Test Bank Psychology- An Introduction, 10th edition by Benjamin Lahey

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6 STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Multiple-Choice Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Simply defined, consciousness is
A) limited to mammalian species.
B) the state between awake and asleep.
C) a feeling of moral obligation.
D) a state of awareness.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 168
Style: Factual
2. When a person is aware of events taking place in her or his internal as well as
3.
4.
5.
6.
external environment, that person is considered to be in a state of
A) consciousness.
B) transcendence.
C) divided perception.
D) heightened sensation.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 168
Style: Factual
3. While driving a long distance on a familiar route, Jim finds his mind wandering
4.
5.
6.
7.
from work to family to thoughts of dead relatives and winning the lottery. He has
no memory of the actual drive. This is an example of
A) normal dreams.
B) daydreams.
C) abnormal obsessions.
D) divided consciousness.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 169
Style: Applied
4. Barbara is reading a book she got as a Christmas gift. Her mind keeps
5.
6.
7.
8.
wandering to other gifts she has received, and so she has to reread several
pages. This is an example of
A) divided consciousness.
B) abnormal behavior.
C) obsessions
D) compulsive behavior
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Conceptual
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Research about daydreams suggests that daydreams ______ tension.
A) release
B) create
C) negate
D) dissipate
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
6. You have just read your psychology assignment for the third time in the last hour.
You know you looked at each word and turned all the pages. However, you
cannot remember a single word you’ve read because you keep thinking about
your job interview tomorrow. What have you just experienced?
7. A) manifest consciousness
8. B) flowing consciousness
9. C) transcendental consciousness
10. D) divided consciousness
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 169
Style: Applied
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
When two activities are simultaneously attended to, consciousness is said to be
A) repressed.
B) transcendent.
C) divided.
D) additive.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
8. Lindsay had just won the lottery. She drove to a friend’s house to tell her the
good news. After safely arriving at her friend’s house, she realized she had very
little recollection of how she got there. This is a demonstration of
9. A) directed consciousness.
10. B) flowing consciousness.
11. C) divided consciousness.
12. D) depersonalization.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 169
Style: Conceptual
9. According to research, when you are driving, which of the following is the most
10.
11.
12.
13.
distracting?
A) reviewing the day in your head
B) listening to the radio
C) conversation on a cell phone
D) listening to pre-recorded music
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
10. The term used to describe a split in conscious awareness that allows us to
perform two or more tasks at the same time is
11. A) dissociated personality disorder.
12. B) multiple personality disorder.
13. C) schizophrenia.
14. D) divided consciousness.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
11. Mental processes that occur without a person being aware of them are
12. A) daydreams.
13. B) unconscious.
14. C) hypnagogic.
15. D) conscious.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
12. When research participants were asked to repeat a message coming in one ear
and ignore a message coming in the other ear, what were the researchers
attempting to demonstrate scientifically?
13. A) unconscious processing
14. B) flowing consciousness
15. C) depersonalization
16. D) bipolar consciousness
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 170
Style: Factual
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Compared to listening to the car radio or CD, talking on a cell phone
A) is less distracting.
B) has shown no increase in accidents.
C) causes an equal number of accidents.
D) is much more distracting.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
14. The cocktail party phenomenon describes a situation in which individuals
15. A) process incoming information even if they are not consciously attending to it.
16. B) when spending time in groups start to think with one mind, following a strong
leader.
17. C) who consume alcohol lose their inhibitions and process information differently.
18. D) invited to the party exhibit feelings of superiority compared to those not
invited.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 169–170
Style: Factual
15. You are at a party, and having a nice conversation with someone. All the way
across the room someone says your name, and you immediately hear it and pay
attention to it? When this happens, it is known as the ______ phenomenon.
16. A) Ebbinghaus
17. B) mnemonic device
18. C) tip-of-the-tongue
19. D) cocktail party
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169–170
Style: Factual
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
The semi-wakeful period that precedes light sleep is called
A) myoclonia.
B) the hypnagogic state.
C) REM sleep.
D) the transcendental state.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 171
Style: Factual
17. A concerned friend told you that as her spouse goes to sleep his body is prone to
sudden jerks. What should you tell her?
