English Grammar HandbookPDF

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UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
CHAPTER 1
LEARNING ABOUT GRAMMAR
AND MORPHEMES
“When you know a language you are able to produce the sounds which signify
certain meanings and understand the meanings of the sounds others produce”
Fromkin- Rodman, An Introduction to Language
It is generally accepted that the word grammar is related to the knowledge a
speaker has of his/her language (competence). The word grammar has to do with the
system of sounds (phonology), the system of meanings (semantics), the way in which
sentences are formed (syntax) and, the form and creation of words in a language
(morphology). In this general sense, grammar is a central part of linguistics for the
study of a language.
Here, there are some definitions of Grammar:
“Grammar is a body of generalizations about how people say things.”
Roberts, Understanding Grammar
“Grammar gives rules for combining words to form sentences.”
Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics
“The term grammar is used in a number of different senses- the grammar of a
language may be understood to be a full description of the form and meaning of the
language or else it may cover only certain, variously delimited, parts of such a
description.”
Huddleston, Introduction to the Grammar of English
“The elements and rules constitute the grammar of a language. The grammar,
then, is what we know; it represents our linguistic competence.”
Fromkin/Rodman, An Introduction to Language
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ACTIVITY 1: Write your own definition of Grammar.
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The concepts of prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar are also
important for a better understanding of the word grammar. A prescriptive grammar
can tell you what the grammatical rules of a specific language are; while a descriptive
grammar can tell you how it is possible for you to understand and speak a language;
it doesn’t tell you how it should be spoken. The following conceptual diagram
(Conceptual Diagram 1) shows different branches of linguistics, including grammar,
and how it is divided for the purpose of describing language into syntax and
morphology.
Conceptual Diagram 1 : Linguistics and Grammar
Grammar
LINGUISTICS
Phonology
syntax
morphology
Phonetics
Semantics
sentence
word
Pragmatics
word
morpheme
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As you can see in the diagram given, the maximal grammatical unit or maximal
element with meaning in syntax is called sentence; and the minimal grammatical unit
or minimal element with meaning in syntax is called word. In morphology, the
maximal grammatical unit is called word; and the minimal grammatical unit in
morphology is called morpheme.
ACTIVITY 2: Write some definitions for Sentence, Word, and Morpheme.
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Learning a language also means understanding the way in which words are
created and arranged. In English, the process of word-formation involves Affixation
(adding a prefix or a suffix to the base with or without a change in the word-class;
e.g.: know - v, unknown -adj.), Conversion (assigning the base to a different wordclass without changing its form also called 'zero affixation'; e.g.: play - v, play - n);
and Compounding (adding one base to another, e.g.: tea+pot.). The word-formation
rules are applied to forms (carrying lexical meaning) that are called BASES. Once a
base has been modified through the application of a word-formation rule, the new
word may become the base of another word or derivation. For example, the word
unhappiness was derived as follows:
(1) happy
Adjective
(2) happi-ness
Adjective (to) Noun
(3) un-happi-ness
Adjective (to) Noun (to) Noun
In this example, the word happiness has one affix and the BASE (happy) is also
the STEM. In the word unhappiness, the STEM is still happy, but the BASE of the
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word unhappiness is happiness. So the STEM is the part or form of the word that
remains after every affix has been removed.
The next diagram (Conceptual Diagram 2) shows how words are studied through
morphology.
Conceptual Diagram 2 : Morphology
Morphology
Words
Free
Bound
Morpheme
BASES
BOUND BASES --
Affixes
Prefix -- Infix --
ROOTS
Suffix
An affix is a bound morpheme that occurs before, within or after a base. There are
three kinds of affixes: prefixes, infixes, and suffixes. Prefixes are those bound
morphemes that occur before a base, as in im+port, pre+fix. Prefixes in English are a
small class of morphemes, numbering about seventy-five. Their meaning are those of
English prepositions and adverbials.
