Uploaded by Jake Prahinog


Department of Education
Division of City School Makati
Pitogo High School
Negros St. barangay Pitogo Makati City
Coconut Husk as Alternative Ink for Permanent Markers
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements In
Research 1
Amon, Jeohn Henrico G.
Dandamun, Mahid L.
Leonor, Ma. Jamiellie B.
Tuliao, Rica Mae A.
Grade 9-Dalton
Ms. Lilibeth Lumapas
Research Adviser
November 23, 2017
Markers play a role in your daily life in different ways. It is made with different
colors and pigments. It is use in writing and somehow in different artworks. This
markers are made with such chemical composition. Many users of this doesn’t know
that the ink that markers have can be naturally made with a coconut husk. Coconut
husk is in direct combustion in order to make charcoal, otherwise the husk is simply
being thrown away. Coconut Husk is use in many different researches because it can
create things or substances to have lesser chemicals on it or the materials could be
naturally made. Coconut husk is consist of cellulose, lignin, gas, charcoal, tar, tannin
and potassium. While ink is made out of carbon black that can be found at the coconut
husk through its charcoal composition and it is also made of white pigments such as
titanium oxide, surfactants and lubricants. The lubricant is a substance that causes
something slippery and to move more smoothly it’s a substance such as grease or oil.
This study aims to know the effectiveness of Coconut Husk as an alternative ink
for markers. The researcher wants to know if the pigment that will be produce is stable.
Make coconut husk as a permanent marker. Provide a new alternative permanent
marker. To compare the difference between the alternative permanent marker and the
permanent marker bought in stores.
This study is encourages to give importance on the things we don’t always use to
make an alternative source of ink. This study will be beneficial to the User, This study
would be beneficial to the users of permanent markers. This study provides many
advantage to them, such as they would have more natural and cheaper way of having
ink for their permanent marker. In Agriculture, This study provides farmers and planters
an additional source of income. Also, this will increase the number of coconut trees that
is grown and planted in the Philippines. In ENVIRONMENT, This study will help to
decrease the number of coconut shells that are being wasted and thrown away by
reusing them. It will also help make use of the charcoal instead of throwing the excess
ashes after grilling instead of spreading the ashes in the air. . Lastly in STUDENTS,
students won’t have to spend a lot of money anymore just to avail refillable ink for their
school works or project. This experiment will also help them to develop new products for
ink. ENTREPRENEURS, this may be another choice for them to challenge and develop
another source of income for this and that it could encourage future entrepreneur to use
this to make a worldwide product. TEACHERS, teachers won’t have to spend much
money to avail refillable ink since they use printers most of the time to make reviewers,
letters and lesson plan. COMMUNITY, this would help the community to look for an
alternative source of ink for different things and purposes.
Coconut Husk can make activated carbon or activated charcoal powder from it
which could make as an adsorbent from basic dyes from different water-based solution.
Activated carbon is the one that absorbs the dye from the solution. Basic dyes are dyes
that are naturally produced and it is the dyes used for ribbons; it is satisfyingly tinted
when it has a bright shade but when it is washed, the dye slightly fades way. When the
dye concentration is high, therefore the dye adsorbent is also high. The adsorbent is
scanned from the gathered dye from the solution. The tests that was made by
researchers took only 60 minutes to understand what kind of dye is adsorbed. Natural
fibers such as coir fibers in coconut can possibly form glass. Glass that is said has
polypropylene which the fibers contain. Tests are made by the researchers and all of
them (sisal, kenaf, hemp, jute and coir) are said to be that it can possibly make glass.
The coir fiber showed up that it has the lowest mechanical properties among the five of
them but their impact is stronger than the jute and kenaf fibers.
Coconut Husk contains 30% coir fiber and 70% pith that are high in lignin and
phenolic content. This can make binder less board; it is a wood-based material that is
composed of lignin materials bonded without resin heat and pressure because there is
no resin on a binder less. Lignin in the plant tissue’s original thermal behavior is about
140 degrees celsius where it melts board and this is where the investigations for could
make the research fail this basic technology made a world class panels without
additional chemical binder. Coir fiber from coconut husk is the toughest kind of fiber
among the natural fibers. It could make concrete especially for the regions that
experiences earthquakes. Coconut fibers are used in plain concretes to improve its
behavior. Tests are made that CRFC with fiber length of 5cm and contains 5% fiber
contents has the best properties for this research. Coconut husk fibers/coir fibers were
damped by coconut fiber reinforce concrete (CRFC) beams that increase while
fundamental frequency decrease to make it stronger.