18. A) Her spouse is a victim of sleep apnea.
19. B) Her spouse is experiencing abnormal hypnogogia.
20. C) Her spouse may have narcolepsy.
21. D) Her spouse is experiencing normal myoclonia.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 172
Style: Conceptual
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Which of the following best characterizes a night’s sleep?
A) We begin the night in light sleep and end in deep sleep.
B) We pass from light sleep to dream sleep to deep sleep.
C) Our depth of sleep alternates up and down many times.
D) We alternate from the hypnagogic state to dream sleep about six times.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 171
Style: Factual
19. If a sleeping person’s eyes are moving back and forth rapidly under the eyelids, it
is likely that this individual is
20. A) in the deepest level of sleep.
21. B) dreaming.
22. C) in a hypnagogic state.
23. D) awakening.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 173
Style: Factual
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
The brain waves of a person having a vivid dream are most similar to
A) conscious awareness.
B) the hypnagogic state.
C) deep (stage 4) sleep.
D) light (stage 2) sleep.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 173
Style: Factual
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
In general, sleep consumes ______ of our lives.
A) 10%
B) 25%
C) 33%
D) 50%
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 174
Style: Factual
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
The twilight stage in between wakefulness and sleep is referred to as the
A) myoclonia nervosa.
B) hypnotic stage.
C) hypnagogic state.
D) somnambulism effect.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 171
Style: Factual
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Which of the following would be an example of myoclonia?
A) your neck being sore from sleeping in the “wrong” position
B) your chest throbbing with heartburn
C) your leg cramping up at night
D) your body experiencing a sudden jerk
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 173
Style: Factual
24. It is 2:00 a.m. and Allison has been sleeping for several hours. Her heart begins
to pound and flutter, her fingers twitch, her eyelids flicker, and her breathing
becomes shallow and irregular. A sleep researcher would best describe these
phenomena as an example of
25. A) a night terror.
26. B) an autonomic storm.
27. C) non-REM dream patterns.
28. D) stage one sleep.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 174
Style: Applied
25. Dreams occurring during ________ sleep are briefer, less fragmented, and less
likely to involve visual images compared to ________ sleep.
26. A) REM; non-REM
27. B) non-REM; REM
28. C) hypnagogic; REM
29. D) hypnagogic; non-REM
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 174–175
Style: Conceptual
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
The difference between REM and non-REM dreams is that
A) non-REM dreams have more imagery.
B) REM dreams are less frequent.
C) non-REM dreams have bizarre content.
D) non-REM dreams are closer to normal thinking.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 175
Style: Factual
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
The average college student spends about ______ a night in REM sleep.
A) 1 hour
B) 2 hours
C) 30 minutes
D) 4 hours
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 174
Style: Factual
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
During a night of sleep, when does REM sleep occur?
A) in one long episode at the beginning of the night
B) in one long episode at the end of the night
C) in about four to six episodes distributed across the night’s sleep
D) in two long episodes, one at the beginning and one at the end of the night
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 174
Style: Factual
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
During REM sleep, ______ dreams take place.
A) all
B) about half of
C) less than 10% of
D) about 80% of
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 174
Style: Factual
30. A class project required a student nurse to make hourly records of her own blood
pressure and body temperature over a 30-day period. When the data were
graphed, it became clear that these readings changed in a predictable way on a
daily basis. The reason for this regularity is that many physiological processes
are
31. A) determined by subconscious expectations.
32. B) governed by circadian rhythms.
33. C) controlled by daily lunar cycles.
34. D) correlated with lunar rotation.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 175
Style: Applied
31. Which hormone follows a circadian rhythm and peaks just before a person wakes
32.
33.
34.
35.
from sleep?
