Test Bank For Human Development- A Cultural Approach- Arnett -1st Edition

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Chapter 6 Eary Childhood
Section 1 Physical
Development……………………………………………………………………….. 606
Test Item
File…………………………………………………………………………………………………
606
Multiple Choice
Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 606
Short Answer
Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 626
Essay
Questions………………………………………………………………………………………….
627
MyDevelopmentLab Question
Bank………………………………………………………………… 629
Pretest…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…… 629
PostTest…………………………………………………………………………………………………
… 631
Chapter
Exam…………………………………………………………………………………………….
633
Quick
Review…………………………………………………………………………………………….
635
Video Guide
Questions………………………………………………………………………………….. 638
Short Answer
Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 638
Multiple Choice
Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 638
Section 2 Cognitive
Development……………………………………………………………………… 641
Test Item
File…………………………………………………………………………………………………
641
Multiple Choice
Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 641
Short Answer
Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 667
Essay
Questions………………………………………………………………………………………….
669
MyDevelopmentLab Question
Bank………………………………………………………………… 670
PreTest…………………………………………………………………………………………………
….. 670
PostTest…………………………………………………………………………………………………
… 672
Chapter
Exam…………………………………………………………………………………………….
674
Quick
Review…………………………………………………………………………………………….
677
Video Guide
Questions………………………………………………………………………………….. 680
Short Answer
Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 680
Multiple Choice
Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 680
Section 3 Emotional and Social
Development……………………………………………………. 678
Test Item
File…………………………………………………………………………………………………
678
Multiple Choice
Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 678
Short Answer
Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 713
Essay
Questions………………………………………………………………………………………….
714
MyDevelopmentLab Question
Bank………………………………………………………………… 713
PreTest…………………………………………………………………………………………………
….. 713
PostTest…………………………………………………………………………………………………
… 715
Chapter
Exam…………………………………………………………………………………………….
717
Quick
Review…………………………………………………………………………………………….
720
Video Guide
Questions………………………………………………………………………………….. 722
Short Answer
Questions……………………………………………………………………………… 722
Multiple Choice
Questions………………………………………………………………………….. 722
Section 1 Physical Development
Test Item File
Difficulty
1=Easy; 2=Moderate; 3=Difficult
Learning Objective number refers to the textbook’s learning objectives.
MDL Parallel Question ID refers to the correlating question found in
MyDevelopmentLab. For your convenience, the MyDevelopmentLab items for this
chapter are included in this document after the Test Item File.
Pre=Pre-Test
Post=Post-Test
CE=Chapter Exam
QR=Quick Review
Multiple Choice Questions
1. From ages 3 to 6 the typical American child grows ____ inches per year and adds ____
pounds.
2. 1–3; 1–5
3. 2–3; 5–7
4. 6–9; 7–10
5. 9–12; 9–12
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 231
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.1
2. When Andrew turns 3 years old, one can expect him to weigh ____.
3. 20 pounds
4. 30 pounds
Correct. The typical 3-year-old weighs about 30 pounds.
1. 40 pounds
Incorrect. The typical 3-year-old weighs about 30 pounds.
1. 50 pounds
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.8, CE 6.1.1
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The typical 6-year-old is about how tall?
15 inches
30 inches
45 inches
60 inches
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 231
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.2
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The typical 6-year-old weighs about ____.
25 pounds
35 pounds
45 pounds
55 pounds
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 231
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
5. Mehrak lives in America and is 45 inches tall and weighs 45 pounds. She is in good
health and her pediatrician says she is developing at a normal pace. Knowing her height
and weight it is safe to say that Mehrak is around ____.
6. 2 years old
7. 4 years old
8. 6 years old
Correct. The typical American 6-year-old child is about 45 inches tall and weighs
about
45 pounds.
1. 8 years old.
Incorrect. Children in developing nations tend to be a little smaller; therefore a child in
Cambodia who was 8 years old could be 45 inches tall and 45 pounds in weight, but it is
not likely in the U.S.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 231
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.2
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
During childhood, boys are slightly ____ than girls.
shorter and lighter
taller and heavier
fatter and smaller
more sympathetic and sensitive
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.3
7. ____ in developing countries causes a considerably lower average for height and weight
during early childhood.
8. Higher nutrition and a lower likelihood of childhood diseases
9. Lower parental care and the lack of folic acid
Incorrect. In developing countries, average heights and weights in early childhood are
considerably lower, due to lower nutrition and higher likelihood of childhood diseases.
1. Lower nutrition and higher likelihood of childhood diseases
Correct. Due to these reasons, as seen in Bangladesh, a 6-year-old child is comparable
in physical size to that of an average 4-year-old in Sweden.
1. Higher parental care and an abundance of folic acid
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 231
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.2
8. Why are the average heights and weights of children in early childhood in developing
countries considerably lower than developed countries?
9. poor nutrition and diseases
Correct. In developing countries, average heights and weights in early childhood are
considerably lower, due to lower nutrition and higher likelihood of childhood diseases.
1. poor school lunches and poorly trained teachers
2. children in developing countries are obese
Incorrect. Although many children in developed countries are obese, children in
developing countries do not have access to good nutrition or medical care
1. genetically the heights of these children are at maximum
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.10
9. Compared to the average 4-year-old in Sweden, how tall is the average 6-year-old in
Bangladesh?
10. four times taller
11. three times taller
12. twice as tall
13. the same height
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.3
10. Wealthier parents have children who weigh more and are taller because ____.
11. they can pay maids to feed their children
12. have access to more nutritional foods
Correct. Wealthier people have more access to nutritional foods, so their children are
taller and weigh more than poorer children of the same age.
1. allow their children to eat at fast-food restaurants
2. wealthier parents are generally genetically much taller
Incorrect. Genetics do not explain these differences. Wealthier people have more
access to nutritional foods, which affect child growth.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.1
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
How many teeth does the average 3-year-old have?
12
20
32
40
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.2
12. Layla is 3 years old. How many teeth would you expect her to have?
13. 10
Incorrect. By their third birthday, most children have a full set of 20 teeth.
1. 15
2. 20
Correct. By their third birthday, most children have a full set of 20 teeth.
1. 25
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.3
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Children begin to lose their “baby teeth” around age ____.
2
4
6
8
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 231
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
14. Vladimir is 3 years old and preparing for his first dental visit. Beyond a routine cleaning
Vladimir may also be given ____.
15. Novocain for his incoming molars
16. a fluoride rinse and sealants
Correct. In developed countries, it is increasingly common for children’s dental care
to
include fluoride rinses and sealants.
1. water that is fortified with calcium
Incorrect. Fluoride, not calcium, is added to most metropolitan water systems in
developed nations, but it is not routinely issued at a dental visit.
1. teeth-whitening gum
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
15. What percentage of North American children have at least one dental cavity by age five
years?
16. 5%
17. 10%
18. 20%
19. 40%
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.4
16. Your neighbor’s daughter seems to eat candy quite a bit between meals. Her parents
are worried about this and ask you. What would you tell her parents?
17. She is very likely to get cavities.
Correct. Eating sweets is not only likely to cause cavities, but is also related
to
nutritional deficiencies.
1. Sugar and starches are good for growing children.
2. Candy helps soothe her and is linked to positive emotional development.
3. Most children today eat like this and it is not likely to be a problem.
Incorrect. Eating sweets is not only likely to cause cavities, but is also related to
nutritional deficiencies.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.9
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
By age 3, the brain is about ____ of its adult weight, and by age 6 it is ____.
50%; 70%
60%; 80%
70%; 90%
80%; 100%
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
_____ lobe grows faster than the rest of the cerebral cortex during early childhood.
The frontal
The parietal
The occipital
The temporal
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
19. Your brother is very impressed with his 4-year-old daughter’s development, particularly
in emotional regulation. He asks your opinion about his observations and you tell him
that her advances in development are likely due to ____.
20. superior genetics
21. growth in her frontal lobe
Correct. The advances are due to maturation of the neurological system.
1. superior parenting
Incorrect. The advances are due to maturation of the neurological system.
1. the new preschool that she is now attending
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.5, QR 6.1.7
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Increase in brain size and weight during early childhood is due to ____?
cerebral spinal fluid
the increase in blood volume
the number of neurons
dendritic connections and myelination
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
21. ____ is a bundle of nerve fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral
cortex.
22. Corpus callosum
23. Reticular formation
24. Hippocampus
25. Amygdala
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 94
a= 94 b= 0 c= 6 d= 0
r = .42
22. Which of the following is a structure at the base of the brain that is involved in balance
and motor movement?
23. cerebellum
24. reticular formation
25. hippocampus
26. corpus callosum
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.4
23. Yvette was diagnosed with Lyme disease and is having difficulty with balance, walking a
straight line, and simple motor movements. Which of the following areas of her brain
would you suspect is being affected by the disease and causing the above mentioned
symptoms?
24. the cerebellum
Correct. Lyme disease is known for its effect on the cerebellum which in turn
impedes
motor movement and balance.
1. the reticular formation
2. the hippocampus
3. the corpus callosum
Incorrect. The cerebellum is a structure at the base of the brain involved in balance and
motor movements.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.9
24. Four-year-old Heinz is getting much better at jumping, running, climbing, and throwing a
ball. It is clear that his ___ is developing.
25. hippocampus
26. reticular formation
27. temporal lobe
Incorrect. The temporal lobe is more so implicated with auditory processing, for the
auditory cortex is located here.
1. cerebellum
Correct. The cerebellum is primarily responsible for balance and motor movement.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 232
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
What is the brain system that is involved in attention?
cerebellum
hippocampus
reticular formation
corpus callosum
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.3
26. Your neighbor has a 5-year-old son. He has been taking him to story time at the library,
but his son is having a very difficult time sitting still even for ten minutes. What would you
tell him about his son’s brain development? He should be able to sit through the entire
story time once what brain structure develops more fully?
27. reticular formation
Correct. The reticular formation is a part of the brain involved in attention.
1. hippocampus
Incorrect. This system is involved in memory.
1. corpus callosum
2. cerebellum
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 232
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.10
27. Which of the following is a part of the brain that is involved in attention and is responsible
for an increased attention span during early childhood?
28. orbital cortex
29. reticular formation
30. limbic system
31. cerebellum
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 232
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
On average, a 4- or 5-year-old child has an attention span of ____.
1–2 minutes
5–10 minutes
10–15 minutes
15–30 minutes
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 233
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.6
29. ____ is involved in the transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term
memory.
30. The hippocampus
31. The reticular formation
32. The temporal lobe
33. The cerebellum
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 233
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.1
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
_____ is the inability to remember anything prior to age 2.
Infantile amnesia
Childhood disease
Toddler amnesia
Baby amnesia
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 233
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.5, Post 6.1.10
31. Your roommate and you are discussing your early childhoods. She is getting very
frustrated because she cannot remember anything that happened to her before about
age 2. She remembers stories that her parents told her about when she was younger,
but she does not actually remember those memories herself. What would you tell her?
The inability to remember anything prior to age 2 is common and is referred to as ____.
32. brain damage
33. false memories
34. childhood forgetfulness
Incorrect: The inability to remember anything prior to age 2 is known as infantile
amnesia.
1. infantile amnesia
Correct. The inability to remember anything prior to age 2 is known as infantile amnesia.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 233
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 100
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
a= 0 b= 0 c= 0 d= 100
r = .00
As the rate of physical growth ____ in early childhood, food consumption ____.
increases; grows as well
remains the same; is constant
slows down; diminishes as well
increases; slows down
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 233
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
33. Your 5-year-old daughter has really not eaten very much during the past couple of days.
You are a bit worried, but after thinking about your developmental course, you remember
that 5-year-old children ____.
34. rarely eat until their 6th birthday
35. sometimes do not really eat very much. She will probably be eating quite a bit tomorrow
Correct. Appetites vary a lot from day to day in early childhood, so there is no need to
worry.
1. experience serious changes in their taste buds during this time and might avoid eating
Incorrect. No changes in taste occur during this time.
1. are likely sneaking in snacks between meals. You will need to watch her carefully
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 233–234
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 63
a= 5 b= 63 c= 21 d= 0
r = .42
34. Your 5-year-old son has not been eating a balanced diet lately even though you provide
well-balanced meals for him. To get him to eat his vegetables, you tell him that if he eats
all of his vegetables you will let him have his dessert. Although many parents in
American culture bribe their children in this manner, what is the likely result?
35. Children learn to eat a balanced diet.
36. Children come to associate vegetables with dessert and begin eating quite a bit more
vegetables.
Incorrect. Children do not start eating more vegetables as a result
1. Bribing children to eat their vegetables actually contributes to childhood obesity.
Correct. The assumption that young children like only high fat and sugar foods also
leads parents to bribe their children to eat healthier foods, which leads the children to
view healthy foods as a trial and unhealthy foods as a reward—a practice that
contributes to childhood obesity.
1. Children refuse to eat vegetables unless they get sweet treats before eating vegetables.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 234
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
____ is the most common nutritional deficiency for children in the United States.
Fluoride
Folic acid
Calcium
Iron
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 234
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.5
36. What proportion of 3-year-old American children receive less than the recommended
amount of calcium?
37. 1/3
38. 1/4
39. 2/3
40. 1/2
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 234
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
Which of the following elements is responsible for the growth of strong bones and teeth?
calcium
zinc
fluoride
potassium
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
38. As a result of children in the United States drinking more soft drinks, they are drinking
____.
39. less milk, which is contributing to calcium deficiencies
40. more fruit juice, which is very healthy
41. kinderbeer, which contributes to alcoholism later in life
42. less fruit juice, which leads to vitamin deficiencies
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
What is the percentage of children in developing countries who are malnourished?
80%
60%
40%
20%
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.15
40. According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that ____ of children in
developing countries lack sufficient food or essential nutrients.
41. 40%
42. 60%
43. 80%
44. 100%
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.4
41. Which of the following are the most common types of malnutrition for children in
developing nations?
42. lack of protein and lack of iron
43. lack of calcium and lack of iron
44. lack of potassium and lack of zinc
45. lack of folic acid and lack of fat
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.4
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
Iron deficiency is also known as ____.
kwashiorkor
anemia
osteoporosis
marasmus
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
43. What deficiency is experienced by the majority of children under age 5 in developing
countries and leads to fatigue, irritability, and difficulty sustaining attention?
44. iron
45. calcium
46. phosphorus
47. beta carotine
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
Fatigue, irritability, and difficulty sustaining attention are all symptoms of ____.
kwashiorkor
anemia
osteoporosis
marasmus
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.14
45. Pneumonia, malaria, and measles are common causes of death for children in ____.
46. developing nations
Correct. The most common cause of death for children in developing nations is
illness
and disease.
1. developed nations
Incorrect. In developed countries, the most common cause of injury and death in early
childhood is accidents.
1. collective cultures
2. individualistic cultures
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.6, QR 6.1.8
46. Malnutrition is believed to be indirectly responsible for about half of early childhood
deaths. Why? Because lack of sufficient food ____.
47. slows the development of myelination
48. increases the likelihood of failure to thrive
Incorrect. Failure to thrive occurs in addition to adequate food sources
1. reduces the effectiveness of the immune system
Correct. Malnutrition is believed to be indirectly responsible for about half of early
childhood deaths, because lack of sufficient food reduces the effectiveness of the
body’s immune system.
1. increases competition for calories and children lose out
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.6
% correct 75
a= 13 b= 13 c= 75 d= 0
r = .33
47. The mortality rate for children under age 5 has been greatly reduced in developing
nations as a result of which of the following factors?
48. increased parental education and increased level of income
49. increased iron consumption and decreased childhood vaccinations
50. increased parental income and increased level of education
51. increased food production and increased childhood vaccinations
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.13
% correct 69
a= 6 b= 19 c= 6 d= 69
r = .19
48. A friend is worried about his son who is very active and is constantly injuring himself.
What would you tell him to help him worry less? This behavior is very typical because his
son’s ____.
49. motor development is advanced enough to do quite a bit, but his cognitive development
is not able to anticipate situations that might be dangerous
Correct. Children in early childhood have high activity levels and their motor
development is advanced enough for them to be able to run, jump, and climb, but their
cognitive development is not yet advanced enough for them to anticipate situations that
might be dangerous.
1. motor development is not yet very advanced and he is going to be involved in many
accidents
Incorrect. Motor development has advanced enough at this point; his son’s lack of
cognitive development does not allow him to foresee situations that might lead to injury.
1. visual processing is lagging behind his motor development and he simply cannot see
very well
2. attention skills are not yet fully developed and his son is likely to not pay attention to his
father’s warnings to be careful
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.12
% correct 53
a= 53 b= 42 c= 0 d= 0
r = .41
49. In the United States, each year ____ of children under age 10 become injured badly
enough to need medical attention.
50. 1/4
51. 1/2
52. 1/3
53. 2/3
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
50. In developed countries what is the most common cause of injury and death in early
childhood?
51. falling down stairs
52. parental abuse
53. electric shock
54. motor vehicle accidents
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235–236
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
51. Gunther is 5 years old and is in a hospital emergency room. Based upon statistics, which
of the following is the most likely cause?
52. a playground accident
53. a fall
Incorrect. In developed countries, the most common cause of injury and death in early
childhood is motor vehicle accidents.
1. a motor vehicle accident
Correct. In developed countries, the most common cause of injury and death in
early
childhood is motor vehicle accidents.
1. a bicycle accident
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 235–236
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.11
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
Rates of early childhood injury and death due to accidents are ____.
lower in developing countries than in developed countries
higher in developing countries than in developed countries
higher in collective cultures than in individualistic cultures
lower in collective cultures than in individualistic cultures
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 236
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
In developing countries what is the most common cause of death in early childhood?
parental abuse
motor vehicle accidents
illness and disease
accidental burning
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 236
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.10
54. Which of the following best describes gross motor development in early childhood?
55. Gross motor development in early childhood extends abilities that first appear in
toddlerhood.
Correct. In many ways, gross motor development in early childhood extends abilities
that first appeared in toddlerhood.
