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Unit4 StudyGuide

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DOMHS
The Living Earth
Ms. Renner
Name: ______________________
Period: _____ Date:_________
Study Guide for Unit 4 Assessment – DNA, Protein Synthesis and Mutations
SUMMATIVE EXAM: ____________
DNA
HS-LS3-1. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for
characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
Obj 4.H: Create a model to identify parts of DNA structure.
Obj 4.I: Explain the steps of DNA replication.
Obj 4.K: Compare the structure and function of DNA and RNA.
Obj. 4.H: DNA Structure
Instructions: Label the parts of the DNA nucleotide
A.
________________________
B.
________________________
C.
________________________
Use the diagram on the right to answer the following
questions.
1. W and X are examples of __________ _________.
2. W and X together are held together by
____________________ bonds.
3. The DNA backbone is made up of:
_______________________ (Y) and
_______________________ (Z).
Obj. 4.I: DNA Replication
DNA Replication (takes place in the ________________________)
1. A DNA molecule (2-strands) is shown below. Fill in the nitrogenous bases using the basepairing rules.
DNA 1
DNA 2
TAG
TGC
ATG
The Living Earth – UNIT 4: Inheritance
CAT
CTT
ACC
AGA
CTA
9th Grade
ATC
2. DNA 1 and DNA 2 are two strands of one DNA molecule that match up together. In other
words, DNA 1 is _____________________________ to DNA 2.
3. Imagine that the DNA strands unzip and are ready for replication.
a. What enzyme is responsible for unwinding and unzipping the DNA? _______________
b. What enzyme is responsible for matching the bases from the DNA? _______________
4. Use base-pairing rules to figure out the bases for complementary strands.
DNA 1
Complementary
Complementary
DNA 2
TAG
TGC
ATG
CAT
CTT
ACC
AGA
CTA
ATC
ATC
TGC
ATG
GTA
GAA
TGG
TCT
GAT
TAG
Obj. 4.K: Compare DNA and RNA
1. What are ways that DNA and RNA are each unique (different from each other)? Think of 4 – 5
differences!
DNA
RNA
HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the
structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.
Obj 4.J: Model the steps of Protein Synthesis.
Obj. 4.J: Protein Synthesis
Transcription (takes place in the ________________________)
2. DNA 1 is still the same strand as above. Fill in the DNA first and then use the base pair rules to
fill in the mRNA
DNA 1
TAG
TGC
ATG
CAT
CTT
ACC
AGA
CTA
ATC
mRNA
The Living Earth – UNIT 4: Inheritance
9th Grade
Translation (takes place in the ____________________)
3. Translation only begins when the ribosome reads a ____________ codon which is __ __ __.
4. Use the same mRNA sequence as found in the section above. First fill in the mRNA starting
with the start codon and Amino Acids (use the codon chart!)
mRNA
Amino
Acid
Met
STOP
HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) genetic
combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental
factors.
Obj 4.F: Use pedigrees to explain patterns of inheritance.
Obj 4.K: Predict the outcome of mutations on protein production.
Albinism
Albinism is a group of conditions that affect coloring (pigmentation) of the skin, hair, and eyes.
Affected individuals typically have very fair skin and white or light-colored hair. Long-term sun
exposure greatly increases the risk of skin damage and skin cancers, including an aggressive form of
skin cancer called melanoma, in people with this condition. Albinism also reduces pigmentation of
the colored part of the eye (the iris). People with this condition usually have vision problems such as
reduced sharpness, involuntary eye movements, and increased sensitivity to light.
Use the pedigree on the left to answer the following
questions.
1. What does a colored in circle represent?
2.
How many males have albinism?
3.
How many females have albinism?
4.
Is albinism autosomal or X-linked? Justify your answer.
5.
Is albinism dominant or recessive? Justify your answer.
Researchers have identified multiple types of albinism. Albinism type 1 is characterized by white hair,
very pale skin, and light-colored irises. This is caused by a mutation at the TYR gene, which codes for
pigmentation.
The Living Earth – UNIT 4: Inheritance
9th Grade
Scientists compare the DNA of two siblings (not pictured in the pedigree above). Dave has albinism,
while his brother Stephen does not. Below are the brothers' DNA:
Stephen's DNA: GGC AAA CAG
Dave's DNA:
GGC ATA CAG
1. What kind of mutation occurred to Dave’s DNA to cause albinism? _______________________
2. Explain how this mutation will affect Dave’s DNA, and describe how that affected protein will
cause albinism.
The Living Earth – UNIT 4: Inheritance
9th Grade
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