A) melatonin
B) growth
C) cortisol
D) prolactin
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 175
Style: Factual
32. In a sensory deprivation experiment, Bob was required to remain in a windowless
room for several weeks. Based on results from previous research, it is likely that
his sleep-wake cycle
33. A) shortened from 24 hours to 22 hours.
34. B) remained the same during the experiment.
35. C) lengthened from 24 hours to 25 hours.
36. D) adjusted to a lunar cycle of 28 days.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 176
Style: Applied
33. Internally generated cycles lasting about 24 hours a day that regulate sleep and
wake cycles, as well as hormone secretion, are called
34. A) sleep disorders.
35. B) circadian rhythms.
36. C) REM periods.
37. D) astral projections.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 175
Style: Factual
34. The biological cycle of approximately 24 hours in length that regulates our
pattern of sleep is called a/n
35. A) circadian rhythm.
36. B) myoclonic event.
37. C) non-REM sequence.
38. D) out-of-body experience.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 175
Style: Factual
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
The hormone ______ is a key factor in regulating a person’s level of sleepiness.
A) testosterone
B) melatonin
C) estrogen
D) glutamate
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 175
Style: Factual
36. How does body temperature change in relation to the circadian rhythm linked to
the sleep cycle? Body temperature
37. A) falls during REM sleep but rises again during the periods of non-REM sleep.
38. B) falls at the beginning of sleep and starts to rise by the middle of your sleep
cycle.
39. C) falls at the beginning of sleep and continues to fall until the middle of your
sleep period.
40. D) rises during dreams that are anxiety-provoking but rises during dreams that
are calm.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 175
Style: Conceptual
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
The term “sleep debt” describes a condition in which
A) the sleeper goes immediately into REM sleep.
B) insomnia develops at night, and narcolepsy occurs during the day.
C) daily naps interfere with normal sleeping patterns.
D) a person falls asleep more quickly and sleeps longer.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 176
Style: Factual
38. For men who sleep less than four and a half hours per night, this behavior is
39.
40.
41.
42.
associated with a ______ in death rates.
A) 50% increase
B) 15% increase
C) 5% decrease
D) 65% decrease
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 177
Style: Factual
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
Short-term sleep deprivation ______ the body’s immune system.
A) improves
B) accelerates
C) stops
D) slows down
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 177
Style: Factual
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
Most adults sleep ______ hours per night.
A) 7 to 8
B) 9 to 10
C) 5 to 6
D) 11 to 12
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 177
Style: Factual
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
What did Freud consider to be the “royal road to the unconscious”?
A) dreams
B) meditation
C) the ego
D) hypnosis
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 179
Style: Factual
42. Of the following, which sensation is least likely to be reported after waking from a
43.
44.
45.
46.
dream?
A) smelling a floral aroma
B) hearing crowd noise
C) seeing strange people
D) feeling sexually aroused
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 178
Style: Factual
43. While preparing a paper on dreaming, you came across a book that described
the meaning of various dream images. The assumption made by the author is
that dreams
44. A) have symbolic meaning.
45. B) recycle daily residue.
46. C) are stimulated by real-life events.
47. D) are analogous to hallucinations.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 179
Style: Conceptual
44. According to research, which term would best describe the actual frequency of
sexual dreams?
45. A) nonexistant
46. B) rare
47. C) frequent
48. D) constant
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 178
Style: Conceptual
45. Taylor dreamt she was hearing a phone ringing, but could not find the phone.
When she woke up she realized her real phone had wrung while she was asleep.
This is an example
46. A) latent content.
47. B) stimulus incorporation.
48. C) day residue.
49. D) residual sensation.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 179
Style: Conceptual
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
In Freud’s theory of dreaming, the story you remember when you wake up is the
A) manifest content.
B) latent content.
C) event sequence.
D) surface structure.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 179
Style: Factual
47. 4 Sigrid has been studying very hard for her medical school entrance exam. Last
night she dreamt she was taking the test and had nothing to write with. Sigrid’s
dream is an example of
48. A) stimulus incorporation.
49. B) the influence of day residue.
50. C) the protective feature of dreams.
51. D) a night terror.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 179
Style: Conceptual
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
What percentage of dreams include tastes or smells?
A) About 25%
B) About 50%
C) Less than 1%
D) Over 99%
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 178
Style: Factual
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
Of the following, which occurs in your dreams most often?
A) animals
B) family members
C) friends
D) you
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 178
Style: Factual
50.
51.
52.
53.
Which of the following is true regarding the dreams we remember?
A) We remember negative dreams because they tend to wake us up.
