Test Bank For Childhood Voyages in Development- 6th Edition by Spencer A. Rathus

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Chapter 6 Sample
True / False
1. In the sixth substage of Piaget’s sensorimotor period, external exploration is replaced by
mental exploration.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
True
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
2. By two months of age, infants have developed object permanence.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
False
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
3. Cognitive development has been found to occur in less discrete stages than Piaget
believed.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
True
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
4. Five-month-old infants can understand basic computational concepts such as more and
less.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
True
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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Page 1
5. The imitation reflex may contribute to caregiver-infant bonding and newborn survival.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
True
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
6. Central to information-processing theory is the concept of the zone of proximal
development.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
False
6.3 Social Influences on Early Cognitive Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.3 – Illustrate how Vygotsky’s theory of
cognitive development
applies to infancy.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
7. Infant IQ scores reliably predict adult IQ scores.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
False
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
8. Across time, visual recognition memory remains a fairly stable trait.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
True
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
9. Babbling typically combines consonants and vowels.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
True
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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10. Words expressing movement are rarely found in children’s early speech.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
False
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
11. The mean length of utterance (MLU) is the average number of morphemes used in a
sentence.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
True
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
12. Infants prefer infant-directed speech rather than adult talk.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
True
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain structures and growth relate to language development.
13. Key biological structures that may provide the basis for the LAD are based in the right
hemisphere for most people.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
False
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
14. Persons with Broca’s aphasia speak slowly and laboriously.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
True
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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15. Before puberty, children suffering left hemisphere injuries frequently recover much of
their speaking ability.
1. True
1. False
ANSWER:
True
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
Multiple Choice
16. Which theorist described children’s attempts to learn about their environments as
“experiments in order to see?”
1. Piaget
1. Vygotsky
1. Bronfenbrenner
1. Bandura
ANSWER:
a
REFERENCES:
Introduction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
17. Cognitive development in children is the process by which
1. children perceive and mentally represent the world.
1. intelligence is developed.
1. children learn to imitate others.
1. children learn strategies for developing short- and long-term memory.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
18. According to Piaget (1963), children’s cognitive processes develop
1. in a slow, continuous way from childhood to adulthood.
1. in an orderly sequence, or series of stages.
1. primarily by age 7, after which no new cognitive development occurs.
1. through a developmental sequence that varies greatly for each child.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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19. Wyatt has learned that his round ball is called a toy. When Wyatt sees an orange or a
grapefruit, he calls these toys as well. His thought process BEST represents
1. accommodation.
1. differentiation.
1. assimilation.
1. conceptualization.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
20. Hazel got a puppy. She knows that puppies are animals. Her next-door neighbor has a
cat. Hazel’s mother tells her that both puppies and cats are animals. As a result, Hazel
changes her scheme of animals to include cats. Changing
o scheme to incorporate new information is called
1. assimilation.
1. reaction range.
1. augmentation.
1. accommodation.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
21. Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget’s proposed stages of cognitive
development?
1. Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
1. Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
1. Trust, Autonomy, Initiative, Industry
1. Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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Page 5
22. Dylan’s dad places a toy that Dylan has been playing with under a small blanket. Dylan
lifts the cloth to find the toy Dylan’s behavior is representative of which stage of cognitive
development?
1. Coordination of secondary schemes
1. Primary circular reaction
1. Secondary circular reaction
1. Tertiary circular reaction
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
23. Which is the BEST example of a simple reflex?
1. Reaching for a rattle
1. Purposefully searching under a blanket for a toy
1. Looking to see where your mother is
1. Turning toward the source of a loud noise
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
24. Of the following substages in Piaget’s sensorimotor period, which is the most cognitive
advanced?
1. Coordination of secondary schemes
1. Primary circular reaction
1. Secondary circular reaction
1. Tertiary circular reaction
ANSWER:
d
REFERENCES:
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
25. During which stage of cognitive development would you witness a tertiary circular
reaction?
1. Sensorimotor
1. Preoperations
1. Concrete operations
1. Formal operations
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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Page 6
26. Which of the following represents a primary circular reaction?
1. Kala accidentally touches her nose with her thumb and then repeats it.
1. Jose turns toward the sound of the phone ringing.
1. Lorenzo kicks his mobile over and over because it makes it move.
1. Megan pulls her blanket so it will bring her teddy bear close enough to grab it.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
27. What is a circular reaction?
1. A behavior that is repeated
1. A connection between an observation and a memory
1. A connection between a stimulus and a response
1. A simple reflex
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
28. Can a 3-month-old child visually track objects?
1. No
1. Yes
1. Yes, but only if the object moves very slowly
1. Yes, but only if the object is very brightly colored
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
29. In which substage of sensorimotor development would you first witness goal-directed
behavior?
1. Simple reflexes
1. Secondary circular reactions
1. Primary circular reactions
1. Tertiary circular reactions
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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Page 7
30. By the end of the primary circular reaction substage, Piaget’s son Laurent was
1. discovering his hands by chance.
1. moving his hands in order to see them.
1. looking for toys that his father had hidden.