Indian ink will be made crazy for mostly charcoal and separate substances, like
honey, gum and water, those mixture turns into sticky that is the reason it has the
capacity to stay on for some time. In the advanced time, it is still for utilized for writing,
lettering, painting books Also comic strips, yet all the regularly utilized to work of art On
some nations for Asia and Europe. Indian ink might have been likewise utilized to
tattoos in the good country territories clinched alongside china. This might have been
utilized within the antiquated Egyptians Also Greeks. India ink may be a standout
amongst the most seasoned What's more practically tough pigments ever.
Inks need aid found over Just about each part of the human action similar to
perusing newspapers, magazines What's more books consistently. We aggravate piles
of photocopies and print a considerable measure about pages from our workstation.
Printers need been a standout amongst our essentials to our existence. Without it, we
wouldn’t have the capacity with make hard duplicates for our meets expectations.
What's more without ink, the printer will be pointless What's more we wouldn’t have the
capacity should settle on utilization out of it.
This chapter will focus on the procedure on how charcoal will be used as an
ingredient for printer ink. Experimental research is a collection of research designs to
determine the effects on the variable to another.
The process in making a charcoal are. First, Put charcoal to mortar and pestle
then pound. Second, Add vinegar, alcohol, cooking oil and salt. Then, Use a strainer
and pour the pounded mixture on the bowl. After that, Press the leftover particles on the
strainer. Lastly, Use the funnel and put the mixture into the empty bottle. Ingredients
that are needed to make an ink.
Coconut Husk, Alcohol, Vinegar, Salt and cooking oil. Tools that are needed to
make it are Mortar and Pestle, Empty bottle, Strainer, funnel, teaspoons, tablespoons,
bow, matchsticks and drum. The procedure in making thr charcoal are. First, Dig a hole
that fits the drum that you'll use. Second, Fill in the drum with the coconut shells and
husk. Then, Start the fire using fireballs (from cotton with alcohol) or simple create a fire
using matchsticks. After that, Put the fireballs/matchsticks on the coconut shells then
cover it. And then, leave a 4-inch hole for the smoke to flow. Lastly, open the drum after
cooling for 8 hours.
Ali, Majid., et al. "Mechanical and Dynamic Properties of Coconut Fiber Reinforced
Concrete." (November 23, 2017), Published on May 2012. Retrieved from
ScienceDirect.com, on
Armstrong, Alexandra Emilia L., et al.”Charcoal as Primary Agent For An Alternative
Ink.”(November 20,2017), Published on SY. 2015-2016.
Retrieved from Academia.edu.com, on
Caballero, Carol Ann G., et al. “ Plant Extract as an Alternative Ink for Markers.”
(November 20,2017), Published on SY. 2015-2016. Retrieved from
Academia.edu.com, on
Khairiraihanna, Johari., Shiow Tien Shong and Hanapi Mat., et al."Adsorption Equilibrium
and Kinetics of Elemental Mercury onto Coconut Pith."Journal of
Environmental Science and Technology. (May 2, 2015), Retrieve from
Onlinelbirary.wiley.com, on
Rafatullah, Sulaiman., Rokiah Hashim and Anees Amad., et al." Adsorption of
methylene blue on low-cost absorbents." Journal of Hazardous Materials,
vol.177, issues 1-3, July 7 2010, Pages 70-80.(September 15, 2016),
Retrieve from ScienceDirect.com, on
Teunissen, Wouter., et al. "Process for Production of High Density/High Performance
Binderless Boards from Whole Coconut Husk: Part 1: Lignin as Intrinsic
Thermosetting Binder Resin." (November 23, 2017), Published on May 2004.
Retrieved from ScienceDirect.com, on
Wambua, Paul., Jan Ivens and Ignaas Verpoest. "Natural fibres: can they replace glass
in fibre reinforced plastics?." Composite Science and Technology, vol. 63,
no. 9, July 2003. pp. 1259- 1264.(November 23, 2017), Retrieved from
ScienceDirect.com, on
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