Infixes are bound morphemes inserted within a word. These are rare in English.
e.g. un+get+at+able. But infixes in English are most commonly replacements, not
additions. They occur in a few noun plurals, like the -ee- in geese, replacing the -ooin goose, and more in the past tense and past participles of verbs, like the -o- of chose
and chosen replacing the -oo- of choose.
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Suffixes are bound morphemes placed after a base, like shrink+age, fail+ure,
nois+y,real+ize, nail+s, dream+ed. They may pile up to the number of three or four,
whereas prefixes are commonly single, except for the negative un- before another
prefix.
Inflectional affixes:
The inflectional affixes can be schematized as follows:
inflectional affix
1. (-s pl.)
example
dog+s, ox+en, m+ice
name
noun plural
2. (-s sg ps)
boy's
n. sing. poss.
3. (-s pl ps
boys', men's
n. plural possessive
4. (-s 3rd)
vacate+s
present third person sg.
5. (-ing vb)
discuss+ing
present progressive
6. (-d pt)
chew+ed
past tense
7. (-d pp)
chew+ed, eat+en, sw+um
past participle
8. (-er cp)
bold+er, soon+er
comparative
9. (-est sp)
bold+est, soon+est
superlative
The words to which these affixes are attached are called stems. The stem includes
the base or bases and all derivational affixes. Thus, the stem of playboys is playboy.
The inflectional suffixes differ from the derivational suffixes in the following
ways, to which there are a few exceptions:
-
They do not change the part of speech. e.g.:sled, sleds (both nouns)
-
They come last in a word. E.g.: shortened, villanies, industrializing
-
They go with all stems of a given part of speech. E.g.: He eats, dreams, motivates
-
They do not pile up; only one ends a word. E.g.: flakes, higher, written.
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The exception here is (-s -pl -ps), the plural possessive of the noun, as in "The
students' worries."
Derivational suffixes
In addition to a short list of inflectional suffixes English has a large list of another
kind of suffix, called derivational suffixes. These consist of all the suffixes that are
not inflectional. Among the characteristics of derivational suffixes there are three,
-
The words with which derivational suffixes combine are an arbitrary matter. To
make a noun from the verb adorn we must add -ment -no other suffix will dowhereas the verb fail + ure (to noun)
-
In many cases derivational suffixes change the part of speech of the word to
which they are added. For example, the adjective happy, becomes an adverb by
the addition of -ly.
-
Derivational suffixes usually do not close off a word; that is, after a derivational
suffix one can add an inflectional suffix. For example, the word fertilize which
ends in a derivational suffix, can accept the addition of -er to fertilizer, and also of
the plural suffix -s , to fertilizers .
Let us review the following concepts already studied in your classes of linguistics:
morpheme, free morpheme, bound morpheme, affixation, prefix, suffix, derivation and
inflection.
“Morpheme is the minimum unit of grammatical analysis”
Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics
“Morphemes are a set of elements which represent the basic meaningful
grammatical units.”
Fromkin/Rodman, An Introduction to Language
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“Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to express its relation to other
words in the sentence. Derivation lists various processes whereby new words are
formed from existing words (or roots).”
Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics
“Bound morphemes are defined as those which must be attached to other
morphemes. A free morpheme can occur without a bound morpheme, but a bound
morpheme must be attached to a free morpheme. Some morphemes have been called
derivational morphemes because when they are added to another morpheme they
derive a new word which is often (but not always) a different grammatical class.
Many prefixes fall into this category like a+moral, mono+theism. There are also
suffixes like fad+ism, Commun+ist, Americ+an. Inflectional morphemes never
change the grammatical category of the words to which they are affixed. Their
addition to words is dictated by the syntactic rules of the language.
Fomkin/Rodman, An Introduction to Language
The following Appendix lists some of the different affixes used in English.
