
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Matthew Dalziel
Sponsors
Barrick Gold Corporation; BHP Billiton; CAE
Mining; Deswik Mining Consultants Pty Ltd;
Minerals and Metals Group Ltd (MMG);
MineRP (Australia) Pty Limited; Newmont
Mining Corporation; VALE Canada Ltd;
Xstrata Nickel Limited
Orica delivering services in underground mining in New South Wales (Provided by Orica Limited)
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Mineral Processing
P009P - Optimisation of
Mineral Processing by
Modelling and Simulation
Value
AUD $13,283,010
Commencement Date
April 2012
Duration
4 years
Program Manager
Terry Braden
Sponsors
Alcoa of Australia Limited; Anglo American
Plc; AngloGold Ashanti Limited; Barrick
Gold Corporation; Bateman Engineering;
BHP Billiton Base Metals; COREM;
FLSmidth Minerals; LKAB; Lonmin
Platinum; Magotteaux Australia Pty Ltd;
Metso Minerals Process Technology;
Minerals and Metals Group Ltd (MMG);
Newcrest Mining Limited; Newmont Mining
Corporation; Outotec SEAP; Polysius AG;
Rio Tinto Technological Resources Pty Ltd;
Russell Mineral Equipment; Senmin South
Africa (Pty) Ltd; Teck Resources Limited;
Vale Australia; Xstrata Copper Limited
P9P will deliver a more comprehensive range of models, as compared
to P9O, as well as the standards and techniques for particle
characterisation (composition and spatial arrangement of minerals)
required as model inputs. Ore characterisation at the front end of the
process will increasingly replace the traditional time consuming and
expensive measurement of ore properties such as hardness, density,
size distribution and floatability, required for the current models of the
unit operations. These developments will, for the first time, link all unit
operations so that the effects of changes in one area can be simulated
and compensated for in other parts of the circuit. This integration of
unit operation models will allow true overall process improvements to
be identified.
The P9P project will be executed with a case study approach in two
parallel paths:
• Implementation of case studies at specific sponsor sites using
the integrated simulation platform based on fit-for-purpose multicomponent models.
• Develop and upgrade ore characterisation methods and models
through continued data acquisition and validation.
P9P will carry out extensive scientific research into the fundamentals
of processes and unit operation phenomenon to underpin the
development of unit operation models. Validation will be achieved by
in-plant surveys and analysis undertaken within P9P. Where possible
and appropriate, P9P will also provide for the development of on-line
instruments and measurement devices which will also facilitate the
development and application of the models. These developments,
fundamental understanding and site activities will of themselves greatly
benefit sponsors by direct application, training and technology transfer.
Research Providers
Chalmers University of Technology; CRC ORE (Optimising Resource
Extraction); Hacettepe University ; Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research
Centre; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; University of Cape Town
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Mineral Processing
P260F - Influence of Process
Mineralogy and Pulp
Chemistry on the Flotation
of Fine and Coarse Minerals
Value
AUD $3,350,750
Commencement Date
May 2010
Duration
4 years
Program Manager
Chris Ward
Sponsors
COREM; Eriez Flotation; Freeport McMoRan
Process Technology Center; Magotteaux
Australia Pty Ltd; Newcrest Mining Limited;
Outotec; OZ Minerals Limited; Teck
Resources Limited; Vale Exploration Pty
Ltd; Xstrata Technology
The P260F Project is a 4 year project with the following objectives:
• Increase recovery of value mineral in coarse, composite
particles in sponsor flotation plants and ores.
• Increase recovery of value minerals in fine particles in sponsor
flotation plants and ores.
• Improve selectivity in sponsor flotation plants and ores by
increasing rejection of gangue minerals, including minerals
containing penalty element such arsenic, antimony, fluorine,
mercury bismuth in base metal concentrates
• Increase recovery of gold in sponsor flotation plants and ores.
• Assess the impact of reducing water consumption in flotation,
and develop strategies to mitigate against negative impacts.