1. imitating his father’s facial expressions.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
31. Emma is 7 months old. She intentionally shakes a rattle so it will make a noise she likes.
This is an example of
1. secondary circular reaction.
1. simple reflex.
1. primary circular reaction.
1. tertiary circular reaction.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
32. How do primary and secondary circular reactions differ?
1. Primary involve only reflexes, whereas secondary involve thoughts.
1. They are the same; one is just engaging in a more complex behavior.
1. Primary focus on the body, whereas secondary focus on the environment.
1. Primary involve more important behaviors than secondary.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
33. Which of the following represents a secondary circular reaction?
1. Watching your foot pass before your eyes
1. Pushing a button on a toy to hear a sound that you like
1. Turning your head in the direction of a sound
1. Opening a jar to get the cookies you saw your Grandma put in there
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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Page 8
34. When an infant visually tracks an object, what happens when the object moves out of
view?
1. The infant will continue trying to find it.
1. The infant will become visibly upset.
1. What the infant will do depends upon the age (and stage) of the infant.
1. The infant will abandon the tracking without concern.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
35. With coordination of secondary schemes,
1. the child can differentiate between how to achieve a goal and the goal itself.
1. the child is coordinating primary circular reactions.
1. the child engages in actions in a deliberate trial-and-error fashion to learn how things
work.
1. the child is still engaging in most repetitions of behaviors by accident.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
36. If an infant reaches for a toy hidden under a cloth, what does this suggest?
1. What it means depends upon the age of the child
1. That the child has a mental representation of the object in mind
1. That this activity is still random at this age
1. What it means depends upon the sex of the child
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
37. Amir is 10 months old. He is able to push one toy aside in order to reach another that he
wishes to play with. He is also able to imitate the gestures and sounds his parents make
when they play with him. This is an example of
1. primary circular reactions.
1. invention of new means through mental combinations.
1. schema assimilation.
1. coordination of secondary schemes.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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Page 9
38. By what age will a child demonstrate coordination of secondary schemes?
1. By 2-3 months
1. By 4-5 months
1. Not until 8-9 months
1. Not until 12-18 months
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
39. By what age will a child demonstrate tertiary circular reactions?
1. By 2-3 months
1. By 4-5 months
1. By 8-9 months
1. Not until 12-18 months
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
40. Which of the following is an example of a tertiary circular reaction?
1. Kala accidentally touches her nose with her thumb, it makes her laugh, she then repeats
the action, and it makes her laugh again.
1. Jose turns toward the sound of the phone ringing.
1. Lorenzo kicks his mobile over and over because it makes it move.
1. After many tries, Megan turns her toy sideways and is able to pull it into the crib; now,
whenever she wants the toy, she turns it sideways to pull it through.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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41. Which substage of sensorimotor development serves as a transition to the symbolic
thought of the next stage?
1. Tertiary circular reaction
1. Secondary circular reaction
1. Invention of new means through mental combinations
1. Coordination of secondary schemes
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
42. With tertiary circular reactions,
1. trial and error is used in order to learn how things work.
1. trial and error is not needed.
1. the child will give up if something does not work the first time.
1. the child will rely on someone else to react
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
43. A child wants a toy that is too big to be pulled straight through the bars of her crib. She
studies the toy for some time and then grabs it, turns it sideways, and fits it through the
bars. This child is using
1. primary circular reaction.
1. invention of new means through mental combinations.
1. secondary circular reactions.
1. coordination of secondary schemes.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
44. At what age will a child begin to mentally represent objects?
1. 6-8 months
1. 18-24 months
1. 12-18 months
1. Not until 24-36 months
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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Page 11
45. Object permanence refers to
1. an understanding that changes in shape do not change the object.
1. a realization that objects can look different, but still be the same.
1. recognition that things continue exist even when they are out of sight.
1. the recognition that once an object is put in a given position it must stay there forever.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
46. What ability would not be necessary for object permanence to occur?
1. Memory
1. Understanding the connection between what can be seen and not seen
1. The ability to form mental representations
1. Centration
ANSWER:
d
REFERENCES:
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
47. Elliot left his backpack on the bus to school this morning. Even though his backpack is
not at school with him, he still knows it exists on the bus. This demonstrates which of
Piaget’s concepts?
1. Accommodation
1. Object permanence
1. Deferred imitation
1. Shaping
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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48. According to Piaget, children
1. develop the skills that lead to object permanence by 3 months of age.
1. develop an understanding of object permanence all at once.
1. come to understand object permanence even without prior experience.
1. develop object permanence before they develop emotional bonds to specific caregivers.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
49. What does the phrase “A not B error” mean?
1. Children will not search for hidden objects unless given an incentive.
1. Children will randomly search for hidden objects, but will quickly become frustrated and
give up.
1. A child may reach for a hidden object where it has always been, yet still reach there
even when they see the toy hidden somewhere else.
1. A child will search for a hidden toy but will quickly become distracted by other, more
interesting objects.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
50. If an infant cries when the mother puts her down and walks away, and then stops crying
when the mother picks the infant back up, does this represent an understanding of
object permanence?
