Test Bank For A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder, Donald Jay Grout , Claude V. Palisca test bank

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A History of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder, Donald Jay Grout ,
Claude V. Palisca test bank
CHAPTER 6: New Developments in the Fourteenth CenturyCHAPTER 6: New
Developments in the Fourteenth Century
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The interest in capturing the pleasure of daily life in song, art, and literature could be
interpreted as a response to what fourteenth-century condition?a. the crisis in the
churchb. the development of technologies such the mechanical clock and the
compassc. the difficulty of life caused by a long-term economic slump, famine, and rise
in diseased. the emergence of empirical reasoning based on observatione. the rise of
Italian city-states
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: 111–113 | 140–141 TOP: European Society in the
Fourteenth Century| Echoes of the New ArtMSC: Conceptual
2. When did the Black Death epidemic peak in Europe?a. ca. 1300 d. ca. 1375b. ca.
1325 e. ca. 1400c. ca. 1350
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 112 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth Century MSC:
Factual
3. During the Babylonian Captivity, the papal throne was ina. Avignon d. Pisab. Milan e.
Romec. Paris
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 112 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth Century MSC:
Factual
4. What effect did the Great Schism have on fourteenth century society?a. it divided
Eastern and Western Christendomb. it led to corruption in the Churchc. it paved the way
for the modern scientific methodd. it reduced the size of the Holy Roman Empiree. it
weakened papal authority
ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: 112 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth Century MSC:
Conceptual
5. Which best describes the attitude of secularism?a. knowledge of humanity and nature
is based on absolute reasonb. knowledge of humanity and nature is based on direct
observation and experiencec. life can be improved through technology and innovationd.
a person can determine his or her own destinye. there are theological explanations for
every facet of life
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: 113 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth Century MSC:
Conceptual
6. All of the following artistic creations exemplify interest in secular society and
experiences of everyday life excepta. Boccaccio’s Decameronb. Chaucer’s Canterbury
Talesc. Dante’s Divine Comedyd. Machaut’s Rose, liz, printemps, verduree. the Roman
de Fauvel
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 113 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth Century MSC:
Applied
7. The Roman de Fauvel is an allegory abouta. the Ars Nova d. corruption at the French
courtb. the Babylonian Captivity e. the Great Schismc. the Black Death
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: 113 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth Century
MSC: Factual
8. The Roman de Fauvel includes isorhythmic motets bya. Francesco Landini d.
Philippe de Vitryb. Guillaume de Machaut e. Philippus de Casertac. Jacques de Liège
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 113 | 118 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth Century|
Isorhythm MSC: Factual
9. The treatise known as Ars nova describesa. corruption at the French courtb. an
expanded system of rhythm and meterc. the formes fixesd. a more precise method of
notating pitch than had existed previouslye. new rules for harmonic progressions and
dissonance control
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: 114 TOP: Ars Nova NotationMSC: Factual
10. In fourteenth-century French music, the smallest possible rhythmic value was called
thea. breve d. semibreveb. long e. semiminimc. minim
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: 114 TOP: Ars Nova NotationMSC: Factual
11. Fourteenth-century music saw an increased use of thirds and sixths asa. cadences
d. perfect consonancesb. dissonances e. perfectionsc. imperfect consonances
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: 115 TOP: Ars Nova NotationMSC: Applied
12. The following is an example of a. color d. mensurationb. hocket e. taleac. isorhythm
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 118–119 TOP: IsorhythmMSC: Applied
13. Guillaume de Machaut liveda. ca. 1200–1277 d. ca. 1300–1377b. ca. 1250–1340 e.
ca. 1325–1397c. ca. 1285–1349
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: 119 TOP: Guillaume de MachautMSC: Factual
14. Machaut wrote in all of the following genres excepta. isorhythmic motet d.
monophonic chansonb. madrigal e. polyphonic chansonc. Mass Ordinary
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: 120 | 121–126| 132 TOP: Guillaume de Machaut| The
Fourteenth-Century Madrigal MSC: Applied
15. Why is it difficult to evaluate Machaut’s place in the history of fourteenth-century
music?a. he is the only composer to have set Ordinary texts in his timeb. he oversaw
the copying of his complete works, saving only his best worksc. his music is atypical in
its frequent use of thirds and sixthsd. it was rare for composers to write their own
poetrye. very little music by his contemporaries survives
ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: 120–121 | 127 TOP: Guillaume de Machaut| Reputation
MSC: Conceptual
16. Machaut’s virelai Douce dame jolie uses the literary theme ofa. Ars Subtilior d.
pastorelleb. chanson de geste e. satirec. fin’ amors
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: 124 TOP: Monophonic SongsMSC: Applied
17. Which of the following provides evidence that Machaut conceived of his polyphonic
songs with the cantus, not the tenor, as the principal voice?a. at least one monophonic
song appears in a later manuscript with a tenorb. the tenor parts are in a lower range
than the cantusc. in some songs the cantus is partially isorhythmicd. the tenor parts are
untextede. the tenor parts have awkward leaps that make them unsingable
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: 126 TOP: Polyphonic SongsMSC: Conceptual
18. In Machaut’s songs, melismas are decorative (rather than serving to emphasize the
text) when they occura. at the beginnings of poetic lines d. on accented syllablesb. at
the ends of poetic lines e. on unaccented syllablesc. in the middle of poetic lines
ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: 126–127 TOP: Polyphonic SongsMSC: Applied