• Improve the concentrate quality of key non-base metal
concentrates such as iron ore and phosphate concentrates with
our research collaborators.
• Develop characterisation tools, methods and protocols for use
by sponsors.
• Technology and information transfer to sponsors operations.
This is accomplished through three separate but integrated
modules:
• Technology Transfer Module
• Sulphide Mineral Technical Challenges Module including Tools
and Methodologies.
• Non-Sulphide Mineral Technical Challenges Module.
Research Providers
University of South Australia - Dr Max Zanin, Research Professor
Bill Skinner; Universidade de Sao Paulo - Professor Laurindo de
Salles Leal Filho
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Mineral Processing
P266G - Improving Thickener
Technology
P266 series of projects has transformed thickener design and
operation through combining advanced computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) modelling with detailed measurements for model development
and validation that span from microscopic aggregate characterisation
through to pilot and full-scale programs.
P266G focuses on the following four areas:
Value
AUD $2,908,500
Commencement Date
September 2012
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Gray Bailey
Sponsors
Alcoa World Alumina; Anglo Operations
Limited; Aughinish Alumina Limited; BASF
Construction Polymers Gmbh; Cytec
Industries Inc; Tenova Delkor; FLSmidth
Minerals; KEMIRA Chemicals Inc; MMG
Century Zinc; MMG LXML Sepon; Newcrest
Mining Limited; Outotec Pty Ltd; Senmin
South Africa (Pty) Ltd; Shell Canada
Energy; Teck Metals Ltd; Total E&P
Canada; WesTech Engineering Inc
• Measurement and Modelling towards the full thickener model (FTM)
• FTM Application to Control
• Design and Operation
• Technology Transfer
Research Providers
CSIRO - Dr Phillip Fawell; University of Melbourne - Professor Peter J
Scales
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Mineral Processing
P1087 - Integrated Tailings
Management
Value
AUD $2,580,000
Commencement Date
October 2012
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Gray Bailey
Sponsors
Management of tailings is one of the most significant challenges
facing the industry; as demand for commodities soar and grades
decline the net result is that tailings volumes are rising rapidly
with resulting cost increases and sustainability risks. There is an
opportunity to improve the integrated and systemic understanding
of recent developments in technology enablers for effectively
managing tailings including flocculation, thickening, slurry pipelining
and tailings stack design to assist industry to better design and
operate tailings storage facilities (TSF).
CSIRO, ATC Williams, Monash University and the UWA have relevant,
complementary capabilities and propose a multi-disciplinary
research and development initiative to improve the economic and
environmental performance of TSFs.
Research Providers
ATC Williams Pty Ltd - Mr Keith Seddon; CSIRO Process Science
and Engineering - Mr Andreas Mönch / Dr Andrew Chryss; Monash
University - Professor Murray Rudman; University of Western
Australia - Winthrop Professor Andy (Andries) Fourie
Anglo American Plc; BASF Construction
Polymers Gmbh; Freeport-McMoRan Mining
Company; Gold Fields Australasia Pty Ltd;
Nalco Australia Pty Ltd; Newmont Mining
Corporation; Outotec SEAP; Shell Canada
Energy; Total E&P Canada
COMPLETED
P498C - Enhanced
Selectivity in Flotation
Using Polymers
Value
AUD $678,500
Commencement Date
October 2008
Duration
3 Years
Program Manager
Chris Ward
Sponsors
Anglo Platinum (Rustenburg Platinum
Mines Ltd); CP Kelco Oy; National Starch;
Newcrest Resources Inc
The AMIRA P498 series of projects (P498, P498A and P498B) was
successful in bringing together polymer manufacturers and mineral
companies as sponsors of research, with mutual benefits.
The completed P498C project provided sponsors with the ability
to select the right polymer for the right application based on a
knowledge of how the polymer interacted with mineral surfaces.
This approach represented a significant improvement over previous
trial-and-error based testing of polymeric reagents.