1. Yes
1. No
1. Yes, but only if the child is at least 2 months old
1. Not necessarily; it depends upon whether the child has a mental representation of the
mother
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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Page 13
51. What is the earliest age that a rudimentary knowledge of object permanence has been
found?
1. At birth
1. 2 ½ to 3 ½ months
1. 8-10 months
1. 12-14 months
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
52. Research has found that infants as young as 2.5 months of age have a rudimentary form
of object permanence. Why then, do they not actively search for hidden objects until 8
months of age?
1. Coordination of acts does not occur until 8 months.
1. Children do not “look in order to see” until 8 months of age.
1. 8-month-olds do not yet perform primary circular reactions.
1. 8-month-olds lack the ability to assimilate.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
53. Bettina Pollock and colleagues (2000) found that magpies
1. go from primary to tertiary circular reactions, bypassing secondary circular reactions.
1. hide food, but do not possess object permanence.
1. develop object permanence before hiding food.
1. use deferred imitation.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
54. When we evaluate Piaget’s theory, we can conclude that
1. infant cognitive development occurs in discrete stages and at the ages put forth by
Piaget.
1. his theory does not hold true cross-culturally.
1. subsequent research shows children develop cognitive skills much later than Piaget
proposed.
1. his theory has been supported in terms of the sequence and pattern of events across
different cultures.
ANSWER:
d
REFERENCES:
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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55. Piaget may have underestimated infants’ cognitive competence. For example, more
recent research finds that infants develop object permanence, as well as ____, earlier
than Piaget hypothesized.
1. accommodation
1. deferred imitation
1. simple reflexes
1. trial-and-error problem solving
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
56. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
1. have only been documented in Piaget’s own children.
1. apply more directly to the cognitive development of girls than boys.
1. apply more directly to the cognitive development of boys than girls.
1. have been documented in children in several different countries.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
57. Jocelyn watches as her mother puts her toys in a basket. Two weeks later, after never
having engaged in this behavior, Jocelyn attempts to put her toys in the basket. This
illustrates
1. object permanence.
1. assimilation.
1. deferred imitation.
1. the A-Not-B error.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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58. Deferred imitation means
1. the child can mimic only within 5 seconds what he/she has seen.
1. children can imitate from the moment they are born.
1. a child has a mental representation in mind long before the behavior is imitated.
1. imitation is a more automatic process than was assumed in the past.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
59. Leah, a 9-month-old infant, watches as her mother pushes a button on a toy and the toy
beeps. Several hours later, Leah pushes the button and the toy beeps. This is an
example of
1. deferred imitation.
1. imitation.
1. instrumental learning.
1. classical conditioning.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
60. In contrast to Piaget, information-processing theorists focus on
1. unconscious desires and drives.
1. emotional development of the child.
1. how children manipulate or process information.
1. how reinforcements and punishments shape behavior.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.3 – Illustrate how Vygotsky’s theory of
cognitive development
applies to infancy.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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61. Neonates who are breast-fed are able to remember and recognize their mother’s unique
smell. What does this illustrate?
1. Imitation
1. Memory
1. Object permanence
1. Deferred imitation
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
62. Which of the following is TRUE of infant memory?
1. Infants demonstrate memory for experiences they had during the pregnancy (before
birth).
1. Infants do not demonstrate reliable memory until about 3 months of age.
1. Infants can only remember after 6 months of age.
1. Infants can memorize things with only one exposure.
ANSWER:
a
REFERENCES:
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
Bloom’s: Remember
KEYWORDS:
63. When does the first dramatic improvement in infant memory occur?
1. Prenatally
1. Between 1-2 months of age
1. Between 2-6 months of age
1. Between 6-8 months of age
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
64. Improvement in infant memory probably indicates
1. enhanced encoding of information.
1. less efficiency in retrieving stored information.
1. that older infants use more memory pruning.
1. that deferred imitation must come before a child’s ability to remember is solidified.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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65. Rovee-Collier and her colleagues (1993) tied one end of a ribbon to a brightly colored
mobile and tied the other end ties to an infant’s ankle. What did these studies measure?
1. Object permanence
1. Habituation
1. Memory
1. The age of onset of primary circular reactions
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
66. How many days after learning a task can a typical 2-month-old remember it?
1. A few hours
1. 12 hours
1. Up to 2 days
1. Up to 3 days
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
67. How many days after learning a task can a typical 3-month-old remember it?
1. 12 hours
1. Up to 2 days
1. Up to 4 days
1. A week or more
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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68. Zeena is 3 months old. She is taking part in a research study in which one end of a
string is tied to her wrist and the other end is tied to a screen. When she moves her
hand, the screen lifts and she can see a toy on the other side. How many days after
learning this task will Zeena be able to remember it?
1. 12 hours
1. 1-2 days
1. 3-4 days
1. More than one week
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
69. In the studies of infant memory in which a mobile was tied to an infant’s ankle, infant
memory was improved by
1. priming.
1. increasing the number of times the infant was exposed to the memory item during the
day he/she learned it.
1. giving the infant a reward when she/he learns the memory task.