1. Gross motor development in early childhood regresses to an earlier state.
2. Gross motor development in early childhood is unpredictable.
Incorrect. Gross motor development is predictable during early childhood.
1. Gross motor development in early childhood is dependent upon fine motor development.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 236
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.1.9
55. Kicking a soccer ball is an example of ____.
56. gross motor skills
Correct. Larger motions such as moving one’s leg are gross motor skills.
1. fine motor skills
Incorrect. Fine motor skills consist of fine movement, such as using one’s fingers.
1. ambidextrous motor skills
2. elementary motor skills
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 237
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.7
56. Using a pencil to draw a smiley face on a sheet of paper is an example of a ____.
57. gross motor skill
Incorrect. A large sweeping circle would be gross motor skill.
1. fine motor skill
Correct. The fine details of a smiley face require fine motor skills.
1. ambidextrous motor skill
2. elementary motor skill
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 237
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.9
% correct 100
a= 0 b= 100 c= 0 d= 0
r = .00
57. Your older brother’s college roommate is an artist. He was very much hoping that his 5year-old daughter would grow up to be artistic as well. At this point, she can draw some
shapes pretty well, like circles and triangles, but that is about it. He is a bit worried. What
would you tell him?
58. She is not likely to ever be very skilled in drawing.
59. She probably will be a gifted athlete.
Incorrect. There is no relationship between early motor skills and later advances in
these skills.
1. She is developing in a very typical manner for fine motor skills.
Correct. By age 6, most children can draw shapes such as a circle or triangle.
1. She is lagging far behind other children her age in drawing.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 237
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.1.8
58. Gross motor skills are to ____ as fine motor skills are to ____.
59. throwing; writing
Correct. Making sweeping motions with one arm is a gross motor skill, whereas using
your fingers to write is a fine motor skill.
1. writing; throwing
Incorrect. This is the opposite of what is correct.
1. running; jumping
2. jumping; running
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 237
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.6
59. ____ is the preference for using either the right or left hand in gross or fine motor
activities.
60. Dominancy
61. Digital choice
62. Handedness
63. Ambidextrous
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 237
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.5
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
When is the preference for using a particular hand first developed?
during early childhood
in infancy
prenatally
during middle childhood
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 237
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.8
% correct 21
a= 53 b= 21 c= 21 d=
r = .21
61. Similar to the percentage of right-handed adults, what percentage of fetuses use their
right hand when sucking their thumb?
62. 30%
63. 50%
64. 70%
65. 90%
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 237
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
In regards to handedness, adopted children show a greater resemblance to ____.
their biological parents
their adoptive parents
their biological siblings
their adoptive siblings
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 238
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.1.7
63. Identical twins have a _____ genetic similarity and are more likely than ordinary siblings
to ____.
64. 50%; differ in handedness
65. 100%; differ in handedness
Correct. Identical (monozygotic) twins share a 100% genetic similarity but
surprisingly
are more likely to differ in handedness. This may be due to their
positioning in vitro.
1. 50%; be similar in handedness
2. 100%; be similar in handedness
Incorrect. Identical (monozygotic) twins share a 100% genetic similarity but surprisingly
are more likely to differ in handedness. This may be due to their positioning in vitro.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 238
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
The preference for using a particular hand probably occurs as a function of ____.
genetics
training
observational learning
the fetus leaning on a particular side that frees up one hand or the other for movement
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 238
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
65.
66.
67.
68.
In many cultures left-handedness is ____.
only appropriate for males
acceptable for childhood but not adulthood
regarded with acceptance and equality
Incorrect. In modern America left-handedness is more acceptable; however,
historically, left-handedness is viewed as taboo and inferior.
1. regarded with fear and contempt
Correct. Many cultures regard left-handedness with fear and contempt.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 238
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.1.7
% correct 75
a= 19 b= 6 c= 0 d= 75
r = .20
Short Answer Questions
66. 6 Are there sex differences in height and weight between the ages of 3-6 years? Explain.
Answer: Yes, boys are slightly taller and heavier than girls, but the average girl and the
average boy are similar in height & weight.
Page: 231
Learning Objective: 6.1
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
67. Describe two changes in the brain that explain why Jamil, a 6-year-old, can listen
attentively during library story hour and participate in the craft activity that follows it, but
his 3-year-old sister, Anna, is more interested in walking around and exploring various
sections of the library.
Answer: Growth of the frontal lobe allows Jamil to plan and organize, skills that will help
him make an art project.
-he reticular formation is experiencing rapid myelination which leads to an increase in
attention span. This explains why Jamil can focus on the story, whereas Anna moves
from one stimulus to another.
Page: 232-233
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
68. Describe a nutritional problem that is more likely to be experienced in a developing
country than a developed country. Include the consequences and what, if anything, can
be done to avoid this problem.
Answer: Anemia- caused by a lack of protein, this deficiency causes fatigue, irritability,
and cognitive problems. If a child eats iron-rich foods such as meats, grains, brown rice,
and certain vegetables such as beets and potatoes, this problem can be avoided.
Page: 234
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
69. Sabine is a 6-year-old girl from Great Britain: she has two siblings: Shiloh, her 3-year-old
sister and Shamus, her 5-year-old brother. Describe one fine motor skill and one gross
motor skill that Sabine is better at than her younger sister. Describe one skill that her
brother is better at than his older sister. Explain.
Answer: Sabine has much better fine motor coordination and can draw most letters in
the alphabet and is especially good at writing her name. Shiloh is just beginning to try to
try color inside lines, but she is still very messy and most of what she draws is
unrecognizable. Sabine is able to cut using small scissors, but her sister can’t do this.
Shamus is stronger than his older sister and can throw a ball harder and further.
Page: 236-237
Learning Objective: 6.4
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
70. Being right-handed is more common in Western countries such as the U.S. and Canada.
Is this also the case in other parts of the world? Explain.
Answer: Yes, being right handed is more common all over the world. In many cultures,
the left hand is believed to be evil or dangerous. For example, in many Asian and
Middle Eastern cultures, the left hand is supposed to be used for cleaning oneself after
going to the bathroom. It may be that the left was considered inferior to the right
because left-handedness is correlated with a number of problems, such as birth
complications and learning disabilities.
Page: 237-238
Learning Objective: 6.5
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
Essay Questions
71. What are two explanations for the inability to remember anything before age 2?
Answer: Awareness of the self is not stable before this age, therefore information can
not be effectively organized in a self-schema.
-Memories are encoded in a narrative form; without words to describe events, the
memories cannot be stored. Language development accelerates after age 2.
-The hippocampus is not fully myelinated until age 5.
Page: 233
Learning Objective: 6.2
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
72. If you were a 3-year-old living in a developing country, such as Africa, what would be the
most likely cause of death as a toddler? Is this different from the leading cause of death
for toddlers in the U.S.? Explain.
Answer: In developing countries, the leading cause of death in early childhood is
disease. This is due to a number of factors: lack of medical care, poor nutrition that
leads to a weak immune system and poor sanitation that increases chances of infection
and death. Although young children in developing countries have higher rates of
accidents than their age mates in developed countries, they are still most likely to die of
some type of disease. The leading cause of death in developed countries is accidents.
Page: 235-236
Learning Objective: 6.3
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank
Pre-test
Pre 6.1.1.
From ages 3 to 6 the typical American child adds ____ pounds per year
and grows ____ inches.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5-7, 2-3
1-5, 1-3
7-10, 6-9
9-12, 9-12
Answer: a
Page: 231
Pre 6.1.2.
In developing countries, which of the following causes a considerably
lower average height and weight during early childhood?
1. Lower nutrition and higher likelihood of childhood diseases
2. Higher nutrition and a lower likelihood of childhood diseases
3. Lower parental care and the lack of folic acid
4. Higher parental care and an abundance of folic acid
Answer: a
Page: 231
Pre 6.1.3.
According to the text, compared to the average 4-year-old in Sweden,
how tall is the average 6-year-old in Bangladesh?
1.
2.
3.
4.
The same height
Twice as tall
Three times taller
Four times taller
Answer: a
Page: 231
Pre 6.1.4.
According to the World Health Organization, what percent of children in
developing countries lack sufficient food or essential nutrients?
1.
2.
3.
4.
80%
60%
40%
100%
Answer: a
Page: 235
Pre 6.1.5.
Which of the following is the preference for using either the right or left
hand in gross or fine motor activities?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Handedness
Dominancy
Digital choice
Ambidextrous
Answer: a
Page: 238
Pre 6.1.6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Fine motor skills are to ____; whereas, gross motor skills are to ____.
writing; throwing
throwing; writing
jumping; running
running; jumping
Answer: a
Page: 237
Pre 6.1.7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
According to the text, in many cultures left-handedness is ______.
regarded with fear and contempt
regarded with acceptance and equality
acceptable for childhood but not adulthood
only appropriate for males
Answer: a
Page: 238
Pre 6.1.8.
1.
2.
3.
4.
When LaMar turns 3 years old, one can expect him to weigh ______.
30 pounds
15 pounds
45 pounds
60 pounds
Answer: a
Page: 231
Pre 6.1.9.
Your niece seems to eat candy quite a bit between meals. Your sister
and brother-in-law are worried about this and ask you what you think. What would you
tell them?
1.
2.
3.
4.
She is very likely to get cavities.
Sugar and starches are good for growing children.
Candy helps soothe her and is linked to positive emotional development.
Most children today eat like this and it is not likely to be a problem.
Answer: a
Page: 232
Pre 6.1.10.
Your neighbor has a five-year-old son. He has been taking him to story
time at the library, but his son is having a very difficult time sitting even for ten minutes.
You know his son’s brain is still maturing and has not fully developed. Different areas of
the brain develop at different times. Such areas are the prefrontal cortex, reticular
formation, hippocampus, and the corpus callosum. His son should be able to sit
through the entire story time once what brain structure develops more fully?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Reticular formation
Hippocampus
Corpus callosum
Cerebellum
Answer: a
Page: 232
Post-Test
Post 6.1.1.
Why do wealthier and higher SES people have children who weigh
more and are taller?
1.
2.
3.
4.
They have access to more nutritional foods.
They can pay maids to feed their children.
They allow their children to eat at more nutritious fast-food restaurants.
Wealthier parents are genetically taller than non-wealthy parents.
Answer: a
Page: 231
Post 6.1.2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The average three-year old has ____ teeth.
20
14
26
32
Answer: a
Page: 231
Post 6.1.3.
attention?
1.
2.
3.
4.
According to the text, what brain structure plays the greatest role with
Reticular formation
Cerebellum
Hippocampus
Corpus callosum
Answer: a
Page: 232
Post 6.1.4.
Which of the following are the most common types of malnutrition for
children in developing nations?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lack of protein and iron
Lack of calcium and iron
Lack of potassium and protein
Lack of folic acid and fat
Answer: a
Page: 235
Post 6.1.5.
2?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Which of the following is the inability to remember anything prior to age
Infantile amnesia
Toddler amnesia
Baby amnesia
Subcortical amnesia
Answer: a
Page: 233
Post 6.1.6.
Malnutrition is believed to be indirectly responsible for about half of early
childhood deaths. Why? Because malnourishment ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
reduces the effectiveness of the immune system
slows the development of myelination
increases the likelihood of failure to thrive
increases competition for calories and children lose out
Answer: a
Page: 235
Post 6.1.7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Playing soccer and kicking a ball are examples of _____.
gross motor skills
fine motor skills
ambidextrous motor skills
elementary motor skills
Answer: a
Page: 237
Post 6.1.8.
You neighbor is a successful artist. He would love for his 5 year-old
daughter to grow up to be artistic as well. At this point, she can draw some shapes, like
circles and triangles, but that is about it. Your neighbor is a bit worried. What would you
tell him?
1.
2.
3.
4.
She is developing in a very typical manner for fine motor skills.
She is lagging far behind other children her age in drawing.
She probably will be a gifted athlete.
She is not likely to ever be very skilled in drawing.
Answer: a
Page: 237
Post 6.1.9.
Karen was diagnosed with Lyme Disease and is having difficulty with
balance, walking a straight line, and simple motor movements. Which of the following
areas of her brain would you suspect is being affected by the disease and causing the
above mentioned symptoms?
1.
2.
3.
4.
The cerebellum
The pons
The hippocampus
The amygdala
Answer: a
Page: 232
Post 6.1.10.
Your college roommate was born in war-torn Cambodia and immigrated
to America at the age of two. Trying to understand his life you ask him what it was like in
Cambodia. In response, he says he only knows what he has been told by his older
brothers and sisters and cannot remember anything himself. You are not worried by his
amnesic state because it is common for individuals not to recall the first few years of life
due to infantile amnesia. What is clear is that your roommate’s siblings are older than
him and can recall their time in Cambodia. In regards to brain development and the
encoding and retrieval of long-term memories, your roommate’s siblings are at least
____ years older than him.
1.
2.
3.
4.
3
5
7
9
Answer: a
Page: 233
Chapter Exam
CE 6.1.1.
One can expect the average 3 year-old to weigh:
1. 30 pounds.
2. 20 pounds.
3. 40 pounds.
4. 50 pounds.
Answer: a
Page: 231
CE 6.1.2.
Savannah lives in America and is 45 inches tall and weighs 45
pounds. Knowing her height and weight, it is safe to say that Savannah is around:
1.
2.
3.
4.
6 years old.
2 years old.
4 years old.
8 years old.
Answer: a
Page: 231
CE 6.1.3.
have?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Shameeka is 3 years old. How many teeth would you expect her to
20
10
16
26
Answer: a
Page: 231
CE 6.1.4.
According to the text, what percent of North American children have at
least one dental cavity by their fifth birthday?
1.
2.
3.
4.
40%
20%
60%
80%
Answer: a
Page: 232
CE 6.1.5.
Your brother is very impressed with his daughter’s development,
particularly in emotional regulation. He asks your opinion about his observations.
Having just completed your reading on brain development, you tell him that her
advances in development are likely due to her ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
growth in the frontal lobe
superior genetics
advanced temporal lobe
rapidly developing occipital lobe
Answer: a
Page: 232
CE 6.1.6.
_____ are primarily responsible for the increase in brain size and weight
during early childhood.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Dendritic connections and myelination
The number of neurons
The increase in blood volume
Cerebral spinal fluid
Answer: a
Page: 232
CE 6.1.7.
In regards to handedness, adopted children show a greater resemblance
to their ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
biological parents
adoptive parents
biological siblings
adoptive siblings
Answer: a
Page: 238
CE 6.1.8.
One can see a preference for the use of a particular hand, handedness,
over another as early as ______
1.
2.
3.
4.
the prenatal period
in infancy
during early childhood
during middle childhood
Answer: a
Page: 237
CE 6.1.9.
A child using a pencil to draw a picture of his or her family on a sheet of
paper is an example of ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
fine motor skills
gross motor skills
conditioned motor skills
superficial motor skills
Answer: a
Page: 237
CE 6.1.10.
In developing countries, _____ is/are the most common cause of death
in early childhood.
1.
2.
3.
4.
illness and disease
parental abuse
motor vehicle accidents
accidental burning
Answer: a
Page: 236
CE 6.1.11.
Gunther is 5 years old, lives in a developed nation, and is in a hospital
emergency room. Statistically speaking, which of the following is the most likely cause?
1. a motor vehicle accident
2. a fall
3. a bicycle
4. a playground
Answer: a
Page: 235–236
CE 6.1.12.
Your friend is worried about his son who is very active and is constantly
injuring himself. What would you tell him to help him worry less? This behavior is very
typical because his son’s ______.
1. motor development is advanced enough to do quite a bit, but his cognitive development
is not able to anticipate situations that might be dangerous
2. motor development is not very advanced and he is going to be involved in many
accidents
3. visual processing is lagging behind his motor development and he simply cannot see
very well
4. attention skills are not yet fully developed and his son is likely to not pay attention to his
father’s warnings to be careful
Answer: a
Page: 235
CE 6.1.13.
In developing nations the mortality rate for children under age 5 has
been greatly reduced due to ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
increased food production and increased childhood vaccinations
increased parental income and increased level of education
increased iron consumption and decreased childhood vaccinations
increased parental education and increased level of income
Answer: a
Page: 235
CE 6.1.14.
According to the text, symptoms of _____ include fatigue, irritability, and
difficulty sustaining attention.
1. anemia
2. osteoporosis
3. marasmus
4. lime-tic disease
Answer: a
Page: 235
CE 6.1.15.
What is the percent of children in developing countries that are
malnourished?
1.
2.
3.
4.
80%
60%
40%
20%
Answer: a
Page: 235
Quick Review
QR 6.1.1.
Which of the following structures of the brain is directly involved in the
transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term memory?
1.
2.
3.
4.
The hippocampus
The reticular formation
The temporal lobe
The pons
Answer: a
Page: 233–234
QR 6.1.2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
45
30
60
75
Based on the text, the typical 6 year-old is about ____ inches tall.
Answer: a
Page: 231
QR 6.1.3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
For the time period of 3 to 6 years, boys are slightly ____ than girls.
taller and heavier
fatter and smaller
shorter and lighter
more sympathetic and sensitive
Answer: a
Page: 231
QR 6.1.4.
What is the brain structure located at the base of the brain that is
involved in balance and motor movements?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Cerebellum
Prefrontal cortex
Temporal lobe
Corpus callosum
Answer: a
Page: 232
QR 6.1.5.
States.
1.
2.
3.
4.
____ is the most common nutritional deficiency for children in the United
Calcium
Iron
Folic acid
Vitamin C
Answer: a
Page: 234
QR 6.1.6.
____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pneumonia and ____ are common causes of disease for children in
malaria; developing nations
measles; developed nations
HIV; individualistic cultures
tuberculosis; collective cultures
Answer: a
Page: 235
QR 6.1.7.
Based upon the reading, identical twins have _____ genetic similarity
and are more likely to ____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
100%; differ in handedness
50%; be similar in handedness
50%; differ in handedness
100%; be similar in handedness
Answer: a
Page: 238
QR 6.1.8.
In _____, pneumonia, malaria, and measles are common causes of
children’s death.
1.
2.
3.
