Test Bank For Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens- Carr

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Giddens- Carr
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CHAPTER 6: Conformity, Deviance, and Crime
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The term used to describe modes of action that do not conform to the norms or
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
values held by most members of a group or society is:
anomie
alienation
conformity
social construction
deviance
ANS: E
Deviance (I.A)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 165
TOP: Defining
MSC: Factual
2. According to your textbook authors, which statement concerning deviance is
NOT true?
a. All law breakers are deviants in all social contexts.
b. Some people choose to be deviant.
c. Some people are deviant because they are incapable of following the rules.
Most of us, on some occasions, violate generally accepted rules of
d.
behavior.
e. We are all rule creators.
ANS: A
DIF:
Difficult
TOP: Defining Deviance (I.A)
REF: Pages 164–66
MSC: Conceptual
3. Which of the following statements concerning hackers is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Hackers now have a largely positive public reputation.
Hackers see themselves as criminals.
Most activities that hackers engage in are criminal.
The hacker community largely agrees with how it is perceived by the public.
Kevin Mitnick has been described as the “world’s most celebrated computer
e.
hacker.”
ANS: E
Deviance (I.A)
MSC: Factual
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 166
TOP: Defining
4. A subculture whose members hold values that differ substantially from those of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
the majority is called:
a social control group
a deviant subculture
a median subculture
a normative subculture
an aggregate
ANS: B
Subcultures (I.B)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 166
TOP: Deviant
MSC: Factual
5. What did the Heaven’s Gate cult and the computer hacker community have in
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
common?
Both are religious groups.
Both groups believed that the end of the world is near.
Both groups struggled financially.
Both groups restricted their membership to men.
Both groups are considered deviant subcultures.
ANS: E
Subcultures (I.B)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 166
TOP: Deviant
MSC: Factual
6. The term that describes rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
given range of situations is:
value
belief
sanction
norm
institutionalization
ANS: D
Sanctions (I.C)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 164
TOP: Norms and
MSC: Factual
7. A mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
behavior is called a:
conditioned response
symbolic response
sanction
norm
deviation
ANS: C
Sanctions (I.C)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 167
TOP: Norms and
MSC: Factual
8. A veteran police officer’s criticism of a rookie police officer for not acting
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
aggressively enough during an altercation with a suspect is an example of a:
positive formal sanction
negative formal sanction
positive informal sanction
negative informal sanction
legal sanction
ANS: D
Sanctions (I.C)
MSC: Applied
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 167
TOP: Norms and
9. __________ are norms defined by governments as principles that their citizens
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
must follow; a __________ is any type of behavior that violates these norms.
Laws; crime
Informal codes; breach
Taboos; sin
Guidelines; deviation
Negative reinforcements; positive reinforcement
ANS: A
Sanctions (I.C)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 167
TOP: Norms and
MSC: Factual
10. Which of the following statements related to the biological view of deviance is
true?
a. Some of the first attempts to explain crime emphasized biological factors.
Cesare Lombroso’s claims have been supported by a large body of
b.
subsequent research.
Nearly all studies claiming a relationship between body type and
c. delinquency have used samples that are representative of the general
population.
A correlation between body type and delinquency shows that one’s body
d.
type “causes” criminal behavior.
e. Fragile-looking skinny children almost never engage in delinquent behavior.
ANS: A
(II.A)
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 168
TOP: Biological View
MSC: Conceptual
11. Referring to the recent study mentioned in your textbook of New Zealand children
that investigated whether a child’s propensity for aggression was linked to
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
biological factors present at birth, with which statement would those researchers
most likely agree?
There is no such thing as genes; it is a social construction.
There is no such thing as a genetic predisposition.
There are genetic predispositions, but they have no impact on human
behavior.
A baby with a genetic predisposition for alcoholism would not likely become
a problem drinker if his or her social environment provided few opportunities
to drink.
There is a genetic predisposition for alcoholism that will cause those with
that predisposition to become alcoholics, regardless of environment.
ANS: D
(II.A)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 168
TOP: Biological View
MSC: Applied
12. Which of the following statements is NOT true about psychopaths?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Psychopaths are withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight in violence
for its own sake.