Research Providers
University of South Australia - Assoc. Professor David Beattie;
Levay & Co Environmental Services - Mr George Levay
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Mineral Processing
COMPLETED
P667B - SAG Mill Monitoring
Using Surface Vibrations
Value
AUD $996,000
Commencement Date
April 2008
Duration
3 years
The previous extension of this project developed a ruggedised piece
of equipment to measure surface vibrations on mills, which was
extensively tested at Northparkes Mine. The signals from the unit have
been processed in a number of ways to show relationships to key mill
operating parameters: toe and shoulder position, mill loading, particle
size, ore hardness and liner wear.
This project worked to validate these relationships to develop predictive
models including an on-line advisory alarm system to warn operators of
substantial departures from normal operating conditions.
Research Providers
CSIRO Process Science and Engineering - Dr Ralph J Holmes; CSIRO
Mathematical & Information Sciences; AMIRA International Limited
Program Manager
Kriba Reddy
Sponsors
Anglo Platinum (Rustenburg Platinum
Mines Ltd); Freeport-McMoRan Mining
Company; Rio Tinto Limited; Xstrata Zinc
COMPLETED
P968 - Flotation of Copper
in Saline Water
Value
CL $360,000,000
Commencement Date
April 2009
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Enrique Carretero Gonzaléz
Sponsors
Anglo American Chile Ltda; Antofagasta
Minerals S.A,; BHP Billiton Base Metals;
Teck Resources Limited
Small operations in Chile have conducted flotation in sea water in
the past, although much of the flotation know-how developed there
has been lost. Gold and nickel operations in Western Australia are
known to use highly saline waters and the Batu Hijau gold mine
of Newmont in Indonesia uses seawater for flotation. Flotation of
sulphide copper ores and their by-products (Mo, Au, Ag) in water with
high concentration of electrolytes show problems in rougher and
cleaner stages. For example, Cu, Mo and Au yield similar recovery
levels in rougher circuits while concentrate grade decreases
because pyrite depression is affected by the buffer effect of the
electrolyte solution. In cleaner circuits pyrite depression using lime
to adjust pH reduces recovery of Mo and Au.
Research Providers
Universidad de Concepcion - Professor Fernando Concha
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Mineral Processing
P996 - Advanced
Instrumentation and Control
Strategies for Optimising
Thickeners
Value
COMPLETED
The project aim was to develop new instruments and control
strategies to optimize the thickening operation in the mineral
industry with direct impact on water consumption.
Research Providers
Universidad de Concepcion - Professor Fernando Concha
CL $472,100,000
Commencement Date
April 2009
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Enrique Carretero Gonzaléz
Sponsors
Antofagasta Minerals S.A.; Codelco
Orica delivering bulk explosives in Western Australia (Provided by Orica Limited)
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Extractive Metallurgy
P420E - Gold Processing
Value
AUD $3,245,250
Commencement Date
April 2013
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Kriba Reddy
Sponsors
AngloGold Ashanti Limited; Australian
Gold Reagents Pty Ltd; Barrick Gold
Corporation; Bateman Engineering;
Gekko Systems Pty Ltd; Harmony Gold
Mining Company Limited; Kemix (Pty) Ltd;
Magotteaux Pty Ltd; Newcrest Mining
Limited; Orica Australia Pty Ltd; Randgold
Resources; St Barbara Ltd
The AMIRA Gold Processing Technology project has delivered industry
focussed research outcomes for 25 years. This extension project
proposes new initiatives in the area of gold processing set within the
context of the complex technical, human resource development and
environmental challenges that face the gold industries in the second
decade of the 21st century. It also consolidates and extends the work
performed in the AMIRA P420D program, which is built on a solid
foundation of 25 years of research and industry support.
There are three focus themes in the project:
• Technology Transfer & Professional Development
• From minerals to optimised plants; and
• Future Ore Processing.