1. negligible amounts, and only temporarily.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
70. Research studies have shown that infants can imitate adults opening their mouths and
sticking out their tongues. How early has this imitative behavior been observed in
infants?
1. At 2 days of age
1. Less than 1 hour old
1. Not before 3 days of age
1. After 1 week
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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71. If an infant sticks out his tongue in response to a parent doing the same action, what has
occurred?
1. Memory
1. Imitation
1. A random act
1. Accommodation
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
72. If a one-hour-old infant sticks out her tongue in response to an adult doing the same,
what has occurred?
1. The infant observed the adult and then decided to stick out her tongue.
1. Learning has occurred.
1. Deferred imitation has occurred.
1. Given the age of the child, this is most likely an imitation reflex.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
73. Imitation is said to occur
1. when any act tried once is repeated.
1. only in response to another person engaging in the same behavior.
1. without thought.
1. only reflexively.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
74. Mirror neurons are activated by
1. performing an act, but not merely watching it.
1. verbally responding to someone else’s gestures.
1. watching another perform the same act and/or imitating it.
1. physically responding to someone else’s gestures in a unique way.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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Page 20
75. Moving from reflexive imitation to purposeful imitation requires
1. improvements in cognitive abilities.
1. just the passing of time.
1. significant effort on the part of the child over an extended period of time.
1. the emergence of genetic programming.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
76. Which of the following is not a proposed reason why newborns possess an imitation
reflex?
1. It contributes to caregiver-infant bonding.
1. It helps ensure survival of the newborn.
1. It may be due to “mirror neurons” in the human brain.
1. It helps the child elicit information about who his or her parent is.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
77. Vygotsky’s theory focused on
1. how children come to learn from skilled caregivers and older children.
1. the infant’s ability to imitate what he/she sees.
1. how infants come to encode and store information from the environment.
1. levels of infant intelligence.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.3 Social Influences on Early Cognitive Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: OBJ: VOYG.RATH.17.6.3 – Illustrate how Vygotsky’s
theory of cognitive
development applies to infancy.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
78. A study by Robinson and colleagues (2008) found that in low-income mothers and
children
1. maternal scaffolding had no effect on child performance in the “child alone” task.
1. mothers who provided the most scaffolding had children who performed best on the
“child alone” task.
1. mothers who provided the least scaffolding had children who performed best on the
“child alone” task.
1. maternal scaffolding predicted child intelligence levels.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.3 Social Influences on Early Cognitive Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.3 – Illustrate how Vygotsky’s theory of
cognitive development
applies to infancy.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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79. Which of the following is a measure of intellectual development among infants?
1. Apgar scale
1. Bayley scales
1. Vygotsky scale
1. Piaget scales
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
b
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
80. In terms of individual differences in intelligence among infants,
1. there are no individual differences in intelligence among infants.
1. infant intelligence develops in a discontinuous, stage-like process across childhood.
1. there can be a great deal of variability in intelligence among infants.
1. there is a genetic process of development that minimizes individual differences in infant
intelligence.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
c
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
81. Mai is 8 months old. She is being given an infant intelligence test composed of 178
mental-scale items, 111 motor-scale items, and a behavioral rating scale. Which test is
she taking?
1. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
1. Bayley scales
1. Stanford-Binet IQ test
1. Vygotsky’s scaffolding test
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
b
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
82. Which of the following is one of the mental-scale items from the Bayley test?
1. The infant builds a tower of two blocks after the examiner demonstrates the behavior.
1. The infant raises herself to a seated position.
1. The infant attempts to pick up a sugar pill that is out of reach.
1. The examiner counts the number of times the infant verbalizes in a 2-minute period.
ANSWER:
a
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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Page 22
83. Which of the following is one of the motor-scale items from the Bayley test?
1. The infant glances back and forth from a rattle to a bell.
1. The infant removes cup to obtain an item hidden underneath.
1. The infant builds a tower with two cubes.
1. The infant raises self to a sitting position.
ANSWER:
d
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
84. When would a child’s Bayley test scores be average?
1. There are no norms, so an average score cannot be determined.
1. When the infant can complete 100% of the items for his or her age group.
1. When the infant passes the test at the age at which 50% of other infants pass the test.
1. It differs from child to child based upon genetics and environment.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
c
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
85. In its simplest sense, the Bayley scales measure
1. mental and motor abilities.
1. genetic influences on intelligence.
1. environmental influences on intelligence.
1. social and emotional development.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
a
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
86. A main reason to test infant intelligence is so that we can
1. ensure that gifted children are enrolled in gifted academic programs.
1. try to detect early sensory or neurological problems.
1. predict adult intelligence test scores.
1. determine if infants in the current generation are more intelligent than infants from past
generations.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
b
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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87. How well do infant IQ tests, such as the Bayley scales, predict later school success?
1. Overall scores on the Bayley scales predict later school grades and IQ scores.
8. Performance on the Bayley language items predict language skills at ages 6-8.
1. The Bayley scales can predict math grades in elementary school.
1. Items on the Bayley scales predict school success through college.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
b
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
88. Sensorimotor tests of infant development
1. are strongly related to subsequent IQ scores.
