Test Bank Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World, 10th Edition By Jeffrey S. Nevid

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chapter 4 Stress-Related Disorders
Multiple-Choice Questions
1. A psychologist who is studying the effects of stress on physical health is most
likely a ______.
a.
health
psychologist
psychologist
c.
b.
psychologist
evolutionary
d.
psychiatrist
positive
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 136
Topic: Introduction
Learning Objective: Introduction
Skill: Factual
1. Psychologists who study the interrelationships between psychological factors and
physical well-being are called ______.
a.
positive
psychologists
psychologists
c.
b.
health
evolutionary
psychologists
oimmunologists
d.
psychoneur
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 136
Topic: Introduction
Learning Objective: Introduction
Skill: Factual
1. Which of the following refers to a pressure or demand that is placed on an
organism to adapt?
a.
b.
challenge
Eustress
c.
Situational stimulus
Immunological
d.
stress
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 136
Topic: Introduction
Learning Objective: Introduction
Skill: Factual
1. The term_________ refers to a state of physical or mental pain or
suffering.
a.
mourning
c.
distress
b.
eustress
d.
stress
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 136
Topic: Introduction
Learning Objective: Introduction
Skill: Factual
1. The term used to describe something that is a source of stress is
______.
a.
antigen
n antagonist
an
c.
a
b.
a
stressor
an initiating event
d.
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 136
Topic: Introduction
Learning Objective: Introduction
Skill: Factual
1. Jody is suffering from severe tension headaches and anxiety due to an extremely
overwhelming schedule. The most precise term for Jody’s physical and emotional
reaction is ______.
a.
c.
eustress
stress
d.
distress
stressors
b.
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 136
Topic: Introduction
Learning Objective: Introduction
Skill: Applied
1. According to a recent nationwide study by the American Psychological
Association, _______percent of Americans polled reported that their level of
stress had increased during the preceding five years (American Psychological
Association, 2007a, 2007b, 2010).
a.
b.
18
c.
68
50
d.
93
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 137
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The field of ______ studies the relationship between stress and the workings of
the immune system.
a.
psychoendocrinology
psychoneuroimmunology
d.
c.
b.
neuropsychology
psychopathology
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 137
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Which bodily system that releases hormones plays a key role in the physical
reaction to stress?
a.
c.
Endocrine
Circulatory
b.
d.
Excretory
Musculoskeletal
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 138
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The ______ system is a system of ductless glands that secrete hormones
directly into the bloodstream.
a.
d.
immune
c.
endocrine
b.
cardiovascular
respiratory
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The endocrine glands release ______ directly into the
bloodstream.
Page: 138
a.
c.
acetylcholine
antigens
b.
d.
antibodies
hormones
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 138
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. During the stress response, the hypothalamus releases a hormone that
2.
3.
4.
5.
stimulates the nearby pituitary gland to secrete ___________.
human growth hormone
testosterone
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
cortisol
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Cortisol and cortisone are ______.
a.
leukocytes
c.
androgens
Page: 138
b.
hemoglobin
components of
d.
corticosteroids
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 138
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. When you are under stress, the ______ releases a hormone that arouses the
pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone, or
ACTH.
a.
adrenal
medulla
d.
c.
kidney
b.
hypothalamus
adrenal gland
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 138
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Hormones that boost resistance to stress, foster muscle development, induce the
liver to release sugar, and help the body defend against allergic reactions and
inflammation are ______.
a.
cortical
steroids
c.
b.
d.
norepinephrines
epinephrines
acetylcholines
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Adrenaline is synonymous with ______.
a.
c.
cortisol
ACTH
b.
d.
cortisone
epinephrine
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 138
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Which branch of the autonomic nervous system is aroused to deal with
threat?
a.
c.
Voluntary
Parasympathetic
b.
d.
Sympathetic
Involuntary
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Which statement is most accurate about the relationship of stress and
health?
a.
Prolonged stress can damage multiple bodily
b.
The immune system is the only bodily system affected by prolonged
systems.
stress.
c.
Short-term significant stress is just as damaging as longer term
stress.
d.
Stress can lead to emotional problems and indirectly to health
problems but does not
directly lead to health problems.
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Page: 139
Skill: Factual
1. The ______ system is the body’s system of defense against disease.
a.
c.
autonomic
immune
b.
d.
nervous
respiratory
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 138
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The body’s foot soldiers in the fight against disease are known as ______.
a.
c.
antigens
leukocytes
d.
microbes
red blood cells
b.
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
Page: 138
1. Leukocytes are
______.
a.
white blood
cells
c.
b.
viruses
red blood
cells
d.
bacteria
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 138
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Which of the following is a pathogen?
a.
White blood
cells
cells
c.
b.
d.
Worn-out body
Leukocytes
Corticosteroids
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
Page: 139
1. Surface fragments on pathogens that cause leukocytes to produce antibodies to
destroy them are called ______.
a.
c.
antigens
endocrines
b.
d.
lymphocytes
platelets
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Leukocytes recognize invading pathogens by their ____________.
a.
sickle shape
b.
protein transport
c.
surface fragments
d.
ability to attach to red blood cells
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
Page: 139
1. A lymphocyte is a type of ______.
a.
c.
pathogen
platelet
b.
d.
leukocyte
antigen
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. _________ are a special type of “reserve” lymphocyte that can remain in the
bloodstream for years and form the basis for a quick immune response to an
invader the second time around.
a.
Reserve
lymphocytes
lymphocytes
c.
b.
d.
Memory
Antigens
Antibodies
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
Page: 139
1. Barbara has continuous colds during the winter. A psychoneuroimmunologist
would contend that Barbara ______.
a.
b.
has not been keeping herself warm enough
has not been absorbing enough Vitamin C and sunshine
c.
has been too relaxed to activate her stress-combating white blood
d.
may have a weakened immune system due to prolonged stress
cells
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 137
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Applied
1. Which of the following statements is true?
a.
Occasional mild stress actually strengthens the body’s
immune system.
b.
of memory lymphocytes.
Persistent exposure to stress improves the effectiveness
c.
Exposure to stress reduces symptoms associated with
the body’s reaction to allergens.
d.
Even relatively brief periods of stress can weaken the body’s immune system.
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Scientists recently discovered that chronic stress increases levels of ______,
which may contribute to the physical health problems associated with
psychological stress.
.
a.
inflammation
hair growth
b.
functioning
c
immune system
d.
positive moods
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Prolonged stress has been linked to____________, which may contribute to
asthma, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease.
a.
inflammation
increased immune system functioning
c.
b.
ovulation
d. leukocyte production
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The harmful effects of stress on the immune system may be moderated by
______.
a.
living
alone
l
c.
b.
busy
trave
work that keeps you very
d.
social support
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 139
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Conceptual
1. Lance is a dental student who studies hard in his single-person studio apartment.
He has not developed any friendships in dental school. He has gotten numerous
colds. Which recommendation would most likely help Lance to protect his
immune system?
a.
friendships
apartment
Develop
b.
studying
school
Cut down on
c.
d.
Move to a larger
Drop out of dental
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Applied
1. Much of the research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology is ______.
a.
c.
experimental
correlational
b.
based on case
studies
d.
anecdotal
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Recent research suggests that aside from social support, ______ may boost
psychological and physical well-being.
a.
events
writing about stressful
c.
b.
vacations
taking regular
d.
ANSWER: A
moving to a rural area
breaking up unhealthy relationships
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Why is terrorism-related trauma a source of chronic stress?
Terrorism is most likely never to occur again.
Terrorism looms as a constant threat to our safety.
Most people don’t worry about terrorism.
The likelihood of an act of terrorism to occur again is very small.
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 140
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Evidence gathered since the 9/11 attack showed which of the following helped
buffer the effects of stress?
a.
Living near a military base
b.
Experiencing positive emotions
c.
Spending a great deal of time watching coverage of the
d.
Avoiding others and cutting off social ties
events on TV
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Your body has ______ of white blood cells fighting off microbes.
a.
thousands
c.
billions
b.
millions
d.
17
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The general adaptation syndrome is based on the work of ______.
a.
Lawrence
Frank
Sacks
c.
b.
Oliver
Peter
Kubiovsky
Selye
d.
ANSWER: D
Hans
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. The body’s three-stage physiological reaction to stress is called the
______.
a.