Technology Transfer focuses on plant surveys and inputs into models
for plant optimisation, coupled with workshops and courses for
professional development of staff. Models for plant optimisation
includes the expansion of the online models from the liberation-leach,
gravity-flash-float, leach adsorption models to new models for roasting
which links mineralogy to thermodynamics. In addition, research will
continue into ore characterisation, and the development of a Code
& Guidelines for baseline ore testing. Theme two will also involve
the integration of gold metallurgy linking it to gold ore mineralogy,
superimposed onto geological regions in the resources allows the
development of gold specific geometallurgical models. Future Ore
Processing looks at more fundamental research into interactions of
complex gangue minerals with the extraction of gold. The theme delves
into the evaluation of preconcentration through continuous early gangue
rejection, using continuous gravity, dense media and screening with
an emphasis on ore characterisation of the amenability of ores for
continuous high mass gravity separation. Additional research involves
the investigation of environmentally benign gold lixiviants with an
emphasis on organic acid lixiviants for application in heap leaching,
dump leaching and in-situ leaching.
Research Provider
Curtin University of Technology - Professor Jaques Eksteen
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Extractive Metallurgy
P507D - Chemistry and
Transport of Trace Elements
in Bayer Liquors
Value
AUD $600,000
Commencement Date
July 2011
Many trace elements are present in Bayer liquors. These come
almost entirely from the bauxite ore, where they may occur either
as pure minerals in small amounts or (more often) as contaminants
of other mineral components. In most cases, the concentration of
each trace element in the plant liquors tends to increase until a
steady state is reached.
This project aims to increase the understanding of the chemistry of
these elements in highly concentrated, alkaline solutions and allow
improved control of their deportment through alumina refineries.
Research Providers
Murdoch University - Professor Glenn Hefter, Professor Peter M May
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Gray Bailey
Sponsors
Alcoa of Australia Limited; BHP Billiton/
Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd; Hydro Aluminium
Metal Products; Rio Tinto Alcan Limited
P575C - A Qualitative
Investigation of Strength
and Breakage Behaviour of
SGA Produced from Refinery
Hydrates
Value
USD $460,500
Commencement Date
June 2011
Duration
3 Years
Program Manager
Gray Bailey
Sponsors
BHP Billiton / Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd;
Hatch Associates Pty Ltd: Hydro Aluminium
Metal Products; Rio Tinto Alcan Limited
The project focuses on alumina quality through:
• quantifying breakage mechanisms of different aluminas
• establishing the difference in alumina strength measured by
different test methods
• identifying the relationship between precipitation conditions,
precursor hydrate features and alumina strength, and
• quantifying the significance of additional gibbsite growth layers
on alumina strength.
Research Providers
CSIRO Process Science & Engineering - Dr Iztok Livk
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Extractive Metallurgy
P705B - Improved Anode
and Cathode Processes in
the Electrowinning of Base
Metals
Value
USD $1,485,000
Commencement Date
April 2010
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Chris Ward
Sponsors
Anglo Research; BHP Billiton Base Metals;
Freeport-McMoRan Mining Company; Hatch
Associates Pty Ltd; Industrie De Nora S.p.a.;
Inppamet Ltda; Outotec; RSR Technologies
Inc; Teck Resources Limited; VALE;
Votorantim Metais
This extension project has built on the knowledge acquired in the
earlier P705 series of projects led by the research team at Murdoch
University and is the preeminent research program globally in the field
of electrowinning technology.
The P705B project has been a highly cost effective vehicle for the
participating companies to access significant technical knowledge
on the electrowinning of base and other metals. It has provided
significant opportunities for industry benchmarking, programs for staff
development, training, further education and networking, resources
for process optimisation (cost reduction/increased recovery/reduced
energy consumption), tools and information to enhance tankhouse
operating performances.
This project has also provided sponsors with valuable knowledge,
tools and information relating to tankhouse OH&S issues through the
provision of a greater understanding of acid mist generation and the
fundamental processes relating to bubble formation.
