Fundamentals of Literature: Unit 1--“Conflict” Study Guide As you read each section of the novel, briefly answer the following questions. These questions should act as a reading guide and are not intended to replace careful examination of the novel’s themes and development. Make your notes on a separate sheet of paper if you run out of space. Bring these to class. You will not turn them in, but you will want to be able to add notes or clarification from class discussion. “Sonnet 29” poetry book Sonnet 29 speaks to all those who have felt worthless or overshadowed by others they deem to be superior but who can overcome dark feelings by thinking of someone they love, who loves them in return. Paraphrase: When luck has deserted me and everyone looks at me in disapproval, I sit all alone and cry about the fact that I’m an outcast. I bother God with my useless cries, which fall on deaf ears, and look at myself and curse my fate, wishing that I had more to hope for, wishing I was good-looking, popular, talented, and had better opportunities like some people I know. Even with the things I usually enjoy the most, I am totally dissatisfied. Yet, as I’m thinking these thoughts and almost hating myself, I happen to think about you, and then my condition improves—like a lark at daybreak rising up and leaving the earth far behind to sing hymns to God. For when I remember your sweet love, I feel so wealthy that I’d refuse to change places even with kings. 1. Who is the speaker addressing in this sonnet? 2. What does the speaker mean when he says he "trouble[s] deaf heav'n with [his] bootless cries"? 3. What does the speaker say he envies? 4. Where is the turning point (volta) in Sonnet 29? 5. To what does the speaker compare his good mood at the end of the sonnet? 6. What figures of speech are used? 7. What's the rhyme scheme of Sonnet 29? 8. How many quatrains are in this sonnet? (See p.318) Is this an Italian or English sonnet? 9. What are the last two lines of this sonnet called? 10. Read about chiasmus on p.325. Line 6 contains another example. Explain how line 6 shows chiasmus. “Top Man” by James Ramsey Ullman 11. Who is the hero, or central character of the story? Who opposes the central character? 12. What is the name of the mountain? p.19 13. Who has tried to climb the mountain five times before this attempt? 14. Name one way in which Osborn and Nace contrast. 15. Is Osborn’s main problem self-doubt and hesitance or over-confidence and impatience? 16. What happened to Captain Furness? 17. What is engraved on the head of the axe found at the summit of the mountain? 18. Describe the three conflicts in the story. Explain how each conflict is resolved. Which of these would you say is the dominant conflict. 19. What figure of speech establishes setting as an antagonist? 20. Though this is not a true story, what about Ullman’s writing makes you believe it could be? “Under the Lion’s Paw” by Hamlin Garland p.52 21. Who are the protagonist and antagonist? 22. At the beginning of the story, who provides the Haskin family with food and shelter? 23. What drove the Haskins family away from their land in Kansas? 24. How does the Haskins family respond to the new opportunity they are given? 25. Why does Butler decide to charge Haskins more for the land than what he originally said he would charge? 26. What does Haskins see that keeps him from running Butler through with a pitchfork? What do you think Haskins thinks as he faces Butler with the pitchfork? 27. What are the different types of conflicts in the story? How are the different conflicts resolved? Which is the dominant conflict in the story? 28. What does Council mean when he says, “Don’t want any pay. My religion ain’t run on such business principles”? 29. Explain the significance of the title of the story. 30. What is local color? Garland’s story attempts to garner sympathy for farmers swindled out of their land. Do you think that the author’s use of local color supports that purpose (beyond portraying farmers accurately)? See p.64. Why or why not? What 2 features of the story help mark it as local-color writing? 31. Does Garland succeed in using conflict (as well as resolution) to gain your sympathy? Why or why not? 32. “Under the Lion’s Paw” is an example of persuasion. How does your book define persuasion? What are two common techniques used in persuasion? Define propaganda. Do you think it could also qualify as propaganda? Why or why not? Is it ethical or unethical propaganda? "Through the Tunnel" by Doris Lessing p.34 33. How old is Jerry? 34. What attracts Jerry's attention to the coast near the rocks? 35. Why to the older boys leave Jerry? 36. What does Jerry ask his mother to buy for him? 37. What does Jerry search for in the rock? 38. Why does Jerry have recurring nosebleeds? 39. What does Jerry use to help him stay under water longer? 40. Why does Jerry’s mother let him go to the beach when she feels concerned for him? 41. How does Jerry respond at the end of the story when his mother suggests that he "not swim any more today?" Does Jerry feel the need to show the native boys that he can now swim through the tunnel as well? 42. The two main settings in the story are the “safe” beach and the “new” beach. How do the two main settings create differing atmospheres and mirror the main conflict? 43. What colors does the author use to describe the mother and the beach? 44. What colors are used to describe the boys swimming in the bay and the bay itself? 45. What do you think this contrast in colors implies? 46. How would you describe Jerry and his mother’s relationship at the opening of the story (paragraphs 5-6)? How does this relationship change when the conflict is resolved? “Robert Louis Stevenson Banks, aka Chimley” by Ernest J. Gaines p.47 47. Who narrates the story? 48. What do Mat and Chimley do on Tuesdays and Thursdays? 49. According to Fue, who was the man found dead? 50. Chimley has never known of what to take place in his parish? 51. Based on Mat and Chimley's conversation, who is the only one ever to stand up to the white people? 52. In the past, where did Mat and Chimley hide for protection? 53. How will Mat and Chimley get to Marshall? 54. What is Chimley’s wife’s reaction when he comes home? 55. How does the setting of the story influence its conflicts? How are the two inseparable? 56. What is the primary conflict of the story? Is it external or internal? 57. How do the past conflicts mentioned in the story affect the primary conflict? 58. Mat and Chimley face a difficult choice? What are the possible consequences of either option? 59. Why do Mat and Chimley make the choice they do? What do they hope to accomplish? 60. What kind of atmosphere do the setting and conflict of Gaines’s story promote? 61. How might Gaines’s story also fit in the category of persuasion? 62. Gaines uses Louisianan dialect freely in his story. “Translate” a sentence of dialect from the story into English that you would use for a school paper. 63. Both Gaines and Garland’s stories contain local color. Use the definition on p.64 to list specific examples that place each story in the category of local color. 64. Imagine that both Gaines’s and Garland’s dialogues were written in Standard American English. How would your impressions of the characters change? “The Duel” by Nikolai Dmitrievich Teleshov p.43 65. Who is killed in the duel that begins the story? 66. For what task is Ivan Golubenko chosen? 67. Why has Pelageia Petrovna been careful not to make too much noise the morning that Ivan visits? 68. About what is Pelagcia Petrovna so happy the morning that Ivan visits her? 69. Why does Pelagcia Petrovna think that Ivan leaves without saying a word? 70. Who is the central character of the story? 71. Whom or what is the central character fighting against? Support your answer with specific quotations from the story. How are social values of the setting (such as duels and the protection of honor) especially important to the conflicts of the story? 72. Is the primary/dominant conflict internal or external? How is the dominant conflict resolved? Given the way he resolves the main conflict, what does Teleshov want to say? (the moral of the story) 73. What is the secondary conflict? 74. Describe the atmosphere of the story. Think about it. Prepare to share your ideas with the class. 75. Ivan Golubenko goes through a conflict similar to Jerry’s in “Through the Tunnel.” Compare and contrast both characters’ responses to their experiences. 76. In what way does Teleshov uses persuasion in “The Duel”? See p.64.