Psychopaths lack the moral sense and concern for others held by most
normal people.
Psychopaths are inevitably criminal.
People with psychopathic characteristics might be explorers, spies, or
gamblers.
Nearly all studies of people said to possess psychopathic characteristics
have been of convicted prisoners.
ANS: C
DIF:
Moderate
TOP: Psychological View (II.B)
REF: Pages 168–69
MSC: Conceptual
13. Theorizing that terrorists have a certain personality profile is an example of which
view of deviance?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
biological view
psychological view
sociological view
evolutionary view
rational choice view
ANS: B
View (II.B)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 169
TOP: Psychological
MSC: Applied
14. Which of the following disciplines does NOT place the source of deviant behavior
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
within an individual?
neuroscience
genetics
biology
psychology
sociology
ANS: E
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 169
TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance (III)
MSC: Applied
15. Which of the following statements does NOT represent the sociological
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
perspective on deviance?
Behavior varies according to social context.
Definitions of deviance vary based on social context.
Crime depends on the social institutions of a society.
Crime results from lack of moral regulation within society.
Crime is a personal choice that is not shaped by social context.
ANS: E
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 169
TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance
(III)
MSC: Conceptual
16. A concept brought into wide usage in sociology by Émile Durkheim, __________
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
refers to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior.
egoism
altruism
fatalism
anomie
postmodernism
ANS: D
(III.A.i)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 169
TOP: Émile Durkheim
MSC: Factual
17. Which of the following statements would Émile Durkheim DISAGREE with?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
People in the modern age are highly controlled by social expectations.
Deviance is necessary for society.
Deviance can contribute to the stability of society.
Deviance in an innovative force.
Deviance promotes boundary maintenance.
ANS: A
(III.A.i)
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 170
TOP: Émile Durkheim
MSC: Conceptual
18. According to Robert Merton, at a time when society as a whole is becoming more
affluent, why do crime rates continue to rise?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
a sense of relative deprivation among those at the bottom
inadequate socialization of the poor
the rise of deviant subcultures
the ability of communities to afford more police officers
the presence of more material goods to steal
ANS: A
(III.A.ii)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 171
TOP: Robert Merton
MSC: Factual
19. In Robert Merton’s typology, drug dealers would be:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
conformists
innovators
ritualists
retreatists
rebels
ANS: B
(III.A.ii)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 170
TOP: Robert Merton
MSC: Applied
20. In Robert Merton’s typology, the majority of people in society are:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
conformists
innovators
ritualists
retreatists
rebels
ANS: A
(III.A.ii)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 170
TOP: Robert Merton
MSC: Applied
21. Which researcher found that boys in the lower working class who are frustrated
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
with their positions in life often joined together in delinquent subcultures that
rejected middle-class values and replaced them with norms that celebrate
defiance?
Albert Cohen
Robert Merton
Émile Durkheim
Kingsley Davis
Talcott Parsons
ANS: A
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 172
TOP: Subcultural Explanations (III.A.iii)
MSC: Factual
22. A survey of homeless youth in Canada shows a strong correlation between
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
hunger, lack of shelter, and unemployment, on the one hand, and theft,
prostitution, and even violent crime on the other. Whose theory of delinquency
would best explain this relationship?
Émile Durkheim
Richard A. Cloward and Lloyd E. Ohlin
Edwin H. Sutherland
Travis Hirschi
Howard Becker
ANS: B
DIF:
Difficult
TOP: Subcultural Explanations (III.A.iii)
REF: Page 172
MSC: Conceptual
23. Which theory proposes that we become deviant when exposed to a higher level
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
of deviant persons and influences, compared to conventional influences?
anomie theory
strain theory
differential association theory
control theory
labeling theory
ANS: C
DIF:
Easy
TOP: Differential Association (III.B.i)
REF: Page 173
MSC: Factual
24. According to differential association theory, who is more likely to be a
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
delinquent?
a poor person whose friends do not commit crime
a middle-class person whose friends frequently commit crime
a person with high aspirations but few opportunities
a person with low aspirations but many opportunities
a person who has been labeled a delinquent
ANS: B
DIF:
Difficult
TOP: Differential Association (III.B.i)
REF: Page 173
MSC: Applied
25. Which theory views crime as the outcome of an imbalance between impulses
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
toward criminal activity and controls that deter it?
anomie theory
strain theory
differential association theory
control theory
labeling theory
ANS: D
(III.B.ii)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 173
TOP: Control Theory
MSC: Factual
26. Which of the following statements is NOT reflective of control theory?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
You have a strong attachment to friends who value good grades and hard
work, therefore you value good grades and hard work.