1. are highly related to verbal and symbolic scores obtained in later childhood.
1. are not really similar to the intelligence measures used in later childhood.
1. strongly predict childhood success in school.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
c
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
89. Cognitive functioning in infancy
1. is difficult to measure.
1. is very stable and should be used to assess potential areas for concern.
1. differs greatly depending upon the sex of the child.
1. accurately predicts success in later life.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
a
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
90. Jasdeep can tell the difference between a person he has seen before and a new one.
This ability is referred to as
1. habituation.
1. sensory memory.
1. visual recognition memory.
1. classical conditioning.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
c
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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91. A child is shown two objects for 20 seconds. After this, one of the objects is replaced
and the infant spends more time looking at the new object. What does this represent?
1. Visual recognition memory
1. Selective attention
1. Perceptual constancies
1. Scaffolding
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
a
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
92. Higher visual recognition scores in infancy are related to
1. attention deficit disorder in later childhood.
1. creativity in later childhood.
1. better memory in later childhood.
1. higher IQ scores later in childhood.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
d
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
93. Rose and her colleagues (2001) showed that visual recognition memory is
1. somewhat stable from age to age.
1. related significantly to brain myelination.
1. positively correlated with brain weight.
1. a good way to screen infants for sensory or neurological problems.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
a
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
94. To date, it appears that the best predictor of later IQ scores is
1. the Bayley test.
1. parent IQ scores.
1. tests of visual recognition memory.
1. the Apgar test.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Among Infants
c
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers
can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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Page 25
95. In terms of language,
1. children can only understand the words they can say.
1. its development is predetermined and independent of experience.
1. children can understand many more words than they can speak.
1. its development is linked very closely to the development of visual memory.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
96. Language development is
1. unpredictable.
1. sequenced and step-like.
Bloom’s: Apply
1. dependent entirely upon environmental stimulation, not genetics.
1. gender specific in its timing.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
97. What is the earliest communicative sound a child makes?
1. Crying
1. Cooing
1. Saying “ma” or “pa”
1. It varies by cultural background.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
98. Vocalizations that do NOT represent objects or events are called a. prelinguistic.
1. nonsensical.
1. random.
1. paralinguistic.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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99. Is infant crying a primitive form of language?
1. Yes, because crying represents language.
1. No, because cries do not represent objects or events.
1. It depends upon the type of cry emitted.
1. It depends upon the sex of the child.
ANSWER:
b
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
100.
Bloom’s: Understand
During the first month of a child’s life, crying
1. is highly specific.
1. is activated by the vocal tract.
1. is the only sound that is made.
1. serves no useful purpose.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
Bloom’s: Remember
KEYWORDS:
101.
Infants begin cooing
1. at birth.
1. at one week of age.
1. during the second month of life.
1. during the fourth month of life.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
102.
Infant “ooh” and “aah” sounds, which are linked to pleasure or positive
excitement, are called
1. positive cries.
1. cooing.
1. babbling.
1. echolalia.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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103.
Which of the following is MOST sophisticated?
1. Making no sound, which shows awareness that all is well
1. Cooing
1. Crying
1. Babbling
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
104.
do?
Sean is a 12-week-old infant. In terms of language development, which can Sean
1. Crying only
1. Crying and cooing
1. Babbling
1. Babbling and chuckling
ANSWER:
b
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
105.
Babbling
Bloom’s: Apply
1. appears between 6 and 9 months of age.
1. occurs before cooing.
1. is strongly related to words the child is trying to say.
1. occurs after the ability to use intonation.
ANSWER:
a
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
106.
Bloom’s: Remember
When infants babble, they tend to babble
1. sounds they have heard before.
1. names for mommy and daddy.
1. vowel sounds only.
1. combinations of consonants and vowels.
ANSWER:
d
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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107.
Intonation involves
1. rising and falling speech patterns.
1. the repetition of consonants and vowels.
1. repeating what has been heard.
1. babbling sounds from all possible languages.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
108.
As baby Michael plays in his crib, his parents overhear him making repetitive
sounds such as “babababa” and “dadadada.” This repeating of syllables is called
1. cooing.
1. echolalia.
1. babbling.
1. intonation.
ANSWER:
b
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
109.
Bloom’s: Apply
Echolalia involves
1. infants understanding more words than they can say.
1. infants speaking words they really don’t understand.
1. infants repeating syllables.
1. making up words that have meaning only to the user.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Remember
Theo is 10 months old. His parents overhear him talking to himself in his crib. His
language resembles adult speech in sound, with words rising and falling. This is called
1. echolalia.
1. intonation.
1. turn-taking.
1. vocabulary development.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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111.
Which of the following supports the idea that babbling is innate?
1. Parents can encourage babbling by responding to their babies’ babbling sounds.
1. Babbling is related to later language and reading skills.
1. Deaf children babble using gestures that are similar to the babbling sounds of children
who can hear.
1. Cultural background influences what sounds a child will babble.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand
Which of the following is TRUE?