APPENDIX 1: Affixes in English
Prefixes:
Old English
Meaning
Examples
a-
in, on, of, up, to
afoot, awake
be-
around, about, away
beset, behead
for-
away, off, from
forsake, forget
mis-
badly, poorly, not
mismatch, misspell
over-
above, excessively
oversee, overdo
un-
not, reverse of
untrue, unfold
from, off, away
abduct, absent
Latin and Latin-French
ab-, a-, absante-
before
antedate
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bi-
two
circum-
around
com-, co-, col-, con-, cor-
with, together
bimonthly, bisect
circumnavigate
compare, coexist, collide,
convene, correspond
contra
against
contradict
de-
away, from, off, down
defect, desert
dis-, dif-
away, off, opposing
dissent, differ
ex, e-, ef-
away from, out
excise, efface
in-, im-
in, into, within
induct, impose
in-, im-
not
il-, ir-
incapable, impious
illegal, irregular
inter-
among, between
intercede, intersperse
intro-
inward, to the inside,
introduce, intravenous,
intra-
within
non-
not
post-
after, following
postpone, postscript
pre-
before
prevent, preclude
pro-
forward, in place of,
produce, pronoun,
favoring
intramural
nonentity, nonessential
pro-American
re-
back, backward, again
revoke, recede, recur
retro-
back, backward
retroactive, retrospect
semi-
half
semiannual, semicircular
sub-, suf-, sum-,
under, beneath
subjugate, suffuse, summon
sup-, sus-
suppose, suspect
super-
over, above, extra
supersede, supervise
trans-
across, beyond
transfuse, transport
ultra-
beyond, excessively
ultramodern, ultraviolet
Greek
a-
lacking, without
amorphous, atheistic
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anti-
against, opposing
antipathy, antithesis
apo-
from, away
apology, apocrypha
cata-
down, away, thoroughly
cataclysm, catastrophe
dia-
through, across, apart
diameter, diagnose
eu-
good, pleasant
eulogy, euphemism
hemi-
half
hemisphere, hemiplegic
hyper-
excessive, over
hypercritical, hypertension
hypo-
under, beneath
hypodermic, hypothesis
peri-
around
periscope, perimeter
pro-
before
prognosis, program
syn, sym-
together, with
synchronize, sympathy,
syl- sys-
syllable, system
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Noun Suffixes:
Foreign (Latin, French, Greek)
-age
process, state, rank
-ance
act, condition, fact
-ancy
-ard
passage, bondage
acceptance, vigilance,
hesitancy
one that does (esp. excessively)
-art
coward, laggard
braggart
-ate
rank, office
-ation
action, state, result
occupation, starvation
-cy
state, condition
accuracy, captaincy
-ee
one receiving action
employee, refugee
-eer
doer, worker at
engineer, racketeer
-ence
-er
act, condition, fact
doer, native of
-ery
skill, action, collection
-ess
feminine
-et, -ette
little, feminine
-ion
action, result, state
-ism
act, manner, doctrine
-ist
doer, believer
- ition
action, state, result
-ity
state, quality, condition
-ment
means, result, action
-or
doer, office, action
-ry
condition, practice, collection
-tion
action, condition
-tude
quality, state, result
-ty
quality, state
delegate, primate
evidence, patience
baker, westerner
surgery, robbery, crockery
waitress, lioness
islet, cigarette, majorette
union, fusion, dominion
baptism, barbarism, socialism
monopolist, socialist
sedition, expedition
paucity, civility
refreshment, disappointment
elevator, juror, honor
dentistry, jewelry
creation, relation
fortitude, multitude
novelty, beauty
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-ure
-y
act, result, means
culture, signature
result, action, quality
jealously, inquiry
Adjective Suffixes:
Old English
-en
made of, like
-ful
full of, marked by
-ish
suggesting, like
childish, devilish
-less
lacking, without
helpless, hopeless
-like
like, similar
childlike, dreamlike
like, of the nature of
friendly, cowardly