You are a high school dropout, so you have little to lose by being arrested.
School and work keep you constantly busy, so you have little time to spend
engaged in deviant activities.
You believe in honesty and hard work.
You engage in deviance as a political act.
ANS: E
(III.B.ii)
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 173
TOP: Control Theory
MSC: Applied
27. Which theory would Karl Marx agree with the most?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
strain theory
differential association theory
control theory
conflict theory
labeling theory
ANS: D
(III.C)
MSC: Conceptual
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 173
TOP: Conflict Theory
28. From the perspective of the new criminology, laws:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
are neutral
are applied evenly across the population
are used by the powerful to maintain their own privileged positions
protect the working class from being exploited by the capitalist elite
are social constructions that emerge through democratic processes
ANS: C
(III.C)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 174
TOP: Conflict Theory
MSC: Factual
29. From the perspective of labeling theory, deviance is seen as:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
a process of interaction between deviants and nondeviants
a set of characteristics of individuals or groups
freely chosen
a component of personality
an act that is universally wrong
ANS: A
(III.D)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 174
TOP: Labeling Theory
MSC: Factual
30. Two groups of boys, one working class and the other middle class, engage in
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
equal amounts of delinquent activities. One group is considered “just boys being
boys,” and the other is considered “troublemakers.” Which of the following
theories best explains this difference?
strain theory
differential association theory
control theory
conflict theory
labeling theory
ANS: E
(III.D)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 174
TOP: Labeling Theory
MSC: Applied
31. Fifteen-year-old Diego is arrested and spends thirty days in juvenile detention.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
He begins to see himself as a delinquent while there. When he is released, he
commits more crimes. The crimes that he commits after being released would be
considered by Edwin Lemert as:
primary deviance
secondary deviance
tertiary deviance
anomic deviance
structural strain deviance
ANS: B
(III.D)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 175
TOP: Labeling Theory
MSC: Applied
32. Which of the following statements concerning the Uniform Crime Reports is NOT
true?
a. The reports contain official data reported to law enforcement agencies.
b. The reports focus on “index crimes.”
c. The reports accurately reflect crime rates.
The reports include only those crimes reported to law enforcement
d.
agencies.
e. The reports exclude fraud and embezzlement.
ANS: C
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 176
TOP: Sources of Crime Data (IV.A)
MSC: Factual
33. The National Crime Victimization Survey has found that crime rates are:
a.
b.
c.
d.
functional, serving many positive functions
social constructions
actually higher than those reported by official agencies
actually lower than those reported by official agencies
about the same as those reported by official agencies, confirming the
e.
accuracy of those reports
ANS: C
DIF:
Easy
TOP: Sources of Crime Data (IV.A)
REF: Pages 177–78
MSC: Factual
34. Violent crime is more common:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
in suburbs than in cities or small towns
in small towns than in cities or suburbs
today than in the early 1990s
in the United States than in Switzerland
in countries where handguns and other firearms are banned
ANS: D
(IV.B)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 178
TOP: Crime Trends
MSC: Factual
35. Which factor was NOT mentioned in your textbook as contributing to the decline
a.
b.
c.
d.
of crime rates in the 1990s?
aggressive law enforcement
a declining market for crack cocaine
the stigmatization of crack among young urban dwellers
the booming economy of the 1990s
e. changes in welfare laws
ANS: E
(IV.B)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 178
TOP: Crime Trends
MSC: Factual
36. Which of the following statements concerning victims and perpetrators of crime is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
true?
Men are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime compared to
women.
Older persons are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime
compared to young persons.
Whites are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime compared to
African Americans.
Residents of the suburbs are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of
crime compared to inner-city residents.