1. Receptive vocabulary generally exceeds expressive vocabulary.
1. Expressive vocabulary generally exceeds receptive vocabulary.
1. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary are always equal.
1. Receptive vocabulary is determined by genetics, whereas expressive vocabulary is
determined by the environment.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand
The average 12-month-old child can speak ____ words and understands ____ words.
1. 5; 30
1. 8; 45
1. 13; 84
1. 22; 90
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember

When is an infant’s first word typically spoken?
1. Between 11 and 13 months of age
1. Usually by 10 months of age
1. Not before 24 months of age
1. It depends upon the child’s cultural background.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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
Brian and Tamara are concerned because their 12-month-old son has yet to speak his
first word. As an expert in child development, what do you tell them?
1. They should be concerned as most children speak their first word before their first
birthday.
1. They shouldn’t be concerned because boys develop speech much later than girls.
1. They shouldn’t be concerned because anywhere between 8 to 18 months of age is
considered normal for speaking first words.
1. Children ordinarily speak using words by 6 months of age, so they should have their son
tested for hearing problems.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Apply
After children speak their first words, verbal acquisition tends to be
1. fast, with children speaking 40-50 words within a month.
1. slow, with children speaking 10-30 words within 3-4 months.
1. fast, as expressive vocabulary outpaces receptive vocabulary.
1. slow, with children acquiring about one new word each day.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Remember
In the following sentence, choose which word represents a general nominal: Our dog,
Sport, chased the car down the street.
1. our
1. Sport
1. car
1. chased
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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
In the following sentence, choose which word represents a specific nominal: Our dog,
Sport, chased the car down the street.
1. our
1. Sport
1. car
1. chased
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
b
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Apply
A specific nominal refers to
1. classes of objects.
1. personal pronouns.
1. proper nouns.
1. words longer than two syllables.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
120.
Bloom’s: Remember
The first words that infants produce
1. are very similar across cultures.
1. tend to be objects that are brightly colored and shiny.
1. have no specific degree of predictability.
1. are mostly general and specific nominals.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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121.
At about 18 to 22 months of age, there is a rapid burst in vocabulary.
Approximately 75% of the words added during this time are nouns. This vocabulary burst
can be called
1. the expressive explosion.
1. the specific nominal explosion.
1. the naming explosion.
1. referential style.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
122.
Referential language style focuses on ____, whereas expressive language style
focuses on ____.
1. objects; social interactions
1. social interactions; objects
1. general nominals; specific nominals
1. things that move; things that are stationary
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
123.
The classic research of Eve Clark (1973; 1975) indicated that in terms of
overextension,
1. babies born in the United States use overextension more than babies born in other
countries.
1. boys use overextension more than girls.
1. children use overextension to the same extent their parents use overextension.
1. its use is based upon perceived similarities in form or function between the original
object and the new one.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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124.
Logan calls his favorite toy car “go-go.” Now whenever he sees anything with
wheels such as a bicycle, a train, or a grocery cart, he also calls it “go-go.” This is an
example of
1. underextension.
1. referential language style.
1. expressive language style.
1. overextension.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
125.
A child learns to call a dog “bow-wow” and now calls all animals he sees “bowwow.” This is an example of
1. telegraphic speech.
1. overextension.
1. egocentric speech.
1. morpheme.
ANSWER:
b
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
126.
Bloom’s: Apply
Telegraphic speech is characterized by
1. overextension.
1. lengthy sentences.
1. egocentric speech.
1. nouns, verbs, and some modifiers.
ANSWER:
d
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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127.
To the delight of her parents, 20-month-old Maya just exclaimed “Daddy go!”
What does this utterance best represent?
1. A holophrase
1. A morpheme
1. Telegraphic speech
1. MLU
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
128.
Bloom’s: Apply
What is a morpheme?
1. A single word meant to represent an entire phrase
1. A single word meant to represent multiple objects
1. The total length of an infant’s utterance
1. The smallest unit of meaning in a language
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
d
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
129.
Mean length of utterance (MLU) refers to
1. the average number of morphemes a child uses in a sentence.
1. the total number of sounds a child makes when trying to express herself.
1. the average number of letters in the child’s usual utterances.
1. the amount of time that passes between when a child starts and stops speaking.
ANSWER:
a
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
130.
Bloom’s: Remember
To whom do we attribute the concept of mean length of utterance (MLU)?
1. Piaget
1. Chomsky
1. Bayley
1. Brown
ANSWER:
d
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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131.
What is the relationship between MLU and chronological age?
1. As chronological age increases, MLU tends to decrease.
1. As chronological age increases, MLU tends to increase.
1. Chronological age and MLU are unrelated.
1. Chronological age increases across time, whereas MLU remains the same across time.
ANSWER:
b
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
132.
Bloom’s: Understand
What is a holophrase?
1. The first complete sentence that a child utters
1. A double-word utterance that a child speaks around 14 months of age
1. A single word utterance that expresses a complex meaning
1. A first word from the infant accompanied by physical gestures
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
c
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
133.