Stockholm
syndrome
syndrome
c.
b.
general adaptation
phi
phenomenon
syndrome
d.
Korsakoff
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Selye figured out that our body responds_________ to various kinds of
2.
3.
4.
5.
unpleasant stressors.
in a similar manner
in different response patterns
with varying degrees of intensity
in consistently different
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Conceptual
1. The alarm reaction mobilizes the body for ______.
a.
c.
d.
defense
threat
b.
illness
invasion
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. The alarm reaction is initiated by the brain and the ______.
a.
system
system
b.
d.
central nervous
c.
voluntary nervous system
parasympathetic nervous
sympathetic nervous system
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. The “fight-or-flight” response pattern was first described by ______.
a.
Clifford
Beers
b.
c.
Wilhelm Wundt
d.
Walter Cannon
William
James
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. The “fight-or-flight” reaction characterizes the ______ stage of the general
adaptation syndrome.
a.
alarm
reaction
c.
b.
d.
resistance
anxiety
exhaustion
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Conceptual
1. During the alarm reaction stage, the ______ pump(s) out stress hormones.
a.
c.
thalamus
adrenal glands
b.
parietal
lobe
ory system
d.
circulat
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Which of the following changes in the body occurs during the alarm reaction
stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome?
a.
Corticosteroids are
c.
Heart rate decreases
b.
Muscles
released
relax
decreases
d.
Respiration
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. During the alarm reaction stage of Selye’s GAS, which of the following changes
in the body occurs?
a.
multiply
b.
Bone cells begin to rapidly
c.
Heart rate increases
Muscles begin to
atrophy
decreases
d.
Respiration
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Julia is walking through the forest when she encounters a bear. Her body enters
the alarm reaction stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). Which
of the following is most likely occurring in her body?
a.
Blood circulation is
c.
Heart rate is decreasing
b.
Muscles are
slowing
tensing
ANSWER: B
d.
Digestion is increasing
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Applied
1. During the alarm reaction stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome,
_________.
a.
digestion is
inhibited
stop
c.
b.
heart contractions
muscles tend to
relax
decrease
d.
respiration tends to
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Thomas has just gotten into a fight with a bully and sustained a cut over his eye.
This just happened and he is in the alarm reaction stage of Selye’s General
Adaptation Syndrome. Which of the following changes in the body that occurs
during this stage is most likely to help him with specific regard to the cut over his
eye?
a.
relax
drops
Muscles
c.
Blood pressure
b.
increased
d.
Blood-clotting ability is
Respiration decreases
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Which of the following is the adaptation stage of the general adaptation
syndrome?
a.
Alarm
reaction
c.
b.
d.
Resistance
Anxiety
Exhaustion
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. The proper sequence of stages in the general adaptation syndrome are
______.
a.
alarm reaction, exhaustion, resistance
b.
resistance, alarm reaction, exhaustion
c.
alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion
d.
resistance, exhaustion, alarm reaction
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Which of the following does the American Psychological Association suggest for
coping with traumatic experiences?
d.
a.
Try to adjust as soon as possible.
b.
Communicate your experience.
c.
Make major life decisions during this time.
Avoid exercise and your regular routines.
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
Page: 142
1. In the GAS, the body tries to renew spent energy and repair damage during the
______ stage.
a.
alarm
reaction
c. resistance
b.
arousal
d. exhaustion
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. The ______ nervous system dominates the exhaustion stage.
c.
a.
parasympathetic
peripheral
b.
d.
sympathetic
voluntary
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
Page: 141
1. If a source of stress is unrelenting and enduring, Selye believed that we would
develop ______.
a.
a nervous
breakdown
c.
b.
burnout and meltdown
chronic
resistance
s of adaptation
d.
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. The immune system is weakened by continuous secretion of ______.
a.
c.
saliva
gastric juices
b.
d.
serotonin
cortical steroids
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
Page: 141
disease
1. As cited within your text, the American Psychological Association has at least
________ suggestion(s) for coping with traumatic experiences.
d.
a.
one
b.
two
c.
four
eight
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 142
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Life changes are sources of stress ______.
a.
only when they are negative changes
b.
only when they are unexpected or involve some sort of
c.
because they force us to adjust
d.
because they are emotionally upsetting
loss
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.3
Page: 143
Skill: Conceptual
1. Research shows that people who experience greater numbers of life changes are
______ likely to suffer from psychological problems and ______ likely to suffer
from physical health problems.
a.
less,
less
re, less
b.
c.
mo
d.
mo
less,
more
re, more
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 143
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.3
Skill: Factual
1. ______ life changes can be stressful.
a.
Neither positive nor
c.
Only negative
b.
Only
negative
positive
and negative
d.
Both positive
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic: Effects of Stress
Page: 143
Learning Objective: 4.3
Skill: Factual
1. Getting married is a stressful life change that is ____________.
a.
negative
neither positive nor
c.
only negative
b.
only
positive
endent upon the persons getting married
d.
dep
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 143
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.3
Skill: Factual
1. The process of adaptation by which immigrants, native groups, and ethnic
minorities adjust to the new culture through making behavioral and attitudinal
changes is called ______.
a.
c.
d.
assimilation
acculturation
b.
immersement
appeasement
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Page: 143
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Pressure that results from the demands placed on immigrant, native, and ethnic
minority groups to adjust to life in the mainstream culture is called___________.
a.
acculturative adaptation
b.
bicultural adaptation
c.
acculturative stress
d.
bicultural stress
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 143
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Which of the following is a one of the general theories about the relationship
between acculturation and psychological adjustment presented in your
text?
a.
Melting-pot theory
b.
Adaptation theory
c.
Immigrant adjustment theory
d.
Assimilation theory
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 143
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. According to research (Caetano, 1987) highly acculturated Hispanic American
women are more likely than relatively unacculturated Hispanic American women
to___________.
a.
remain single
b.
avoid drinking and smoking
c.
become heavy drinkers
d.
be victims of domestic violence
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Conceptual
1. The melting-pot theory holds that ______.
a.
immigrants can never truly acculturate
b.
immigrants themselves can never truly acculturate but
c.
acculturation should be resisted until the third generation
their children can
after immigration
d.
acculturation helps people adjust to the host culture
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 143
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. According to the melting pot theory, Hispanic Americans’ adjustment would
improve by ______.
a.
learning English
b.
saving money for their children’s education
c.
moving where there are many other Hispanic Americans
d.
maintaining close contact with relatives and friends in their
native countries
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 144
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Applied
1. The theory that psychosocial adjustment for immigrants is aided by identification
with both the traditional and host cultures is called the ______ theory.
a.
melting
pot
ral
c.
b.
d.
bicultu
multicultural
immersion
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 144
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. According to the bicultural theory, immigrants will adjust better if they
______.
a.
replace their ethnic identity and traditional values with those of the new culture
b.
learn the new culture’s language but otherwise resist
c.
maintain their original culture while adapting to the new
d.
maintain their original language but otherwise adapt to the
assimilation
culture
new culture
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Conceptual
Page: 144
1. Highly acculturated adolescent Hispanic women have been found to be more
likely to ______.
a.
resist speaking Spanish
c.
cook only American
foods
b.
develop eating disorders
increased involvement in sexual intercourse
d.
show an
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. In Latin American cultures, compared to women, men tend to drink ______
alcohol compared to female Latin Americans.
a.
much
less
tly more
c.
b.
sligh
slightly
less
more
d.
much
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Page: 145
Skill: Factual
1. Which of the following is true of Charles Negy’s research of Latinos in the United
States?
a.
Latinos greatly varied in their degree of acculturation to the U.S. culture.
b.
The longer Latinos lived in the U.S, the less acculturated they tended to be.
c. Scores of more acculturated Mexican-Americans were very different to nonHispanic whites on standardized personality tests.
d. Mexican couples reported less verbal and/or physical aggression in their
relationships than did Mexican-American couples.