19. Which of the following has a French text?a. Francesco Landini’s Così pensosob.
Francesco Landini’s Non avrà ma’ pietàc. Guillaume de Machaut’s Messe de Nostre
Damed. Philippe de Vitry’s Cum statua/Hugo, Hugo, Magister invidiee. Philippus de
Caserta’s En remirant vo douce pourtraiture
ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: 128–129 TOP: The Ars SubtiliorMSC: Factual
20. All of the following are likely reasons why the Ars Subtilior went out of fashion
excepta. the complexity of the music appealed mainly to elite audiencesb. the formes
fixes went out of stylec. the Italian style of Jacopo da Bologna and Francesco Landini
was more naturalisticd. when the Great Schism ended, the papal court moved from
Avignon back to Romee. a simpler style was being cultivated in northern France
ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: 127–129 TOP: The Ars SubtiliorMSC: Conceptual
21. Jacopo da Bologna’s Non al suo amante sets a text by which famous Italian poet?a.
Dante Aligheri d. Francesco Petrarcab. Giovanni Boccaccio e. Antonio Squarcialupic.
Gherardello da Firenze
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 132 TOP: The Fourteenth-Century Madrigal MSC: Factual
22. Which of the following compositional devices is characteristic of Italian Trecento
madrigals?a. canonb. isorhythmc. melismas on the first and last syllables of poetic
linesd. opening and closing refrainse. simultaneous conflicting meters
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: 132 TOP: The Fourteenth-Century Madrigal MSC: Applied
23. The Italian ballata is similar in form to thea. ballade d. rondeaub. caccia e. virelaic.
madrigal
ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: 133 TOP: The BallataMSC: Applied
24. Which cadence structure occurs frequently in Landini’s music?a. d. b. e. c.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: 133–135 TOP: LandiniMSC: Applied
25. All of the following guide scholars and performers about the use of voices and
instruments in fourteenth-century polyphony excepta. aspects of musical styleb.
depictions of music-making in contemporary artc. descriptions of music-making in
contemporary literatured. payment records from churches and courtse. the composers’
indications in the manuscripts
ANS: E DIF: Medium REF: 135–137 TOP: ConceptMSC: Conceptual
TRUE/FALSE
1. Syncopation was impossible before the innovations of the Ars Nova.
ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: 114 TOP: Ars Nova NotationMSC: Conceptual
2. The term talea refers to a repeating segment of melody in the tenor of an isorhythmic
motet.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 118 TOP: IsorhythmMSC: Factual
3. All of the movements of Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame are isorhythmic.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: 121–123 TOP: Guillaume de Machaut | Mass MSC: Applied
4. Machaut authored the texts of his monophonic and polyphonic chansons.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 120–121 | 124 | 126 TOP: Guillaume de Machaut| Monophonic
Songs| Polyphonic Songs MSC: Factual
5. The formes fixes originally had associations with dancing.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 126 TOP: Polyphonic SongsMSC: Factual
6. Most French and Italian polyphonic songs from the fourteenth century are for three or
four voices.
ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: 126 | 132 | 133 TOP: Polyphonic Songs| The FourteenthCentury Madrigal| Francesco LandiniMSC: Applied
7. The Ars Subtilior was cultivated at the papal court in Avignon.
ANS: T DIF: Medium REF: 127 TOP: The Ars SubtiliorMSC: Factual
8. In an Italian Trecento caccia, all three voices are canonic.
ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: 132 TOP: The CacciaMSC: Applied
9. The classifications haut (“high”) and bas (“low”) refer to the relative loudness of
instruments.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: 136 TOP: InstrumentsMSC: Factual
10. In many French and Italian polyphonic songs from the fourteenth century, the lower
voices have no texts. This indicates that the songs must have originally been performed
with instruments playing the lower voices.
ANS: F DIF: Medium REF: 137 TOP: Fourteenth-Century Music in Performance MSC:
Conceptual
SHORT ANSWER
1. What manuscript did the image below come from? How can you tell?
ANS: The image is from the Roman de Fauvel. The manuscript contains music, poetry,
and images and tells the story of a horse named Fauvel. The horse appears in the
center column at the top and bottom.
DIF: Hard REF: 113–114 TOP: European Society in the Fourteenth CenturyMSC:
Applied
2. Identify at least two innovations of the Ars Nova notational system.
ANS: 1) duple divisions of note values are now acceptable; 2) the minim is now the
smallest note value; 3) the invention of mensuration signs, symbols that are ancestors
of our modern time signatures.