4.
developing nations
developed nations
collective cultures
individualistic cultures
Answer: a
Page: 235
QR 6.1.9.
Based upon the text, which statement best describes gross motor
development in early childhood?
1. Gross motor development in early childhood extends abilities that first appear in
toddlerhood
2. Gross motor development in early childhood regresses to an earlier state
3. Gross motor development in early childhood is unpredictable
4. Gross motor development in early childhood is dependent upon fine motor development
Answer: a
Page: 236
QR 6.1.10.
Which of the following is a cause for why the average heights and
weights of children in early childhood in developing countries are considerably lower
than developed countries?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Poor nutrition and diseases
Poor school lunches and poorly trained teachers
Children in developing countries tend to be obese
Genetically the heights of these children are at maximum
Answer: a
Page: 231
Video Guide Questions
Short Answer Questions
1. In this video, the narrator mentions skills that children are better able to complete due to
automaticity. Explain automaticity and list at least three activities that children are better
able to perform.
Answer: Automaticity is the ability to perform behaviors and actions without thinking
about them. Three activities that children are better able to perform with automaticity
include walking, running, and skipping.
2. What are some benefits of children gaining hand preference?
Answer: Writing, using utensils independently (feeding, scissors, etc.), basically once
hand preference is achieved the children continue toward the path of becoming more
independent.
Learning Objective: 6.5
3. The narrator of this video tells us that the rate of physical growth slows in the early
childhood years. What impact would this have on the food and nutritional requirements
of children in this age group?
Answer: When growth slows, then the food intake and nutritional needs will slow as
well.
Learning Objective: 6.3
Multiple Choice Questions
1. During which of the following developmental periods is the child’s rate of growth the
fastest?
2. the first 2 years
3. ages 2-3
4. ages 3-4
5. ages 5-6
Answer: A
Learning Objective: 6.1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The development of “automacity” allows the child to _________.
perform behaviors without thinking about them
develop a “handedness” preference for the right or the left hand
speak in full sentences, rather than in short words interspersed with pauses
deal with separation anxiety from the parent or caregiver
Answer: A
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Children’s activity levels generally peak between the ages of _________.
6 months and 1 year
1 year and 2 years
2 years and 3 years
4 years and 5 years
Answer: C
Section 2 Cognitive Development
Test Item File
Multiple Choice Questions
1. According to Piaget, it is not until _____ that we truly become representational thinkers.
2. early infancy
3. early toddlerhood
Incorrect. It is not until early childhood that language becomes strong enough to where
individuals become truly representational in their thinking.
1. early childhood
Correct. It is not until early childhood that language becomes strong enough to where
individuals become truly representational in their thinking.
1. early teens
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 240
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.7
2.
3.
4.
5.
What marks the beginning of representational thought? When children begin to ____.
remember where they left play objects
recognize their family members
internalize the images of their sensorimotor activities
Correct. Gradually toward the end of the sensorimotor period, in the second half of the
second year, children begin to internalize the images of their sensorimotor activities,
marking the beginning of representational thought.
1. externalize their true wishes and desires
Incorrect. Gradually toward the end of the sensorimotor period, in the second half of the
second year, children begin to internalize the images of their sensorimotor activities,
marking the beginning of representational thought.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 240
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.1
% correct 53
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
a= 11 b= 5 c= 53 d= 32
r = .21
The preoperational stage of cognitive development occurs between the ages of ____.
birth–2
2–7
7–11
11–adulthood
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 240
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.1
4. According to Piaget, children from the ages of 2 to 7 are in the ____ stage of cognitive
development.
5. sensorimotor
6. preoperational
7. concrete operations
8. formal operations
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 240
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.4, CE 6.2.1
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What stage emphasizes that children were unable yet to perform mental operations?
sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operational
formal operational
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 240
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
6. What term did Piaget use to describe cognitive procedures that followed certain logical
rules?
7. operations
8. constructions
9. scaffolds
10. stages
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 240
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.2
7. _____ is the principle that the amount of a physical substance remains the same even if
its physical appearance changes.
8. Animism
9. Egocentrism
10. Reversibility
11. Conservation
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 241
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.2, QR 6.2.8
8. You are visiting your sister who has 4-year-old twins. They ask if they can have some
milk and you are pouring it for them. One glass that you chose was tall and thin and the
other was short and wide. After you poured the milk your niece is very unhappy because
you gave “more” milk to your nephew. You actually gave each of them the same amount,
but your niece and nephew lack the mental ability to ____.
9. conserve
Correct. Conservation is the mental ability to understand that the quantity of a
substance or material remains the same even if its appearance changes.
1. operate
2. center
Incorrect. Conservation is the mental ability to understand that the quantity of a
substance or material remains the same even if its appearance changes.
1. tertiary operate
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 241
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.8, Pre 6.2.10
% correct 81
a= 81 b= 6 c= 0 d= 0
r = .45
9. Which of the following statements best captures why a child may fail the conservation
task?
10. “They can reverse the action mentally and can see that the amount of water is the
same.”
Incorrect. Children often fail the conservation task for two reasons: Their thinking is
centered (only focusing on one property of a problem) and they lack reversibility.
1. “They fail to understand that the amount of water remains the same even though the
appearance of the water changes.”
Correct. Children often fail the conservation task for two reasons: their thinking is
centered (only focusing on one property of a problem) and they lack reversibility.
1. “They tend to pick the photo that matches their own perspective, not the dolls.”
2. “They frequently attribute human thoughts and feelings to stuffed animals and dolls,
often thoughts and feelings they have themselves.”
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 241
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.7
10. What is the term that is used to describe young children’s thinking in which they often
focus on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of other important
aspects?
11. conservation
12. egocentrism
13. centration
14. animism
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 241
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.3
% correct 75
a= 13 b= 0 c= 75 d= 0
r = .44
11. Which of the following best describes a child, in Piagetian terms, who is centered?
12. “They lack the ability to distinguish between their own perspective and another person’s
perspective.”
13. “They often attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces.”
14. “They often focus on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of
other important aspects.”
Correct. Centration is 1 of 2 hallmarks of why a child may fail the conservation task.
They focus on one aspect of a problem and cannot weigh or mange two aspects
simultaneously.
1. “They have difficulty understanding that objects can be simultaneously part of more than
one class or group.”
Incorrect. Centration means that young children’s thinking is centered or focused on one
noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of other important aspects.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 241
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.6
12. What is the term that is used to describe young children’s thinking in which they are
mentally able to change an object’s characteristics back to its original form?
13. conservation
14. animism
15. centration
16. reversibility
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
13. _____ is the inability to distinguish between your own perspective and another person’s
perspective.
14. Reversibility
15. Intuitive thought
16. Egocentrism
17. Conservation
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
14. What is the term that is used to describe when individuals are unable to distinguish
between their own perspective and another person’s perspective?
15. conservation
16. egocentrism
17. centration
18. reversibility
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
15. What is the task that Piaget and Inhelder devised to demonstrate egocentrism during the
preoperational stage?
16. three mountains task
17. “it is about me” task
18. self-centered task
19. ego-stability task
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 69
a= 69 b= 0 c= 13 d= 0
r = .40
16. The child who is experiencing egocentrism and completing the three mountains task will
describe ____ perspective.
17. their own
Correct. Hallmark of the egocentrism in the three mountains task the child will give their
own perspective. This occurs at early preoperational stage.
1. the doll’s
2. the researcher’s
3. their mother’s
Incorrect. The hallmark of egocentrism in the three mountains task is that the child will
give his or her own perspective.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.4
17. You just came back from class in which the topic was egocentrism in the preoperational
stage. You have a 4-year-old and thought that you would see if what you learned was
accurate. You are sitting directly across from her and ask her to look at the front and
back cover of her favorite book. After she did this you asked her to describe “the part of
the book I am looking at.” What does she tell you?
18. how many pages there are in the book
19. what you see
Incorrect: She would be telling you what she is seeing because she is not capable of
taking another’s point of view.
1. what she sees
Correct. She would be telling you what she is seeing because she is not capable of
taking another’s point of view.
1. what the story is about
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.10
% correct 90
a= 10 b= 0 c= 90 d= 0
r = .21
18. The child who lacks egocentrism when completing the three mountains task will describe
____ perspective.
19. their own
Incorrect. Giving their own perspective is an illustration of egocentrism.
1. the doll’s
Correct. Describing the doll’s perspective is an illustration that the child has overcome
or lacks egocentrism.
1. the researcher’s
2. their mother’s
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.14
Animism is ____.
the ability to distinguish between your own perspective and another person’s perspective
attributing human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces
focusing on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of other
important aspects
23. difficulty understanding that objects can be simultaneously part of more than one “class”
or group
19.
20.
21.
22.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.15
20. What is the term that describes the tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to
inanimate objects and forces?
21.
22.
23.
24.
humanitarianism
egocentrism
animism
socialism
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
21. You are visiting your sister and she has a 4-year old daughter. You have not been
around young children very much except for your niece and you are fascinated with her.
You notice that while she plays, she acts like her dolls are real. What type of thinking is
your niece demonstrating?
22. humanitarianism
23. egocentrism
Incorrect. Animism is the tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to
inanimate objects and forces.
1. animism
Correct.
1. socialism
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
22. Emma is having a tea party with her stuffed animals and dolls, and pretends that they
love the tea and cookies she prepared. Emma’s belief that her stuffed animals and dolls
are alive and hold human qualities is an example of ____.
23. conservation
24. egocentrism
Incorrect. Animism is the tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to
inanimate objects and forces.
1. classification
2. animism
Correct. Animism is common for children in later preoperational thought and is a
cornerstone of pretend and imaginative play.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.9
23. Having received a new bike for his birthday, Grant tells his mother that the bike needs to
come inside the house at night because it might get lonely in the garage by itself. Grant’s
rationale for why his bike needs to come inside the house is best explained by Piaget’s
concept of ____.
24. egocentrism
Incorrect. Animism is the tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to
inanimate objects and forces.
1. centration
2. animism
Correct. Grant is placing a live quality (emotions) to his bike (an inanimate object)
1. reversibility
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.5
24. ____ is when preoperational children understand that objects can be simultaneously part
of more than one “class” or group.
25. Egocentrism
26. Conservation
27. Reversibility
28. Classification
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
25. Preoperational children lack the ability to comprehend that objects can be
simultaneously part of more than one group. Piaget referred to this as a lack of a
capacity for ____.
26. transference
27. sorting
28. configuring
29. classification
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.6
26. Which of the following best describes a child who lacks classification?
27. “They have difficulty understanding that objects can be simultaneously part of more than
one class or group.”
Correct. Classification is the ability to understand that objects can be part of more than
one cognitive group.
1. “They often attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces.”
Incorrect. Classification is the ability to understand that objects can be part of more than
one cognitive group.
1. “They often focus on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of
other important aspects.”
2. “They have difficulty understanding that objects can be simultaneously part of more than
one class or group.”
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development has ____ substages.
2
3
4
5
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
28. What is the name of the Piagetian substage in which children are first capable of
representational thought and of using symbols to represent the world?
29. formal operations
30. representational operations
31. systematic thought
32. symbolic function
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 242
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
29. According to Piaget, children begin using their new cognitive skills as they acquire them,
and many times these new cognitive skills can be witnessed during play. What would be
an example of children using symbolic functioning during play?
30. using a stick as a “magic wand” turning rocks into dolls
Correct. The symbolic function substage refers to children using symbols to represent
the world around them.
1. leaving their footprints in the dirt
Incorrect. The symbolic function substage refers to children using symbols to represent
the world around them.
1. pretending that they are on a different planet
2. engaging in play in which there are two or more teams
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 242–243
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.9
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
Which of the following are the substages of Piaget’s preoperational thought?
sensorimotor and concrete operations
symbolic function and intuitive thought
egocentrism and reversibility
formal operations and abstract thought
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 242–243
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.3
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
The substage of intuitive thought lasts from the ages of ____.
2 to 4
4 to 7
7 to 11
11 to adulthood
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 243
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
32. What is the name of the substage in which Piaget indicated that children seem to ask the
question “Why?” very frequently?
33. formal operations
34. representational operations
35. intuitive thought
36. symbolic function
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 243
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
33. Your neighbor has a 4-year-old son who is driving her crazy. He is constantly asking
“Why?” about everything. She knew that children asked questions, but she was
surprised to learn how frequently the question arose and that her answers seemed to
only lead to another “Why?” According to Piaget, her son has developed a more
complex way of thinking. Which of Piaget’s substages would you tell her that her son is
probably in?
34. formal operations
35. representational operations
Incorrect. During the intuitive thought substage, children become highly curious about
the world, frequently asking “Why?” when others provide them with information.
1. intuitive thought
Correct. During the intuitive thought substage, children become highly curious about the
world, frequently asking “Why?” when others provide them with information.
1. symbolic function
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 243
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
34. What is one of the criticisms that other cognitive theorists and researchers have
regarding Piaget’s theory of cognitive development during the preoperational stage?
35. Piaget underestimated children’s capabilities.
36. Piaget overestimated children’s capabilities.
37. Piaget did not really like children.
38. Piaget was biased since his theory was mostly based on observation of his children.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 243
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 81
a= 81 b= 6 c= 0 d= 0
r = .47
35. What is one of the criticisms that other cognitive theorists and researchers have
regarding Piaget’s theory of cognitive development during the preoperational stage?
They believe that development is actually much more ____.
36. vacillating and not predictable
37. stable and rarely changed
38. stage-like and less continuous
39. continuous and much less stage-like
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 243
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
36. Researchers have found that 2- to 7-year-old children are actually less egocentric than
Piaget thought. What is an example of a toddler understanding the perspective of
someone else?
37. when a toddler breaks the favorite toy of an older sibling to annoy him or her
Correct. Doing something to annoy a sibling, such as breaking a favorite toy of theirs, is
an example of a toddler showing the beginnings of an ability to take others’
perspectives.
1. when a toddler dreams that he or she is someone else
2. when a toddler speaks in long sentences to babies
Incorrect. Doing something to annoy a sibling, such as breaking a favorite toy of theirs,
is an example of a toddler showing the beginnings of an ability to take others’
perspectives.
1. when a toddler eats his or her meal as quickly as possible
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 243
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
____ is the ability to understand the thinking process in oneself and others.
Theory of mind
Unconscious cognition
Subliminal thought
Hypothesis of thinking
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 243
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.7
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.2
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
It is not until age ____ that nearly all children can solve a false belief task easily.
2
4
6
8
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 244
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.7
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
39. Who was the theorist who viewed cognitive development as an inherently social and
cultural process?
40. Piaget
41. Vygotsky
42. Freud
43. Skinner
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 244–245
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.8
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
40. Which of the following theorists proposed that children learn not through their individual
interactions with the environment but through social process of guided by participation?
41. Jean Piaget
42. Carl Rogers
43. Sigmund Freud
44. Lev Vygotsky
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 245
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.8
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
41.
42.
43.
44.
According to Lev Vygotsky, cognitive development occurs when ____.
the proper amount of neurons have connected
their brains are biologically ready
they interact with an older sibling in the course of daily activities
Correct. According to Vygotsky sociocultural perspective cognitive growth occurs when
children are mentored by those who are superior.
1. they interact with the environment
Incorrect. According to Vygotsky, cognitive development occurs when children interact
with a more knowledgeable member of the culture (often an older sibling or parent) in
the course of daily activities.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 245
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.8
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.10
42. Many ____ cultures value silence, especially in children, and view children who talk
frequently as immature and low in intelligence.
43. European
44. American
45. Eastern European
46. Asian
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 245
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.8
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.1
43. What is a factor in cultural learning in developed countries that is different from cultural
learning in traditional cultures? Compared to developing countries, children in developed
countries ____.
44. are constantly with at least one family member all day
Incorrect. Children of traditional cultures are generally with a family member all day.
1. are often apart from their families for a substantial part of the day
Correct. Children of traditional cultures are generally with a family member all day.
1. are disciplined harshly for small infractions
2. are rarely consoled when injured or hurt
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 245
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.8
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.9
44. According to the text, what is the age when formal school instruction begins in many
cultures?
45. 5 years
46. 7 years
47. 9 years
48. 11 years
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
45. In the United States and Canada, what percentage of 5-year-old children are enrolled in
group child care or preschool?
46. 25%
47. 50%
48. 75%
49. 100%
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
46. Clarke-Steward and Allhusen (2002) found that some children had higher verbal skills
and stronger performance on measures of memory and listening comprehension. These
were children who ____.
47. attended preschool
48. were born to very intelligent parents
49. started school later than other children
50. ate a diet that consisted of at least 40% protein
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 79
a= 79 b= 0 c= 5 d= 0
r = .35
47. Children from what group in the United States children especially benefited cognitively
from preschool?
48. families who had parents who were professionals
49. affluent families
50. Midwestern families
51. low-income families
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
48. What group of United States children is more likely to be more independent and socially
confident?
49. children who are from families who had parents who were professionals
50. children from affluent families
51. children who attend preschool
52. children from low-income families
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
49. Belsky et al. (2006) found that what group of United States children was less compliant,
less respectful toward adults, and more aggressive?
50. children who are from families who had parents who were professionals
51. children from affluent families
52. children who attend preschool
53. children from low-income families
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
50. What group of United States children is more likely to be disruptive in class when they
are in grade 6?
51. children who are from families who had parents who were professionals
52. children from affluent families
53. children who attend preschool
54. children from low-income families
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
51.
52.
53.
54.
Preschool teachers ____.
are not required to have education or credentials specific to early childhood
have to complete a rigorous training that includes yearly continuing education credits
must have a minimum of one year of supervised teaching before gaining certification to
teach early childhood
55. are required to have at least a bachelor’s degree
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
52. What do early childhood educators and scholars believe with regard to class size for
preschools? There should be no more than how many students in a classroom?
53. 20
54. 25
55. 30
56. 35
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 246
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
53. What do early childhood educators and scholars believe with regard to teaching students
in early childhood preschool programs?
54. There should be formal instruction.
55. Students learn best through rote learning.
Incorrect. Educators believe that active discovery and engagement is best for early
childhood.