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. In Latino adolescents, higher levels of acculturation are also linked to increased
risk of__________.
a. gambling
b.
c.
smoking
social
anxiety
d.
depression
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Page: 145
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. In Latino adolescents, higher levels of acculturation are also linked to increased
risk of__________.
a. gambling
b.
c.
eating disorders
social
anxiety
d.
depression
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. According to research presented in the text, for Latina teens, acculturation makes
them more vulnerable to accepting and striving towards the demands of
contemporary American ________.
a.
cultural trend of casual sexual relationships
b.
view that women should be assertive
c.
ideal of the slender woman
d.
model of women as career-oriented
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3):3
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Compared to less acculturated Hispanic American high school girls, more
acculturated girls
were more likely to ______.
a.
show indications of having an eating disorder c.
b.
attend college
give up their
religion
d.
use
drugs
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Increased bicultural adaptation among Mexican American elders ______.
a.
created conflicts between spouses
b.
accelerated decisions to retire
c.
decreased likelihood of depression
d.
resulted in rejection by relatives still in Mexico
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. In a study of Mexican American elders, it was found that those who had the
highest levels of depression were ______.
a.
moderately
acculturated
c.
b.
highly acculturated
minimally
acculturated
d.
bicultural
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Low levels of acculturation among Mexican American immigrants are ______
socioeconomic status.
a.
not related
to
fluctuating
c.
b.
related to
related to
high
d.
ANSWER: D
related to low
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Maria is a highly acculturated third-generation Mexican American teenager.
Which behavior is most likely to be adopted by Maria?
a.
intercourse
b.
Avoiding sexual
c.
Being concerned about fitness
Improved subjective body image
d.
Disturbed eating
behaviors
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Applied
1. It has been reported in a study that Mexican Americans who were more proficient
in English generally had ______________ than did their less English-proficient
counterparts.
a.
more marital discord
b.
fewer signs of depression and anxiety
c.
stronger relationships with their country of origin
d.
more signs of psychological distress
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. In a northern California sample, research found better mental health among
Mexican immigrants than among ______.
a.
Korean immigrants
b.
Mexican Americans born in the United States
c.
homosexuals
d.
African Americans
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. It appears that “Americanization” of Mexican American immigrants may have a
______
effect on mental health and retention of cultural traditions may have a
______ effect.
a.
damaging
damaging
damaging;
c.
buffering;
b.
damaging;
buffering
d.
buffering; buffering
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Ethnic minority children with a high ethic identity are more likely to experience
______.
a.
higher self-esteem
b.
more conflicts with Anglo Americans
c.
academic problem
d.
loneliness
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Kim is an Asian immigrant living in San Francisco. She is most likely to
experience
a.
emotional problems if ______.
her parents are rich
b.
her parents push her too hard academically
c.
she is alienated from both of her cultures
d.
she is an only child
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Applied
1. Wives in ______ acculturated Mexican American couples report greater marital
distress than those in ______ acculturated couples.
a.
b.
wealthier; poorer
first generation; third generation
c.
d.
less; more
more; less
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. In a 1990 study by Salgado de Snyder, Cervantes, & Padilla, female immigrants
exhibited higher levels of ______ than male immigrants.
a.
socialization
c. depression
b.
tranquilizer addiction
d.
English
usage
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page:
146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. More acculturated Mexican-American college students tend to come from
______ socioeconomic backgrounds.
a.
c.
lower
mixed
b.
d.
moderate
higher
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. The Mexican-American college students who are most likely to experience
suicidal thinking have ______ levels of depression and ______ levels of
acculturation.
a.
low;
low
; high
b.
c.
low
d.
high
high;
low
; high
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. When compared to Mexican couples, Mexican-American couples had ______
egalitarian
relationships and ______ levels of marital satisfaction.
a.
less;
lower
re; lower
b.
c.
mo
d.
mor
less;
higher
e; higher
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
Page: 147
1. More highly acculturated women reported _____ satisfaction with the sexual
component of their relationships than did less acculturated women.
a.
c.
greater
no
b.
about the
same
d.
less
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Ann recognizes her stressors, evaluates them and modifies her reactions to
render them less harmful. She is applying ______
coping.
a.
sensate-focused
b.
emotion-
c.
problem-
focused
focused
d.
intuitive
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Applied
Page: 148
1. In emotion-focused coping, people take ______ measures to reduce the impact
of the stressor.
a.
elf-enhancing
b.
provocative
c.
immediate
d.
enduring
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
1. A coping style that attempts to minimize emotional responsiveness rather than
deal directly with a stressor is known as ______ coping.
a.
c.
rational
sensate-focused
b.
problem-
focused
d.
emotion-focused
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 148
s
1. A coping style that attempts to confront the stressor directly is ______
coping.
a.
c.
rational
sensate-focused
b.
problem-
focused
d.
emotion-focused
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
1. Which of the following is not an example of denying that an illness is present?
a.
Recognizing the seriousness of the illness
b.
Minimizing the emotional distress the illness causes
c.
Misattributing symptoms to other causes
d.
Ignoring threatening information about the illness
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic:Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
Page: 148
1. An example of emotion-focused coping is ______.
a.
obsessing
b.
intellectualizing
c.
d.
rationalizing
denial
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Applied
1. Avoidance and denial are forms of ______.
a.
effective stress coping
b.
emotion-focused coping
c.
problem-focused coping
d.
common coping strategies that recent immigrants from Mexico
employ
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
Page: 148
1. In one study, people with cancer showed greater disease progression if they
maintained ______ style of coping.
a.
aggressive
b.
a problem-focused
c.
an
an intuitive
d.
an avoidant
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page:
148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Wish-fulfillment fantasy is ______.
a.
an effective means of coping with an illness
b.
a strategy that needs to result in real wish-fulfillment
c.
an example of emotion-focused coping
d.
provides alternative plans for dealing with a stressor
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
Page:
1. Informed cardiac patients with a repressive style showed ______ incidence of
medical complications than uninformed patients.
a.
a lower
c.
b.
a similar
d.
an unpredictable
a higher
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Cardiac patients with a(n) ______ style who were informed about their conditions
showed a higher incidence of medical complications than their uninformed
counterparts with the same style.
a.
repressive
b.
obsessive
c.
d.
vigilant
sensitized
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 148
1. Cardiac patients with a repressive style who were informed about their conditions
showed a higher incidence of ______ than uniformed patients with a repressive
style.
a.
spontaneous recovery
c.
anger
b.
medical complications
d.
crying
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Seeking information about an illness through research is an example of ______.
a.
a repressive style
defeating obsessiveness
b.
focused coping
wish-fulfillment fantasy
c.
d.
self-
problem-
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Beliefs in one’s ability to accomplish certain tasks are known as ______.
a.
hardiness
b.
psychological
c.
psychological perseveration
self-efficacy
expectancies
heuristics
d.
self-enhancement
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. In his study with spider-phobic women, Bandura found that stress declines with
our ______.
a.
knowledge about the stressful situation
b.
ability to escape the situation quickly
c.
confidence that we will be able to cope effectively
d.
recognition that we are not alone in dealing with the situation
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 149
1. Max is afraid of dogs. According to Bandura, therapy should help Max to ______.
a.
develop confidence that he can cope with the presence of dogs
b.
learn to devise strategies to avoid dogs
c.
focus on developing a close relationship with another kind of animal
d.
dream about positive interaction with dogs
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Applied
1. The effects of self-efficacy expectancies on buffering stress were first
investigated by ______.
a.
Albert
Ellis
Selye
c.
b.
Hans
Suzanne
Kobasa
d.
Albert Bandura
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 149
1. Epinephrine and norepinephrine make us feel ______.
a.
generally nervous
b.
relaxed
c.
angry
d.
generally
confident
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Lower secretion of stress hormones is associated with ______.
a.
emotion-focused coping
b.
high self-efficacy expectancies
c.
an avoidant or repressive style of coping
d.
ability to effectively utilize the general adaptation syndrome
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 149
1. Psychological hardiness in business executives was investigated by ______.
a.
Mary Ainsworth
c.
Eloise
b.
Janet Rafferty
d.
Suzanne
Ferrer
Kobasa
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. The trait that Kobasa has conceptualized as helping people cope with stress is
______.
a.
self-esteem
b.
spirituality
c.
d.
hardiness
confidence
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. The effects of stress can be moderated or buffered by which of the following?
a. Skepticism
Self-efficacy expectation
c.
b. Work
d.