Research Providers
Murdoch University - Professor Mike Nicol; Federal University of Minas
Gerais (UFMG); University of Utah; Laurentian University
Lolotoi Metamorphic Complex, Laclo River, East Timor (Provided by Oskar Lindenmayer)
39
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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Extractive Metallurgy
P1110 - Geometallurgy
Roadmap
Value
AUD $87,500
Commencement Date
July 2012
Duration
1 year
Program Manager
Olga Verezub
Sponsors
BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd; Teck
Metals Ltd; Antofagasta Minerals S.A.;
Vale Exploration Pty Ltd; Votorantim Metais;
Xstrata Copper Limited
The purpose of the Roadmap is to deliver a consensus of expert
opinion on the strategic vision, the challenges and barriers to
adoption, and the necessary steps required in addressing them. It
identifies priority R & D that can be developed and pursued by both
individual companies, or through collaborative partnerships. As well
as taking a broader non-commodity specific view of the subject, the
Roadmap will inform the development of the next extension to the
P843A GEM project, subject to industry support, and scheduled to
commence in 2014.
An important aspect of the development of the Roadmap has been
the independent interviews undertaken with key stakeholders in
Australia, South Africa, Chile and North America to help identify
barriers to progress gaps and challenges and future needs. Dr Tim
Napier-Munn (Australia / South Africa), Ms Romke Kuyvenhoven
(Latin America) and Dr Karin Olson Hoal (North America) were
engaged to undertake this initial survey work. The final document
which provides an overall synthesis of the results of the above work
has been prepared by an independent consultant, Mr Dean Collett.
Research Provider
AMIRA International Limited
RUSSELL 8 (8 axis) - 6 tonne Mill relining machine built in 2009 for Newcrest’s Cadia Mill and includes a traversing seat.
(Provided by Russell Mineral Equipment)
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Extractive Metallurgy
The Gold Industry faces challenges more urgent than ever before.
P420D - Gold Processing
Technology
• Large, high grade, free-milling deposits are rarely discovered and
companies are turning to lower grade, complex and refractory ore
bodies to maintain reserves.
• Human resources are still the key to successful operation, yet
skilled gold metallurgists are in short supply.
Value
AUD $2,891,250
Commencement Date
August 2009
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Kriba Reddy
Sponsors
AngloGold Ashanti Limited; Ausenco
Services Pty Ltd; Australian Gold Reagents
Pty Ltd; Barrick Gold Corporation; Gekko
Systems Pty Ltd; Gold Fields Group
Services (Pty) Ltd; Kemix (Pty) Ltd; Lihir
Gold Limited (Now Newcrest); Magotteaux
Australia Pty Ltd; Newcrest Mining Limited;
Newmont Mining Corporation; Orica Mining
Chemicals; Randgold Resources; Tenova
Mining and Minerals
• Investors punish deviation from guidance figures, yet the tools to
optimise and to predict performance are not well suited to dealing
with other than simple free milling ore bodies.
• OHS&E issues are in the forefront of concerns, yet readily applied
tools and know-how are not available to companies to facilitate
adherence to duty of care standards.
This project offered companies the opportunity to tap into a world
class R&D project at a high leverage of sponsorship investment. This
proposal was structured around four research themes:
• Capturing and Preserving Industry Knowledge
• Predicting and Improving Ore Processing
• Protecting the Licence to Operate
• Processing Difficult Ores
Research Providers
Curtin University of Technology - William Staunton
41
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
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Extractive Metallurgy
P521D - Quantifying the
Effect of Solid Phase
Oxalate (SPO) on Gibbsite
Agglomeration
COMPLETED
The primary objective was to quantify the effect of SPO on gibbsite
agglomeration under the conditions relevant to the Bayer process
and improve fundamental understanding of the mechanism of a
possible interference by SPO with gibbsite agglomeration.
Research Providers
Value
CSIRO Process Science and Engineering - Dr Iztok Livk
AUD $600,000
Commencement Date
May 2011
Duration
2 years
Program Manager
Gray Bailey
Sponsors
Alcoa of Australia Limited; BHP Billiton/
Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd; Rio Tinto Alcan
Limited; Rusal Aughinish
COMPLETED
P986 - Improving
Agglomeration
of Crushed Ore
Value
USD $1,612,000
Commencement Date
April 2009
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Terry Braden
Sponsors
BHP Billiton Minerals; Freeport-McMoRan
Mining Company; Gold Fields Group
Services (Pty) Ltd; Vale Exploration Pty Ltd
Heap leaching of low grade copper and gold ores has been
successfully employed over the past two to three decades. It has
been realised that percolation is highly dependent on the size
distribution of the crushed ore with fines playing a significant role.