1. Instruction should occur through active engagement with materials.
Correct. Educators believe that active discovery and engagement is best for early
childhood.
1. Students should memorize large lists of materials to be recalled at a later time.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 246
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.7
54. Which of the following are cited by the author as factors that contribute to the quality of
preschool?
55. education and training of teachers, class size and child–teacher ratio, age-appropriate
materials and activities, and teacher–child interactions
56. child temperament, the parenting style of the children’s home environment, physical
facilities, and emotional reactivity of caregivers
57. parenting style of the caregivers, quality of educational material, temperament and
reactivity of the children, and class size and teacher–child ratio
58. age-appropriate materials and activities, parenting styles of caregivers, temperament
and reactivity of the children, and teacher–child interactions
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 246–247
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
55. Most early childhood scholars support which of the following educational practices as an
appropriate means to educate preschool children?
56. the Montessori approach
57. the Piagetian Approach to Learning
58. developmentally appropriate educational practice
Correct. Educators believe that the best practice for early childhood education should
be based on developmentally appropriate educational practices rather than formal
instruction.
1. Whole-Language Learning
Incorrect. Educators believe that the best practice for early childhood education should
be based on developmentally appropriate educational practices rather than formal
instruction.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 247
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.7
56. The broad consensus among early childhood scholars is that preschool teaching should
be based on ____.
57. developmentally appropriate educational practice
Correct. Educators believe that the best practice for early childhood education should
be based on developmentally appropriate educational practices rather than formal
instruction.
1. the Socratic method
Incorrect. Educators believe that the best practice for early childhood education should
be based on developmentally appropriate educational practices rather than formal
instruction.
1. an instructional method that is as formal as the children understand
2. Piaget’s model of readiness, as strictly as possible
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 247
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
57. Suppose that you are preparing for a job interview as a preschool teacher. Which of the
following statements when used in the interview is more likely to land you the job?
58. Preschool learning is about the child exploring and discovering their world through
hands-on activities and fun tasks.
Correct. The consensus among scholars is that for preschool children should engage in
fun educational play.
1. Preschool learning should occur through structured academic activities such as
worksheets and large group projects.
Incorrect. The consensus among scholars is that preschool children should engage in
fun educational play.
1. Preschool learning is about assessing the child’s IQ and then developing a curriculum
that is rigorous and challenging.
2. Preschool learning should occur through prosocial activities and videos that are geared
toward children and regulated by the federal government.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 247
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.8
58. What is the primary goal of having children attend preschool in the United States and
China?
59. to gain independence from the family
60. to master social skills
61. to learn basic academic skills
62. to learn to get along with other children
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.3
59. Which of the following countries emphasizes that academic skills be learned during
preschool?
60. United States
61. Japan
62. Great Britain
63. Germany
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
China and ____ are two countries that emphasize academic skills during preschool.
the United States
Japan
Germany
Great Britain
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
61. What is the primary goal of having children attend preschool in Japan and most of
Europe?
62. to learn social skills
63. to gain independence from the family
64. to learn basic academic skills
65. to learn how to read
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 69
a= 69 b= 0 c= 19 d= 0
r = .20
62. Which of the following countries emphasizes that social skills be learned during
preschool?
63. United States
64. China
65. Sudan
66. Japan
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 36
a= 50 b= 14 c= 0 d= 36
r = .71
63. In regards to preschool education, the United States prioritizes ____, whereas Japan
prioritizes ____.
64. cooperative play; parallel play
65. parallel play; cooperative play
66. social skills; academic skills
67. academic skills; social skills
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
64. What percentage of Japanese parents and preschool teachers indicated that the primary
purpose of preschool education was “to give children a good start academically”?
65. 2%
66. 22%
67. 62%
68. 92%
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.6
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
What is the main focus of teaching in Japanese preschools?
to teach letters and numbers
to teach individuality
to teach study skills for later success in primary education
to teach cooperation and sharing with group play
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
66. Assume that you just accepted a job as a preschool teacher in Japan. Which of the
following statements is a close representation of the type of preschool environment that
you will experience?
67. The physical building looks run down, teachers appear tired and frustrated, and it is clear
that the students do not learn much.
68. There is a high emphasis on academic success, parents encourage their children to
learn letters and numbers quickly, and many teachers work long hours.
Incorrect. Preschools in Japan focus on group play, so that children will learn the values
of cooperation and sharing. They also wear identical uniforms, with different colors to
indicate their classroom membership. They each have the same equipment, which they
keep in identical drawers.
1. There is a lot of group play, the children wear the same uniforms, and they each have
the same equipment.
Correct. Contrary to popular belief Japanese preschools emphasize social skills;
however, there’s also a high degree of uniformity and collectivism.
1. The physical building looks very new and in good shape, there’s a high emphasis on
social skills training, and the students are very competitive academically.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 248
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.8
67. ____ are programs directed at young children who are at risk for later school problems.
68. Early intervention programs
69. Good beginnings programs
70. Primary prevention programs
71. Sooner intervention programs
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.4
68. What types of programs are focused intensively on cognitive development and are
directed at young children who are at risk for later school problems because they come
from low-income families?
69. financial stability educational programs
70. Montessori schools
71. early intervention programs
72. low-income education
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
69. Which of the following is an example of an early intervention program in the United
States?
70. McGill’s Intervention for Children
71. First Nation Project
Incorrect. Project Head Start began in 1965 as a means to prepare children for school.
1. Project Head Start
Correct. Project Head Start began in 1965 as a means to prepare children for school.
1. School Immunization Project
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 248
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.9
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
Created in 1965, what is the largest early intervention program in the United States?
Project Head Start
Montessori Schools
early intervention programs
Challenger Program
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
71. What does the largest early intervention program in the United States provide in addition
to one or two years of preschool?
72. free food and health care
73. guaranteed admission to a public university
74. free room and board
75. free education for all adult family members
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 248
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.10
72. What happens to the IQ gains that occur as a function of low-income children
participating in the Project Head Start program?
73. The gains are maintained throughout life.
Incorrect. The gains from participating in Project Head Start disappear after a few years.
1. The gains result in even greater gains throughout life.
2. The gains fade within two or three years.
Correct. The gains from participating in Project Head Start disappear after a few years.
1. There were actually no real IQ gains.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 249
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
73. Which of the following statements best describes the long-term effects of large-scale
early intervention programs such as Project Head Start?
74. Gains in IQ and academic achievement carry through middle school, high school, and
college.
Incorrect. Children’s cognitive and academic gains tend to be short-lived and decline
after leaving large-scale early intervention programs such as Project Head Start.
1. Gains in IQ and academic achievement carry through elementary school but steeply
decline as a child enters middle school.
2. Gains in IQ and academic achievement are short-lived and generally fade within two to
three years after entering school.
Correct. Consistent for many large scale early intervention programs such as Project
Head Start, cognitive and academic gains tend to be short-lived and decline shortly after
the child leaves the program.
1. There have been no studies conducted on the long-term effects of early intervention
programs such as Project Head Start.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 249
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
74. Marcon (1999) found that there were positive outcomes as a result of low-income
children participating in Project Head Start. What factors influenced those outcomes?
75. If the mother and father were married, it was more likely that the child would benefit.
76. The more money spent per child the greater the outcome.
77. The better the teacher, the greater the academic and social benefits.
Incorrect. The mother’s participation was the most important factor in her child’s gains.
1. The more the mother was involved, the greater the academic and social benefits for her
child.
Correct. The mother’s participation was the most important factor in her child’s gains.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 249
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.5
75. What was one of the major differences between low-income children who did and did not
participate in the High Scope Preschool Project? At age 27 years ____.
76. those who participated were more likely to be married and to own their house
77. there were no significant differences between the two groups
78. they were just as likely to have dropped out of high school
79. they were more likely to have been married and divorced at least twice
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 250
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.11
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.11
% correct 63
a= 63 b= 25 c= 0 d= 0
r = .17
76. The average 6-year-old has a vocabulary that consists of more than ____.
77.
78.
79.
80.
1,000 words
1,500 words
2,000 words
2,500 words
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 250
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.12
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.2
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
Approximately how large is the average 6-year-old’s vocabulary?
500 words
1,000 words
2,500 words
5,000 words
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 250
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.12
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
78. From age 3 to age 6 the vocabulary of the average child ____.
79. grows by 50%
Incorrect. The average 3-year-old has a vocabulary of 1,000 words, whereas the
average 6-year-old has a vocabulary of 2,500 words.
1. grows by 75%
2. doubles
3. more than doubles
Correct. The average 3-year-old has a vocabulary of 1,000 words in every 6-year-old
has a vocabulary of 2,500 words; the vocabulary between ages 3 and 6 more than
doubles.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 250
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.12
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.12
79. Which of the following best describes the concept of a sensitive period for language
learning?
80. a time period in which the learning of language must occur or it never will
81. a time period in which the rules of language are best learned
82. a time period in which children must be exposed to spoken language in order to learn it
83. a time period in which the capacity for learning new words is especially pronounced
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 250
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.12
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.2.4
80. Children learning English and other Western languages fast-map which parts of speech
earliest?
81. nouns
82. verbs
83. modifiers
84. adjectives
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 250
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.12
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.2.13
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
____ is a language’s distinctive system of rules.
Pragmatics
Morphemes
Grammar
Prosody
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 251
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.12
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.3, QR 6.2.5
82. By 4 years of age, it is estimated that children use correct grammar in what percentage
of their statements?
83. 30%
84. 50%
85. 70%
86. 90%
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 251
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.12
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
What term describes the social rules for using language in interaction with others?
language rules
pragmatics
social construction
grammatical usefulness
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 251
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.13
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 94
a= 0 b= 94 c= 0 d= 6
r = .35
84. Phrases like “please,” “thank you,” and “bye-bye” are examples of ____.
85. the pragmatic quality of language
Correct. Pragmatics are the social rules for using language in interactions with others.
At about age 4, children become more sensitive to the characteristics of conversations
with others and become more attuned to proper pragmatic use.
1. the morphemic quality of language
Incorrect. Pragmatics is the social and cultural context of language that guides people
as to what is appropriate to say and not to say in a given social situation.
1. the grammatical quality of language
2. how prosody varies within language
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 251
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.13
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.2.6
% correct 81
a= 81 b= 6 c= 0 d= 0
r = .17
85. When do children learn when it is culturally appropriate to speak and when it is best to
keep their thoughts to themselves?
86. toddlerhood
87. early childhood
Incorrect. By middle childhood, most children learn when it is culturally appropriate to
speak and when it is best to keep your thoughts to yourself.
1. middle childhood
Correct. By middle childhood, most children learn when it is culturally appropriate to
speak and when it is best to keep your thoughts to yourself.
1. children never learn this in Western cultures
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 252
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.13
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.2.5
Short Answer Questions
86. According to Piaget, children’s mistakes on conservation tasks are due to two kinds of
deficiencies. Discuss one of them.
Answer: Centration causes the child to focus exclusively on one attribute to the
exclusion of others. Lack of reversibility causes the child to be unable to undo an action
mentally.
Page: 241-242
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
87. Give one example of a child in the preoperational stage showing that they are more
capable than Piaget thought they were.
Answer: A child using child-directed speech when talking with a baby. A child as young
as 3 years of age who can conserve quantity as long as only a few items are used
Page: 243
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
88. Seena tells you that her preschooler is attending a Montessori program; you pick up your
niece from her preschool and wonder if it might also be enrolled in this same type of
program. Your sister tells you that your niece’s school is not a Montessori school. What
are two differences you would notice?
Answer: In the Montessori program, learning is encouraged through self-directed
exploration. The teachers would not be sitting in the front of a group of children giving
them directions; instead, they would be choosing what they wanted to play with and how
they would play. In contrast, at your niece’s school, you might see children doing work
sheets to practice numbers and letters.
Page: 246-247
Learning Objective: 6.9
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
89. If you were to ask a Japanese parent what they hoped their child would get out of the
preschool experience, what might they say? Would you expect that response to be
different from the one of an American parent? Explain.
Answer: Japanese parents hope that their children will learn how to get along with
others and be a good group member. They would expect this to be done via play. In
contrast, American parents hope that their children will learn the academic skills that will
make them ready for success in school. What these groups see as goals of preschool
reflect cultural values f collectivism vs. individualism.
Page: 248
Learning Objective: 6.10
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
90. A child was walking down the street with his mother and called the black top “tarmacs.”
Presumably, he added the “s” because it was a long road. What does this reveal about
how children learn language?
Answer: The child invented ‘tarmacs” by adding an “s,” even though the plural of tarmac
does not require adding an “s.” He had not learned this word by hearing it in his
environment; instead he must have a language acquisition device that allows him to
generate the rules of language. In this case, he had not learned the exception to the
rule
Page: 251
Learning Objective: 6.13
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
Essay Questions
91. Name and describe the two substages of the preoperational stage.
Answer: The symbolic function substage (2-4 yrs.) is when the child is able to use
representational thought. This ability allows them to advance in their language
development because letter and words are symbols that stand for sounds and words,
respectively. They also pretend that various objects are something else, such as using
two coasters as bread for a sandwich. The intuitive thought substage (4-7) – is
characterized by asking “why.” They are curious at this stage, but they can’t explain how
they know what they know.
Page: 242-243
Learning Objective: 6.6
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
92. Sam buys a hollow, plastic rock where he plans to hide his spare key. He puts it near
several other rocks by the door and calls to his two children: a 3-year-old and a 6 ½year-old. He said he was gardening and found something under the rock and asks them
to guess. One says a worm and the other says some ants. Then he lifts it up and shows
them that it’s hollow and actually contained the house key. Then he asks where a
robber, who has not been shown what is under the plastic rock, would look for the key to
the house. How do you think each child would answer? Explain.
Answer: The younger child would incorrectly say that he would go to the plastic rock
and get the key, but the older child would say that he might look under the doormat or in
the mailbox because the older child has more advanced perspective-taking abilities.
The older child realizes that other people see the world from a different perspective;
they are not as egocentric as their younger counterparts.
Page: 244
Learning Objective: 6.7
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank
Pre-Test
Pre 6.2.1.
of ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Piaget’s preoperational stage consists of individuals between the ages
2-7
birth-2
7-11
11-adulthood
Answer: a
Page: 240
Pre 6.2.2.
Piaget used to describe cognitive procedures that followed certain
logical rules as _____
1.
2.
3.
4.
operations
instructions
scaffolds
stages
Answer: a
Page: 240
Pre 6.2.3.
1.
2.
3.
4.
_____ are substages of Piaget’s preoperational thought.
Symbolic function and intuitive thought
Decentration and concrete operations
Egocentrism and reversibility
Animism and your reversibility
Answer: a
Page: 242–243
Pre 6.2.4.
According to the text, which of the following best describes the concept
of a sensitive period for language learning?
1.
2.
3.
4.
A time period in which the capacity for learning new words is especially pronounced
A time period in which children must be exposed to spoken language in order to learn it
A time period in which the rules of language are best learned
A time period in which the learning of language must occur or never will
Answer: a
Page: 250
Pre 6.2.5.
Researchers found positive outcomes as a result of low-income children
participating in Project Head Start. Which of the following are cited factors that
influenced those positive outcomes?
1. The more the mother was involved, the greater the academic and social benefits for her
child.
2. The better the teacher, the greater the academic and social benefits.
3. The more money spent per child, the greater the outcome.
4. If the mother and father were married, the child would benefit.
Answer: a
Page: 249
Pre 6.2.6.
According to the text, most early childhood scholars agree that
preschool teaching should be based on ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
developmentally appropriate educational practice
the Socratic method
an instructional method that is as formal as the children understand
Piaget’s model of readiness as strictly as possible
Answer: a
Page: 247
Pre 6.2.7.
From a Piagetian perspective, it is not until _____ that individuals truly
become representational thinkers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
early childhood
the early teens
early toddlerhood
early infancy
Answer: a
Page: 240
Pre 6.2.8.
You are visiting your brother who has twins that are 3 years old. They
ask if they can have some juice and you are pouring it for them. One glass that you
chose was tall and thin and the other was short and wide. After you poured the juice
your niece is very unhappy because you gave “more” milk to your nephew. You actually
gave each of them the same amount. What is actually happening here? From a
Piagetian perspective your niece and nephew lack the ability to _____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
conserve
operate
centrate
formalize
Answer: a
Page: 241
Pre 6.2.9.
Children begin to use their new cognitive skills as they acquire them and
many times these skills can be seen during times of play. What is an example of
children using symbolic functioning?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Using a stick as a “magic wand,” turning rocks into dolls
Leaving their footprints in the dirt
Pretending that they are on a different planet
Engaging in play in which there are two or more teams
Answer: a
Page: 242–243
Pre 6.2.10.
You are visiting your sister and she has a four-year old daughter. You
have not been around young children very much except for your niece and you are
fascinated with her. You notice while she plays, she acts as if her dolls are real and
alive. While having a tea party, her doll requests sugar to put in its teacup and your
niece gladly obliges. You ask your niece why her doll likes so much sugar in her tea,
your niece replies “because I like my tea sweet.” When your niece responded “because
I like my tea sweet” while speaking for her doll, it is clear that she is demonstrating
______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
egocentrism
animism
a personal fable
assimilation
Answer: a
Page: 242
Post-Test
Post 6.2.1.
Which of the following cultures values silence, especially in children,
and views children who talk frequently as immature and low in intelligence?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Asian
Eastern European
North American
Australian
Answer: a
Page: 245
Post 6.2.2.
According to the text, the vocabulary of the average 6-year-old consists
of over ____ words.
1.
2.
3.
4.
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
Answer: a
Page: 250
Post 6.2.3.
others.
1.
2.
3.
4.
____ describes the social rules for using language in interaction with
Pragmatics
Language rules
Prosody
Social construction
Answer: a
Page: 251
Post 6.2.4.
Children from the ages of 2-7 are in Piaget’s cognitive developmental
stage of _____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
preoperational
concrete operations
sensorimotor
formal operations
Answer: a
Page: 240
Post 6.2.5.