Relocation to a new community
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. A cluster of stress-buffering traits characterized by commitment, challenge, and
control are known as ______.
a.
hardiness
b.
perseveration
psychological
c.
self-efficacy expectancies
psychological
d.
self-enhancement heuristics
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
1. Which of the following is a trait associated with psychologically hardy
executives?
a.
mmitment
b.
adaptability
c.
concreteness
d.
co
detachm
ent
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Scott recently learned that he has a form of treatable cancer. Traits that will help
Scott to cope more effectively with his illness and its treatment are ______.
a.
and denial
hardiness and optimism
b.
intelligence
motivation and
d.
c.
avoidance
assertiveness and ambitiousness
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Applied
1. Which trait is characteristic of psychological hardy people?
Page:
a.
Reliance on wish-fulfillment fantasies.
b.
A preference for active problem-solving approaches.
c. The perception that they have no control over the stressors they face in
life.
d.
A tendency to deny the existence of problems.
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
1. Psychologically hardy people report ______ physical symptoms and ______
depression in the face of stress than non-hardy people.
a.
fewer;
more
less
b.
c.
fewer;
d.
greate
greater;
less
r; more
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 149
1. Locus of control is a construct that was suggested by ______.
a.
Gardner Murphy
c.
b.
Julian Rotter
d.
Gordon
Allport
Hans
Eysenck
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. A limitation of research linking optimism and better health outcome is that it
______.
a.
has not been conducted on children and adolescents
b.
has only involved hospitalized patients
c.
has been correlational
d.
has focused almost exclusively on females
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 149
1. The study of optimism falls within a broader contemporary movement in
psychology known as ______ psychology.
a.
c.
positive
health
b.
wish
fulfillment
d.
evolutionary
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 150
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
1. Researchers found that a broad network of social contacts strengthens
resistance to ______.
a. propaganda
b. distraction
c.
d.
colds
flirting
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 151
1. Recent studies (Hernandez et al., 2015; Jaffe, 2013) suggest a relationship
between greater optimism and___________.
a.
lower rates of heart disease and greater longevity
b.
a lower divorce rate
c.
fewer eating disorders such as obesity and bulimia
d.
athleticism
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 150
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. The Optimism Scale measures ______.
a.
stress levels
c.
career interests and
goals
b.
sexual preference
someone tends to look on the bright side
d.
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 150
whether
1. The particular stressors that African Americans often face, such as racism,
poverty, violence, and overcrowded living conditions, may contribute
to____________.
2. higher rates of anorexia nervosa
3. higher rates of emotion-focused coping
c.
heightened risks of serious health-related
problems
d.
higher rates of bipolar illness
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Compared to Whites, African Americans have a ______ risk of developing
chronic and serious health-related problems but also have a ______ degree of
resiliency in coping with stress.
a.
lower,
low
r, low
b.
c.
highe
d.
highe
higher,
low
r, high
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Page: 151
Skill: Factual
1. Strong social and family networks, coping skills, ethnic identity and self-efficacy
are particular factors that help buffer stress among ______.
a. Euro-Americans
b. Asian Americans
c. Hispanic Americans
d. African Americans
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
1. Stresses imposed by racism or perceived discrimination may be moderated by
______.
a.
intermarriage
b.
moving to a more tolerant community
c.
ethnic pride
d.
ethnic alienation
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Page: 151
Skill: Factual
1. Evidence links____________ among ethnic minorities to poorer mental and
2.
3.
4.
5.
physical health and to higher rates of substance abuse.
perceived discrimination
pride in one’s ethnicity
preference in music
presence of a specific gene
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Calvin, an African American, has a strong sense of ethnic identity. According to
past research, Calvin will most likely have ________.
a.
networks
fewer social
c.
b.
an external locus of control
of a better quality of life
a negative self-image
d.
perceptions
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
Page: 151
1. African Americans and other ethnic minorities who __________may be more
vulnerable to the effects of stress, which in turn may increase risks of physical
and mental health problems.
a.
become alienated from their ethnic identity
b.
are more resilient
c.
are more effective in coping
d.
have stronger ties to their culture
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Adjustment disorders are classified in the DSM-5 within a category of
____________.
a.
Schizophrenic Disorders
b.
Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
c.
Anxiety Disorders
d.
Childhood Disorders
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Page: 151
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. According to the APA, what percentage of people seeking outpatient mental
health services present with a diagnosis of adjustment disorder?
a.
80% to 90%
b.
50% to 70%
c.
30% to 50%
d.
5% to 20%
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. According to DSM-5, a maladaptive reaction to an identified stressor,
characterized by impaired functioning or emotional distress that exceeds what
would normally be expected is a (n)_______.
a.
distress
disorder
disorder
c.
b.
stress
adjustment
disorder
d.
ANSWER: B
anxiety disorder
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. Jean is so sad she is unable to go to work because her husband Bert left her for
another woman a week ago. Prior to Bert’s leaving Jean only missed work if she
was physically ill. A likely diagnosis for Jean is
a(n) ______.
a.
adjustment
disorder
disorder
c.
b.
disorder
marital dissolution
d.
major depressive
bereavement disorder
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Applied
1. Adjustment disorders are among the ______ types of disorders.
distressing
a.
c.
rarest
most severe
b.
most
d.
mildest
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. In the DSM-5, acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder are
classified in which of the following categories?
a.
Schizophrenic Disorders
b.
Substance Abuse Disorders
c.
Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders,
d.
Childhood Disorders
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.7
Skill: Factual
1. If an adjustment disorder lasts for more than six months after the stressor (or its
2.
3.
4.
5.
consequences) has been removed, the diagnosis may_______.
suggest that the client did not present an accurate history
be changed
be associated with an underlying physical malady
motivate the clinician to change his treatment methods to a more suitable course
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 153
Learning Objective: 4.7
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Skill: Factual
1. In order for an adjustment disorder to be diagnosed, a person’s emotional
reaction must ______.
a.
anxiety
coping
b.
relationships
normally
include significant levels of
c.
exceed what would be expected with normal
not involve any loss of
d.
equal the expected response for coping
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 153
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.7
Skill: Conceptual
1. Which of the following is a specific type of adjustment disorder found in the DSM-
5?
a.
Adjustment disorder with agitation
b.
Adjustment disorder with psychomotor disturbance
c.
Adjustment disorder with anhedonia
d.
Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.7
Skill: Factual
1. Danny, a first semester college freshman referred to the college counseling
center. He has recently begun spray painting obscenities on the student center
bathroom walls. Several weeks ago, Danny’s longtime girlfriend, who attends
college in a neighboring state, broke up with him. Danny does not present in the
interview with emotional distress. He has no history of psychological problems
and, until his recent vandalism activities, was considered a peaceful and lawabiding member of the college community. Based on the aforementioned history,
which of the following diagnoses would a therapist would most likely diagnose
Danny with?
a.
Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct
b.
Adjustment disorder with anxiety
c.
Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood
d.
Adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotion and conduct
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.7
Skill: Applied
Page: 152
1. Abigail’s 18-year-old son has left home for the first time and now serving in the
Army. Since her son’s departure, Abigail has been experiencing uncontrolled
crying episodes and loneliness. Based on this information, a clinician might
diagnose Abigail with a (n)
a.
Acute Stress Disorder
b.
Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood
c.
Adjustment disorder with depressed mood
d.
Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.7
Skill: Applied
1. Randy’s father recently died in an automobile accident. Since his father’s death,
Randy has appeared emotionally unchanged but is now frequently truant from
school, engages in reckless driving, and fights with other teens. A suitable
diagnosis for Randy might be a (n) ___________.
a.
adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotion and conduct
b.
adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood
c.
adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct
d.
adjustment disorder unspecified
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.7
Skill: Applied
1. A maladaptive pattern of behavior for a period of three days to one month
following exposure to a traumatic event is called a (n)
_____________disorder.
a.
stress
stment
acute
b.
stress
posttraumatic
c.
d.
personality
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. Individuals suffering from Acute Stress Disorder may feel ______________.
a. as though they are experiencing a heart attack
b. angry and betrayed by the world
c. “in a daze” or feel that the world seems like a dreamlike or unreal place.
d. unaware of their internal emotions
adju
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Conceptual
1. Paul witnessed a murder while walking through the subway three weeks ago.
Three days after witnessing the murder, Paul began experiencing intense anxiety
and reliving what he saw at night in his dreams. Paul would most like be
diagnosed with____________.
a. an anxiety disorder
b. an acute stress disorder
c. an adjustment disorder with anxiety
d. dissociative identity disorder
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Applied
1. In what way is Acute Stress Disorder different from Post-Traumatic Stress
Disorder (PTSD)?
a. Acute Stress Disorder is a reaction to a less intense trauma than those experienced
by someone with PTSD.
b. The symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder are limited to one month.
c. Individuals with Acute Stress Disorder report more frequent flashbacks than an
individual with PTSD would.
d. Individuals with PTSD never recover from their trauma; those with Acute Stress
Disorder do recover.