B) We don’t remember positive dreams because there are so many of them.
C) We remember negative dreams because they are the first dreams of REM
sleep.
54. D) We don’t remember negative dreams because our defense mechanisms
protect us.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Conceptual
51. Regarding our dreams, the term ‘day residue’ refers to the idea that
52. A) the amount of sleep at night is related to the number of hours awake during
the day.
53. B) dreams seem to contain one character or event from the preceding day.
54. C) in the morning after a dream, an amount of day residue can be found on your
eyes.
55. D) the hormonal changes during sleep at night are evident in behavioral changes
the next day.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 179
Style: Factual
52. The phenomenon of ______ involves components of the real environment you
53.
54.
55.
56.
are in to be included as part of your actual dream.
A) mesmerism
B) somnambulism
C) stimulus incorporation
D) day residue
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 179
Style: Factual
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
Freud was mostly interested in the ______ of dreams.
A) day residue
B) manifest content
C) stimulus incorporation
D) latent content
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 179
Style: Factual
54. A terrifying kind of dream that occurs during REM sleep and whose content is
55.
56.
57.
58.
exceptionally frightening or uncomfortable is called a(n)
A) nightmare.
B) night terror.
C) autonomic storm.
D) REM fright.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
55. A sleep research participant awoke suddenly during non-REM sleep screaming,
heart pounding, and sweating heavily. What else might the participant report to
the sleep researcher?
56. A) a vividly frightening dream
57. B) a sensation of falling
58. C) a strong urge to go back to sleep
59. D) no clear recollection of a dream
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 180
Style: Conceptual
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
If your spouse engages in frequent sleeptalking, you know that this is a
A) common sleep phenomenon.
B) phenomenon that only occurs in stage one sleep.
C) serious sleep disorder associated with sleepwalking.
D) phenomenon that occurs only in REM sleep.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
57. You are experiencing ______ if your dream during REM sleep is particularly
58.
59.
60.
61.
frightening and you are upset enough to wake up from your dream.
A) nightmares
B) night terrors
C) night sweats
D) narcolepsy
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 180
Style: Conceptual
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
Night terrors tend to occur
A) in women much more often than men.
B) during the deepest phases of non-REM sleep.
C) with the temporary stoppage of breathing.
D) with individuals who are malnourished.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
Sleeptalking occurs during ______ phase of the sleep cycle.
A) the deepest
B) the non-REM
C) any
D) the REM
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
60. Jerry is in the process of getting a divorce and is having trouble at his job.
Previously he had not had any sleep disorders but is bothered by one now.
Which disorder would he most likely have developed?
61. A) sleep apnea
62. B) narcolepsy
63. C) insomnia
64. D) sleeptalking
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 180
Style: Conceptual
61. Lucy wants to go to sleep at 10:00 p.m. because she gets up for work at 5:30
a.m. She has been trying for a month to fall asleep by 10:00 p.m. but can’t seem
to fall asleep until after 11:00 p.m. Lucy most likely has
62. A) manifest insomnia.
63. B) sleep-onset insomnia.
64. C) latent insomnia.
65. D) sleep-latency insomnia.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 180
Style: Conceptual
62. If you find that you are waking up frequently during the night or often wake up an
hour or two before your alarm goes off, you may have
63. A) manifest insomnia.
64. B) sleep-onset insomnia.
65. C) sleep-latency insomnia.
66. D) early-awakening insomnia.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by
A) sleepwalking and sleeptalking.
B) an anxious, panicky feeling.
C) irresistible urges to fall asleep.
D) excessively long sleep periods.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 181
Style: Factual
64. During a night’s sleep, frequently occurring apnea may cause symptoms similar
to
65. A) narcolepsy.
66. B) night terrors.
67. C) latent insomnia.
68. D) sleep-onset insomnia.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 181
Style: Factual
65. In ______ insomnia, individuals wake up sooner than desired, perhaps in the
66.
67.
68.
69.
middle of the night or closer to the morning.
A) latent content
B) manifest content
C) sleep-onset
D) early-awakening
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 180
Style: Conceptual
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
The sleep disorder of narcolepsy occurs when individuals
A) falls unexpectedly into a deep sleep in the middle of daily activities.