There are no gender, age, race, or residential area differences in rates of
victimization or perpetration.
ANS: A
Crime (V.A)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 180
MSC: Factual
37. In 2009, what percent of people in jail were men?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
12.2 percent
30.3 percent
45.4 percent
67.5 percent
87.8 percent
TOP: Gender and
ANS: E
Crime (V.A)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 181
TOP: Gender and
MSC: Factual
38. At what age is a person most likely to be arrested for a crime?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
10 or 11
13 or 14
18 or 19
25 or 26
35 or 36
ANS: C
(V.B)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 182
TOP: Youth and Crime
MSC: Conceptual
39. Which of the following statements concerning youth and crime is NOT true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
As young people gradually transition into adulthood, they acquire social
attachments and commitments that make “conventional” behavior
rewarding.
Most youthful deviants go on to become career criminals.
Trends in drug use have shifted away from hard drugs such as heroin and
toward combinations of substances such as amphetamines, prescription
drugs like OxyContin, alcohol, and the drug ecstasy.
Taking illegal drugs is often defined in racial, class, and cultural terms.
When crack cocaine appeared in the 1980s, it was quickly defined by the
media as the drug of choice for black, inner-city kids who listened to hiphop.
ANS: B
(V.B)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 182
TOP: Youth and Crime
MSC: Factual
40. Crime typically carried out by people in the more affluent sectors of society is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
called:
organized crime
white-collar crime
serial crime
index crime
negligent crime
ANS: B
Crime (VI.A)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 184
TOP: White-Collar
MSC: Factual
41. Which of the following statements concerning white-collar crime is NOT true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The amount of money involved in crimes against property (robberies,
burglaries, larceny, forgeries, and car thefts) is forty times greater than the
amount involved in white-collar crimes.
Authorities regard white-collar crime in a more tolerant light than crimes of
the less privileged.
Rarely do people caught committing white-collar crime go to jail.
The manufacture or sale of dangerous products is a type of white-collar
crime.
Illegal environmental pollution is a type of white-collar crime.
ANS: A
DIF:
Moderate
TOP: White-Collar Crime (VI.A)
REF: Pages 184–85
MSC: Factual
42. Offenses committed by large corporations in society are called:
a. elite crime
b.
c.
d.
e.
bureaucratic crime
corporate crime
crime syndicate
index crime
ANS: C
(VI.B)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 186
TOP: Corporate Crime
MSC: Factual
43. Which of the following is NOT an example of corporate crime?
a. A pesticide company dumps pollutants into the local river.
b. A food manufacturer puts false nutrition information on its product labels.
An automobile company manufactures and knowingly sells an SUV that rolls
c.
over easily.
d. Corporate executives lie about their company’s profits.
e. An organized crime group engages in sex trafficking.
ANS: E
(VI.B)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 186
TOP: Corporate Crime
MSC: Applied
44. Forms of activity that have some of the characteristics of orthodox business but
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
are illegal are called:
white-collar crime
corporate crime
index crime
organized crime
bureaucratic crime
ANS: D
(VI.C)
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 186
TOP: Organized Crime
MSC: Factual
45. Which of the following is an example of organized crime described by Manuel
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Castells?
Bernard Madoff’s Ponzi scheme
heroin networks that stretch across Asia
prison gangs
inner-city youth gangs
trainers who provide athletes with steroids
ANS: B
(VI.C)
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 187
TOP: Organized Crime
MSC: Applied
46. Which of the following countries has the highest incarceration rate?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
China
Japan
France
Mexico
United States
ANS: E
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 189
TOP: Prisons (VII.A)
MSC: Factual
47. Which of the following factors would sociologists consider to be LEAST related to
crime?
a. widespread poverty
b.
c.
d.
e.
the conditions of the inner cities
the structure of society
the deteriorating life circumstances of many young men
the rising prison population
ANS: E
DIF:
Difficult
TOP: Prisons (VII.A)
REF: Page 187 | Page 190
MSC: Conceptual
48. Which of the following best describes Americans’ beliefs about capital
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
punishment?
The majority of Americans have always supported capital punishment.
The majority of Americans have always opposed capital punishment.
Most adults supported capital punishment in 2010.