For most cultures, children learn when it is appropriate to speak and
when it is best to keep their thoughts to themselves by the time they reach ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
middle childhood
early childhood
toddlerhood
late infancy
Answer: a
Page: 252
Post 6.2.6.
Based upon what is provided in the text, which of the following best
describes a child, in Piagetian terms, who is centered?
1. “They often focus on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of
other important aspects.”
2. “They have difficulty understanding that objects can be simultaneously part of more than
one “class” or “group.”
3. “They often attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces.”
4. “They lack the ability to distinguish between their own perspective and another person’s
perspective.”
Answer: a
Page: 241
Post 6.2.7.
_____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Many early childhood educators and scholars believe it is important that
instruction should occur through active engagement with materials
students should memorize large lists of materials to be recalled at a later time
students learn best through rote learning
the whole-language approach works better than the phonic-based reading approach
Answer: a
Page: 246
Post 6.2.8.
Suppose that you are preparing for a job interview as a preschool
teacher. Which of the following statements would be best to use during the interview, in
that it is clearly the most similar to the stance of researchers, scholars, and educators
from the area of early childhood education?
1. “Preschool learning is about the child exploring and discovering their world through
hands-on activities and fun tasks.”
2. “Preschool learning should occur through structured academic activities such as
worksheets and large group projects.”
3. “Preschool learning is about assessing the child’s IQ and then developing a curriculum
that is rigorous and challenging.”
4. “Preschool learning should occur through prosocial activities and videos that are geared
for children and regulated by the Federal government.”
Answer: a
Page: 247
Post 6.2.9.
Ana is playing air guitar and pretending that she is a rock star. She sits
all her stuffed animals in front of her as she pretends to play on stage. From Ana’s
perspective, her dolls are live, adoring fans. If Ana holds the belief that her stuffed
animals are alive and have human qualities, this is an example of _____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
animism
conservation
egocentrism
accommodation
Answer: a
Page: 242
Post 6.2.10.
You have a four-year-old son and want to see if what you learned on
Piaget’s preoperational stage was accurate. You are sitting directly across from your
son and ask him to look at the front and back covers of his favorite book. After he does
this you ask him to describe “the part of the book I am looking at.” If he is egocentric,
what will he tell you?
1.
2.
3.
4.
What he sees from his perspective
What the story is about
What you see from your perspective
How many pages are in the book
Answer: a
Page: 242
Chapter Exam
CE 6.2.1.
According to Piaget, children from the ages of 2-7 are in ____ stage of
cognitive development.
1.
2.
3.
4.
the preoperational
the sensorimotor
the concrete operations
the formal operations
Answer: a
Page: 240
CE 6.2.2.
In Piagetian terms, which of the following is the principle that the amount
of a physical substance remains the same even if its physical appearance changes?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Conservation
Animism
Egocentrism
Reversibility
Answer: a
Page: 241
CE 6.2.3.
Which of the following is the term used to describe young children’s
thinking in which they often focus on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the
exclusion of other important aspects?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Cent ration
Egocentrism
Assimilation
Accommodation
Answer: a
Page: 241
CE 6.2.4.
In the “three mountains task,” the child who is
experiencing egocentrism will describe ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
their own perspective
the perspective of the doll
the perspective of the researcher
their mother’s perspective
Answer: a
Page: 242
CE 6.2.5.
Having received a new bike for his birthday, Grant tells his mother that
the bike needs to come inside the house at night because it might get lonely in the
garage by itself. By placing human thoughts and feelings to his bike, Grant is exhibiting
Piaget’s concept of ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
animism
assimilation
reversibility
egocentrism
Answer: a
Page: 242
CE 6.2.6.
Piaget referred to children’s lack of ability to comprehend that objects
can be simultaneously part of more than one group as ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
classification
configuring
sorting
transference
Answer: a
Page: 242
CE 6.2.7.
____ is an educational approach that most early childhood scholars see
as an appropriate means to educate preschool children.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Developing appropriate educational practice
Montessori approach
The Piagetian approach to learning
Whole language learning
Answer: a
Page: 247
CE 6.2.8.
Assume you just accepted a job as a preschool teacher in Japan. Based
upon what is described in the text, which of the following statements is the closest
representation to the type of preschool environment that you will experience?
1. The physical building looks to be very new and in good shape, there’s a high emphasis
on social skills training, and the students of the class are very competitive academically.
2. There is a lot of group play, the children wear the same uniforms, and they each have
the same equipment.
3. There is a high emphasis on academic success, parents encourage their children to
learn letters and numbers quickly, and many teachers work long hours.
4. The physical building looks run down, teachers appear tired and frustrated, and it is clear
that the students do not learn much.
Answer: a
Page: 248
CE 6.2.9.
States.
1.
2.
3.
4.
____ is an example of an early intervention program in the United
Project Head Start
First Nation Project
McGill’s Intervention for Children
School Immunization Project
Answer: a
Page: 248
CE 6.2.10.
In addition to one or two years of preschool the largest early intervention
program in the United States also provides ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
free food and health care
guaranteed admission to a public college or university
free room and board
free education for all adult family members
Answer: a
Page: 248
CE 6.2.11.
Follow up studies of subjects who participated in High Scope Preschool
Projects revealed that by age 27, ____ as compared to other low-income individuals
who did not participate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
they were more likely to be married and to own their own homes
there was no significant difference
they were just as likely to have dropped out of high school
they were more likely to have been married and divorced at least twice
Answer: a
Page: 250
CE 6.2.12.
______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Between the ages of 3 and 6 the vocabulary of the average child
more than doubles
grows by one-half
grows by fifty percent
more than triples
Answer: a
Page: 250
CE 6.2.13.
While learning language, children who learn “English and other Western”
languages have been shown to fast-map ____ first.
1.
2.
3.
4.
nouns
verbs
conjunctions
prefixes
Answer: a
Page: 250
CE 6.2.14.
From the “three mountains task”, the child who lacks egocentrism (is not
egocentric) will describe ______
1. the doll’s perspective
2. their own perspective
3. the researcher’s perspective
4. their mother’s perspective
Answer: a
Page: 242
CE 6.2.15.
Which of the following best describes the Piagetian term of animism?
1. Attributing human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces
2. Focusing on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of other
important aspects.
3. Difficulty understanding that objects can be simultaneously part of more than one “class”
or group.
4. The ability to distinguish between your own perspective and another person’s
perspective
Answer: a
Page: 242
Quick Review
QR 6.2.1.
thought.
1.
2.
3.
4.
When children begin to ____ it is the beginning of representational
internalize the images of their sensorimotor activities
recognize their family members
remember where they left play objects
externalize their true wishes and desires
Answer: a
Page: 240
QR 6.2.2.
Which of the following is the ability to understand the thinking process in
one’s self and others?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Theory of mind
Subliminal thought
Hypercognition
Megacognition
Answer: a
Page: 243
QR 6.2.3.
For the United States and China, _____ is the primary goal of having
children attend preschool.
1.
2.
3.
4.
learning basic academic skills
learning to get along with other children
mastering social skills
gaining independence from the family
Answer: a
Page: 248
QR 6.2.4.
____ are programs directed at young children who are at risk for later
school problems.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Early intervention programs
Essential beginnings programs
Secondary prevention programs
Sooner intervention programs
Answer: a
Page: 248
QR 6.2.5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Which of the following is language’s distinctive system of rules?
Grammar
Pragmatics
Morphemes
Prosody
Answer: a
Page: 251
QR 6.2.6.
In regards to language development, phrases like “please,” “thank you,”
and “bye-bye,” are examples of _____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
the pragmatic quality of language
the dialectic quality of language
the structural quality of language
how prosody varies within language
Answer: a
Page: 251
QR 6.2.7.
Piaget proposes that children who pass the law of conservation are
qualitatively different in their mental process than children who fail. Based upon what is
provided in the text, which of the following statements best captures why a child
may fail the conservation task?
1. “They failed to understand that the amount of water remained the same even though the
appearance of the water changed.”
2. “They can reverse the action mentally and see that the amount of water is the same.”
3. “They tend to pick the photo that matches their own perspective not the doll’s
perspective.”
4. “They frequently attribute human thoughts and feelings to stuffed animals and dolls.”
Answer: a
Page: 241
QR 6.2.8.
According to the text, which of the following describes a child who lacks
the ability to perform mental classifications?
1. “They have difficulty understanding that objects can be simultaneously part of more than
one class or group.”
2. “They often attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects and forces.”
3. “They often focus on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem to the exclusion of
other important aspects.”
4. “They often have difficulty viewing or providing another person’s perspective.”
Answer: a
Page: 242
QR 6.2.9.
What is a factor in cultural learning in developed countries that is
different from cultural learning in developing cultures? In developed countries children
_____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
are often apart from their families for a substantial part of the day
are constantly with at least one family member all day
are disciplined harshly for small infractions
are rarely consoled when injured or hurt
Answer: a
Page: 245
QR 6.2.10.
_______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lev Vygotsky proposes that cognitive development occurs when
children interact with a more knowledgeable member of the culture
children’s brains are biologically ready for growth
the proper amount of neurons have connected
children passively interact and individually confront change in their lives
Answer: a
Page: 245
Video Guide Questions
Short Answer Questions
1. How does acquiring a theory of mind impact a child’s social interactions?
Answer: Acquiring a theory of mind allows children to be better able to understand why
another child does something. They become better able to understand what a sibling
might need if they are crying. There are social situations where a child will benefit from
acquiring a theory of mind.
Learning Objective: 6.7
2. According to this video, does acquiring a theory of mind occur at the same age across
cultures?
Answer: No, in some cultures even the 6 year old children responded incorrectly during
the scenario with the cookie box filled with pencils.
Learning Objective: 6.7
3. Can you think of any interactions that may help or hinder a child in developing a theory
of mind?
Answer: Answers will vary.
Learning Objective: 6.7
Multiple Choice Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
By what age do most children grasp the concept of object permanence?
3 years
4 years
5 years
6 years
Answer: D
2. What demonstration is used in the video to show whether or not a child understands
theory of mind?
3. the false-belief task
4. the conservation task
5. the magic trick task
6. the attachment task
Answer: A
3. Based on the demonstrations in other cultures, we can infer that understanding theory of
mind _______ across cultures.
4.
5.
6.
7.
occurs at the same age
remains very stable
does not occur at the same age
occurs similarly
Answer: C
Section 3 Emotional and Social Development
Test Item File
Multiple Choice Questions
1. During early childhood, emotional self-regulation is considered ____.
2. very unlikely to be accomplished
Incorrect. Emotional self-regulation is a major developmental task that needs to be
accomplished in early childhood.
1. one of the major developmental tasks
Correct. Emotional self-regulation is a major developmental task that needs to be
accomplished in early childhood.
1. not possible until the child completely understands the concept of “self”
2. not likely due to the immature development of the frontal lobe areas
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 254
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.14
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.6
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
____ is when children focus attention on managing their emotions.
Effortful control
Emotions management
External regulation
Extraterrestrial force
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 254
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.14
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.1, Post 6.3.1
% correct 69
a= 88 b= 6 c= 13 d= 0
r = .58
3. What are the strategies that indicate that children are focusing their attention on
managing their emotions?
4. emotional control
5. attention control
6. effortful control
7. social control
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 254
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.14
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.1
4. Children who have problems of undercontrol of their emotions are at risk for ____.
5. ulcers and other physical problems
Incorrect. Undercontrol is associated with aggression and conflict later in life.
1. aggression and conflict in early childhood and beyond
Correct. Undercontrol is associated with aggression and conflict later in life.
1. not realizing their academic potential
2. not likely to have serious relationships as adults
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 254
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.14
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.8
5. What is an example of “internalizing problems” that results from overcontrol of emotions
in early childhood?
6. ulcers and other physical problems
Incorrect. Overcontrol is associated with anxiety and depression.
1. anxiety and depression
Correct. Overcontrol is associated with anxiety and depression.
1. hostile and verbal aggression
2. bipolar disorder
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 254
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.14
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.1, QR 6.3.3
6. Your brother has a daughter in early childhood who has an excessive degree of selfregulation. He is not quite sure if he should be happy, since she very rarely has any
difficulties, or if he should be concerned. What would you tell him?
7. He should be concerned in that overcontrol is associated with depression and anxiety
when she gets older.
Correct. Overcontrol is associated with anxiety and depression.
1. He has nothing to be concerned about. Overcontrol is associated with extraordinary
academic success.
Incorrect. Overcontrol is associated with anxiety and depression.
1. He should not be concerned; she will lighten up on her own soon.
2. He should be glad; a friend of yours has a child who has absolutely no self-regulation
and that child is very hard to control.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 254
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.14
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.8
% correct 88
a= 88 b= 13 c= 0 d= 0
r = .55
7. As a child becomes better at perspective-taking and develops a greater ability to
understand the emotions and feelings of others, he or she will have a greater capacity to
experience ____.
8. primary emotions
9. empathy
Correct. Perspective taking and metacognition are 2 components for empathy.
1. modeling
2. effortful control
Incorrect. Perspective-taking and metacognition are two components of empathy.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 255
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.15
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.2
% correct 88
a= 6 b= 88 c= 6 d= 0
r = .31
8. Shweder found that by about age 5 children already grasp the moral standards of their
culture. However, what happens to their cultural views as they reach adolescence and
adulthood?
9. Those views only change once the individual marries.
10. Those views change radically when they become adolescents.
11. Those views change considerably as they reach formal operations and can think
abstractly.
12. Those views change very little.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 255
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.15
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
9. By the end of early childhood, Indian children have learned not just that menstruating
women do not cook food or sleep with their husbands, they also ____.
10. come to believe that their mothers are lazy
11. believe that their fathers are forbidding their mothers from doing these things
Incorrect. Cultural views establish what is moral and children come to understand this.
1. learn that it would be morally wrong for their mothers to do those things
Correct. Cultural views establish what is moral and children come to understand this.
1. learn that it just makes sense for their mothers not to do those things
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 256
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.15
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 94
a= 0 b= 0 c= 94 d= 6
r = .42
10. According to modeling theory, after observing multiple occasions of others’ behaviors
being rewarded or punished, children conclude ____.
11. what their culture’s principles of moral conduct are
Correct. According to modeling theory, children learn cultural values by observing
multiple occasions of others’ behaviors being rewarded or punished.
1. what behavior is considered appropriate and what behavior is considered inappropriate
Incorrect. According to modeling theory, children learn cultural values by observing
multiple occasions of others’ behaviors being rewarded or punished.
1. what members of a particular culture should not be doing
2. what they need to do to be successful members of their societies
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 256
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.15
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.2
11. What term describes that individuals understand themselves as being either male or
female?
12. gender development
13. gender constancy
14. gender identity
15. gender role
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 257
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.16
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.2
12. What term describes the understanding that maleness and femaleness are biological
and cannot change?
13.
14.
15.
16.
gender development
gender constancy
gender roles
gender identity
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 257
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.16
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
13. As soon as Grant started to play patty-cake with his classmate Emma, he was teased
and ridiculed by the boys in the class. Grant quickly learned that patty-cake is a form of
play that is reserved for girls and not boys. Grant’s process of learning the roles of
“maleness” and “femaleness” is ____.
14. a biological construct
15. gender socialization
Correct. Gender socialization is a process in which individuals learn through their
culture the appropriate behaviors for their sex.
1. a sex schema
Incorrect. Gender socialization is a process in which individuals learn through their
culture the appropriate behaviors for their sex.
1. sexual-social identity
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 257
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.16
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.3
14. ____ is (are) a gender-based cognitive structure for organizing and processing
information.
15. Gender schemas
16. Gender awareness
17. Gender self
18. Gender knowledge
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 258
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.16
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
15. In the story presented in the textbook regarding a little boy and his father who were in a
terrible automobile accident, the father died, but the boy was rushed to the hospital. As
the boy was rushed into surgery, the doctor looked down at him and said, “I cannot
operate on this boy, he is my son!” Many people find this story puzzling because they
assume the doctor is male. This story represents what concept?
16. gender schemas
Correct. Gender schemas are gender-based cognitive structures used to organize and
process information.
1. gender constancy
2. gender roles
Incorrect. This story is an example of gender schemas.
1. gender identity
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 258
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.16
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
16. When boys insist on doing things that are “boy’s things” and avoid doing things that “girls
do,” what is happening?
17. gender socialization
Correct. Boys do “boy things” due to self-socialization.
1. gender constancy
2. gender roles
Incorrect. Boys do “boy things” due to self-socialization.
1. self-socialization
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 258
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.16
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.9
17. What is defined as the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their children and their
beliefs about these practices?
18. child–parent practices
19. parenting learning strategies
20. parenting styles
21. discipline strategies
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.2, Post 6.3.8, CE 6.3.4
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Demandingness is also known as ____, and responsiveness is also known as ____.
control; warmth
warmth; control
limitations; empathy
empathy; limitations
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.5
19. What is defined as the degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for
behavior and require their children to comply with them?
20. parental demandingness
21. parental strictness
22. parenting styles
23. discipline strategies
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 88
a= 88 b= 0 c= 0 d= 12
r = .47
20. What is defined as the degree to which parents are sensitive to their children’s needs
and express love, warmth, and concern for them?
21. parental demandingness
22. parental strictness
23. parenting styles
24. parental responsiveness
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
21. Whose research on middle-class White American families, along with the research of
other scholars inspired by this individual’s ideas, was involved in examining how
individuals parented their children?
22. Jean Piaget
23. Albert Ellis
24. Diana Baumrind
25. John Applegate
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
22. Which of the following parenting styles is characteristic of high demandingness and high
responsiveness?
23. authoritative
24. authoritarian
25. permissive
26. disengaged
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Authoritative parenting style is characteristic of ____.
high demandingness and high responsiveness
high demandingness and low responsiveness
low demandingness and low responsiveness
low demandingness and high responsiveness
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 63
24.
25.
26.
27.
a= 63 b= 19 c= 6 d= 13
r = .48
What is a distinctive feature of authoritative parents?
They are quite passive in their responding.
They do not care whatsoever what their children do.
They respond with anger to questions from their children.