B) have difficulty falling asleep at the hour at which they would like.
C) wake up earlier than desired, sometimes several times a night.
D) stop breathing while they are sleeping.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 181
Style: Factual
67. What do drugs, trauma, fatigue, hypnosis, and sensory deprivation have in
common?
68. A) They produce the same brain wave activity.
69. B) They produce extreme negative emotional states.
70. C) They produce high levels of consciousness.
71. D) They produce altered states of consciousness.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 182
Style: Conceptual
68. Alan took a drug and then described how he had gained a unique insight into a
social problem; however, he has no justification or proof to back up his thoughts.
Which characteristic of altered states of consciousness best fits this example?
69. A) sense of unity
70. B) self-evident reality
71. C) transcendent
72. D) distortion of perception
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 182
Style: Applied
69. When Pilar reached the top of a Himalayan peak, she experienced an intense,
70.
71.
72.
73.
indescribable positive sensation. Her experience may best be described as
A) depersonalization.
B) stimulus incorporation.
C) an altered state.
D) astral projection.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 182
Style: Conceptual
70. Kathy says that when she meditates, she feels like she becomes one with the
71.
72.
73.
74.
universe. Kathy has experienced
A) an altered state of consciousness.
B) latent mesmerism.
C) the hypnagogic state.
D) a period of divided consciousness.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 182
Style: Factual
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
Which of the following is a characteristic of an altered state of consciousness?
A) sense of division
B) illogical
C) clear perception
D) describable
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 182
Style: Factual
72. Distortions of perception, intense positive emotions, and a self-evident reality are
73.
74.
75.
76.
all characteristics that describe
A) circadian arrhythmia.
B) myoclonic narcolepsy.
C) altered states of consciousness.
D) night terrors.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 182
Style: Factual
73. An altered state of consciousness that is sometimes achieved during meditation
74.
75.
76.
77.
and that transcends normal human experience is called
A) a transcendental mantra.
B) a transcendental state.
C) supreme meditation.
D) astral meditation.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 183
Style: Factual
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
Those who wish to reach a more perfect state of consciousness often engage in
A) hypnotic control.
B) divided consciousness.
C) depersonalization.
D) meditation.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 183
Style: Factual
75. A method of relaxation that involves focusing one’s concentration on rhythmic
breathing and not on thoughts or feelings is called
76. A) astral projection.
77. B) depersonalization.
78. C) meditation.
79. D) hypnosis.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 183
Style: Factual
76. While most people who master the practice of meditation report feeling relaxed,
some report feeling a state that goes beyond normal experience. This altered
state of consciousness is called
77. A) the transcendental state.
78. B) astral projection.
79. C) the universal state.
80. D) self-evident reality.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 183
Style: Conceptual
77. Charles has been told he must reduce his sympathetic autonomic arousal. What
78.
79.
80.
81.
consciousness-altering technique may help Charles?
A) depersonalization
B) stimulus incorporation
C) meditation
D) astral projection
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 183
Style: Factual
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
In considering the world around you, the opposite of meditation is
A) mindfulness.
B) sleepwalking.
C) mesmerism.
D) hypnosis.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 183
Style: Factual
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
Mindfulness involves a state of being where a person
A) concentrates on how past events will predict future events.
B) is completely aware of what is going on at the present moment.
C) watches the behavior of others while ignoring their own behavior.
D) relaxes to the point of sleepiness by the repeated use of a mantra.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 183
Style: Factual
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
In terms of states of consciousness, hypnosis involves a
A) high degree of controlled processing.
B) strong defense against suggestibility.
C) sense of deep relaxation and altered body awareness.
D) dependence on a belief in supernatural powers.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 184
Style: Factual
81. If Juan is hypnotized and he loses the sense of touch or pain in his right hand,
82.
83.
84.
85.
what is occurring?
A) a hypnagogic state
B) hypnotic relaxation
C) hypnotic analgesia
D) hypnotic conversion
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 184
Style: Factual
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
What do most experts believe about hypnotic age regression?
A) It is very useful in child abuse cases.
B) It can help people clearly recall painful experiences from the past.
C) It does not improve the recall of childhood events.