A child says “doggy” as a way of telling her mother that she sees a dog. This is
an example of
1. a morpheme.
1. a holophrase.
1. telegraphic speech.
1. mean length of utterance.
ANSWER:
b
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
134.
Bloom’s: Apply
By what age do most children begin using two-word sentences?
1. 10-12 months
1. 14-16 months
1. 18-24 months
1. 30-36 months
ANSWER:
c
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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135.
Syntax refers to
1. the order in which words are used.
1. the number of syllables in a word that have meaning.
1. the fact that adjectives always come after the words they describe.
1. the meanings of words that are spoken or written.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
136.
The fact that Nina says “That dog is running around” instead of “Dog that running
around is” indicates an understanding of
1. holophrases.
1. syntax.
1. MLU.
1. morphemes.
ANSWER:
b
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
137.
Behaviorists explain language acquisition in children as a process involving ____
of sounds in the parent’s language and ____ of foreign sounds.
1. extinction; reinforcement
1. reinforcement; extinction
1. reinforcement; shaping
1. shaping; extinction
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant
b
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
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138.
According to B.F. Skinner, when parents require that children’s utterances of
words be progressively closer to actual words before they are reinforced, this is called
1. grammatical construction.
1. expressive vocabulary.
1. shaping.
1. negative reinforcement.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant
c
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Remember
139.
Natalie is 18 months old and mispronounces some words when she is speaking.
Her parents are quick to correct her pronunciation. According to research,
1. correcting her pronunciation will increase her language development.
1. correcting her pronunciation may slow her language development.
1. correcting her pronunciation will have no effect on her language development as
language acquisition is caused by innate or inborn prewiring.
1. no hypotheses can be made about this topic as of yet.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant
b
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
140.
David is a new father and wants to know what he can do to enhance his child’s
language development. He reads a few research studies and finds that language growth
in children is enhanced when adults
1. ask questions of the child.
1. correct the child when she makes language errors.
1. make sure the child watches educational television.
1. get a tablet device with learning software installed.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
a
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Apply
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141.
Research on infant-directed speech indicates that
1. mothers are the only people to speak to infants in this manner.
1. it is not used cross-culturally.
1. it is used in many diverse languages.
1. its use varies by age and ethnicity of the parents.
ANSWER:
c
REFERENCES:
Make a Houseplant Talk?
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
142.
Bloom’s: Remember
According to psycholinguistic theory, language acquisition
1. is dependent upon resolving conflicts between the id, ego, and superego.
1. is primarily dependent upon stimulation from the environment.
1. is related to both inborn tendencies and environmental influences.
1. depends upon the length of one’s sensitive period.
ANSWER:
c
REFERENCES:
Make a Houseplant Talk?
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
143.
Bloom’s: Remember
What is the language acquisition device (LAD)?
1. A neural prewiring that allows children to learn grammar
1. A technique used to teach infants language skills
1. A sensitive period in which children acquire language
1. A automated method of teaching vocabulary
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Make a Houseplant Talk?
a
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
144.
Bloom’s: Remember
Evidence for an innate tendency to acquire language is found in the
1. regularity of early production of sounds, even among deaf children.
1. many variations in the sequence of language development.
1. inability of children to understand grammar.
1. ways language is handed down through generations.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
Make a Houseplant Talk?
a
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
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145.
Whereas Broca’s area is involved in language ____, Wernicke’s area is involved
in language ____.
1. comprehension; production
1. production; comprehension
1. syntax; grammar
1. grammar; syntax
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
b
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
146.
Bloom’s: Understand
The story of Genie
1. shows the effects of teaching ASL to young children.
1. provides evidence for the existence of a LAD.
1. proves that language acquisition is genetically determined and not dependent upon
environment.
1. supports the hypothesis that there are sensitive periods for learning language.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
d
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
147.
Simon showed grammatical mastery for the rules of American Sign Language,
even though his teachers (his parents and their friends) did not. This lends support for
the idea that
1. there is no sensitive period for learning language.
9. ASL cannot be taught to children after the age of 9.
1. the tendency to acquire language is inborn.
1. a child can learn grammatically incorrect ASL, even if the parents model correct usage.
ANSWER:
REFERENCES:
a Houseplant Talk?
c
6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You Make
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language
acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Understand
Matching
Match the following:
1. average number of morphemes in an utterance
1. words the child can use
1. assesses mental and motor abilities
1. underlying meaning of a sentence
1. discriminate known objects from novel objects
1. one-word utterance that conveys a sentence of meaning
1. words the child knows
1. learning language results from an interaction between the environment and an inborn
tendency
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1. repeat behaviors that affect the environment
1. one example is babbling
1. concept of the world
1. modification of existing schemes
1. “Car go!”
1. communication through symbols formed by moving hands and arms
1. items exist even when out of sight
1. imitation of people or events that occurred in the past
1. automatic repetition of sounds or words
1. characterized by impaired comprehension of speech
1. schemes are applied to specific situations
1. period during which the brain is capable of learning language due to its plasticity
REFERENCES:
Processing
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget 6.2 Information
6.3 Social Influences on Early Cognitive Development
6.4 Individual Differences In Cognitive Functioning Among Infants
6.5 Language Development REF: 6.6 Theories of Language Development: Can You
Make a Houseplant Talk?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in infants from an information-
processing approach.