DIF: Medium REF: 114 TOP: Ars Nova Notation MSC: Factual
3. When Jacques de Liège opposed the musical innovations of the fourteenth century,
he complained that “perfection is brought low, [and] imperfection is exalted.” What does
he mean by perfection and imperfection in this context?
ANS: It could have two meanings: one is the development of duple or “imperfect”
meters. In the old style, the only meter was triple and the name of the metrical unit was
the perfection; the triple unit may have had associations with the Trinity. He could also
be referring to composers widely using thirds and sixths. These had been previously
regarded as dissonances, but in the fourteenth century composers and theorists
accepted them as “imperfect consonances.”
DIF: Medium REF: 115 TOP: Ars Nova Notation MSC: Conceptual
4. Using appropriate vocabulary, explain the organization of the tenor in an isorythmic
motet.
ANS: The tenor of an isorhythmic motet is organized into a repeating rhythmic cycle,
called the talea, and a repeating melodic phrase, called the color. In some motets, the
talea and the color are the same length. In other motets, two or more repetitions of the
talea are needed to complete one cycle of the color. Hocket in the upper voices may
occur at repetitions of the talea.
DIF: Hard REF: 118 TOP: Isorhythm MSC: Applied
5. The following is a tenor from an isorhythmic motet by Phillipe de Vitry. How many
measures long is the talea? How many measures long is the color?
ANS: The talea is two measures long (half-whole-half-two half rests). The color is ten
measures long (cde ddd efe dde gde ddc). There are six statements of the talea to one
statement of the color.
DIF: Medium REF: 118 TOP: Isorhythm MSC: Applied
6. Define “hocket.”
ANS: Hocket is a rapid alternation of sounded pitches and rests in two voices. In
isorhythmic motets passages of hocket sometimes alternate with repetitions of the talea.
Compositions that make extensive use of the technique are called hockets.
DIF: Medium REF: 119 TOP: Isorhythm MSC: Applied
7. What is the main characteristic of the Ars Subtilior repertory?
ANS: An emphasis on rhythmic and mensural complexity, taking the developments of
the Ars Nova to an extreme.
DIF: Medium REF: 127 TOP: The Ars Subtilior MSC: Factual
8. How does the musical substance of a caccia relate to its text?
ANS: The caccia is a composition in which there are two canonic upper voices above a
tenor. The upper canonic voices “chase” each other. Often texts of caccias relate to
hunting, fishing, or other animated scenarios. The chasing of the canonic voices is
similar to the chasing, bustling scenes described in the text.
DIF: Medium REF: 132–133 TOP: The Caccia MSC: Applied
9. Describe two scenarios in which a performer would be likely to use musica ficta.
ANS: To avoid the tritone F-B in a melody (melodic tritone); or to avoid sounding a
tritone against the lowest note (harmonic tritone); or to create a major sixth before the
octave at a cadence where there would normally be a minor sixth.
DIF: Hard REF: 138–139 TOP: Musica Ficta MSC: Applied
10. Look at the example below. In m. 3, contratenor, the composer did not specify a Csharp. It has been supplied by the editor (indicated by being printed above the staff). In
m. 9, contratenor, the composer did specify a C-sharp (indicated by being printed in
front of the note within the staff). Why did the composer specify a C-sharp in m. 9, but
not in m. 3?
ANS: In mm. 3–4, there is obviously a cadence, and the singer would have known to
raise the C to a C-sharp in preparation for the cadence in m. 4. In m. 9, it is not obvious
that a C-sharp would be desired, and the change is not obvious from the rules. In fact, it
is counterintuitive, since the C-sharp creates a melodic tritone with the G on the
downbeat of m 10.
DIF: Hard REF: 140 TOP: Musica Ficta MSC: Conceptual
MATCHING
Match each genre with the correct form below.a. ballade d. rondeaub. ballata e. virelaic.
madrigal
1. A bba A
2. A bba A bba A bba A
3. aab
4. aabC aabC aabC
5. AB aA ab AB
1. ANS: B
2. ANS: E
3. ANS: C
4. ANS: A
5. ANS: D
Match each genre with a composition in that genre, below.a. ballade d. motetb. caccia
e. rondeauc. madrigal
6. Francesco Landini, Così pensoso
7. Guillaume de Machaut, Rose, liz, printemps, verdure
8. Jacopo da Bologna, Non al suo amante
9. Philippe de Vitry, Cum statua/Hugo, Hugo/Magister invidie
10. Phillipus de Caserta, En remirant vo douce pourtraiture
6. ANS: B
7. ANS: E
8. ANS: C
9. ANS: D
10. ANS: A
ESSAY
1. Compare and contrast French and Italian compositional practices in polyphonic song
ca. 1300–1400. How are they similar and how are they different? Consider such
aspects as musical and poetic form, rhythm and meter, declamation, harmonic
language, and anything else you consider relevant.
ANS: Answers will vary.
2. In his Messe de Nostre Dame, Machaut chose different compositional forms and
styles depending on the length of the text for a given movement. Explain and illustrate
this.
ANS: Answers will vary.
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