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活
動 摘要寫作是一種較為特別的寫作形式。一篇好的摘要通常是以簡明、連貫、易懂的文字寫出文章
解 的主要內容 (main ideas),而不贅述其細節 (details)。
說
摘要寫作是摘錄要旨的一種藝術,必須注意下列原則:
基
本 1. 簡化要旨。 4. 刪除細節。
原
2. 精簡文字。 5. 使用間接說法(reported speech)。
則
3. 摘取要點。
(A)講解寫作步驟
1. 仔細閱讀文章,並記下重要內容,刪除細節部分。
(Read the presented article carefully and underline the important ideas. Be sure to cross out any items that are
details.)
2. 把記下的重要內容一一列出,並用 wh-疑問詞,如what, where, when, who, why等把
記下之內容轉換成問句。
(Make a list of the important facts in the article. Be sure to include what, where, when, who and why on your list.)
3. 用完整句子回答所列出的問題,再用適當的連接詞或副詞把句子聯結成完整的短
文。
(Write the ideas on the list in full sentences. Try to combine some of the ideas with and, but, or, however,
because,and so on.)
教
學
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4. 修正所寫的短文 (revise)。修正時須注意以下幾點:
(1)確定自己是否已回答了所有列出來的問題。
(Make sure that you have answered all the questions you list.)
(2)是否有主題句?(Is there a topic sentence?)
(3)其他的句子是否能夠說明或支持主題句?
(Do all the other sentences support the topic sentence?)
(4)寫出的短文是否連貫併合乎邏輯?(Are the sentences in a logical order?)
(5)是否還有其他相關資料要加入?
(Is there any other relevant information you want to add to your paragraph?)
(B)舉例說明:
1. 利用國編本第 6 冊 124 頁上的範文作例子,請同學閱讀之後,用不超過 85 字寫下摘要。
Read the story below and summarize on the basis of the four questions that follow.
My neighbor's children love playing hide-and-seek as all children do, but no one imagine that a game they played last week
would be reported in the local newspaper.
One afternoon, they were playing in the vacant lot down the corner. Young Paul, who is only five years old, found the perfect
place to hide. His sister, Natalie, had shut her eyes and was counting to ten when Paul noticed the storage mail box at the corner
and saw that the metal door was standing open. The mailman had just taken out several sacks of mail and had carried them to his
truck which was standing at the curb a few feets away. Paul climbed into the storage box and pulled the door closed so hard that
it locked. Soon realizing what he had done, he became frightened and started crying. Meanwhile, Natalie was looking for him
everywhere but could not find him. It was lucky that she happened to pause at the corner for a minute and heard her brother's
cries. She immediately ran to tell the mailman who hurried back fom his truck to unlock the metal door. Paul was now free, but
he had had such a bad scare that he could not stop crying. The mailman, however, soon found a way of making him laugh again.
He told him that the next time he wnted to hide in a mail box, he should remember to put a stamp on himself!
Your answer must not be more than 85 words.
(1) What were the children playing in a vacant lot one afternoon?
(2) When did his sister, natalie, realize where he was hiding? Where did young Paul hide? Did he lock himself in or not? (Finding
that)(and)
(3) Where did his sister, Natalie, realize where he was hiding? What did she do? (so)
(4) How did the mailman make Paul stop crying after he let him out?(After letting......by telling......)
Summary:
The children were playing hide-and-seek in a vacant lot one afternoon. Finding that the storage mailbox had been left open,
Paul hid and locked himself in it accidentally. His sister, Natalie, heard his cries and realized where he was hiding, so she
immediately told the mailman to unlock the metal door. After letting him out, the mailman made him stop crying by telling him
to put a stamp on himself the next he wanted to hide in a mailbox. (82 words)
2. 再提供另一篇文章,上頭已附上問句,先帶全班閱讀文章,再一一請同學站起來回答問題,最
後再把回答的問題連成一篇短文。文章如下:
Why do some animals die out?
In the past two hundred years people have caused many kinds of animals to die out--to become extinct. People keep building
houses and factories in fields and woods. As they spread over the land, they destroy animals' homes. If the animals can't find a
place to live, they die out. Sixteen kinds of Hawaiian birds have become extinct for this reason. Other animals, such as the Florida
Key deer, may soon die out because they are losing their homes. Hunters have caused some animals to become extinct, too. In the
last century, hunters killed all the passenger pigeons in North America nd most of the buffalos.
Today they are fast killing off hawks and wolves. Pollution is killing many animals today, too. As rivers become polluted, fish are
poisoned. Many die. Birds that eat the poisoned fish can't lay strong, healthy eggs. New birds aren'y born. So far, no animals have
become extinct because of pollution. But some, such as the bald eagle and the brown pelican, have become rare and may die out.
Scientists think that some animals become extinct because of changes in climate. The places where they live become hotter or
cooler, drier or wetter. The food that they eat cannot grow there any more. If the animals can't learn to eat something else, they
die. Dinosaurs may have died out for this reason.
(1) What is the article about? What is happenning to many animals?
(2) Why is it happening?
(3) Where is it happening?
(4) Who is it responsibie?
(5) What is responsible?