Most adults supported capital punishment in 1965.
Fewer Americans support capital punishment today than a generation ago.
ANS: C
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 188
TOP: Prisons (VII.A)
MSC: Factual
49. Which of the following statements about prisons is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The cost to keep a prisoner in the federal prison system for one is year is
very low, about $6,000 per year.
Spending time in prison makes it unlikely that the ex-felon will ever commit
another crime.
Spending time in prison often makes the ex-felon a more hardened criminal.
The average convict serves most of his sentence.
Most African American men are either in prison or otherwise under the
control of the penal system.
ANS: C
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Pages 187–88
TOP: The Impact of Spending Time in Prison (VII.B)
MSC: Factual
50. An experiment by sociologist Devah Pager showed that __________ is least
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
likely to be hired.
a white man with no criminal record
a white man with a criminal record
a black man with no criminal record
a black man with a criminal record
none of the above; there was no difference among the four groups
ANS: D
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Pages 190–91
TOP: The Impact of Spending Time in Prison (VII.B)
MSC: Factual
51. Traditionally, police work involved controlling crime. Increasingly, however, police
officers are:
a. deviants who are committing rather than preventing crime
b. corrections officers who are herding criminals to prison
knowledge workers who are mapping and predicting risk within the
c.
population
d. safety patrollers who are guarding the health and welfare of citizens
e. security guards who are a visible presence but ineffective
ANS: C
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 191
TOP: Policing (VII.C)
MSC: Factual
52. In the example given in the textbook about a car accident in Ontario, Canada, to
which group did the police officer have to send information concerning the
accident?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
the provincial motor registry
the automobile industry
the insurance companies
the public health system
all of the above
ANS: A
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 191
TOP: Policing (VII.C)
MSC: Factual
53. Which theory served as the basis for new policing strategies in the late 1980s
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
and 1990s that aggressively focused on minor crimes such as traffic violations
and drinking and using drugs in public?
control theory
broken windows theory
conflict theory
differential association theory
labeling theory
ANS: B
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 192
TOP: Broken Windows Theory (VII.D.i) MSC: Factual
54. Which theory best explains why a neighborhood that had only minor problems
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
such as abandoned cars and graffiti began to see an increase in other more
serious types of property crime?
control theory
broken windows theory
conflict theory
differential association theory
labeling theory
ANS: B
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 192
TOP: Broken Windows Theory (VII.D.i) MSC: Applied
55. A renewed emphasis on crime prevention rather than law enforcement to
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
reintegrate policing within the community is called:
organized policing
corporate policing
community policing
target hardening
shaming
ANS: C
DIF:
Easy
TOP: Community Policing (VII.D.ii)
REF: Page 193
MSC: Factual
56. Which of the following best illustrates community policing?
a. taking seriously even minor crimes such as public drunkenness
community organizations, government agencies, and businesses working
b.
together to help repair urban decay
c. the installation of burglar alarms
d. public shaming of offenders
e. enacting get-tough-on-crime laws
ANS: B
DIF:
Moderate
TOP: Community Policing (VII.D.ii)
REF: Page 193
MSC: Applied
57. The term that describes practical measures used to limit a criminal’s ability to
commit crime is:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
deviance control
differential associating
broken windows fixing
target hardening
shaming
ANS: D
DIF:
Hardening (VII.D.iii)
Easy
REF: Page 193
TOP: Target
MSC: Factual
58. Putting locks on mailboxes is an example of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
deviance control
differential control
New Left realism
target hardening
shaming
ANS: D
(VII.D.iii)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 193
TOP: Target Hardening
MSC: Applied
59. Which of the following is NOT a latent consequence of target hardening?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Because the wealthy are protected from crime, there is a declining interest
in understanding the causes of crime.
Criminals target less affluent areas that cannot afford the protective
measures to combat crime.
A “fortress mentality” develops among the wealthy to shield them from
criminals.
The crime rates against the poor and the wealthy widen, with the burden of
crime falling disproportionately on the poor.
Target hardening fixes the underlying causes of crime.