D) It is only useful for recalling the details of non-traumatic experiences.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 184
Style: Factual
83. What did Mesmer believe was the cause of his patients’ medical and
psychological problems?
84. A) Their autonomic nervous systems were overly aroused.
85. B) They were unable to relax completely.
86. C) They had an excess of body fluids.
87. D) Their bodies’ magnetic forces were out of balance.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 184
Style: Factual
84. The term “hypnotic analgesia” refers to the situation that occurs when a person is
hypnotized, they
85. A) see flowers that do not exist.
86. B) sense deep relaxation and peacefulness.
87. C) lose the sense of touch or pain.
88. D) pass back in time to an earlier life stage.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 184
Style: Factual
85. The perceptual experience of one’s body becoming distorted or unreal coupled
with a sense of strange distortions in one’s surroundings, is called
86. A) mesmerism.
87. B) self-evident reality.
88. C) transcendental projection.
89. D) depersonalization.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 186
Style: Factual
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
The perception that your mind has left your body is known as
A) mesmerism.
B) astral meditation.
C) transcendental state.
D) astral projection.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 186
Style: Factual
87. A spontaneous state of consciousness that occurs when one experiences their
88.
89.
90.
91.
own body becoming distorted or unreal in some way is referred to as
A) mantrafication.
B) mindfulness.
C) mesmerism.
D) depersonalization.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 186
Style: Factual
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
An astral projection can be thought of in common terms as a/n
A) out-of-body experience.
B) mindful state of tranquility.
C) manifest content dream.
D) stimulus incorporation event.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 186
Style: Factual
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
Drugs that alter conscious experience are known as ______ drugs.
A) psychotropic
B) illicit
C) pharmaceutical
D) over-the-counter (OTC)
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 187
Style: Factual
90. Gillian bought some cocaine that she felt gave her a great experience. When she
bought more cocaine from the same dealer, it did not give her the same
experience. Given this information, what best explains why her experiences
differed?
91. A) expectation
92. B) drug purity
93. C) personal characteristics
94. D) social situation
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 187
Style: Conceptual
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
Personal expectations, social situations, and moods are factors that may
A) explain why we sleep and dream.
B) affect the onset of a narcoleptic attack.
C) influence an individual’s response to drugs.
D) increase the likelihood of astral projection.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 187
Style: Factual
92. When taking a drug for the first time, people should be aware that _______ can
93.
94.
95.
96.
make the drug’s effects unpredictable.
A) withdrawal
B) psychological dependence
C) tolerance
D) personal characteristics
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 187
Style: Factual
93. When Bob drinks a few scotch and sodas in public he is viewed by others as very
witty and fun to be with. However, when Bob drinks a few scotch and sodas at
home, his family reports that he becomes sad and regretful. What is most likely
affecting Bob’s differing responses to alcohol?
94. A) the purity of the alcohol
95. B) the social situation
96. C) Bob’s expectations
97. D) the stimulant effect of alcohol
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 187
Style: Applied
94. The broad name for the class of drugs that alter conscious experience in any way
is
95. A) stimulants.
96. B) psychotropic drugs.
97. C) narcotics.
98. D) antagonists.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 187
Style: Factual
95. In trying to gauge a person’s reaction to psychotropic drug use, you might
consider if they are consuming the drug alone or with others. This drug use factor
is know as
96. A) mood and expectation.
97. B) personal characteristics.
98. C) the social situation.
99. D) dosage and purity.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 187
Style: Factual
96. Psychotropic drugs that increase the activity of the central nervous system,
providing a sense of energy and well-being, are called
97. A) depressants.
98. B) tranquilizers.
99. C) hallucinogens.
100.
D) stimulants.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 188
Style: Factual
97. If you took a drug that lessened your feelings of fatigue, created an elevated
mood, and decreased your appetite, which of the following did you probably
take?
98. A) amphetamine
99. B) alcohol
100.
C) heroin
101.
D) Valium
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 188
Style: Factual
98. Coca-Cola’s original ingredient, used to market it as a “nerve tonic,” was
_______, and was replaced by _______ in 1906.
99. A) cocaine; caffeine
100.
B) cocaine; cola extract
101.
