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Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination-8th Edition-Jane W. Ball-Test bank
Chapter 06: Growth and MeasurementChapter 06: Growth and MeasurementTest BankNursing
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The gonads begin to secrete estrogen and testosterone during:a. infancy.b.
puberty.c. pregnancy.d. early adulthood.
ANS: BAt puberty, the gonads secrete testosterone and estrogen. As a result,
secondary sex characteristics (e.g., genitalia growth) begin to appear. Maturation
occurs at a mean age of 11.5 years in females and 13.5 years in males.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: p. 79OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
2. Developmental changes of puberty are caused mainly by the interaction of the
pituitary gland, gonads, and:a. hypothalamus.b. islet cells.c. thalamus.d. thymus.
ANS: AUnder the influence of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads,
developmental changes of puberty are established.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 79OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
3. After 50 years of age, stature:a. becomes fixed.b. begins a barely perceptible
secondary increase.c. increases at a rate of 0.5 cm/ year.d. declines.
ANS: DAs the individual reaches 50 years of age, the intervertebral disk begins to thin
and become more compressed, which leads to a decline in stature.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 82OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
4. By 10 to 12 years of age, lymphatic tissues are about:a. 25% of adult size.b. 50% of
adult size.c. the same as adult size.d. twice the size of those in the adult.
ANS: DLymphatic tissues are small compared with total body size, but they are almost
fully developed at birth. They grow fast and are about twice the adult size by age 10 to
12 years.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 80OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
5. Mrs. Jones has brought her 24-month-old child for a well visit. Which organ(s)
completes physical development more quickly than any other body part?a. Brainb.
Kidneysc. Heartd. Lungs
ANS: AAlong with the skull, eyes, and ears, the brain completes development more
quickly than any other part of the body; its most rapid growth occurs from conception to
age 2 years.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: p. 80OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
6. During adolescence, the head size normally increases as a result of:a. sinus
development.b. brain mass increase.c. evolution of lymphatic tissue.d. hypertrophy of
myelin.
ANS: AAs the facial sinuses grow, the head size enlarges its surface area to
accommodate their growth.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 81OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
7. Fifty percent of an individual’s ideal weight is gained during:a. pregnancy.b. preschool
years.c. adolescence.d. early adulthood.
ANS: CDuring adolescence, the trunk and legs grow the most, causing the organs and
the skeletal mass to double in size. In pregnancy, weight gain is accounted for by the
growing fetus and pregnancy organs (placenta and uterus). In preschool years, weight
is gained at a steady rate, with fat tissue increasing slowly until about 7 years of age. In
preschool years, weight is gained at a steady rate, with fat tissue increasing slowly until
about 7 years of age. In early adulthood, there is a reduction in size and weight.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 81OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
8. Gender-specific skeletal differences first occur during:a. the second stage of fetal
development.b. late infancy.c. early childhood.d. adolescence.
ANS: DDuring adolescence, females develop a wider pelvis and males develop broad
shoulders; males transition from a slight increase in body fat to more lean muscle mass
in later puberty, whereas females maintain an increase in adipose tissue throughout
adolescence.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 80OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
9. Mrs. Layton is a 33-year-old patient who is obese. Most adult obesity begins:a. in
adolescence.b. in childhood.c. after the skeletal growth is completed.d. once sexual
maturation is complete.
ANS: ASeventy percent of adult obesity begins in adolescence, before skeletal growth
or sexual maturation is complete.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 80OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
10. The legs are the fastest growing body part during:a. early infancy.b. late infancy.c.
childhood.d. early adulthood.
ANS: CLegs grow the fastest during childhood, whereas the trunk grows fastest in
infancy and the skeletal muscles and organs grow fastest in early adulthood.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 81OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
11. Skeletal mass and organ systems double in size during:a. infancy.b. early
childhood.c. adolescence.d. early adulthood.
ANS: CDuring puberty, sex steroids stimulate secretion of growth hormone, causing the
organs and skeletal mass to double in size.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 80OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
12. Optimal infant birth weight is difficult for pregnant adolescents to obtain because:a.
they have not completed their own growth spurt.b. there are insufficient uterine
supporting structures.c. the amniotic fluid is variable in pregnant adolescents.d. blood
volume has not reached adult proportions.