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Conceptual
1. First responders who are responsible for collecting human remains or police
officers who regularly
interview children about the details of child abuse ________________as a result
of exposure to trauma in their work.
a.
often develop dissociative identity
disorder
b.
rarely develop acute stress disorder
c.
may develop acute stress
disorder
d.
may develop a personality disorder
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic:
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
Page: 153
1. Heather’s boyfriend Matt served combat duty in Iraq. After returning to the US
last month and reuniting with Heather, Matt shared the details of the battles he
was involved with and the trauma he experienced while serving. Heather has
begun to experience intense periods of anxiety and feels as if she is “in a daze”.
It is possible Heather has developed _____________ as a result of listening to
Matt’s experiences.
a. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
b. an Acute Stress Disorder
c. an Adjustment disorder with anxiety
d. an Adjustment disorder unspecified
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Applied
1. For an individual with Acute Stress Disorder, stronger or more persistent
symptoms of dissociation around
the time of the trauma is associated with a greater likelihood of later development
of ________.
a. major depression
b. panic disorder
c. PTSD
d. Dissociative Identity Disorder
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Conceptual
1. Last year, Hannah witnessed an accident where a pedestrian was struck and
killed by an automobile.
Since the accident, Hannah has experienced anxiety and actively avoids the
street where she witnessed the accident. A clinician might diagnose Hannah as
having__________.
a. an adjustment disorder with anxiety
b. PTSD
c. reactive stress disorder
d. acute stress disorder
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
1. Acute stress disorder has features similar to those of PTSD, but are limited to a
period of______ following direct exposure to the trauma, witnessing other people
exposed to the trauma, or learning about a trauma experienced by a close family
member or friend.
a.
1 week
c.
one
b.
one year
d.
one
month
decade
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 153
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. The lifetime prevalence rate of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the
population is______.
a.
9%
c.
50%
b.
90%
d.
unknown
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 153
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. A prolonged maladaptive reaction to an extreme stressor, such as combat or a
natural disaster, is ______ disorder.
a.
acute
stress
adjustment
c.
b.
posttraumatic
stress
d.
a chronic stress
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 154
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Of the following situations, which is the most likely to result in PTSD?
a.
b.
Divorce
Death of a family member due to natural causes
c.
Being in an airplane
crash
d.
Being involved in a “fender bender” accident
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
Page: 154
an
1. About ______ of people suffer a traumatic experience at some point in their
lives.
a.
one-
fourth
-half
b.
c.
one
d.
tw
one-
third
o-thirds
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. The prevalence of PTSD among U.S. soldiers who served in the Vietnam War is
about one in ______.
a.
b.
d.
two
c.
four
three
five
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
Page: 155
1. If someone is having intrusive memories, recurrent disturbing dreams, or
2.
3.
4.
5.
momentary flashbacks of a traumatic event such as being pursued by an
attacker, the individual is most likely experiencing which of the following common
features of traumatic stress disorders?
Re-experiencing the trauma
Emotional distress and impaired functioning
Heightened arousal
Emotional numbing
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 154
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
1. After witnessing a terrible car accident, John is experiencing so much emotional
2.
3.
4.
5.
distress that he is having difficulty taking care of his responsibilities at work. He is
most likely experiencing which of the following common features of traumatic
stress disorders?
Avoidance behavior
Emotional distress and impaired functioning
Heightened arousal
Emotional numbing
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
Page: 154
1. Hector is hypervigilant, is having difficulty sleeping and concentrating, easily
2.
3.
4.
5.
becomes irritable and has outbursts of anger. He is most likely experiencing
which of the following common features of traumatic stress disorders?
Avoidance behavior
Re-experiencing the trauma
Emotional distress and impaired functioning
Heightened arousal
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 154
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
1. Sheila just witnessed someone being brutally attacked. Now she seems to jump
2.
3.
4.
5.
at any sudden noise. She is most likely experiencing which of the following
common features of traumatic stress disorders?
Avoidance behavior
Re-experiencing the trauma
Emotional distress and impaired functioning
Heightened arousal
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
Page: 154
1. In PTSD, the loss of the ability to have loving feelings is which of the following
2.
3.
4.
5.
common features of traumatic stress disorders?
Avoidance behavior
Emotional distress and impaired functioning
Heightened arousal
Emotional numbing
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 154
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. The feeling of detachment from oneself or one's environment is known as
______.
a.
c.
dissociation
a delusion
b.
a
hallucination
personality disorder
d.
a
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
Page: 154
1. The major difference between the features of an acute stress disorder and
posttraumatic stress disorder is the emphasis on ______ .
a.
c.
d.
abreaction
length of persistence of the symptoms
b.
hallucinations
compulsions
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 154
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Conceptual
1. Joe is a combat veteran who returned from active duty in Iraq one year ago. He
is extremely anxious and feels like he is in a "daze." Joe is also disorganized and
unable to arrange for the medical help he needs. It appears that Joe is suffering
from a(n) _________ disorder.
a.
acute
stress
stment
c.
b.
adju
posttraumatic
stress
d.
personality
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
Page: 154
1. Ron is an Iraq War veteran. He wakes up in the middle of the night in a cold
sweat due to nightmares in which he relives his most frightening war
experiences. He refuses to talk about the war with anyone and is constantly
fidgety and "on edge." He is unable to enjoy himself or develop intimate
relationships. His symptoms have continued for over three years. He is best
diagnosed as suffering from a(n) ______ disorder.
a.
c.
personality
acute stress
b.
d.
adjustment
posttraumatic stress
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
1. Rhonda had undergone chemotherapy for a serious case of breast cancer. Even
six months after this successful treatment, she finds that she is on edge, has
nightmares about death, and no longer enjoys sex with her husband. She is
probably experiencing ______ disorder.
a.
sleep
terror
raumatic stress
c.
b.
d.
postt
dysthymia
adjustment disorder
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Applied
1. Women are ______ as likely as men to develop posttraumatic stress
disorder.
a.
b.
d.
half
c.
twice
equally
four times
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Compared to women, men are ______ likely to have a traumatic experience and
are ______ likely to develop PTSD.
a.
less,
less
re, less
b.
c.
mo
d.
mo
less,
more
re, more
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Investigators reported the ___________was smaller in a group of combat
veterans with PTSD than in combat veterans without PTSD (Moreyet al., 2012).
a.
amygdala
c.
cerebellum
b.
DNA
corpus callosum
d.
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Morey et al. (2012) reported the amygdala was _________ in a group of combat
veterans with PTSD compared to combat veterans without PTSD.
a.
smaller
fluid-filled
c.
b.
not
functioning
d.
ANSWER: A
larger
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Research has shown people who experience __________during or immediately
2.
3.
4.
5.
after the trauma stand a greater risk of developing PTSD than do other trauma
survivors.
dissociative experiences
positive emotions
extreme physical pain
significant temperature drop
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 157
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Experts have asserted that ______ represent the type of trauma most often
leading to PTSD.
a.
natural
disasters
crashes
b.
c.
plane
d.
vehicul
acts of
terrorism
ar accidents
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. In the classical conditioning model of posttraumatic stress disorder, the traumatic
event serves as the ______.
a.
stimulus
b.
response
unconditioned
c.
conditioned stimulus
unconditioned
d.
conditioned response
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 157
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.10
Skill: Conceptual
1. In the classical conditioning model of posttraumatic stress disorder, sights,
smells, and sounds associated with the original traumatic event serve as
______.
a.
unconditioned
stimuli
stimuli
c.
b.
responses
unconditioned
d.
conditioned
conditioned responses
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 157
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.10
Skill: Conceptual
1. From the learning perspective, the fear component of posttraumatic stress
disorder is learned through ______.
a.
classical
conditioning
conditioning
b.
c.
operant
d.
prepared
vicarious
learning
conditioning
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 157
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.10
Skill: Conceptual
1. In the classical conditioning model of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety that
is elicited by exposure to trauma-related stimuli serves as________.
a.
stimuli
stimuli
unconditioned
c.
conditioned
b.
an adaptive
response
conditioned response
d.
a
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 157
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.10
Skill: Applied
1. Which of the following medications has recently been shown to reduce acquired
fear reactions?
a.
c.