ANS: E
(VII.D.iii)
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 193
TOP: Target Hardening
MSC: Conceptual
60. A way of punishing criminal and deviant behavior based on rituals of public
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
disapproval rather than incarceration is called:
deviance control
differential control
target hardening
outing
shaming
ANS: E
DIF:
Easy
REF: Page 193
TOP: Shaming as Punishment (VII.D.iv) MSC: Factual
61. How might shaming work to rehabilitate an offender?
a. It locks the offender in a permanent state of shame.
b. It lets the offender deny any wrongdoing.
It processes the shame in the offender in such a way that social bonds
c.
between the offender and the community can be rebuilt.
It processes the shame in the offender such that he or she will be much
d.
more fearful of committing another crime.
e. Shaming only works in collectivist societies such as Japan.
ANS: C
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 194
TOP: Shaming as Punishment (VII.D.iv) MSC: Conceptual
62. Between 1987 and 2007, the adjusted for inflation spending on corrections
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
increased by:
10 percent
35 percent
65 percent
95 percent
127 percent
ANS: E
Crime (VIII.A)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 195
TOP: The Costs of
MSC: Factual
63. Which of the following statements concerning the criminal justice system would
your textbook authors most DISAGREE with?
a. The cost of the criminal justice system is increasing.
b. The number of people behind bars has increased in the past decade.
c. Few of us are affected by the high cost of crime.
To pay for the high cost of the criminal justice system, taxes may have to be
d.
raised.
To pay for the high cost of the criminal justice system, other important social
e.
services may have to be cut.
ANS: C
Crime (VIII.A)
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 195
TOP: The Costs of
MSC: Conceptual
64. Those who study the functions of deviance would probably NOT refer to which
example as a function that deviance performs?
a. Deviants help us to understand what is considered “right” and “wrong.”
b. We try very hard to avoid the sanctions that result from doing “wrong.”
c. We try to avoid deviance so that we will not be treated as social outcasts.
d. Public punishments prevent us from behaving in a similar way.
e. Noncriminals learn from experienced criminals how to commit crime.
ANS: E
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 195
TOP: The Functions of Deviance (VIII.B)
MSC: Conceptual
65. Which of the following is affected by our desire not to be socially ostracized?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
the clothes we wear
the hobbies we engage in
the romantic partners we choose
our future careers
all of the above
ANS: E
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 195
TOP: The Functions of Deviance (VIII.B)
MSC: Applied
ESSAY
1. How is it possible that a person can be both a conformist and a deviant? Explain
using examples.
ANS:
To answer this question, the student must understand the meaning of deviance and
how it is socially constructed. Deviance refers to the modes of action that do not
conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society. However,
what is regarded as deviant is as variable as the norms and values that distinguish
different cultures and subcultures from one another. Therefore, actions that one group
defines as deviant are seen as conforming by another group.
DIF: Difficult
Deviance (I.A)
REF: Pages 164–66
TOP:
Defining
MSC: Conceptual
2. What is the biological view of deviance? What are some of the weaknesses of
this approach?
ANS:
To answer this question, the student must explain the biological view of deviance as
well as mention its weaknesses. The biological view of deviance emphasizes biological
factors in explaining crime, for example, skull or body shape. There are several
weaknesses to this approach. The first is methodological. Even if there were a
correlation between body type and delinquency, this would not necessarily reveal that
someone’s body type “causes” criminal behavior. Second, nearly all studies in this field
have been restricted to delinquents in reform schools, and it may be that the tougher,
athletic-looking delinquents are more liable to be sent to such schools than fragilelooking, skinny ones. Third, social environment may strengthen or weaken the link
between genetics and deviant behavior. For instance, even if a baby were born with a
genetic predisposition for alcoholism, that baby would not likely become a problem
drinker if his or her social environment provided few opportunities to drink.
DIF: Difficult
View (II.A)
REF: Pages 167–68
TOP:
Biological
MSC: Conceptual
3. Compare and contrast differential association theory with control theory. Which
theory do you think better explains crime? Explain.