To minimise the percentage of fines and improve overall percolation,
agglomeration of crushed ore has been implemented in gold and
copper heap leach operations. While agglomeration has become
common practice to improve heap leach recovery, the fundamental
understanding of the agglomeration process for crushed ores is still
lacking.
The project proposed to provide practical quality control tools
for agglomeration of crushed ore. The project proposed to divide
the work into a hub of practical research and commodity spokes
(gold, copper and nickel) designed to be the source of test ore and
allowing specific sponsor guidance.
Research Provider
University of Utah - Assoc. Professor Michael S Moats
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Multi-disciplinary
P843A - Geometallurgical
Mapping and Mine Modelling
Value
AUD $7,758,331
Commencement Date
July 2009
Duration
4 years
Program Manager
Joe Cucuzza
Sponsors
Anglo American Chile Ltda; Anglo
Research; AngloGold Ashanti Australia
Limited; Australian Laboratory Services
Pty Ltd; Barrick (Australia Pacific) Limited;
Barrick Gold Corporation; BHP Billiton
Innovation Pty Ltd; Boliden Minerals AB;
CAE Datamine U.K.; Codelco; Gold Fields
Ltd; ioGlobal; Metso Minerals (Australia)
Limited; Minera Escondida Ltd; Minerals
and Metals Group Ltd (MMG); Mount
Isa Mines Ltd; Newcrest Mining Limited;
Newcrest Technology Ltd; OZ Minerals
Limited; Quantitative Geoscience Pty Ltd;
Rio Tinto Technological Resources Pty Ltd;
Sumitomo - Minera San Cristobal; Teck
Resources Limited; Vale Australia
The initial P843 project made major advances in developing practical
methodologies and tools to deliver predictive measures of processing
performance. These can be embedded in resource models and
exploited in mine planning and optimisation. It delivered a wide
range of hardware and software tools with demonstrated potential
for routine application. These include lower-cost physical testing
devices for comminution, automated core loggers and a range of
imaging and microscopy platforms. These are linked to enabling
software for specialist textural analysis, multivariate modelling and
data integration. The P843A extension project seeks to continue this
development with an increasing emphasis on large-scale site-based
comparative benchmarking and validation. The research will also extend
to new deposit types and processing attributes (early environmental
characteristics, blasting and predictive leaching) not covered in the
original project (flotation recovery and comminution).
A further aim of P843A is to provide technology transfer mechanisms to
support sponsors in the implementation of these tools and methods.
Case studies include Los Bronces, La Colosa, Cowal, Escondida,
Codelco Norte, Andina, Cadia East, Telfer and Prominent Hill.
Research Providers
ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits; Centre for Mined Land
Rehabilitation; CRC ORE (Optimising Resource Extraction); CSIRO
Process Science and Engineering; Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research
Centre; University of Tasmania; W H Bryan Mining Geology Research
Centre
43
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
44
Multi-disciplinary
P931A - Reduced Erosion in
Multiphase Flow
Value
AUD $900,000
Commencement Date
May 2011
This project aims to develop new tools and more efficient solutions
to reduce the wear/erosion maintenance costs in multiphase flows.
This is being achieved through a combination of better knowledge of
the fluid properties and the material properties of the vessels being
used to transport fluids and with a solution focussed on the flow
geometry.
Case studies proposed by sponsors are yielding valuable outcomes
to increase understanding and leading to recommendations to
reduce wear.