Incorrect. Authoritative parents are warm and explain rules and expectations.
1. They explain the reasons for their rules and expectations to their children.
Correct. Authoritative parents are warm and explain rules and expectations.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 259
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.6
25. If you were an authoritative parent, how would you handle a child who only wanted to eat
a banana split for dinner? You would say, ____
26. “It would be much better to eat a healthy dinner first and have a banana split for dessert
if you are not full.”
Correct. A distinctive feature of authoritative parents is that they explain the reasons for
their rules and expectations to their children, and they willingly engage in discussion
with their children over issues of discipline, sometimes leading to negotiation and
compromise.
1. “Great, let’s go for it!”
Incorrect. A distinctive feature of authoritative parents is that they explain the reasons
for their rules and expectations to their children, and they willingly engage in discussion
with their children over issues of discipline, sometimes leading to negotiation and
compromise.
1. “Absolutely not, under no circumstance will I allow that!”
2. “Whatever, I don’t care.”
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 259
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 81
a= 19 b= 0 c= 81 d= 0
r = .37
26. What type of parent is loving and warm toward their children and responds to what their
children need and desire?
27. authoritative
28. authoritarian
29. permissive
30. disengaged
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 259
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.3
27. Coach Paige has clear guidelines and rules for his players. He wants them to try their
hardest to give 100% all the time. But, Coach Paige also cares for his players and tends
to understand each player’s individual needs. Which of the following best describes
Coach Paige’s coaching style?
28. authoritative
Correct. Coach Paige is exhibiting high responsiveness and high demandingness.
1. authoritarian
2. permissive
3. disengaged
Incorrect. Coach Paige is exhibiting high responsiveness and high demandingness.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 259
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.10
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
What parenting style is high in demandingness, but low in responsiveness?
authoritative
authoritarian
permissive
disengaged
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
Authoritarian parenting style is characteristic of ____.
high demandingness and high responsiveness.
high demandingness and low responsiveness.
low demandingness and low responsiveness.
low demandingness and high responsiveness.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
What type of parent expects their commands to be followed without dispute or dissent?
authoritative
authoritarian
permissive
disengaged
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
31. A drill sergeant who expects his or her subordinates to follow commands without
questioning their authority is more similar to which of the following parenting styles?
32. authoritative
33. authoritarian
Correct. The stereotypical image of a drill sergeant is one who is high in
demandingness and low in responsiveness.
1. permissive
2. disengaged
Incorrect. The stereotypical image of a drill sergeant is one who is high in
demandingness and low in responsiveness.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 260
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
32. If you were an authoritarian parent, how would you handle a child who only wanted to
eat a banana split for dinner? You would say, ____
33. “It would be much better to eat a healthy dinner first and have a banana split for dessert
if you are not full.”
34. “Great, let’s go for it!”
Incorrect. Authoritarian parents are high in demandingness and allow no give-and-take
concessions.
1. “Absolutely not, under no circumstance will I allow that!”
Correct. Authoritarian parents are high in demandingness and allow no give-and-take
concessions.
1. “Whatever, I don’t care.”
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 95
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
a= 0 b= 5 c= 95 d= 0
r = .34
What parenting style is low in demandingness, but high in responsiveness?
authoritative
authoritarian
permissive
disengaged
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
Permissive parenting style is characteristic of ____.
high demandingness and high responsiveness.
high demandingness and low responsiveness.
low demandingness and low responsiveness.
low demandingness and high responsiveness.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
35. What type of parent rarely engages in disciplining his or her children and simply believes
that all children need is “unconditional” love?
36. authoritative
37. authoritarian
38. permissive
39. disengaged
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
36. If you were a permissive parent, how would you handle a child who only wanted to eat a
banana split for dinner? You would say, ____
37. “It would be much better to eat a healthy dinner first and have a banana split for dessert
if you are not full.”
Incorrect. Permissive parents are low in demandingness and high in responsiveness.
1. “Great, let’s go for it!”
Correct. Permissive parents are low in demandingness and high in responsiveness.
1. “Absolutely not, under no circumstance will I allow that!”
2. “Whatever, I don’t care.”
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 58
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
a= 0 b= 58 c= 0 d= 42
r = .22
What parenting style is low in demandingness and responsiveness?
authoritative
authoritarian
permissive
disengaged
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
Disengaged parenting style is characteristic of ____.
high demandingness and high responsiveness
high demandingness and low responsiveness
low demandingness and low responsiveness
low demandingness and high responsiveness
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
39. What type of parent requires little of their children, rarely bothers to correct their
behavior, and shows very little love or concern for them?
40. authoritative
41. authoritarian
42. permissive
43. disengaged
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
40. If you were a disengaged parent, how would you handle a child who only wanted to eat a
banana split for dinner? You would say, ____
41. “It would be much better to eat a healthy dinner first and have a banana split for dessert
if you are not full.”
Incorrect. Disengaged parents require little of their children and rarely bother to correct
their behavior or place clear limits on what they are allowed to do.
1. “Great, let’s go for it!”
2. “Absolutely not, under no circumstance will I allow that!”
3. “Whatever, I don’t care.”
Correct. Disengaged parents require little of their children and rarely bother to correct
their behavior or place clear limits on what they are allowed to do.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
What parenting style is associated with the most favorable outcomes for children?
authoritative
authoritarian
permissive
disengaged
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
42. Pousadeth is confident and self-assured. He has high creativity and is well liked by his
peers. Beyond being the captain of the soccer team he is also a star member of the glee
club. From what is known about parenting style, which the following is most likely what
Pousadeth the product of?
43. authoritative parenting
Correct. Authoritative parenting with high responsiveness and high demandingness has
the most common beneficial effects.
1. authoritarian parenting
2. permissive parenting
Incorrect. Children who have authoritative parents tend to be independent, self-assured,
creative, and socially skilled. They also tend to do well in school and get along well with
their peers.
1. disengaged parenting
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 260
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
43. What parenting style is associated with children who tend to be less self-assured, less
creative, and less socially adept than other children?
44. authoritative
45. authoritarian
46. permissive
47. disengaged
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
44. Boys with authoritarian parents are more often to show ____, whereas girls more often
show ____.
45. aggressiveness and unruliness; anxiousness and unhappiness
46. unhappiness and anxiousness; aggressiveness and unruliness
47. personality disorders and low grades; ADHD and high grades
48. ADHD and high grades; personality disorders and low grades
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 94
a= 94 b= 0 c= 0 d= 6
r = .42
45. What parenting style is associated with boys who are more often aggressive and unruly
and girls who are more often anxious and unhappy?
46. authoritative
47. authoritarian
48. permissive
49. disengaged
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
46. Nakyla is a young girl who is often anxious and unhappy. At times she has very low selfesteem and is very fearful of new social situations. Which of the following parenting
styles is Nakyla most likely a product of?
47. authoritative parenting
48. authoritarian parenting
Correct. Children with authoritarian parents tend to be less self-assured, less creative,
a
nd less socially adept than other children.
1. permissive parenting
2. disengaged parenting
Incorrect. Children with authoritarian parents tend to be less self-assured, less creative,
and less socially adept than other children.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 260
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
47. What parenting style is associated with children who lack self-control and, as a result,
have difficulty getting along with peers and teachers?
48. authoritative
49. authoritarian
50. permissive
51. disengaged
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 63
a= 0 b= 6 c= 63 d= 31
r = .54
48. What parenting style is associated with children who tend to be impulsive and tend to
have higher rates of behavior problems?
49. authoritative
50. authoritarian
51. permissive
52. disengaged
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 260
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
49. The relationship between parents and children tends to be complex, and parenting style
alone is not the end-all and be-all of answers. It is known that parents have a significant
effect on their children, but children also have an effect on their parents; this relationship
between parent and child is also known as ____.
50. reciprocal or bidirectional relationship
Correct. The relationship between parent and child tend more bidirectional and more
complex than just a single parental approach.
1. one-way or unilateral relationship
2. hypothetical or theoretical relationship
3. exponential or quadrupling relationship
Incorrect. With reciprocal or bidirectional effects, parents influence their children and
vice versa.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 261
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.7, QR 6.3.10
50. In what types of cultures do parents expect that their authority will be obeyed without
question and without requiring an explanation?
51. Western cultures
52. traditional cultures
53. nontraditional cultures
54. native cultures
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 261
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
51. What is the term that describes many Asian cultures’ belief that children are expected to
respect, obey, and revere their parents throughout life?
52. amae
53. filial piety
54. parental honorarium
55. familial superiority
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 261
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
52. Filial piety ____.
53. is common in Asian cultures where children are expected to respect, obey, and revere
their parents throughout life
54. parents show a hands-off approach that is characteristic of low demandingness and low
responsiveness
55. is an emphasis of love, closeness, and mutual obligation within the Latino family
56. is a cultural mandate that requires all parents to express high responsiveness and high
demandingness to their children
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 261
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.4
53. Which of the following is a common characteristic of both traditional Asian and Latin
American families?
54. both groups hold respect and obedience for parents in high regard
Correct. Both Asian and Latin American families emphasize obedience to parents and
the priorities of the family should be held in high regards.
1. for both groups, the female is the head of the household
2. both groups have an overwhelmingly large number of parents who hold an indulgent
parental approach
3. within both groups, children are taught to be autonomous, to stand on their own two feet,
and to put their own best interest before the needs of the family
Incorrect. Both Asian and Latin American families emphasize obedience to parents and
the priorities of the family should be held in high regards.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 261–262
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.8
54. In Latin American cultures, the authority of the parent is viewed as paramount. What is
the term that describes obedience to parents and elders, especially the father?
55. correcto
56. filial piety
57. parental honorarium
58. respeto
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 262
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 25
a= 6 b= 50 c= 13 d= 25
r = .47
55. ____ emphasizes respect for and obedience to parents and the elderly, especially the
father.
56. Respeto
57. Familismo
58. Filial piety
59. Laissez-faire
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 262
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
56. What is the term used in Latino culture that emphasizes the love, closeness, and mutual
obligations of Latino family life?
57. correcto
58. filial piety
59. familismo
60. respeto
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 262
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
57. Most American minority cultures, including African Americans, Latinos, and Asian
Americans, have been classified by researchers as “authoritarian.” This is inaccurate
because these cultures were being compared to ____.
58. only their own cultures
Incorrect. The model of classification was the White majority culture.
1. industrial cultures of Europe
2. traditional Asian cultures
3. White majority culture
Correct. The model of classification was the White majority culture.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 262
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
58. Many African American, Latino, and Asian American families have been classified as
“authoritarian”, but this is inaccurate because ____.
59. each of these subcultural groups has its own distinctive form of warmth for their children
Correct. Responsiveness is described as warmth – for mainstream American culture
this is expressed through signs of affection such as hugs, kisses, and “I love you”. For
many subcultural groups warmth is expressed in various ways but tend to be more
implicit.
1. parenting style has no cultural boundaries so an accurate picture cannot be taken
Incorrect. Each minority culture has its own distinctive form of warmth.
1. the parents of these subcultural groups are more likely to be indulgent, having both low
responsiveness and low demandingness
2. there are too few of these subcultural groups to develop an accurate picture of the
parenting styles that these parents possess
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 262
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.9
% correct 88
a= 88 b= 13 c= 0 d= 0
r = .16
59. For most cultures, it is not until ____ that discipline is used for children who do not follow
expectations or do what is required of them.
60. early infancy
61. late infancy
Incorrect. Prior to early childhood, parents have lower expectations of what is required
for their infants and toddlers.
1. toddlerhood
2. early childhood
Correct. Prior to early childhood, parents have lower expectations of what is required for
their infants and toddlers; parental approach tends to be indulgent
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 263
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
60. In many cultures, when is the first time that children are disciplined?
61. infancy
Incorrect. Infants do not have the developmental capacity to relate to discipline
strategies.
1. early childhood
Correct. Many children are disciplined for the first time in early childhood.
1. middle childhood
2. adolescence
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
61. In terms of praise as a parenting strategy, how frequently is it employed by parents in
non-Western cultures?
62. about the same as Western cultures
63. much more than Western cultures
64. rarely
65. never
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
62. Which of the following is a practice that requires children to sit still in a designated place
for a period of time in an effort to reduce undesired behaviors?
63. corporal punishment
64. time out
65. reinforcement
66. amae
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.7
63. When is requiring a young child to sit still in a designated place for a brief period a good
discipline strategy?
64. Any time that a child misbehaves, it is effective for any child.
65. It is only effective for children who have behavioral problems.
Correct. Time out is effective for children with behavior problems.
1. It is primarily effective for children with intellectual disabilities.
Incorrect. Time out is effective for children with behavior problems.
1. It is mainly for girls only.
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
64. You have a young child in your classroom who has behavioral problems. You have tried
many different strategies, unsuccessfully, to reduce the number of his inappropriate
behaviors. Only one of those strategies seems to work. What strategy is it?
65. time out
Correct. Time out is effective for children with behavior problems.
1. physical punishment
Incorrect. Time out is effective for children with behavior problems.
1. token economy
2. shaping
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.10
65. What culture’s mothers express disappointment and withdraw their love temporarily?
The child feels shame, which is a powerful inducement not to disobey again.
66. American
67. European
68. Japanese
69. Korean
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
66. _____ is a parental practice in which shame and the withdrawal of love are used to
control the behaviors of children.
67. Psychological control
68. Corporal punishment
69. Authoritative parenting style
70. An insecure attachment
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 69
a= 69 b= 19 c= 13 d= 0
r = .58
67. Among American researchers, parenting that uses shame and withdrawal of love has
been described by the term ____.
68. emotional abuse
69. emotional manipulation
70. psychological control
71. social damage
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
68. American parents who use shame and withdrawal of love in early childhood have been
associated with which of the following outcomes for their children?
69. anxiety, aggression, and problems with peer relations
70. strong ego development
71. moral development, social maturity, and psychological control
72. academic success, athletic superiority, and fairness
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 263
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
Physical punishment is also known as ____.
neutralizing punishment
negative punishment
capital punishment
corporal punishment
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 264
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 94
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
r = .18
How frequent is physical punishment of young children in most parts of the world?
rarely used
very common
very rare since it is banned in most countries
accepted, but not used frequently
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 264
Skill: F
a= 6 b= 0 c= 0 d= 94
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
Most countries still allow parents to spank their young children; nearly all ____.
encourage extreme forms of verbal punishment
have outlawed beatings and other harsh forms of physical punishment
regulate punishment techniques in “state-sponsored” courses on parenting
provide examples of appropriate punishment techniques for children in widely dispersed
pamphlets
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 264
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
72. Your classmate has a son who just turned 4 who she disciplines with physical
punishment quite a lot. It appears to her that she is not being very effective in her
discipline style and asks you your opinion regarding physical punishment. Citing
research, you tell her that longitudinal research has discovered that physical punishment
is associated with ____.
73. spousal abuse in adulthood
Correct. Research suggests negative outcomes if physical punishment is used with
children in early childhood.
1. strong will and character in adulthood
Incorrect. Research suggests negative outcomes if physical punishment is used with
children in early childhood.
1. development of self-control and educational attainment in adulthood
2. severe psychological problems including psychosis
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 264
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.11
73. There are interesting cultural differences in the use of physical punishment during early
childhood. For African American children, the more physical punishment they received
during early childhood the ____.
74. greater the likelihood that they would be aggressive and antisocial in adolescence
75. less likely they would be aggressive and antisocial in adolescence
Correct. Research suggests positive outcomes if physical punishment is used with
African American children in early childhood.
1. the more likely they would be depressed and psychologically damaged as adults
Incorrect. Research suggests positive outcomes if physical punishment is used with
African American children in early childhood.
1. the less likely that these children would graduate from high school
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 264
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
74. African Americans are more likely to use physical punishment as a means to correct
their children; however, this is also accompanied with ____ so that the children
understand that the intent is to teach them right from wrong.
75. a high degree of warmth
Correct. African-American families are more likely to use corporal punishment; however,
this is accompanied by high responsiveness (warmth).
1. a high degree of shame
Incorrect. African Americans tend to combine physical punishment with parental
warmth, so that children understand their parents’ behavior not as a frightening and
threatening loss of parental control but as a practice intended to teach them right from
wrong and the importance of obeying their parents.
1. a low degree of acceptance
2. a low degree of empathy
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 264–265
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
75. There are substantial similarities worldwide in how cultures socialize young children and
structure their social environments. What are the similarities?
76. Fathers take over the role of socialization and mothers have no role at all.
77. There is a rapid and complete reduction in the roles that mothers play in their child’s
social development.
78. There is an increase in the roles that mothers play in the social expansion of the child.
Incorrect. Research suggests mothers roles diminish socially for the child.
1. There is a gradual lessening of dependence on the mother and a move toward peers
and older children.
Correct. Research suggests mothers roles diminish socially for the child.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 267
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.20
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 74
a= 0 b= 0 c= 23 d= 74
r = .18
76. Traditionally, how long is the gap between the birth of one child and the birth of the next
child worldwide?
77. 1–2 years
78. 2–4 years
79. 3–5 years
80. 4–6 years
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 268
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.20
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.3
77. Tamika and Daquon are the parents of a typical family and have three children. Based
upon the reading, how many years probably separate each of their children?
78. 0–1
79. 1–3
Incorrect. A gap of 2–4 years between children is common worldwide, traditionally.
1. 4–5
2. 2–4
Correct. A gap of 2–4 years between children is common worldwide, traditionally.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page: 268
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.20
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.12
78. Whiting and Edwards (1988) found what response was nearly universal regarding how
older siblings responded to the birth of a younger sibling?
79. great enthusiasm and joy
80. jealousy
81. fear
82. expectations regarding being the younger sibling’s mentor
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 268
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.20
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.4
79. In the United States, what percentage of children have no siblings?
80.
81.
82.
83.
5%
10%
15%
20%
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 269
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.20
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.5
80. Gina and Mario have decided to only have one child. Based upon the text, Gina and
Mario are similar to ____ of American families who have children.
81. 5%
82. 10%
83. 15%
Incorrect. In the United States, only 20% of children have no siblings.