ANS: APregnant adolescents younger than 16 years, or less than 2 years from
menarche, may still be in their growth spurt. They may require higher weight gains
during pregnancy to achieve an optimal infant birth weight. There are sufficient uterine
supporting structures in the pregnant adolescent. The amnionic fluid is not variable in
pregnant adolescents. Blood volume has reached adult proportions in the pregnant
adolescent.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 90OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
13. How much of the weight gained during a normal pregnancy is accounted for by the
fetus?a. Less than 5 poundsb. 6 to 8 poundsc. 9 to 12 poundsd. 13 to 30 pounds
ANS: BThe growing fetus accounts for only 6 to 8 pounds of the total weight gained.
The remainder results from an increase in maternal tissues (e.g., placenta, amniotic
fluid, uterus, blood and fluid volume, breasts, and fat reserves).
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: p. 80OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
14. The rate of weight gain during pregnancy is expected to be:a. greatest in the first
trimester.b. greatest in the second trimester.c. greatest in the third trimester.d. about the
same in each trimester.
ANS: BThe rate of weight gain is slow during the first trimester, rapid during the second
trimester, and less rapid during the third trimester. Maternal tissue growth accounts for
most of the weight gained in the first and second trimesters, whereas fetal growth
accounts for weight gained during the third trimester.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 80OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
15. During a preventive health care visit, Ms. G, an older patient, states that she is
getting shorter. She says that her son mentioned that her change in stature became
noticeable to him during his last visit with her. Her posture appears straight and aligned.
When addressing Ms. G.’s present concerns, it is most important to inquire about:a. the
number of pregnancies.b. her parents’ heights.c. a history of scoliosis.d. her usual
height and weight.
ANS: DStature declines after 50 years of age because of progressive thinning of the
intervertebral disks, so it is important to determine the patient’s height and weight at this
age as a baseline for future trending.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) REF: p. 82OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
16. Over the past 2 decades, there has been a trend toward:a. increased
osteoporosis.b. preservation of height.c. obesity in older adults.d. preservation of
muscle mass.
ANS: CAn increase in overweight and obese older adults has been documented over
the past 15 to 20 years. A decrease in weight for height and body mass index has been
found with increasing age in patients between 70 and 89 years of age.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 82OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
17. Milestone achievements are data most likely to appear in the history of:a.
adolescents.b. infants.c. school-age children.d. young adults.
ANS: BAs part of developmental assessment in infants, milestone achievements at
certain ages, such as crawling, laughing, picking up their head, and turning over, are
recorded.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 82OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
18. To estimate an individual’s frame size, the examiner should measure:a. skull
circumference.b. the length from the olecranon process to the acromion process.c.
elbow breadth.d. hip circumference.
ANS: CWith the patient’s right arm extended and the elbow flexed to 90 degrees,
measure the elbow breadth using a measuring device or skinfold calipers, held on the
same plane as the upper arm, on the two most prominent bones of the elbow.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) REF: p. 87OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
19. Which cultural group tends to have a wide variation in birth weights?a. Native
Americansb. Filipinosc. Norwegiansd. Puerto Ricans
ANS: AAs much as a 362-g difference in mean birth weight exists among several Native
American tribes. African American, Asian, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Puerto Rican infants
generally weigh less than white infants. Filipinos, Norwegians, and Puerto Ricans do not
have a wide variation in birth weights.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: p. 87OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
20. Healthy term babies generally double their birth weight by what age?a. 3 monthsb. 5
monthsc. 9 monthsd. 12 months
ANS: BIn general, healthy infants double their birth weight by 4 to 5 months of age and
triple their birth weight by 12 months of age. Formula-fed infants are heavier after the
first 6 months of life than breast-fed infants; they grow faster in the first 6 months of life
and experience slower growth in the second 6 months of the first year.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: p. 84OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
21. Infants born to the same parents are normally within which range of weight of each
other?a. 6 ouncesb. 12 ouncesc. 1 poundd. 2 pounds
ANS: ASiblings born at term to the same parents usually weigh within 6 ounces of each
other.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: p. 83OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
22. A marker for nutritional status is the:a. head circumference.b. waist-to-hip ratio.c.
standing height.d. triceps skinfold thickness.