Research Provider
CSIRO Process Science and Engineering - Dr Jie Wu
Duration
2.5 years
Program Manager
Gray Bailey
Sponsors
Alcoa World Alumina; BHP Billiton /
Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd; Rio Tinto Alcan
Limited; VALE Canada Ltd
P1097 - Systematic
Evaluation of Transportable
Moisture Limit Measurement
Methods for Iron Ore Bulk
Cargoes
Value
AUD $1,958,500
Commencement Date
May 2012
Duration
2 years
Program Manager
Matthew Dalziel / Olga Verezub
Sponsors
BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd; Cliffs Asia
Pacific Iron Ore Pty Ltd; CME (The Chamber
of Minerals & Energy Western Australia);
Fortescue Metals Group; Minerals Council
of Australia; Rio Tinto Technological
Resources Pty Ltd; Roy Hill; Vale
There is a move by Maritime Authorities worldwide to have a
Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) for each bulk cargo shipped
by sea.
Current TML testing options are based on the use of methods
originally developed for concentrates. For bulk cargoes containing
coarse particles (e.g. iron ore, coal), these tests are problematic.
The relationships between the three most widely used TML
test methods are unclear, and the implications of removing the
+6mm fraction before conducting the TML measurement are not
understood.
This project will investigate the potential failure mechanisms of bulk
iron ore cargoes while assessing the current TML test methods and
relevance to any failure.
Research Providers
Creative Process Innovation Pty Ltd - Dr Tom Honeyands; CSIRO
Process Science and Engineering; University of Auckland; TUNRA
Bulk Solids - University of Newcastle
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
Multi-disciplinary
COMPLETED
P599B - High Concentration
Suspension Pumping
A detailed understanding of the flow regimes obtained in P599 and
P599A provided an opportunity to exploit various aspects of high
concentration flows to improve existing processes and possible
pumping applications.
There were five areas in which extension work was undertaken:
Value
AUD $501,000
Commencement Date
September 2008
Duration
3 Years
Program Manager
Matthew Dalziel
Sponsors
Rio Tinto Technological Resources Pty Ltd;
Shell Canada Limited
• Technology transfer
• Flow fundamentals
• Vertical conveying
• Separation techniques
• PipeTools development.
As in P599 and P599A, all outputs of the P599B research were
captured in new releases of the PipeTools software.
Research Provider
CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering - Dr Jie Wu; CSIRO Process
Science and Engineering
Hope Downs - FLSmidth - Site exit aerial photo (Provided by FLSmidth Minerals)
45
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
46
Sustainability
COMPLETED
P933A - Alternative
Treatment Options for Long
Term ARD Control
Value
AUD $1,134,000
Commencement Date
December 2009
Duration
3 years
Program Manager
Gray Bailey
Sponsors
BHP Billiton Iron Ore; Hidden Valley
Services Limited; Rio Tinto Technological
Resources Pty Ltd; Tasmanian
Government; Teck Metals Ltd
This project:
• Evaluated the reaction mechanisms and products of selected
treatment technologies and approaches including limestone,
phosphate rock and silicates (separately or in combinations).
• Incorporated and evaluated data from field trials of treatments
from sponsor sites and companion research programs.
• Outlined the implications for management and application of
selected technologies.
• To further test the rates of neutralisation provided by gangue
silicate and non-carbonate minerals, validated these results and
applied them to real waste mineralogies.
• Continued methodology development for determination of
acceptable design targets for matching Acid Generation Rate vs
Non-carbonate Acid Neutralisation Capacity.
Research Provider
Boojum Research - Ms Margarete Kalin Levay & Co Environmental
Services - Dr Russell R Schumann; University of South Australia Dr Jun Li, Professor Roger Smart
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
47
Cavity Quartz, Aileu District, East Timor (Provided by Oskar Lindenmayer)
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
48
DATA
METALLOGENICA
Data Metallogenica is being built
as a global encyclopaedia of ore
deposits for the benefit of the
international minerals industry
and associated institutions.
It is the world’s largest mineral deposit database,
a unique technical information system made
possible through the support of over one hundred
international Foundation Sponsors from industry,
government organisations and professional
societies.