1. 20%
Correct. In the United States, only 20% of children have no siblings.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 269
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.20
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
81. Beginning in the early 1980s, ____ made it illegal for families to have more than one
child by initiating a “one child policy”.
82. China
83. Japan
84. Guatemala
85. South Africa
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 269
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.20
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
What are people with whom you develop a valued, mutual relationship?
peers
friends
relatives
siblings
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 269
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
____ are persons who share some aspect of their status in common, such as age.
Admirers
Confidants
Siblings
Peers
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 270
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
84. Layla and Gregory are both 4 years old and playmates at the same daycare center.
Which of the following best describes their relationship?
85. admirers
86. confidants
Incorrect. Since they are within the same age group, they are considered peers.
1. neighbors
2. peers
Correct. Since they are within the same age group they are considered peers.
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 270
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
85. During early childhood, in what ways do children change in terms of play? Their play
becomes ____.
86. more sex-segregated
87. more sex-diverse
88. less egalitarian
89. less gender defined
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 270
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
86. Numerous studies have determined that boys play in what ways in their play groups?
They engage in ____.
87. rough and tumble, high activity, and aggressive play
88. very introspective play with considerable role playing
89. quiet play with many individuals cooperatively playing
90. watching television and acting out the roles they are watching
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 270
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
87. Numerous studies have determined that girls play in what ways in their play groups?
They engage in ____.
88. rough and tumble, high activity, and aggressive play
89. quiet play, role playing, fantasy, and cooperative play
90. watching television and engaging in aggressive acting
91. competitive play in which there are clear “winners”
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 270
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
How common is it for adults to play with children outside of the West?
very common
common
occasional
rare
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 271
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
89. What type of aggression is involved when a child wants something and uses aggressive
behavior or words to get it?
90.
91.
92.
93.
instrumental aggression
hostile aggression
physical aggression
verbal aggression
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 271
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
90. What type of aggression is involved when a child exhibits signs of anger and intends to
inflict pain or harm on others?
91. instrumental aggression
92. hostile aggression
93. physical aggression
94. verbal aggression
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 271
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
91. ____ involves using aggressive behaviors to get an item that is wanted, whereas ____ is
aggressive behavior that is intended to inflict pain or harm to another person.
92. Relational aggression; physical aggression
93. Physical aggression; relational aggression
94. Instrumental aggression; hostile aggression
95. Hostile aggression; instrumental aggression
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 271
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 50
a= 44 b= 0 c= 50 d= 6
r = .63
92. What expression of aggression involves hitting, kicking, pushing, or striking someone
with an object?
93. instrumental aggression
94. hostile aggression
95. physical aggression
96. verbal aggression
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 272
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
93. What expression of aggression involves yelling, calling others names, or teasing?
94. instrumental aggression
95. hostile aggression
96. physical aggression
97. verbal aggression
Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page: 272
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
94. Sophia and Yvette are playing with dolls when suddenly a third playmate, Cameron,
grabs Sophia’s doll, throws it on the ground, and stomps on it, while telling Yvette that
Sophia’s dolls are smelly and dirty. Cameron is demonstrating ____.
95. hostile aggression
Correct. Hostile aggression is intended to inflict harm on another person
1. focused aggression
Incorrect. Hostile aggression is intended to inflict harm on another person.
1. bilateral aggression
2. vicious aggression
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 272
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.9
Which of the following best describes relational aggression?
using aggressive behaviors or words to get what is wanted
aggressive behaviors that is intended to inflict pain or harm on another
damaging another person’s reputation among peers through social exclusion and
malicious gossip
99. physically hitting, kicking, pushing, or striking another person
95.
96.
97.
98.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 272
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 81
a= 13 b= c= 81 d= 6
r = .47
96. What type of aggression involves damaging another person’s reputation among peers
through exclusion and malicious gossip?
97. instrumental aggression
98. hostile aggression
99. relational aggression
100.
verbal aggression
Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page: 272
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.13
97. Boys are consistently more ____ aggressive than girls, in earlier childhood and
throughout the lifespan.
98. socially
99. psychologically
100.
physically
101.
verbally
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 272
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.4
% correct 50
a= 6 b= 6 c= 50 d= 38
r = .23
98. Your nephew has always had a difficult personality. He is now in early childhood and is
very aggressive in most things that he does. Your sister is very concerned and asked
you what your thoughts are. You tell her that ____.
99. she should be concerned; aggressive behavior in early childhood is a predictor of
aggression in adolescence and adulthood
Correct. Early childhood aggression is a predictor of poor outcomes in adolescence and
adulthood.
1. she should not be concerned; most children in early childhood go through this phase and
will eventually stop being aggressive
Incorrect. Early childhood aggression is a predictor of poor outcomes in adolescence
and adulthood.
1. she should be concerned, but there is nothing that she can do
2. as it turns out, very aggressive children during early childhood perform at superior levels
in school
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 272
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
99. Why is early childhood a crucial time for addressing physical aggression? When
aggression is still high at the end of early childhood, ____.
100.
it is associated with academic problems in elementary school
Incorrect. When aggression is still high at the end of early childhood, it is a predictor of
poor outcomes in adolescence and adulthood.
1. it is a time when the child gets large quickly and aggressive behavior can be difficult to
control
2. it is a strong predictor of later aggression in adolescence and adulthood
Correct. When aggression is still high at the end of early childhood, it is a predictor of
poor outcomes in adolescence and adulthood.
1. these children are at risk for abusive behavior by others in their environment
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 272
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.6, CE 6.3.14
100.
Across cultures, aggression is frequently a component of children’s play in early
and middle childhood, especially for boys. According to the textbook, this type of
aggressive play helps to establish ____.
101.
a range of what is considered acceptable play
Incorrect. It establishes a dominance hierarchy so that further aggression is not needed.
1. dominance hierarchy
Correct. It establishes a dominance hierarchy so that further aggression is not needed.
1. play boundaries
2. aggression perimeters
Answer: B
Difficulty: 3
Page: 272
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.7
101.
____ is/are slightly more common in girls than boys, and ____ is/are slightly
more common in boys than girls.
102.
Verbal and relational aggression; physical aggression
103.
Physical aggression; verbal and relational aggression
104.
Temper tantrums and crying; effortful control
105.
Effortful control; temper tantrums and crying
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 273
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.21
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
% correct 100
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
a= 100 b= 0 c= 0 d= 0
r = .00
The average American child watches ____ hours of television per day.
2
3
4
5
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 274
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: CE 6.3.15
103.
In Sweden the average child watches _____ hours of television, whereas in
Hungary, Turkey, Germany, and the United States, the average child watches ____
hours.
104.
1 1/2; 3
105.
3; 1 1/2
106.
2; 4
107.
4; 2
Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page: 274
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
104.
In the United States, what percentage of children aged 2 to 7 years have a TV
set in their bedrooms?
105.
10%
106.
20%
107.
30%
108.
40%
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 274
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.5
105.
Morris is an average 5-year-old American child when it comes to watching
television. He likes to watch Sesame Street when he comes home from kindergarten
while his parents make dinner. If he is like an estimated 30% of children ages 2 to 7, he
is watching TV in what room?
106.
the family room
Incorrect. 30% of children ages 2 to 7 have a TV set in their bedroom.
1. his bedroom
Correct. 30% of children ages 2 to 7 have a TV set in their bedroom.
1. his parents’ room
2. the kitchen
Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page: 274
Skill: A
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.9
106.
What has been the conclusion of five decades of research, including more than
300 studies, regarding children watching violence on TV? Watching TV violence ____.
107.
helps to dissipate aggression levels in children
108.
reduces overall aggression in young children
109.
increases children’s aggression
110.
strangely promotes children helping behavior
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 274
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/
% correct 100
a= 0 b= 0 c= 100 d= 0
r = .00
107.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between TV violence and
aggression?
108.
Research has shown that watching aggression on television is only correlated
with aggressive behaviors.
Incorrect. There have been ample research studies that have illustrated a causal
relationship between watching aggressive behaviors and children’s aggression.
1. The research is indecisive because there are too many confounding, conflicting, and
extraneous variables.
2. Researchers have shown that watching aggression on television causes aggressive
behaviors.
Correct. There have been ample research studies that have illustrated a causal
relationship between watching aggressive behaviors and children’s aggression.
1. There has been no research on watching aggression on television and how it relates to
aggressive behaviors.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 274
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Pre 6.3.10
108.
What is the number of commercials—which consist mostly of advertisements for
toys, cereal, candy and fast food—that the average child sees in the United States?
109.
400 per year
110.
4,000 per year
111.
40,000 per year
112.
400,000 per year
Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page: 274
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
109.
At what age do children understand the difference between an advertisement
and an actual program?
110.
3 years
111.
5 years
112.
7 years
113.
9 years
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 274
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: QR 6.3.7
110.
Why is there a growing concern that children are watching television
commercials advertising unhealthy foods?
111.
because of the international epidemic of obesity in children
Correct. Because most of the products children see advertised are unhealthy foods,
concern has grown that TV advertising is one influence behind the growing international
epidemic of obesity in children.
1. because it makes it very difficult for parents to get children to eat their vegetables at
dinner time
Incorrect. Because most of the products children see advertised are unhealthy foods,
concern has grown that TV advertising is one influence behind the growing international
epidemic of obesity in children.
1. because these foods are generally much more expensive than healthy foods
2. because they are not as interested in watching the Veggie Tales show
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 274–275
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.5
111.
You have a 4-year-old daughter who is interested in watching television. What is
your best option?
112.
Watch educational programs with her.
Correct. The best way for young children to watch television is with a parent who can
discuss educational programs with the child.
1. Let her select the programs that she would like to watch. This will help her become more
independent.
Incorrect. The best way for young children to watch television is with a parent who can
discuss educational programs with the child.
1. Allow her to invite her friends to watch television with her.
2. Do not allow her to watch television until she is at least 12 years old.
Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page: 275
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
112.
Which of the following countries/geographical regions have the lowest
percentage of computers within the household?
113.
the United States
114.
Eastern Europe
115.
Latin America
116.
Africa
Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page: 275
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
113.
____.
114.
115.
116.
117.
Boys are ____ than girls to play electronic games and prefer games that involve
more likely; fighting and sports
more likely; adventure and learning
less likely; fighting and sports
less likely; adventure and learning
Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page: 275
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
114.
At what age do children begin to pay more attention to popular music and start to
recognize and prefer the latest “hit songs” of the day?
115.
4 years old
116.
6 years old
117.
8 years old
118.
10 years old
Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page: 275
Skill: F
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Remember
MDL Parallel Question ID: N/A
115.
It is not until early ____ that children first connect musical sounds with specific
emotions.
116.
infancy
117.
toddlerhood
118.
childhood
Correct. It is not until about age 6 that children have a cognitive understanding and
attention to connect music with emotions.
1. teenage years
Incorrect. It is not until about age 6 that children have the cognitive understanding and
attention to connect music with emotions.
Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page: 275
Skill: C
Learning Objective: 6.22
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understanding
MDL Parallel Question ID: Post 6.3.6
Short Answer Questions
116.
Give an example of how a 5-year-old’s inability to self-regulate makes others in
his kindergarten classroom not want to play with him.
Answer: Examples include being very impulsive and insisting that he go first all the time,
calling others names when he doesn’t get his way, and crying any time he gets upset.
Page: 254
Learning Objective: 6.14
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
117.
Describe one way that young children (between ages 3-6) learn their culture’s
principles of moral conduct.
Answer: Examples include modeling, storytelling, and explicit teachings, such as in the
Ten Commandments
Page: 255-256
Learning Objective: 6.15
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
118.
At your second-cousin’s graduation party, you mention to your 4-year-old that
Nick is going to college to become a nurse. She immediately tells you that “boys can’t be
nurses.” Provide one explanation for her belief.
Answer: She may have only seen women depicted as nurses and therefore, her
schema for nurses is limited to females.
Page: 257-258
Learning Objective: 6.16
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
119.
Describe either Locke’s or Rousseau’s beliefs about the nature of children. How
did this belief impact discipline over the following centuries?
Answer: Locke believed that children were born blank slates and therefore could be
shaped by punishing bad behavior and rewarding good behavior. Rousseau believed
that children are born inherently good and therefore should be given as much freedom
as possible. Because neither of these philosophers believed that children were born
evil, physical punishment was seen as unnecessary.
Page: 265
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
120.
Describe two characteristics of children that put them at risk of being abused.
Answer: A difficult temperament and high activity level or aggressiveness put children at
risk of being abused.
Page: 266
Learning Objective: 6.19
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Understand
Essay Questions
121.
Compare and contrast the outcomes for children of authoritative parents versus
those of authoritarian parents based on research with White, middle-class families.
Provide a rationale for why parents’ behavior influenced their children in these ways.
Answer: Children of authoritative parents tend to be independent, socially skilled, selfassured, and creative. Children of authoritarian parents tend to be less confident and
less socially skilled. Boys are more aggressive and girls tend to be unhappy and
anxious.
Page: 260
Learning Objective: 6.17
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
122.
Arnett argues that “the parenting-style model is a cultural model, rooted in
American majority culture, and does not apply well to most other cultures.” Explain what
he means, providing at least one example.
Answer: In other cultures outside the West, it had been assumed that the authoritarian
parenting style was more common than the authoritative style. However, the outcomes
for children in these cultures were not negative, as they tend to be in the West. For
example, in Asian cultures, there is a tradition of filial piety, meaning that children defer
to their parents out of respect; there is no discussion or negotiation. This does not mean
that the discipline is cold. Likewise, in Latino culture, parents and elders are given
respect. Children may perceive this strict parenting style as their parents showing they
care. The same parenting behaviors seem to have different meanings in different
cultures.
Page: 261-265
Learning Objective: 6.18
Bloom’s Taxonomy Level: Apply
MyDevelopmentLab Question Bank
Pre-Test
Pre 6.3.1.
Which of the following describes the event when children focus attention
on managing their emotions?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Effortful control
Internal state
Emotions management
Self-pacing
Answer: a
Page: 254
Pre 6.3.2.
A child’s ability to experience ____ is directly related to his ability to
perspective take and understand the emotions and feelings of others.
1.
2.
3.
4.
empathy
modeling
self-regulation
an external locus of control
Answer: a
Page: 255
Pre 6.3.3.
Which of the following parental approaches is one where parents are
loving and warm toward their children and respond to their children’s needs and
desires?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Authoritative
Authoritarian
Permissive
Disengaged
Answer: a
Page: 259
Pre 6.3.4.
According to the text, filial piety is _____.
1. common in Asian cultures where children are expected to respect, obey, and revere their
parents throughout life
2. when parents show an approach that is characterized by low demandingness and low
responsiveness
3. an emphasis on love, closeness, and mutual obligation within the Latino family
4. a cultural mandate that requires all parents to express high responsiveness and high
demandingness to their children
Answer: a
Page: 261
Pre 6.3.5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
In the United States, what percent of individuals do NOT have a sibling?
20%
15%
25%
30%
Answer: a
Page: 269
Pre 6.3.6.
It is critical to address children who are physically aggressive quickly,
because children who are physically aggressive at the end of early childhood ______.
1. show later aggression in adolescence and adulthood
2. are at risk for abusive behavior by others
3. are more likely to develop schizophrenia and anti-social personality disorder
4. have academic problems in elementary school
Answer: a
Page: 272
Pre 6.3.7.
According to the text there are four major parenting styles. Each one
varies in its degree of parental responsiveness and demandingness. By combining
responsiveness and demandingness, which of the following responses is a typical
permissive parent’s response to a child who only wants to eat have a milk shake for
dinner?
1.
2.
3.
4.
“Whatever, I don’t care. Have what you want.”
“Absolutely not, under no circumstance will I allow that!”
“That’s a good idea. Maybe we can split one?”
“It would be much better to eat a healthy dinner first and have a banana split for dessert
if you are not full.”
Answer: a
Page: 260
Pre 6.3.8.
Your sister has a son in early childhood who has an excessive degree of
self-regulation. She is not quite sure if she should be happy, since she very rarely has
any difficulties, or if she should be concerned for her son. What would you tell her?
1. She should be concerned as over control is associated with depression and anxiety
when he gets older.
2. She has nothing to be concerned about. Over control is associated with extraordinary
academic success.
3. She should not be concerned; he will lighten up on his own soon.
4. She should be glad since a friend of yours has a child who has absolutely no selfregulation.
Answer: a
Page: 254
Pre 6.3.9.
Cameron and Grant are playing with trucks when suddenly Cameron
grabs Ethan’s truck, throws it on the ground, and stomps on it, while yelling at them that
they are smelly, dirty, and trucks are stupid. Cameron is demonstrating ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
hostile aggression
social aggression
internalized aggression
vicious aggression
Answer: a
Page: 272
Pre 6.3.10.
According to the text, which of the following best describes the
relationship between aggression and television violence?
1. Researchers have shown that watching aggression on television causes aggressive
behaviors.
2. Research shows there has been no research on watching aggression on television and
how it relates to aggressive behaviors.
3. The research is indecisive because there are too many confounding, conflicting, and
extraneous variables.
4. Research has shown that watching aggression on television is only slightly correlated
with aggressive behaviors.
Answer: a
Page: 274
Post-Test
Post 6.3.1.
Which of the following is described as when children focus their
attention while managing their emotions?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Effortful control
Emotions management
External regulation
Extraterrestrial force
Answer: a
Page: 254
Post 6.3.2.
____ are defined as the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their
children and their beliefs about these practices.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Parenting styles
Parenting learning strategies
Parent-child practices
Discipline strategies
Answer: a
Page: 259
Post 6.3.3.
children?
1.
2.
3.
4.
From a worldwide average, how long is the span between the birth of
2-4 years
1-2 years
3-5 years
4-6 years
Answer: a
Page: 268
Post 6.3.4.
According to the text, ____ are consistently more ____ aggressive than
girls in earlier childhood and throughout the lifespan.
1.
2.
3.
4.
boys; physically
boys; psychologically
girls; physically
girls; psychologically
Answer: a
Page: 272
Post 6.3.5.