-ly
wooden, golden
thankful, masterful
-some
apt to, showing
tiresome, lonesome
-ward
in the direction of
backward, homeward
-y
showing, suggesting
hilly, sticky, wavy
Foreign
-able
-ate
able, likely
having, showing
capable, affable
animate, separate
-escent
becoming, growing
obsolescent, quiescent
-esque
in the style of, like
picturesque, statuesque
-fic
making, causing
terrific, soporific
-ible
able, likely, fit
-ose
marked by, given to
-ous
edible, possible, divisible
comatose, bellicose
religious, furious
Adjective or Noun Suffixes:
-al
doer, pertaining to
-an
one belonging to
-ant
-ary
actor, agent, showing
belonging to, one connected with
rival, animal, autumnal
human, European
servant, observant
primary, adversary, auxiliary
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-ent
doing, showing, actor
confident, adherent
-ese
of a place or style, style
Chinese, journalese
-ian
pertaining to, belonging to
barbarian, reptilian
-ic
dealing with, caused by person or thing
-ile
marked by, one marked by
-ine
-ite
classic, choleric
juvenile, servile
marine, canine, divine
formed, showing
-ive
belonging or tending to
-ory
doing, pertaining to
favorite, composite
detective, native
accessory, contributory
Verbs Suffixes:
Old English
-en
cause to be, become
deepen, darken
Foreign
-ate
become, form, treat
populate, animate
-esce
become, grow, continue
convalesce, acquiesce
-fy
make, cause, cause to have
-ish
-ize
do, make, perform
make, cause to be
glorify, fortify
punish, finish
sterilize, motorize
A root is the core of a word – the part to which prefixes and suffixes are added. To
find the root, you have only to remove any affix there may be. For example, removal
of the affix cata- meaning “down” from cataclysm leaves us with the root – clysmmeaning “falling”. Roots have more specific and definite meanings than either
prefixes or suffixes and appear in fewer different words. The following list contains
some of the common foreign roots in English words.
ROOT
MEANING
EXAMPLES
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Latin
-ag-, -act-agr-am-, -amic-
do, drive, impel
field
friend, love
-aqu-
water
-aud-, -audit-
hear
agitate, transact
agriculture, agrarian
amatory, amicable
aquatic, aquarium, aqueduct
audible, auditorium
-ben-, -bene-
well, good
benefit, benediction
-brev-
short, brief
abbreviate, breviary
-cand-
white, glowing
candor, incandescent
-capit-
head
-cent-
hundred
capital, decapitate
century, centennial
-cid-, -cis-
kill, cut
suicide, regicide, incision
-clin-
bend, lean
decline, inclination
-cogn-
know
recognize, cognizant
-cred-
believe, trust
incredible, credulity
-crypt-
hidden, secret
crypt, cryptic
-culp-
fault, blame
culpable, exculpate
lead
educate, conductor
-duc-, -duct-equ-
equal
-err-
wander, stray
-fac-, -fact-
do, make
-fect-, -fic-
equation, equanimity
erratic, aberration
facile, manufacture
defective, efficient
-fer-
bear, yield
transfer, fertile
-fid-
belief, faith
fidelity, perfidious
-fid-
end, limit
final, indefinite
-frag-, -fract-
break
fragment, fracture
-fus-
pour
transfuse, effusive
-gen-
birth, kind, origin
generate, generic
-jac-, -ject-
throw, hurl, cast
adjacent, eject
-jud-
judge
prejudice, adjudicate
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-jug-
join, yoke
conjugal, conjugate
join
junction, disjunctive
-junct-jur-
swear, plead
-leg-, -lig-, -lect-loc-loqu-, -loc-
choose, read
place
talk, speech
adjure, perjury
eligible, legible, lectern
locus, locale
colloquial, locution
-magn-
large
magnitude, magnify
-mal-
bad
malady, malevolent
-man-, -manu-
hand
-mit-, -miss-
send
-mor-, -mort
die, death
-omni-ped-
all
foot
manicure, manual
remit, emissary
mortuary, immortal
omnipotent, omniscient