C) nicotinic extract; caffeine
102.
D) pure caffeine; cola extract
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 189
Style: Factual
99. The reaction to the excessive use of stimulants that results in distorted thinking,
confused emotions, and intense suspiciousness is known as
A) amphetamine psychosis.
100.
101.
102.
103.
B) astral projection.
C) hypnotic mesmerism.
D) runner’s high.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 188
Style: Factual
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
Stimulant is to depressant as
A) alcohol is to cocaine.
B) codeine is to alcohol.
C) Dexedrine is to alcohol.
D) cocaine is to Dexedrine.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 188–189
Style: Conceptual
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
Tranquilizers and alcohol belong to a drug category called
A) stimulants.
B) narcotics.
C) depressants.
D) sedatives.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
Drugs that create a sense of relaxation and lowered inhibitions by
reducing the activity of the central nervous system are called
103.
A) inhalants.
104.
B) stimulants.
105.
C) hallucinogens.
106.
D) depressants.
102.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
Tranquilizers, sedatives, and narcotics all belong to the category of
______ drugs.
104.
A) stimulant
105.
B) depressant
106.
C) hallucinogenic
107.
D) inhalant
103.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
Also known as ma huang, ______ is an herbal stimulant sold as a dietary
supplement.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
A) epinephrine
B) ephedra
C) ecstasy
D) endorphin
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 189
Style: Factual
In general, sedatives are prescribed to treat ______ and tranquilizers are
prescribed to treat ______.
106.
A) anxiety; sleep problems
107.
B) drug overdoses; sleep problems
108.
C) sleep problems; anxiety
109.
D) anxiety; drug overdoses
105.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 190
Style: Factual
Your neighbor has just confided in you that he is an addict. You have
never seen him drink alcohol, smoke, or pop pills, but you have seen many small
paper bags lying around his garage. Given this evidence, to which category of
drug might your neighbor be addicted?
107.
A) hallucinogens
108.
B) depressants
109.
C) inhalants
110.
D) stimulants
106.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 190
Style: Applied
Which drug is not physically addictive and, after repeated use, less of the
drug may be needed to produce the desired effect?
108.
A) opium
109.
B) marijuana
110.
C) LSD
111.
D) caffeine
107.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 191
Style: Factual
108.
Despite being nonphysically addictive, marijuana, used on a prolonged
basis,
109.
110.
111.
112.
A) is considered highly addictive psychologically.
B) has never been proven to be harmful.
C) reduces cognitive efficiency.
D) produces only short-term health risks.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 191
Style: Factual
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
A substance is considered an inhalant if when inhaled it produces
A) substantial drowsiness.
B) a sense of intoxication.
C) extreme depression.
D) myoclonic events.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
PCP or angel dust falls into to psychotropic drug category of
A) opiates.
B) depressants.
C) hallucinogens.
D) stimulants.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 191
Style: Factual
Which of the following outcomes does marijuana smoking share with
cigarette smoking?
112.
A) increases in the action of male sex hormones
113.
B) strengthening of the body’s immune system
114.
C) increases in the efficiency of cognitive processing
115.
D) increases to the risk of lung cancer
111.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 191
Style: Factual
Recent evidence suggests that the use of the designer drug ecstasy
causes damage to neurons that use the neurotransmitter
113.
A) serotonin.
114.
B) norepinephrine.
115.
C) dopamine.
116.
D) acetylcholine.
112.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 192
Style: Factual
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
Nicotine works by increasing the firing of ______ neurons.
A) GABA
B) acetylecholine
C) serotonin
D) melatonin
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 192
Style: Factual
The drug ecstasy operates by reducing the transmission of neurons that
use ______ as a neurotransmitter.
115.
A) acetylcholine
116.
B) epinephrine
117.
C) serotonin
118.
D) norepinephrine
114.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 192
Style: Factual
Which of the following is one of the reasons that people become addicted
to psychoactive drugs?
116.
A) blockage of pleasure receptors
117.
B) operant conditioning
118.
C) disconnection of reward systems
119.
D) reduction of negative feelings
115.
Answer: D
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 192
Style: Factual
In the United States, about 1 in ______ adolescents and adults have a
substance abuse problem during some point in their lives.