VOYG.RATH.17.6.3 – Illustrate how Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development
applies to infancy.
VOYG.RATH.17.6.4 – Discuss at what ages researchers can begin to measure
intelligence in infants and how.
VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
VOYG.RATH.17.6.6 – Describe theories of language acquisition and how brain
structures and growth relate to language development.
KEYWORDS:
148.
Bloom’s: Remember
Psycholinguistic theory
ANSWER: h
149.
150.
Mean length of utterance (MLU) ANSWER: a
Accommodation
ANSWER: l
151.
Holophrase
ANSWER: f
152.
Expressive vocabulary ANSWER: b
153.
Secondary circular reaction ANSWER: i
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154.
Scheme
ANSWER: k
155.
Deep structure ANSWER: d
156.
157.
Visual recognition memory ANSWER: e
Telegraphic speech ANSWER: m
158.
Object permanence ANSWER: o
159.
160.
Deferred imitation ANSWER: p
Prelinguistic
ANSWER: j
161.
Echolalia
ANSWER: q
162.
163.
Tertiary circular reaction ANSWER: s
Sensitive period ANSWER: t
164.
Receptive vocabulary ANSWER: g
165.
166.
American Sign Language (ASL) ANSWER: n
Wernicke’s aphasia ANSWER: r
167.
Bayley test ANSWER: c
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Subjective Short Answer
168.
How is it possible to assess cognitive development in children who are too young
to talk?
ANSWER:
watching what infants do. For
The primary method for doing this research involves
example, infants tend to progress from random and accidental actions to increasing
levels of purposeful behavior. A child may kick her leg, which causes the mobile above
her crib to move. If the infant repeats this action, it may demonstrate that she is aware
of a relationship between her behavior and the environment. Piaget referred to these
relationships as “circular reactions.” As the child gets older, these reactions appear to
become more purposeful and begin to be applied to specific situations with the goal of
creating a specific outcome.
REFERENCES:
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
169.
Bloom’s: Analyze
How do secondary and tertiary circular reactions differ?
ANSWER:
Secondary circular reactions are goal-directed
behaviors. Over time, the child has
learned that certain behaviors cause environmental events. For example, a child may
have learned that pushing a button on a toy in her crib will cause it to make a beeping
noise. With tertiary circular reactions, the child is able to take knowledge of the
relationship between his/her actions and the environment and apply it to specific
situations. For example, if Sarah has learned that pushing a button on a toy causes
interesting noises, she may attempt to push buttons on other toys.
REFERENCES:
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
170.
Bloom’s: Analyze
What is object permanence, and what abilities does it represent?
ANSWER:
Object permanence is the term for an individual’s
understanding that objects continue
to exist even when they can no longer be sensed. This is a major milestone in cognitive
development and marks the end of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage. This understanding
suggests that the child has developed a scheme of the world that things can exist that
cannot be seen. It also represents a level of memory. In order to understand that the
object still exists and will return, the child would have to have memory for the object.
This ability also suggests that infants have developed the ability to form mental
representations of the world.
REFERENCES:
6.1 Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.1 – Analyze the six substages of
Piaget’s first stage of cognitive
development.
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Analyze
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171.
What does it mean to say, “Many of the cognitive capabilities of infants depend
upon memory”?
ANSWER:
Children cannot form schemas,
Memory is essential for cognitive development.
demonstrate progression in circular reactions, or begin to use language without
memory. The ability to “experiment” by applying what has been learned to new and
specific situations (the ability to perform tertiary circular reactions), requires that the
infant remember both the action and what happened when that action was performed
previously. The ability to form schemes in an effort to conceptualize the world is also
very memory-dependent. A child cannot learn to differentiate a kitten from a puppy, for
example, unless she can remember how they are similar and how they are different.
REFERENCES:
6.2 Information Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.2 – Describe memory and imitation in
infants from an information-
processing approach.
KEYWORDS:
172.
Bloom’s: Analyze
Describe the sequence of language development in children.
ANSWER:
their prelinguistic form of
At birth and for the first month, infants show crying as
communication. At around 12 weeks of age, infants add cooing to their repertoire.
Cooing incorporates vowel sounds as well as gurgling and squealing. Babbling, which
incorporates consonants, appears around 6 months of age. Single words, such as
mama and ball, appear at the first birthday, but anytime between 8 and 18 months of
age is developmentally appropriate. At 18 months of age, the child knows anywhere
from 3-50 words. By the time they are 2 years old, they will know more than 50 words
and will be spontaneously creating two-word sentences. Although the sequence of
events in language development is fairly similar across children, the age at which
children develop these language skills can vary
REFERENCES:
6.5 Language Development
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: VOYG.RATH.17.6.5 – Describe prelinguistic sounds and
the process of early language
acquisition with a cross-cultural perspective in mind
KEYWORDS:
Bloom’s: Analyze
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