Seroquel
Ritalin
b.
d.
Propranolol
Prozac
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 157
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.10
Skill: Factual
1. Propranolol blocks adrenaline receptors in the _________, which may weaken
memories of fearful stimuli.
a.
c.
thalamus
pons
d.
b.
hypothalamus
amygdala
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 158
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.10
Skill: Factual
1. As it pertains to the common features of traumatic stress disorders, the example
2.
3.
4.
5.
of a rape survivor avoiding traveling to the part of town where she was attacked
is an example of __________.
Avoidance behavior
Re-experiencing the trauma
Emotional distress and impaired functioning
Heightened arousal
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic:
Page: 157
Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.10
Skill: Applied
1. An exposure-based homework assignment for a patient with combat-based
PTSD could be ______.
a.
volunteering as a little league coach
a Boy Scout troop
c.
supervising
b.
watching a war
movie
d.
driving alone for two hours
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Page: 159
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Applied
1. EMDR is a technique to treat ______.
a.
c.
PTSD
generalized anxiety disorder
b.
d.
phobia
obsessive-compulsive disorder
ANSWER: A
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Factual
1. The controversy related to EMDR is ______.
a.
whether it works
b.
whether the eye movements are necessary
Page: 159
c.
the use of a blindfold that may cause anxiety in some
d.
the ethical propriety of touching the patient as part of
PTSD victims
treatment
ANSWER: B
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3
Page: 160
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Factual
1. According to Taylor et al. (2003), the real reason EMDR works is because of
______.
a.
rapid eye
movements
exposure
c.
b.
repeated
aversive
conditioning
cost
d.
response
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Conceptual
Page: 160
1. If we invoke the principle of parsimony, then the most likely explanation for the
success of EMDR is ______.
a.
rapid eye
movements
exposure
c.
b.
repeated
aversive
conditioning
cost
d.
response
ANSWER: C
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Page: 160
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Conceptual
1. The idea that the simplest explanation is usually the best explanation is known as
______.
a.
the Peter
Principle
Effect
b.
c.
the Law of
d.
the Principle of
Weber’s
Law
Parsimony
ANSWER: D
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Page: 160
Skill: Factual
True-False Questions
1. Psychologists who study interrelationships between psychological factors,
including stress, and physical health are called health psychologists.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 136
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Psychologists who study interrelationships between psychological factors,
including stress, and physical health are called positive psychologists.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 136
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The term distress refers to a state of physical or mental pain or suffering.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 136
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The term stress refers to a state of physical or mental pain or suffering.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 136
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The field of psychoneuroimmunology studies relationships between
psychological
factors, especially stress, and the workings of the immune system
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 137
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The endocrine system consists of ducts distributed throughout the body.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Endocrine glands pour their secretions—called hormones—directly into the
bloodstream.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Endocrine glands pour their secretions—called hormones—directly into the brain.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Norepinephrine is also produced in the amygdala, where it functions as a
neurotransmitter.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Leukocytes stimulate the adrenal medulla to release hormones.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Leukocytes recognize invading pathogens by their surface fragments, called
antigens.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Some leukocytes produce antigens which are specialized proteins.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Social support networks can act as a buffer against cold symptoms.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. There is a negative correlation between social support networks and general
health.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Through a conditioning process, stress improves the body’s resistance to the
common cold.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Writing about traumatic experiences may be good for physical and emotional
health.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Writing about traumatic experiences increases the probability a person will go
through more stressful situations.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Correlational research helps scientists demonstrate causal connections.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 139
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Although most people exposed to traumatic events do not develop PTSD, many
do experience symptoms associated with the disorder, such as difficulties
concentrating and high levels of arousal.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. People have basically similar reactions to traumatic stress.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. People’s reactions to trauma differ from one individual to the
next.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. In more than 80% of households in New York City, parents reported that their
children were upset by the attacks of 9/11.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Evidence gathered since 9/11 shows that experiencing positive emotions, such
as feelings of gratitude and love, helped buffer the effects of stress.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. The GAS model suggests that our bodies, under stress, are like clocks with
alarm systems that do not shut off until their energy is perilously depleted.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. During the alarm reaction, the adrenal glands, controlled by the pituitary gland in
the brain, pump out cortical steroids.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. When a stressor is persistent, we progress to the second stage, also known as
the exhaustion stage, of the GAS.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Life changes are sources of stress because they force us to adjust.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 143
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.3
Skill: Factual
1. Bicultural theory holds that acculturation helps people adjust to living in the host
culture.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 144
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Evidence shows that highly acculturated Hispanic-American women are less
likely than relatively unacculturated Hispanic-American women to become heavy
drinkers.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. A study of elderly Mexican Americans found that subjects who were minimally
acculturated showed higher levels of depression than either their highly
acculturated or their bicultural counterparts.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 145
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. People who are minimally acculturated often face less economic hardship and
tend to occupy the higher strata of socioeconomic status.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. People who are fully acculturated often face less economic hardship and tend to
occupy the higher strata of socioeconomic status.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 146
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Highly acculturated Hispanic couples have less conflicted, more egalitarian, and
more satisfying marriages.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. The more acculturated Mexican American college students are, the more similar
their scores are to those of non-Hispanic Whites on standardized personality
tests.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Among lower-income Mexican American adolescents who showed signs of
depression, the more acculturated they are, the more likely they are to have
experienced thoughts of committing suicide.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Factual
1. Denial is an example of emotion-focused coping.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. In problem-focused coping, people examine the stressors they face and do what
they can to change them or modify their own reactions to render stressors less
harmful.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Avoidance is a form of emotion-based coping.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. As a form of coping, the use of wish-fulfillment fantasies, has been linked to poor
adjustment in coping with serious illness.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Wishful thinking is a form of emotion-based coping.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. A mismatch between the individual’s style of coping and the amount of
information provided about his condition may impede recovery.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Self-efficacy expectancies refer to our expectations that we will not succeed in
coping with the challenges we face.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Most of the initial scientific research on self-efficacy was performed by B.F.