Which of the following is a valid concern regarding the fact that children
are watching commercial advertising that promotes unhealthy foods?
1. Because of the international epidemic of obesity in children.
2. Because it makes it very difficult for parents to get children to eat their vegetables at
dinner time.
3. Because these foods are generally much more expensive than healthy foods.
4. Because they are not as interested in watching the Veggie Tales show.
Answer: a
Page: 274–275
Post 6.3.6.
Based upon what is provided in the text, it is not until early ____ that the
children first connect musical sounds with specific emotions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
childhood
toddlerhood
infancy
teenager years
Answer: a
Page: 275
Post 6.3.7.
Play in early and middle childhood for boys across many cultures, tends
to encompass aggression. According to the text, this type of aggressive play helps to
establish ______
1.
2.
3.
4.
a dominance hierarchy
a range of play of that is considered unacceptable
play boundaries
aggression perimeters
Answer: a
Page: 272
Post 6.3.8.
Regarding the story presented in the text regarding a little boy and his
father who were in a horrific automobile accident. “The father died, but the boy was
rushed to the hospital. As the boy was rushed into surgery, the doctor looked down at
him and said, “I cannot operate on this boy, he is my son!” This story represents the
concept of?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Gender schemas
Gender consistency
Gender roles
Gender identity
Answer: a
Page: 258
Post 6.3.9.
Zachary is the average 5-year-old American child who is watching
television. If he is consistent with the other 30% of American children, which of the
following locations is he watching it in?
1.
2.
3.
4.
his bedroom
the family room
his parent’s room
the kitchen
Answer: a
Page: 274
Post 6.3.10.
Coach Thomas has clear guidelines and rules for his players. He wants
them to try their hardest and to give 100% all the time. But, Coach Thomas also cares
for his players and tends to understand each player’s individual needs. Which of the
following best describes Coach Thomas’ “parenting style”?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Authoritative
Authoritarian
Permissive
Disengaged
Answer: a
Page: 259
Chapter Exam
CE 6.3.1.
____ are examples of “internalizing problems” that result from children
overcontrolling their emotions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Anxiety and depression
Ulcers and other physical problems
Hostile and verbal aggression
Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia
Answer: a
Page: 254
CE 6.3.2.
Which of the following terms refers to an individual’s understanding of
him or herself as being either male or female?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Gender identity
Gender role
Gender constancy
Gender development
Answer: a
Page: 257
CE 6.3.3.
As soon as Spencer started to play patty cake with his classmate Sara,
he was teased and ridiculed by the boys in the class. Spencer quickly learned that patty
cake is a form of play that is reserved for girls and not boys. Spencer’s process of
learning the expectations of males and females is ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
gender socialization
biological construct
sex schemas
sexual-social identity
Answer: a
Page: 257
CE 6.3.4.
____ is defined as the practices that parents exhibit in relation to their
children and their beliefs about these practices.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Parenting styles
Discipline strategies
Parenting learning strategies
Dr. Spock’s parenting theory
Answer: a
Page: 259
CE 6.3.5.
In regards to a parental approach, responsiveness is also known as
____; whereas, demandingness is also known as ____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
warmth, control
control, warmth
limitations, empathy
empathy, limitations
Answer: a
Page: 259
CE 6.3.6.
Which of the following is a distinct characteristic of parents who hold an
authoritative approach?
1.
2.
3.
4.
They explain the reasons for their rules and expectations to their children.
They are quite passive in their responding.
They do not care whatsoever what their children do.
They respond with anger to questions from their children.
Answer: a
Page: 259
CE 6.3.7.
It is known that parents have a significant effect on their children, but
children also have an effect on their parents; this dynamic between parent and child is
known as _____.
1.
2.
3.
4.
reciprocal or bidirectional effects
one-way or unilateral relationship effects
hypothetical or theoretical relationship
exponential or quadrupling relationship
Answer: a
Page: 261
CE 6.3.8.
According to the text, which of the following is a common characteristic
for both traditional Latin American and Asian families?
1. Both groups hold respect and obedience for parents in high regard
2. In both groups, the female is the head of the household
3. Both groups have an overwhelmingly large number of parents who hold an indulgent
parental approach
4. Within both groups, children are taught to be autonomous, to stand on their own two
feet, and put their own best interests before the needs of the family
Answer: a
Page: 261–262
CE 6.3.9.
According to the text it is inaccurate to describe parents from nonWestern cultures as “authoritarian” because ______.
1. each of these subcultural groups has its own distinctive form of warmth for their children
2. parenting style has no cultural boundaries so an accurate picture cannot be taken
3. the parents of these subcultural groups are more likely to be indulgent, having both low
responsiveness and low demandingness
4. there are too few of these subcultural groups to develop an accurate picture of the
parenting styles that these parents possess
Answer: a
Page: 262
CE 6.3.10.
You have a young child in your classroom who has behavioral problems.
You have tried many different strategies, unsuccessfully, to reduce his number of
inappropriate behaviors. Only one of those strategies seems to work; the strategy that
requires him to sit still in a designated place for a brief period. What strategy is it?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Time out
Token economy
Shaping
Corporal punishment
Answer: a
Page: 263
CE 6.3.11.
Your coworker has a son who just turned five whom she disciplines with
physical punishment frequently and as a first resort. It appears to her that she is not
being very effective in her discipline style and asks you your opinion regarding physical
punishment. Citing the text, you tell her that longitudinal research has discovered that
physical punishment is frequently associated with ______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
spousal abuse in adulthood
strong will and character in adulthood
development of self-control and educational attainment in adulthood
severe psychological problems, including psychosis
Answer: a
Page: 264
CE 6.3.12.
More common among girls, this type of aggression involves damaging
another person’s reputation among peers through exclusion or malicious gossip.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Verbal or relational aggression
Hostile or physical aggression
Verbal aggression
Instrumental aggression
Answer: a
Page: 273
CE 6.3.13.
Your nephew has always been “strong willed” and has closer to a difficult
personality. He is now in early childhood and is very aggressive in most things that he
does. Your brother is concerned and asks you what your thoughts are. You tell him that
_____.
1. he should be concerned, aggressive behavior in early childhood is a predictor of
aggression in adolescence and adulthood
2. he should not be concerned, most children in early childhood go through this phase and
will eventually stop being aggressive
3. he should be concerned, but there is nothing that he can do
4. as it turns out, very aggressive children during early childhood perform at superior levels
in school
Answer: a
Page: 272
CE 6.3.14.
According to the text, the average American child watches ____ hours of
television per day.
1.
2.
3.
4.
3
2
4
5
Answer: a
Page: 274
Quick Review
QR 6.3.1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
____ is when a child focuses their attention on managing their emotions.
Effortful control
External regulation
Attention control
Limbic focus
Answer: a
Page: 254
QR 6.3.2.
According to modeling theory, after children observe others’ behaviors
being rewarded or punished they often conclude:
1.
2.
3.
4.
what their culture’s principles of moral conduct are.
that sensitivity and empathy can be expressed in covert ways.
what members of a particular culture should not be doing.
what they need to do to be successful members of their societies.
Answer: a
Page: 256
QR 6.3.3.
This parenting style is associated with negative side effects such as,
boys who are more often aggressive and unruly and girls who are more often anxious
and unhappy.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Authoritarian
Authoritative
Disengaged
Laissez-faire
Answer: a
Page: 260
QR 6.3.4.
Whiting and Edwards (1988) found the response of ____as a universal
reaction for older siblings, as they experience the birth of their younger sibling.
1.
2.
3.
4.
jealousy
fear
great enthusiasm
shock
Answer: a
Page: 268
QR 6.3.6.
childhood.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Emotional self-regulation is considered to be ____ during early
one of the major developmental tasks
not possible until the child completely understands the concept of “self”
not likely due to the immature development of the frontal lobe areas
very unlikely to be accomplished
Answer: a
Page: 254
QR 6.3.7.
In regards to television media, at what age do most children understand
the difference between an advertisement and an actual program?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Five years
Three years
Seven years
Nine years
Answer: a
Page: 274
QR 6.3.8.
According to the text, children who have problems controlling their
emotions are at risk for?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Aggression and conflict in early childhood and beyond.
Ulcers and other physical problems.
A diagnosis of schizophrenia or borderline personality disorder.
Being deemed the class clown and becoming a social isolate.
Answer: a
Page: 254
QR 6.3.9.
Based upon what is described in the text, ____ is similar to when boys
insist on doing things that are “boy’s things” and avoid doing things that “girls do”.
1.
2.
3.
4.
gender socialization
gender constancy
self-socialization
self-identification
Answer: a
Page: 258
QR 6.3.10.
An interesting aspect of parenting is that not only do parents influence
their children, their children also influence them. Based upon what is described in the
text, which of the following is this principle?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Reciprocal or bidirectional effects
Parent-child/child-parent directionality
Passive-aggressive characteristics
Unilateral approach
Answer: a
Page: 261
Video Guide Questions
Short Answer Questions
1. Why is mandatory reporting so important?
Answer: Mandatory reporting is very important because it deals with the safety of
children. Child care workers and other professionals who deal with children are
mandated to report any suspected abuse or neglect situations in families they interact
with professionally.
2. The narrator of this video lists several occupations that are held to legal standards for
mandatory reporting. Do you feel that any occupation is missing from the list? Why or
why not?
Answer: Answers will vary.
3. If you were in an occupation that held you to legal mandatory reporting and you were
faced with a child that you felt might be being psychologically abused, what are some
ways you might try to inquire about the abuse?
Answer: Answers will vary.
Multiple Choice Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Training in the mandatory reporting of child abuse is required of _________.
professional staff and directors at all childcare facilities, but not hourly childcare workers
all hourly childcare workers but not child care program administrators
all workers in childcare centers that accept federal funds, but not privately funded
centers
1. all childcare workers and administrators in all child care centers
Answer: D
2. Dr. Thomas notes that the most common signs of child abuse she sees in her practice
she sees in her practice are _________.
3. brain injury, as evidenced by slowed growth and mental development
4. slap, strap, or burn marks
5. excessive anxiety or fearfulness
6. psychological trauma, usually evidence in shyness
Answer: B
3. Do physicians have the same reporting requirements in suspected cases of child abuse
as do teachers and childcare workers?
4. yes
5. no; teachers do not have to report suspected cases, but are encouraged to do so
6. no; physicians must report suspected cases to the Department of Human Services,
whereas teachers must report to Child Protection Services
1. no; physicians must immediately hospitalize a child who is suspected of being abused so
the child can be carefully evaluated away from the suspected abuser
Answer: C
Practice Test Questions from the Textbook
1. Which of the following best describes the physical changes that take place during early
childhood?
2. Most children lose their baby fat and become more like adults in terms of their body
proportions.
3. Physical development occurs at a more rapid pace than it did in the first 3 years.
4. Girls are slightly taller and heavier than boys.
5. Cross-cultural comparisons have shown that only genetics plays a role in individual
differences in height and weight.
ANS: A (L.O. 6.1) p. 231
2. The limited memory for personal events and experiences prior to age 5 is probably due
to incomplete myelination of the
3. reticular formation.
4. corpus callosum.
5. cerebellum.
6. hippocampus.
ANS: D (L.O. 6.2) p. 233
% correct 67
a= 0 b= 6 c= 17 d= 67
r = .58
3. Which of the following is the most common nutritional problem among young children in
the United States?
4. marasmus
5. anemia
6. calcium deficiency
7. protein deficiency
ANS: C (L.O. 6.3) p. 234
4. How does motor development change between ages 3–6?
5. Children’s fine motor skills become refined, but their gross motor skills remain the same
as they were in toddlerhood.
6. Children’s fine motor skills have been found to develop at the same rate all over the
world.
7. Children develop the same motor skills at the same pace, regardless of gender.
8. Fine motor skill development allows children to become more independent by doing
things such as dressing and feeding themselves.
ANS: D (L. O. 6.4) p. 237
5. Children who are left-handed
6. will be more likely to learn to be right-handed in an Asian or African culture than in the
United States.
7. likely first developed this tendency during the preschool years.
8. are often praised for their uniqueness in non-Western cultures.
9. will always have a left-handed twin if they are monozygotic (MZ) twins.
ANS: A (L.O. 6.5) p. 238
6. A 5-year-old child draws a yellow sun in the upper corner of her paper complete with a
smiley face and sunglasses. This is an example of
7. sensorimotor thought.
8. animism.
9. gross motor skill refinement.
10. centered thinking.
ANS: B (L.O. 6.6) p. 242
7. Which of the following is true regarding theory of mind?
8. Children show a decrease in this ability from 4 to 6 years of age because they are
becoming more independent.
9. It develops the same way in all cultures with spoken language.
10. It begins to develop, in rudimentary form, some time in infancy.
11. A child who demonstrates theory of mind is not yet able to think about thinking.
ANS: C (L.O. 6.7) p. 244
8. Cultural learning skills, such as learning to set the table in a developed country or to help
prepare food in a traditional culture,
9. develop as part of a social and cultural process, according to Vygotsky.
10. must be learned in the sensorimotor stage first or they never fully develop.
11. cannot be appropriately acquired until early adolescence.
12. usually develop best if they take place in a formal setting.
ANS: A (L. O. 6.8) p. 245
9. As a parent of a 3-year-old you have visited several preschool programs to determine
the one that will provide the highest quality experience. Which of the following should
NOT be heavily weighted in your decision about which preschool to pick?
10. whether there is a small class size.
11. whether the teachers have been formally trained and have educational credentials.
12. whether they are making good use of time by providing worksheets to practice numbers
and letters.
13. whether the teachers spend a lot of time interacting with the children rather than with
each other.
ANS: C (L. O. 6.9) p. 246
In Japan
learning academic skills is the number one goal of having children attend preschool.
preschool is mainly a time for learning social skills.
parents and preschool teachers list the same top reasons for young children to attend
preschool as do their counterparts in the United States.
14. individuality is stressed from the time children enter preschool as a way to encourage
children to reach their full potential.
10.
11.
12.
13.
ANS: B (L.O. 6.10) p. 248
11. Compared to a comparison group of children with low SES who did not attend Head
Start, those children who did
12. were less likely to be placed in special education classes.
13. improved their academic performance, but were still more likely to repeat at least two
grades.
14. showed a boost in IQ and achievement that lasted throughout their school years.
15. showed no differences in academic performance and success.
ANS: A (L.O. 6.11) p. 249
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Young children’s use of grammar
is entirely dependant on formal instruction in preschool.
develops more quickly in traditional cultures.
develops simply by hearing and using the language in daily interactions.
is mostly incorrect until the age of 6.
ANS: C (L.O. 6.12) p. 251
% correct 83
a= 6 b= 0 c= 83 d= 0
r = .72
13. When a 4-year-old uses infant-directed speech when talking to her neighbor’s new baby,
this demonstrates
14. a sensitive period.
15. fast mapping.
16. classification.
17. pragmatics.
ANS: D (L.O. 6.13) p. 251
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
A key reason why emotional outbursts decline in early childhood is that children
learn strategies for regulating their emotions, in a practice known as effortful control.
have a more sophisticated theory of mind at this age.
at this age are no longer at risk for externalizing problems.
have learned the skill of overcontrolling their emotions.
ANS: A (L.O. 6.14) p. 254
% correct 67
a= 67 b= 17 c= 0 d= 6
r = .52
15. Which of the following statements accurately describes moral development in early
childhood?
16. Children at this age are not yet able to experience empathy.
17. Socioemotional emotions such as shame and pride first appear.
18. Perspective taking and being able to understand how others think and feel make
children more empathic at this age.
19. Young children inherently know the rules and expectations of their culture without
needing to be taught.
ANS: C (L.O. 6.15) p. 255
16. The way we organize and process information in terms of gender-based categories is
referred to as
17. gender identity.
18. gender constancy.
19. self-socialization.
20. gender schemas.
ANS: D (L. O. 6.16) p. 258
17. Research on parenting has found that
18. the two main dimensions of parenting are demandingness and strictness.
19. children of permissive parents tend to do better in school than children of other parenting
styles because they learn to think for themselves.
20. there are bidirectional effects between parents and their children.
21. the outcomes for children of authoritative parents are virtually identical to outcomes for
children of permissive parents.
ANS: C (L.O. 6.17) p. 261
Which of the following is the most accurate statement based on existing research?
The typical parenting style in non-Western cultures is authoritarian.
The American model of parenting does not apply well in other cultures.
Providing explanations to their children is most common among non-Western parents
who spend more time with their children than do American parents.
22. Permissive parenting would be most likely in cultures that have a tradition of filial piety.
18.
19.
20.
21.
ANS: B (L.O. 6.18) p. 262
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
The use of shame as a form of discipline
has resulted in positive outcomes in both the United States and Finland.
is referred to as psychological control by American researchers.
is associated with high rates of behavior problems in Japanese children.
is universally accepted as the best method of discipline because it does not include
physical punishment.
ANS: B (L.O. 6.19) p. 263
20. Which of the following is true regarding siblings?
21. A gap of 4–8 years between children is common in many cultures across the world.
22. “Only children” are maladjusted, meaning they are more prone to depression behavior
disorders.
23. Jealousy is a common response to the birth of a younger sibling across cultures.
24. Research has shown that young children with older siblings have a more advanced
theory of mind than those who are only children.
ANS: C (L.O. 6.20) p. 263
21. If you were a researcher observing 5-year-old children on a playground during
kindergarten recess in the United States, what would you be most likely to observe?
22. boys playing with children from other kindergarten classes rather than older boys
23. girls playing kickball with the boys (with the girls serving as referees to be sure the boys
follow the rules)
24. boys engaging in cooperative, fantasy play
25. the boys challenging the girls to a wrestling match
ANS: A (L.O. 6.21) p. 270
Watching TV during young childhood
has not been associated with any positive effects on development.
is a popular leisure activity all over the world.
has been correlated with aggressive thoughts and behaviors, but only among males who
were already extremely aggressive before viewing.
26. has not been studied experimentally, therefore no conclusions about causation can be
made.
22.
23.
24.
25.
ANS: B (L.O. 6.22) p. 274
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