ANS: DThe measurement of skinfold or fatfold thickness provides another parameter to
evaluate the nutritional status of the patient. The jaws of skinfold thickness calipers
must be correctly placed to obtain an accurate reading.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) REF: p. 83OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
23. To measure head circumference, the tape is wrapped snugly around the child’s
head at the occipital protuberance and the:a. supraorbital prominence.b. brow line.c.
nasal bridge.d. chin.
ANS: AThe measuring tape should be snugly wrapped around the child’s head at the
occipital protuberance and supraorbital prominence, thereby documenting the largest
circumference. Care should be taken to ensure that the tape does not cut the skin.
Make the reading to the nearest 0.5 cm or inch, and remember to remeasure the head
circumference at least once to check the accuracy of your measurement.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) REF: p. 84OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
24. Between 5 and 24 months of life, the infant’s chest circumference is normally:a.
about equal to the head circumference.b. greater than head circumference by 2
inches.c. smaller than head circumference by about 4 inches.d. at least 2 inches smaller
than head circumference.
ANS: ABetween the ages of 5 months and 2 years, the infant’s chest circumference
should closely approximate the head circumference; the ratio should be monitored so
that possible microcephaly can be identified.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: p. 85OBJ: Nursing
process-assessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
25. In clinical practice, the Ballard Assessment Tool is used to assess a newborn’s:a.
length.b. weight.c. lung maturity.d. gestational age.
ANS: DThe Ballard Assessment Tool assesses six physical and six neuromuscular
characteristics and is administered within 36 hours of birth to confirm the newborn’s
gestational age.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: p. 85OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
26. Which of the following situations poses the most concern?a. The child whose weight
and height ratios have remained at the 50th percentileb. The child whose weight and
height ratios have stayed between the 90th and 95th percentilesc. The child whose
weight and height ratios have never been above the 50th percentiled. The child whose
weight and height ratios have dropped 15 percentiles since the last visit
ANS: DOver time, interval measurements should demonstrate that the child has
established a growth pattern, indicated by consistently following a percentile curve on
the growth chart. Greatest concern is for the child who is trending down in a more
dramatic fashion. Children who suddenly fall below or rise above their established
percentile growth curve should be examined more closely to determine the cause.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyzing (Analysis) REF: p. 82OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
27. The upper-to-lower segment ratio should be calculated:a. bimonthly for the first year
of life.b. annually for the first 5 years.c. only when a child is suspected of having a
growth problem or unusual body proportions.d. in children of first-generation
immigrants.
ANS: CThe upper-to-lower segment ratio is calculated when a child is suspected of
having a growth problem or unusual body proportions.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) REF: p. 87OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
28. A Mexican American mother brings her 12-year-old daughter to the clinic because
this child is not maturing as quickly as her classmates. You examine the daughter and
determine that her growth and physical findings are within normal limits. You should
explain to the family that:a. Mexican Americans may develop more slowly than other
ethnic groups.b. more tests should be conducted because the family appears so
worried.c. the daughter should drink more juices and eat more fruit.d. there is a serious
problem with the daughter’s development.
ANS: AMexican Americans typically are taller than Asian children but shorter than
Native American, white, and African American children. This child’s growth pattern
should be similar to other children of similar ethnicity. More tests are not required. The
daughter does not need to drink more juices and eat more fruit. There is no problem
with the daughter’s development.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) REF: p. 87OBJ: Nursing processassessment MSC: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation
29. Which of following statements regarding female pubertal changes is true?a. Most
adolescent girls will develop breasts before they develop pubic hair.b. Peak height
velocity should occur after menarche.c. Breast asymmetry is an abnormal finding.d.
Menarche should occur by Tanner breast stage 2.