DM is a self-funding but not-for-profit enterprise,
owned and operated by AMIRA International
Deposits can now be searched by location,
on behalf of the global minerals industry and
commodoties and data type
associated institutions. Data Metallogenica will
continue to develop as a major reference, training
and educational resource for all, as well as being
a key repository of much transient and valuable
information on ore deposits.
It primarily aims to provide a technical
introduction to individual deposits around the
world, particularly for those unlikely to ever visit
these deposits (even if they are still operating and
available). DM therefore provides a virtual field
trip to any deposit.
This year, the continuation of the P1040 project
with the support of over 50 sponsors has seen
the launch of the new DM website (http://www.
dmgeode.com), allowing far greater utility of data,
as well as a major expansion of the existing
database.
Search results now appear on an interactive map,
allowing users to see deposits in a regional context.
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
49
New Features include…
Continuing Features…
Over 9 Gigabytes of new data: Includes hundreds
of new sample plates, deposit summaries, photo
galleries, technical reports, industry and academic
presentations.
Physical collection and photographs: The original
and unique physical collection is now stored at the
DMITRE Core Library in Adelaide, South Australia,
and consists of over 70,000 representative
samples of ores, alteration, host rocks and regolith
from thousands of individual deposits. High quality
photographs of all sample plates are available on
the website.
New translation features: The website and
text from documents can now be automatically
translated into 71 languages making DM very
valuable as a reference and training tool.
Greater Global coverage: Technical information on
over 500 new deposits, especially in regions such
as Asia, Russia, Africa and South America.
Relaxed search criteria: Searches can be made
on fragments of deposit names and aliases of
deposits.
More specialised searching: Searches can be
made on specific data types (eg. geophysics,
regolith), commodity classes (eg. Base Metals,
Diamonds) and world-parts, countries or states.
Thesis database: Full listing of all Australian
geological theses, plus 1600 economic geology
abstracts for Australian theses and 70 full PhD and
MSc theses from around the world are available in
a searchable database.
Commodity overviews: Overviews of deposit types
for selected commodities by world experts.
New map features: Searches now return interactive
map plots, allowing users to see the regional
context of deposits.
Deposit portal pages: Descriptive data for each
deposit can be found on a single deposit portal
page, along with an interactive map, sample plates
and useful internal links.
New deposit portal pages
display technical data, including
Lithotheque plates and descriptive
data, alongside summary
descriptions of deposits and an
interactive map.
New deposit portal pages display technical data,
including Lithotheque plates and descriptive data,
alongside summary descriptions of deposits and an
interactive map.
A M I R A I N T E R N AT I O N A L L I M I T E D
50
AMIRA INTERNATIONAL
BROKERS COLLABORATIVE
PROJECTS BETWEEN
INDUSTRY AND WORLDLEADING RESEARCH
PROVIDERS BY LEVERAGING
AVAILABLE INDUSTRY AND
GOVERNMENT FUNDS
Road to Muktinath, Upper Mustang District, Nepal (Provided by Scarlett Blewett)
ANNUAL REPORT 2012–2013
51
AMIRA Offices
Australia - Head Office
AMIRA International Limited
Level 2, 271 William Street
Melbourne Vic 3000
Tel: +61 3 8636 9999
Fax: +61 3 8636 9900
Email: [email protected]
Australia
14 Outram Street
West Perth WA 6005
Tel: +61 8 9216 0451
Fax: +61 3 8636 9900
Africa
AMIRA International Africa
9th Floor, 5 Holland Street
Johannesburg 2001
South Africa
Tel: +27 11 498 7649
Fax: +27 11 498 7203
Email: [email protected]
Latin America
Asesorias AMIRA International
Latin America Limitada
San Sebastian 2812
Of.414, Piso 4
Las Condes Santiago
Chile
Tel: +56 2 2925 6306
Fax: +56 2 2925 6307
Email: [email protected]
North America
AMIRA North Amercia Inc
PO Box 461028
Aurora Colorado 80015
USA
Tel: +1 303 400 3982
Fax: +1 303 680 0523
Email: [email protected]
©2013 AMIRA International Limited.
All Rights Reserved
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