ANS:
To answer this question, the student must first explain differential association theory
and control theory. Differential association theory argues that we learn deviant behavior
in precisely the same way we learn about conventional behavior: from our contacts with
primary groups, such as peers, family members, and coworkers. The
term differential refers to the ratio of deviant to conventional social contacts. We
become deviant when exposed to a higher level of deviant persons and influences,
compared to conventional influences. In a society that contains a variety of subcultures,
some individuals have greater exposure to social environments that encourage illegal
activities. Control theory argues that there are four types of bonds that link people to
society and law-abiding behavior: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
When sufficiently strong, these four elements help to maintain social control and
conformity by rendering people unfree to break rules. If these bonds with society are
weak, however, delinquency and deviance may result. The student should then point
out that Edwin H. Sutherland’s focus on differential association is similar to Travis
Hirschi’s focus on attachment to conventional others. For Sutherland, individuals are
more likely to commit crime as they associate with criminals. For Hirschi, individuals are
less likely to commit crime as they form attachments with conventional others. The
student should also mention that Sutherland’s focus on learning is related to Hirschi’s
focus on belief. For Sutherland, individuals are more likely to commit crime as they learn
beliefs that tend them toward criminal behaviors. For Hirschi, individuals are less likely
to commit crime as they learn beliefs that tend them toward conventional behaviors. The
student can then argue which perspective better explains crime. The best answers will
argue that which theory is best depends on the type of crime you are trying to
understand. Answers will vary; however, research suggests that learning how to be a
criminal is the critical intervening variable in predicting criminal behavior, which
differential association theory emphasizes more.
DIF:
(III)
Difficult
REF: Page 173
TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance
MSC: Conceptual
4. Compare and contrast labeling theory with the new criminology perspective.
Which theory do you think better explains crime? Explain.
ANS:
To answer this question, the student should first explain labeling theory and the new
criminology approach. Labeling theory begins from the assumption that no act is
intrinsically deviant. Rather, to be “deviant,” one must be labeled as such. In the case of
criminal activity, definitions of criminality are established by the powerful through the
formulation of laws and their interpretation by police, courts, and correctional
institutions. Theorists of the new criminology frame their analysis of crime and deviance
in terms of the structure of society and the preservation of power among the ruling
class. They reject the idea that laws are neutral and are applied evenly across the
population. Instead, they claim that as inequalities increase between the ruling class
and the working class, law becomes an ever more important instrument for the powerful
to maintain order. The powerful also break laws but are rarely caught. The student
should mention that both theories focus on the role of the powerful. The student can
then argue which perspective better explains crime. The best answers will argue that
which theory is best depends on the type of crime you are trying to understand.
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Pages 173–75
TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance
(III)
MSC: Conceptual
5. How does Robert Merton explain crime? How would Merton explain the crimes
committed in the inner city?
ANS:
To answer this question, the student must explain Merton’s strain theory and apply it to
the inner city. According to Merton, in American society, generally held values
emphasize material success, and the means of achieving success are supposed to be
self-discipline and hard work. Accordingly, it is believed that people who work hard can
succeed no matter what their starting point in life. This idea is not in fact valid, because
most people in the inner city have very few conventional opportunities for advancement,
such as high-quality education. Yet those who do not “succeed” find themselves
condemned for their apparent inability to make material progress. Therefore, in the inner
city, there is great pressure to try to get ahead by any means, legitimate or illegitimate.
DIF: Moderate
Merton (III.A.ii)
REF: Pages 170–71
TOP:
Robert
MSC: Applied
6. Compare the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) with victimization surveys such as
the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Which method gives a better
indication of the level of crime in the United States?
ANS:
To answer this question, the student must explain how the UCR collect data and how
the NCVS collects data. The UCR contain official data on crime that is reported to law
enforcement agencies across the country, who then provide the data to the Federal
Bureau of Investigation. The NCVS interviews households across the country to find out
how many members were the victims of particular crimes during the previous six
months. This procedure has confirmed that the overall rate of crime is higher than
reported in the UCR. Thus, the NCVS gives a better indication of the level of crime in
the United States.
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Pages 176–78
TOP: Sources of Crime Data (IV.A)
MSC: Factual
7. Apply control theory to explain why people in their late teens are more likely to
commit crime than older people.