117.
A) 4
118.
B) 10
119.
C) 50
120.
D) 100
116.
Answer: A
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 192
Style: Factual
People with less education and lower incomes are ______ likely to abuse
drugs compared to persons with more money.
118.
A) less
119.
B) more
120.
C) just as
121.
D) not very
117.
Answer: B
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 193
Style: Factual
Based on research, American Indians living on reservations have a
______ rate of alcohol abuse.
119.
A) non-existent
120.
B) low
121.
C) very high
122.
D) moderate
118.
Answer: C
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 193
Style: Factual
True/False Questions
119.
Consciousness is simply defined as a state of awareness.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 168
Style: Factual
120.
In general, cell phones do not distract drivers and do not cause accidents.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
Divided consciousness was a mythical form of awareness debunked by
Ernest Hilgard.
121.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 169
Style: Factual
When listening to two voices and told to pay attention to one, nothing from
the other voice (not paid attention to) is processed by the brain.
122.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 170
Style: Factual
123.
We always go directly from wakefulness to sleep.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 171
Style: Factual
Sleep is not a single state; instead, it’s a complex combination of states,
some involving conscious awareness.
124.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 171
Style: Factual
125.
The hypnagogic state is the second level of sleep.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 171
Style: Factual
Non-REM dreams contain much more emotional and realistic content
compared to REM dreams.
126.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 174–175
Style: Factual
127.
REM sleep stands for rapid eye movement sleep.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 173–174
Style: Factual
128.
The circadian rhythm for humans is about 12 hours.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 175
Style: Factual
129.
Body temperature follows a circadian rhythm.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 175
Style: Factual
130.
If an individual misses some sleep, a sleep debt is created.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 176
Style: Factual
131.
About 10% of all dreams involve sexual body sensations.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 178
Style: Factual
Incorporating a ringing telephone into your current dream is called day
residue.
132.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 179
Style: Factual
The visual images in dreams are usually as bright and clear as waking
images, but they are not as colorful.
133.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 178
Style: Factual
134.
Night terrors are vividly remembered upon wakening.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
135.
Sleeptalking can occur during any phase of the sleep cycle.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
136.
Fortunately, sleep disorders are highly treatable disorders.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
137.
Sleepwalking occurs during the deepest parts of non-REM sleep.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 180
Style: Factual
Sleep apnea is the sleep disorder where individuals have a hard time
falling asleep.
138.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 181
Style: Factual
139.
An altered state of consciousness often results in a sense of unity.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 182
Style: Factual
A word that may be repeated over and over during meditation is called a
mantra.
140.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 183
Style: Factual
Meditation involves a free association of thoughts to solve difficult life
problems.
141.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 183
Style: Factual
During hypnotic age regression, a sense of deep relaxation and
peacefulness exists.
142.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 184
Style: Factual
143.
Another name for an out-of-body experience is astral projection.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 186
Style: Factual
144.
Depersonalization usually occurs during hypnotic trances.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 186
Style: Factual
145.
A person’s personality can influence a drug’s effect.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 187
Style: Factual
146.
Stimulants product a dreamlike alteration to perceptual experiences.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 188
Style: Factual
147.
Cocaine is a stimulant.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 189
Style: Factual
148.
A feature of all psychotropic drugs is the production of hallucinations.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
Cocaine exerts its effect by blocking the re-uptake of neurotransmitter by
the neuron so that stimulation is prolonged.
149.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Medium
Page: 189
Style: Factual
Depressants operate by depressing the actions of the peripheral nervous
system.
150.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
151.
The derivates of opium are known as opiates.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
152.
LSD and mescaline belong to the psychotropic drug category opiates.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
153.
Inhalants are most often abused by children.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 190
Style: Factual
154.
Ecstasy is an example of a designer drug.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 191
Style: Factual
The reduction of negative feelings is one reason that individuals become
dependent on drugs.
155.
Answer: True
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 192
Style: Factual
Three out of every four individuals in the United States have a substance
abuse problem some time in their life.
156.
Answer: False
Book: Lahey
Difficulty: Low
Page: 192
Style: Factual
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