Skinner.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Albert Bandura and colleagues found spider-phobic women showed high levels
of GABA and serotonin.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Albert Bandura and colleagues found spider-phobic women showed high levels
of stress hormones.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Three key traits identified by Kobasa that distinguished the psychologically hardy
executives from other executives were concern, contentment, and commitment.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Kobasa distinguished the psychologically hardy from the un-hardy by using 10
key personality traits.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Psychologically hardy people appear to cope more effectively with stress by
using more emotion-focused problem-solving approaches.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Research links greater optimism to lower rates of heart disease and greater
longevity.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 150
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. The developers of positive psychology believe that psychology should focus
more of its efforts on the positive aspects of the human experience.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 150
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Positive psychology focuses on topics such as love and hope.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 150
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Evidence links perceived discrimination among ethnic minorities to poorer mental
and physical health and to higher rates of substance abuse
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. African Americans often demonstrate a low level of resiliency in coping with
stress.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Acquiring and maintaining pride in their racial identity and cultural heritage may
help African Americans and other ethnic minorities withstand stresses imposed
by racism.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. African Americans and other ethnic minorities who become alienated from their
culture or ethnic identity may be more vulnerable to the effects of stress.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Ethnic identity is associated with perceptions of a better quality of life among
African Americans
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. An adjustment disorder is a maladaptive reaction to a distressing life event or
stressor that develops within 3 years of the onset of the stressor.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 151
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. An adjustment disorder is a maladaptive reaction to a distressing life event or
stressor that develops within 3 months of the onset of the stressor.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 151
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. An adjustment disorder is a maladaptive reaction to a distressing life event or
stressor that develops within 3 days of the onset of the stressor.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 151
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. For the diagnosis of an adjustment disorder to apply, the stress-related reaction
must be sufficient enough to also meet the diagnostic criteria for an anxiety
disorder and a mood disorder.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. It is estimated that between 5% and 20% of people receiving outpatient mental
health services present with a diagnosis of adjustment disorder.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. If the adjustment disorder lasts for more than one month after the stressor (or its
consequences) has been removed, the diagnosis may be changed.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 152
Topic: Adjustment Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.6
Skill: Factual
1. Traumatic stress disorders are characterized by maladaptive patterns of behavior
in response to trauma that involve marked personal distress or significant
impairment of functioning.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. In acute stress disorder, the person shows a maladaptive pattern of behavior
many months following exposure to a traumatic event.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. People with acute stress disorder may feel they are “in a daze” or that the world
seems like a dreamlike or unreal place.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. In acute stress disorder, the person shows a maladaptive pattern of behavior
many months following exposure to a traumatic event.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. In acute stress disorder, the traumatic event may involve exposure to either
actual or threatened death, a serious accident, or a sexual violation.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. For a diagnosis of acute stress disorder, the traumatic events can only include a
sexual violation.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. For a diagnosis of acute stress disorder, the traumatic events cannot be a
battlefield trauma—battlefield traumas are saved for posttraumatic stress
disorder.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. In acute stress disorder, the person with acute stress disorder may have been
directly exposed to the trauma, witnessed other people experiencing the trauma,
or learned about a trauma experienced by a close friend or family member.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. In order to be diagnosed with acute stress disorder, the person with acute stress
disorder must have been directly exposed to the trauma.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 153
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. Stronger or more persistent symptoms of dissociation around the time of the
trauma is associated with a greater likelihood of later development of PTSD.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. A person with acute stress disorder may have problems sleeping; may develop
irritable or aggressive behavior or exhibit an exaggerated startle response to
sudden noises.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. Individuals with traumatic stress disorders do not exhibit difficulty effectively
meeting daily responsibilities.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. Unlike individuals with PTSD, individuals with acute stress disorder never re-
experience the trauma.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.8
Skill: Factual
1. One of the common features of PTSD is that the person may feel “numb” inside
and lose the ability to have loving feelings.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Posttraumatic stress disorder is a prolonged maladaptive reaction that lasts
longer than one month after the traumatic experience.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. First responders to traumatic events do not develop PTSD.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. High rates of PTSD are found among earthquake and hurricane survivors in
many countries.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. About 50% of combat veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan
have developed PTSD.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Investigators found that survivors of terrorist acts had double the rate of PTSD as
compared with survivors of motor vehicle
accidents.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. PTSD is found in very few cultures.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. As many as 300,000 American soldiers returning from the war zones in Iraq and
Afghanistan show symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Less than one-third of people suffer a traumatic experience at some point in their
lives.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Traumatic events are actually quite rare.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 155
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. An individual who experiences detachment or “dissociation” shortly following the
trauma, or feeling numb is more vulnerable to developing PTSD.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. The more direct the exposure to the trauma, the greater the person’s likelihood of
developing PTSD.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Although women more often have traumatic experiences, men are more likely to
develop PTSD.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Men are more likely to have traumatic experiences; women are more likely to
develop PTSD.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Investigators reported that the brain structure, amygdala, was larger in a group of
combat veterans with PTSD than in combat veterans without PTSD.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse are more at risk for
developing PTSD.
ANSWER: T
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Individuals with vivid imaginations are more at risk for developing PTSD.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Evidence from carefully controlled studies demonstrates little in the way of
therapeutic benefits for EMDR in treating PTSD.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 159
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Factual
1. The Principle of Parsimony holds that the more complex the explanation, the
better.
ANSWER: F
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 160
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Factual
Essay Questions
1. How do Americans feel about stress? Discuss this within the context of the
findings of the American Psychological Association’s nationwide study.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 137
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Conceptual
1. Explain the role of the endocrine system in the experience of stress.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Describe the different parts of the immune system and the interplay with the
experience of stress.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Conceptual
1. Describe how the experience of stress can lead to a compromised immune
system.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 138
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.1
Skill: Factual
1. Describe how psychological factors translate into physical health problems.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 140
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Summarize the steps one can take to restore emotional wellbeing and a sense of
control following a disaster or other traumatic experience,
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 142
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Factual
1. Describe the stages of General Adaptation Syndrome. What is the possible
outcome of prolonged exposure to stress?
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 140-141
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.2
Skill: Conceptual
1. Summarize research findings regarding life changes and their relationship to
stress.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 142
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.3
Skill: Factual
1. Discuss Charles Negy’s research that investigated the quality of relationships in
acculturated and non-acculturated Mexican-American couples.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 146-147
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.4
Skill: Conceptual
1. Discuss the forms of denial of illness and the impact this coping strategy may
have on health and recovery.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Conceptual
1. Compare and contrast the effectiveness of the problem-focused and emotion-
focused styles of coping with stress in dealing with serious illness.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 148
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Discuss research findings relating the concepts of self-efficacy expectancies,
hardiness, and
optimism to health.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 1 Page: 149
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Discuss the relationship between optimism and the subjective experience of
pain.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 150
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Discuss the factors involved with African American ethnic identity and resiliency
to stress.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 151
Topic: Effects of Stress
Learning Objective: 4.5
Skill: Factual
1. Discuss the similarities and differences between Acute Stress disorder and
PTSD.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 154
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Conceptual
1. Summarize the factors that could contribute to an individual having an increased
vulnerability to PTSD.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 156
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Conceptual
1. Within a classical conditioning framework, describe the elements (conditioned
response, unconditioned stimuli, etc.) as they apply to the associations formed
from a traumatic experience.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 3 Page: 157
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Conceptual
1. Summarize the research using the drug propranolol, in the treatment of traumatic
memory. How might morphine be used in treating traumatized soldiers?
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 157
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.9
Skill: Factual
1. Describe how cognitive behavioral therapy has been used in the treatment of
PTSD.
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 159
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Conceptual
1. Describe EMDR and discuss the controversy regarding its use.
Why is it
worthwhile to consider the famous dictum known as Occam’s razor in evaluating
EMDR?
Level of Difficulty (1-3): 2 Page: 160
Topic: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Learning Objective: 4.11
Skill: Conceptual
REVEL QUIZ QUESTIONS
EOC Q4.1
White blood cells work by recognizing invading pathogens by their surface fragments,
called __________.
a)
receptors
b)
lymphocytes
c)
antigens
d)
antibodies
Answer: c
Learning Objective: 4.1 Evaluate the effects of stress on health.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.2
The release of corticosteroids, an increase in heart rate, muscle tension, and the ability
for blood to clot are all stress-related changes in the body associated with __________
of the GAS.
a)
the exhaustion stage
b)
the resistance stage
c)
the alarm reaction
d)
the alert stage
Answer: c
Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify and describe the stages of the general adaptation
syndrome.
Skill Level: Analyze
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.3
The observation that people who experience a greater number of life changes are more
likely to suffer from a psychological health problem compared to people who experience
fewer life changes should be interpreted with caution because the relationship
__________.
a)
is correlational
b)
is experimental
c)
invalidates a cause and effect relationship
d)
is the result of randomly assigning research participants to experimental
conditions
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.3 Evaluate evidence of the relationship between life changes and
psychological and physical health.
Skill Level: Analyze
Difficulty: Difficult
EOC Q4.4
The idea that acculturation helps people adjust to living in a host culture is termed the
__________.
a)
American Dream
b)
melting pot theory
c)
bicultural theory
d)
multicultural theory
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.4 Evaluate the role of acculturative stress in psychological
adjustment.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.5
Problem-focused coping involves ___________.
a)
focusing on reducing one’s emotional response to a stressor
b)
ignoring or escaping from a stressor
c)
directly confronting a stressor
d)
focusing on a problem to such an extent that one becomes unable to function
normally
Answer: c
Learning Objective: 4.5 Identify psychological factors that moderate the effects of
stress.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.6
The __________ is the body’s system of defense against disease.
a)
endocrine system
b)
immune system
c)
stress reaction
d)
autonomic disease system
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.1 Evaluate the effects of stress on health.
Skill Level: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
EOC Q4.7
Which stress researcher is responsible for coining the term “general adaptation
syndrome”?
a)
Hans Selye
b)
Walter Cannon
c)
Albert Bandura
d)
Suzanne Kobasa
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify and describe the stages of the general adaptation
syndrome.