ANS:
Control theory has been used to explain this pattern, called the age-crime curve. As
young people gradually transition into adulthood, they acquire those social attachments
and commitments that make “conventional” behavior rewarding. As they marry, have
children, find jobs, and set up their own homes, the “cost” of deviance is high; rational
actors would not want to risk losing their families and homes and thus avoid deviant
acts.
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 182
TOP: Youth and Crime (V.B)
MSC: Conceptual
8. Why have efforts to significantly decrease the supply of illegal drugs in the United
States failed?
ANS:
One reason is that the profit is simply too great. Farmers in Bolivia or Peru, members of
the Colombian drug cartels, and low-level street dealers in the United States all receive
substantial monetary rewards for their illegal activities. These rewards create a strong
incentive to devise ways around antidrug efforts and to run the risk of getting caught.
Another reason is that drug traffickers have been able to take advantage of
globalization. First, in their attempts to evade the authorities, traffickers make use of all
the communications technologies that are available in a global age. Second, the
globalization of the financial sector has helped create an infrastructure in which large
sums of money can be moved around the world electronically in a matter of seconds,
which makes it relatively easy to “launder” drug money (i.e., to make it appear to have
come from a legitimate business venture). Third, recent changes in government policy
designed to allow the freer flow of persons and legitimate goods across international
borders have increased the opportunities for smuggling.
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 185
TOP: Organized Crime (VI.C)
MSC: Conceptual
9. How does crime affect the lives of people who have little contact with the criminal
justice system as victim or offender? Explain using examples.
ANS:
Answers will vary. Corporate crime can affect everything, including the quality of the
food we eat, the safety of the cars we drive, and the cleanliness of the air we breathe.
Our lives also are affected by the high fiscal costs of street crime. Maintaining local,
state, and national criminal justice systems is costly. Lawmakers have few options for
footing this large bill. In the absence of tax hikes, lawmakers may find themselves
forced to cut back on other important social programs that benefit most Americans,
including transportation, education, and healthcare.
DIF:
Moderate
REF: Page 194
TOP: The Costs of Crime (VIII.A)
MSC: Factual
10. Discuss the ways in which deviance is functional. Give examples.
ANS:
To answer this question, the student must explain the various ways in which deviance is
functional. First, deviance has an adaptive function. By introducing new ideas and
challenges into society, deviance is an innovative force. It brings about change. Second,
deviance clarifies social norms and helps us to understand what is considered “right”
and “wrong” among our peers, friends, and community members. Third, deviance can
contribute to the stability of society. The text gives the example of prostitution
contributing to the stability of marriage by providing a sexual outlet that carries less risk
of emotional entanglement. Fourth, deviance clarifies what the penalties are, and we
conform to avoid the penalties. Most of us know what the punishments are for even
minor violations, such as speeding or running a red light. By learning about the fees and
punishments levied on those who break the rules, most of us will behave in accordance
with the law—to avoid a fate like suspension of a driver’s license or spending a night in
jail. Fifth, deviants are often ostracized, and we conform to avoid the same fate. For
example, most of us do not want to be socially ostracized, so we may choose clothes,
hobbies, romantic partners, and even our future career paths so that we fit in with peers.
To be considered “deviant” often means being treated as a social outcast. Sixth, when
deviants are publicly punished, it makes us rethink whether it is really worthwhile to try
to get away with a crime. Examples students might give for public punishment might
include locking horse thieves into “stocks” in town squares and making an adulteress
wear a scarlet letter “A” around her neck in the colonial United States or publicizing the
names and addresses of registered sex offenders and televising “perp walks” in the
contemporary United States. Seventh, a criminal act can ultimately enhance group
solidarity and contribute to the stability of society. The student might use Davis’s
example of prostitution here. In his classic essay on prostitution, functionalist theorist
Kingsley Davis (1937) wrote that prostitution may be illegal, yet it is functional for
society because it allows married men to fulfill their sexual urges with a new partner
without threatening their marriages. By contrast, a married man who forms an emotional
attachment with a woman with whom he is having a “legal” though clandestine
extramarital relationship can threaten both his and her marriage. Prostitution, Davis
argued, indirectly contributes to the stability of the family.
DIF:
Difficult
REF: Page 170 | Page 195
TOP: The Functions of Deviance (VIII.B)
MSC: Conceptual
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