pedal, quadruped
-pend-, -pens-
hang, weigh
appendix, suspense
-pon-, -pos-
place, put
postpone, interpose
-port-
carry, bear
transport, importation
-prim-
first, early
primitive, primordial
-punct-
point
-reg-, -rig-, -rect-rupt-sang-sci-scrib-, -script-sent-, sens-sequ-, -secut-son-
rule, straight, right
break
blood
know, knowledge
write
feel
follow
sound
punctuation, punctilious
regent, incorrigible, rectangular
rupture, interrupt
sanguine, consanguinity
omniscient, prescience
inscribe, proscribe, manuscript
presentiment, sensitive
sequel, persecute consecutive
consonant, sonorous
-spir-
breath, breathe
expire, inspiration
-string-, -strict-
bind tight
constrict, stricture, stringent
-tract-
draw, pull
traction, extractor
-uni-
one
unify, universe
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-ven-, -vent-
come
intervene, supervene
-verb-
word
verbal, verbiage
-vid-, -vis-
see
evident, television
-vit-
life
vitality, vitamin
man
anthropology, misanthropic
Greek
-anthrop-arch-
ancient, chief
archaeology, monarch
-astr-, -aster-
star
astronomy, asterisk
-auto-
self
automatic, autonomy
-biblio-
book
bibliography, bibliophile
life
biology, autobiography
-chrom-
color
chromatic, chromosome
-cosm-
world, order
cosmos, microcosm
-cycl-
wheel, circle
cyclone, bicycle
-dem-
people
-gen-
kind, race
eugenics, genesis
-geo-
earth
geography, geology
-bio-
-gram-
write, writing
-graph-hydr-log-
democracy, epidemic
grammar, epigram
orthography, geography
water
word, study
-micr-
small
-mon-
one, single
hydrogen, dehydrate
epilogue, theology, logic
microbe, microscope
monogamy, monologue
-morph-
form
amorphous, metamorphosis
-neo-
new
neologism, neolithic
-orth-
straight, correct
-pan-
all, entire
-path-
feeling, suffering
orthodox, orthography
panorama, pandemonium
apathy, pathology, sympathy
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-phil-
like, love
philanthropic, philosophy
-phon-
sound
phonology, euphony
-poly-
many
polygon, polygamy
-proto-
first
prototype
-psych-
mind
psychology, psychosomatic
-soph-
wise, wisdom
philosophy, sophomore
-tele-
far, distant
telegram, telepathy
-zo-
animal
zoology, protozoa
Learning how to identify and create new words combining affixes requires a lot of
practice. These exercises will help you to master basic procedures of word formation.
ACTIVITY 3: Do the following exercises related to affixes.
1. Combine the words from List A to the derivational suffixes given in List B.
What kind of grammatical function do the new words perform?
Example: perform (verb) +
List A
- ance = performance (noun)
List B
1. happy
- hood - ment
2. friend
- acy
- th
3. girl
- ship
- ure
4. compose
- ity
5. shrink
- age
6. active
- ation
7. supreme
- ance
8. true
- ness
9. discover
- ism
-y
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2. Underline the affixes in the following words. Then classify the grammatical
function of each word with and without the affix.
Example: drying
drying (noun, adjective) = dry (verb, adjective)
1. sweetly
2. doubtful
3. rehearsal
4. passionate
5. familiarization
6. acceptance
7. excellent
8. conspiracy
9. breakage
10. falsify
3. Add a derivational suffix to each of these words, which already end in a
derivational suffix.
Example: general; generalization, generalizing
1. reasonable
2. formal
3. organize
4. purify
5. purist
4. Add an inflectional suffix to each of these words, which end in a derivational
suffix.
Example: driver + -s = drivers
1. happiness
2. beautify
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3. quarterly
4. pressure
5. friendly
REFERENCES
1
2
3
FROMKIN,V; RODMAN, R. (1974). An Introduction to Language. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
New York.