Skill Level: Remember
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.8
Our beliefs regarding our ability to cope with challenges, perform skillfully, and produce
positive changes in our lives are referred to as our __________.
a)
self-directed expectancies
b)
self-efficacy expectancies
c)
self-esteem expectancies
d)
externalized locus of control
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.5 Identify psychological factors that moderate the effects of
stress.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.9
About two months ago, Justin’s parents announced they were getting a divorce. Before
this Justin had never been in trouble in school, but since he learned about the divorce
Justin has been cutting classes. Justin is most likely experiencing __________.
a)
an adjustment disorder
b)
acculturative stress
c)
emotion-focused coping
d)
acute stress disorder
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.6 Define the concept of an adjustment disorder and describe its
key features.
Skill Level: Apply
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.10
An adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct is a maladaptive response to a
stressor and is likely to include __________.
a)
violation of the rights of others
b)
feelings of hopelessness
c)
fear of separation from primary attachment figures
d)
excessive crying
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.7 Identify the specific types of adjustment disorders.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.11
Which psychologist is famous for studying self-efficacy and for measuring how selfefficacy expectancies impact our likelihood to feel anxious in stressful situations?
a)
Walter Cannon
b)
Albert Bandura
c)
Suzanne Kobasa
d)
Charles Negy
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.5 Identify psychological factors that moderate the effects of
stress.
Skill Level: Remember
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.12
With __________, a person shows a maladaptive pattern of behavior for a period of
three days to one month following a traumatic event.
a)
an acute stress disorder
b)
posttraumatic stress disorder
c)
an alarm reaction
d)
generalized anxiety disorder
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.8 Describe the key features of acute stress disorder.
Skill Level: Analyze
Difficulty: Difficult
EOC Q4.13
Many, but not all, people with acute stress disorder go on to develop __________.
a)
major depression
b)
PTSD
c)
acculturative stress disorder
d)
avoidant personality disorder
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.9 Describe the key features of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOC Q4.14
Within a classical conditioning framework of assessing PTSD, the traumatic experience
is the __________.
a)
conditioned stimulus
b)
unconditioned stimulus
c)
conditioned response
d)
neutral stimulus
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.10 Describe theoretical understandings of PTSD.
Skill Level: Analyze
Difficulty: Difficult
EOC Q4.15
In the __________ method of treatment, the client is asked to form a mental picture of
an image associated with the trauma while the therapist rapidly moves a finger back
and forth in front of the client’s eyes for about 20 to 30 seconds.
a)
physiological rerouting
b)
EMDR
c)
psycho-physical retraining
d)
emotional reconditioning
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.11 Describe treatment approaches to PTSD.
Skill Level: Understanding
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.1.1
What does the endocrine system secrete directly into the bloodstream?
a)
red-blood cells
b)
hormones
c)
steroids
d)
antigens
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.1 Evaluate the effects of stress on health.
Skill Level: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
EOM Q4.1.2
When Mary saw the man in the hooded sweatshirt approach her on the dark street, she
began to breathe rapidly and her heart rate increased. She was experiencing which
stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
a)
alarm reaction
b)
adaptation stage
c)
exhaustion stage
d)
resistance stage
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify and describe the stages of the general adaptation
syndrome.
Skill Level: Apply
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.1.3
Acculturative stress is pressure __________.
a)
on community residents that results from the influx of large numbers of
immigrants to their communities
b)
on each new generation to adopt mainstream gender norms
c)
that results from the demands placed on immigrant, native, and ethnic minority
groups to adjust to life in the mainstream culture
d)
to assimilate experiences by new college students on campus for the first time
Answer: c
Learning Objective: 4.4 Evaluate the role of acculturative stress in psychological
adjustment.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Difficult
EOM Q4.1.4
Samantha is a business executive who effectively deals with stress in her life by fully
committing to the work at hand, seeing challenge as normal, and believing that she has
control over her life. Psychologists would most probably describe Samantha as having
__________.
a)
an external locus of control
b)
high psychological hardiness
c)
low self-efficacy
d)
high dispositional readiness
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.5 Identify psychological factors that moderate the effects of
stress.
Skill Level: Apply
Difficulty: Difficult
EOM Q4.1.5
Anne recently noticed that a mole on her arm has become irregular in shape and
“mushy” to touch. Her roommate suggests that Anne make an appointment with a
dermatologist. Anne cheerfully responds “It’s no big deal. It will probably go away on its
own.” Anne is using __________.
a)
positive-focused coping
b)
sensate-focused coping
c)
emotion-focused coping
d)
problem-focused coping
Answer: c
Learning Objective: 4.5 Identify psychological factors that moderate the effects of
stress.
Skill Level: Analyze
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.2.1
To be diagnosed with an adjustment order, an individual must be dealing with a
distressing life event or stressor in a(n) __________ way.
a)
antisocial
b)
positive
c)
maladaptive
d)
inconsistent
Answer: c
Learning Objective: 4.6 Define the concept of an adjustment disorder and describe its
key features.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.2.2
Susan broke up with her boyfriend at the beginning of the semester. Two months later,
she continues to feel sad much of the time and has difficulty concentrating on her
schoolwork. Susan is most likely experiencing __________.
a)
a social disorder
b)
major depression
c)
an acute stress reaction
d)
an adjustment disorder
Answer: d
Learning Objective: 4.6 Define the concept of an adjustment disorder and describe its
key features.
Skill Level: Apply
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.2.3
The percentage of people receiving outpatient mental health services who present with
a diagnosis of adjustment disorder is estimated to be between __________.
a)
1%–3%
b)
5%–20%
c)
25%–30%
d)
40%–50%
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.6 Define the concept of an adjustment disorder and describe its
key features.
Skill Level: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
EOM Q4.2.4
If an adjustment disorder lasts longer than __________ after the removal of the stressor
or its consequences, the diagnosis may be changed to another clinical syndrome.
a)
two weeks
b)
one month
c)
three months
d)
six months
Answer: d
Learning Objective: 4.7 Identify the specific types of adjustment disorders.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.2.5
Seven-year-old Amanda has been experiencing intense fear of being separated from
her mother for the last few months. Her fear began after her mother was hospitalized for
a serious infection. The specific type of adjustment disorder that best describes
Amanda’s maladaptive reaction is __________.
a)
adjustment disorder with anxiety
b)
adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct
c)
adjustment disorder with depressed mood
d)
adjustment disorder with mixed disturbance of emotion and conduct
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.7 Identify the specific types of adjustment disorders.
Skill Level: Analyze
Difficulty: Difficult
EOM Q4.3.1
Mike served in Iraq four years ago and saw combat activity. Since returning home, Mike
experiences nightmares about his past combat involvement, startles easily when he
hears loud noises, and constantly feels on edge. Mike would most likely be diagnosed
with __________.
a)
an acute stress reaction
b)
an adjustment disorder
c)
posttraumatic stress disorder
d)
major depression
Answer: c
Learning Objective: 4.9 Describe the key features of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Skill Level: Apply
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.3.2
According to the American Psychiatric Association, lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic
stress disorder is approximately __________.
a)
4%
b)
9%
c)
15%
d)
21%
Answer: b
Learning Objective: Traumatic Stress Disorders
Skill Level: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
EOM Q4.3.3
Researchers have found that sufferers of PTSD who were asked to recall the PTSDrelated traumatic event after being given the drug propranolol had __________
compared to a group who received a placebo.
a)
a decrease in physiological activity
b)
an increase in emotional response
c)
better memory of event details
d)
an increase in perceptual sensitivity to the details of the event
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.10 Describe theoretical understandings of PTSD.
Skill Level: Analyze
Difficulty: Difficult
EOM Q4.3.4
__________ is an intense form of exposure treatment for PTSD in which the person
repeatedly reexperiences the traumatic event in imagination during treatment sessions
or directly confronts situations linked to the trauma in real life without seeking to escape
from the anxiety.
a)
Progressive stress inoculation
b)
Prolonged exposure
c)
Systematic exposure
d)
Exposure debriefing training
Answer: b
Learning Objective: 4.11 Describe treatment approaches to PTSD.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
EOM Q4.3.5
In which type of therapy for PTSD does the individual gradually reexperience the
anxiety associated with the traumatic event, allowing extinction of the anxiety to occur?
a)
cognitive-behavioral
b)
self-relaxation
c)
anger management training
d)
EMDR
Answer: a
Learning Objective: 4.11 Describe treatment approaches to PTSD.
Skill Level: Understand
Difficulty: Moderate
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