Summary
In the past two hundred years, many kinds of animals have died out. There are several reasons for it. First, people keep
building houses and factories in fields and woods, which destroys animals' homes. Then, hunters' killing has also caused some
animlas to become extinct. Besides, some animals aren't able to bear strong ofspring and nor do they have enough food to eat
because of pollution and climatic changes. (69 words)
(C)提供另外三篇文章發給全班,自行閱讀,依照上述的方式寫出文章摘要。
時間:50 分鐘。
字數:80--120 字之間。視全文長短而定。
The Graduation Present
A young man was getting ready to graduate from college. For months he had admired a sports car in a dealer's
showroom, and knowing his father could well afford it, he told him that was all he wanted. As Graduation Day approached,
the young man awaited signs that his father had purchased the car. Finally, on the morning of his graduation, his father
called him into his private study. His father told him how proud he was to have such a fine son, and told him how much he
loved him. He handed his son a beautiful wrapped gift box. Curious, but somewhat disappointed, the young man opened the
box and found a lovely, leather-bound Bible, with the young man's name embossed in gold. Angrily, he raised his voice to
his father and said, "With all your money you give me a Bible?" and stormed out of the house, leaving the Bible. Many
years passed and the young man was very successful in business. He had a beautiful home and wonderful family, but
realized his father was very old, and thought perhaps he should go to him. He had not seen him since that graduation day.
Before he could make arrangements, he received a telegram telling him his father had passed away, and willed all of his
possessions to his son. He needed to come home immediately and take care of things. When he arrived at his father's house,
sudden sadness and regret filled his heart. He began to search through his father's important papers and saw the still new
Bible, just as he had left it years ago. With tears, he opened the Bible and began to turn the pages. His father had carefully
underlined a verse, Matt 7:11, "And if ye, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more shall
範
文
說
your Heavenly father which is in heaven, give to those who ask Him?" As he read those words, a car key dropped from the
明
they are not packaged as we expected?
back of the Bible. It had a tag with the dealer's name, the same dealer who had the sports car he had desired. On the tag was
the date of his graduation, and the words........ ... PAID IN FULL. How many times do we miss God's blessings because
(共蒐集二篇範例,每篇皆含學生原始文章和教師修改後作品。)
A Full Box of Kisses
The story goes that some time ago, a man punished his three-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping
paper. Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.
Nevertheless, the little girl brought the gift to her father the next morning and said, "This is for you, Daddy." He was
embarrassed by his earlier overreaction, but his anger flared again when he found the box was empty. He yelled at her,
"Don't you know that when you give someone a present, there's supposed to be something inside the box?" The little girl
looked up at him with tears in her eyes and said, "Oh, Daddy, it is not empty. I blew kisses into the box. All for you,
Daddy." The father was crushed. He put his arms around his little girl, and he begged for her forgiveness. It is said that the
man kept that gold box by his bed for years and whenever he was discouraged, he would take out an imaginary kiss and
remember the love of the child who had put it there. In a very real sense, each of us as humans has been given a gold
container filled with unconditional love and kisses from our children, friends, family, or God. There is no more precious
possession that anyone could hold.
(共蒐集二篇範例,每篇皆含學生原始文章和教師修改後作品。)
Share Happiness
Two men, both seriously ill, occupied the same hospital room. One man was allowed to sit up in his bed for an hour
each afternoon to help drain the fluid from his lungs. His bed was next to the room's only window. The other man had to
spend all his time flat on his back. The men talked for hours on end. They spoke of their wives and families, their homes,
their jobs, their involvement in the military service, where they had been on vacation. And every afternoon when the man in
the bed by the window could sit up, he would pass the time by describing to his roommate all the things he could see outside
the window. The man in the other bed began to live for those one- hour periods where his world would be broadened and
enlivened by all the activity and color of the world outside. The window overlooked a park with a lovely lake. Ducks and
swans played on the water while children sailed their model boats. Young lovers walked arm in arm amidst flowers of every
color of the rainbow. Grand old trees graced the landscape, and a fine view of the city skyline could be seen in the distance.
As the man by the window described all this in exquisite detail, the man on the other side of the room would close his eyes
and imagine the picturesque scene. One warm afternoon the man by the window described a parade passing by. Although
the other man couldn't hear the band, he could see it in his mind's eye as the gentleman by the window portrayed it with
descriptive words. Days and weeks passed. One morning, the day nurse arrived to bring water for their baths only to find the
lifeless body of the man by the window, who had died peacefully in his sleep. She was saddened and called the hospital
attendants to take the body away. As soon as it seemed appropriate, the other man asked if he could be moved next to the
window. The nurse was happy to make the switch, and after making sure he was comfortable, she left him alone. Slowly,
painfully, he propped himself up on one elbow to take his first look at the world outside. Finally, he would have the joy of
seeing it for himself. He strained to slowly turn to look out the window beside the bed. It faced a blank wall. The man asked
the nurse what could have compelled his deceased roommate who had described such wonderful things outside this window.
The nurse responded that the man was blind and could not even see the wall. She said, "Perhaps he just wanted to encourage
you. (Epilogue) There is tremendous happiness in making others happy, despite our own situations. Shared grief is half the
sorrow, but happiness when shared, is doubled. If you want to feel rich, just count all of the things you have that money can't
buy.
(共蒐集二篇範例,每篇皆含學生原始文章和教師修改後作品。)
參
考 高中英文作文(下冊)(黃自來、黃燦遂編著)
書
Ready to Write (by Karen Blanchard & Christine Root)
目
提
供 林園佳江淑宜老師
者