STAGEBERG, N. (1965). An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New
York.
WARRINER, J. (1951). English Grammar and Composition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
United States of America.
SAMPLE TEST ON
MORPHOLOGY
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This sample test provides possible ways for evaluating morphology in a grammar
class.
ACTIVITY:
Instructions: Divide TWO of the underlined words into morphemes and classify
them. Then, ELIMINATE ONE MORPHEME from the words you analyzed to create
THREE new words.
Peruvian archeologists have recently found the first major ruins at Machu Picchu
since Bingham's discovery. Halfway down the hillside, they have found a mile-long
stretch of agricultural terraces, and, nearby, a religious center with 30 tombs.
Word1:
New Word 1: _______________
New Word 2: _______________
New Word 3: _______________
Word2:
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CHAPTER 2:
LEARNING ABOUT PARTS OF SPEECH
In the study of English, most grammarians recognize nine parts of speech or
classifications of words:
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Verb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection
Articles
man, dog, truth, orange, tree
I, she, nothing, who, everyone
happy, dirty, dark, careful, new
very, there, however, rapidly
believe, love, die, dream, eat
in, on, at, between, by, from
and, but, or, because, although
ouch, oh, psst
the, an, a
ABOUT NOUNS
Nouns are the words we use to name objects, things, people, ideas, animals,
materials and states. According to the classifications shown before, some nouns name
specific people (Forrester), places (Caracas), holidays (Thanksgiving), newspapers
(Meridiano), and many others. There are also common nouns that name objects
(table), animals (cats), and feelings (love) among others. If they refer to real existing
things, elements or beings, they are called concrete. If they name imaginary arbitrary
ideas, then they are abstract nouns. Nouns which are called variable nouns can also
take plural (tables, boxes, women)) or singular form (door, child, fox). Some are
countable (dogs, computer) or uncountable (music, homework). Nouns like crew and
band are collective and these take pronoun substitutes either in singular (it) or plural
(they) without changing the number in the noun. Look at the following diagram
(Conceptual Diagram 1) which shows information about nouns.
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Conceptual Diagram 1: Nouns classification
Common nouns (boy, car, cat, book)
Proper names and nouns (John, The University of Cambridge)
Concrete (star, whisper, and lemon)
Nouns
Abstract (love, peace, civilization)
Countable (desks, apples, pupils)
Uncountable (rice, sugar, money)
Collective (band, family, jury)
ACTIVITY 1: Identify and classify the nouns in the following sentences.
Example: If my students give the reports in on time, their grades will improve.
noun
noun
noun
noun
-
The crowd roared enthusiastically as Chip sank the winning basket just one
second before time ran out.
-
Fifty-seven percent of women report that they always say the truth.
-
While most people use little white lies to make life easier, the majority of
Americans are concerned about honesty in both public and personal life.
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ABOUT PRONOUNS
Pronouns are words used to substitute nouns and differ from nouns in that they do
not admit determiners. Pronouns have person and gender distinction and their
singular and plural forms are not morphologically related; for example, the subject or
personal pronoun THEY is used as the plural form of the personal pronouns HE (used
for masculine), SHE (used for feminine).
Conceptual Diagram 2: Specific Reference Pronouns
Personal :
Nominative
Objective
I
me
Possessive mine
you
you
yours
he
she
it
we
you
they
him
her
it
us
you
them
hers
its
ours
yours
theirs
his
Reflexive myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves
Relative :
who, whom, which, whose, that
Interrogative : who, whom, whose, what
The previous diagram lists pronouns that are considered to have specific reference.
In this group of specific reference pronouns, the personal pronoun It deserves special
attention because when it works as subject in sentences related to the weather, it does
not have meaning and receives the name of 'PROP' it (It's raining). This pronoun can
also refer to something which is said after this; receiving the name of
'ANTICIPATORY' it in sentences like:
It was nice seeing you today.
(Seeing you today was nice).
It would be convenient to begin the course earlier.
(To begin the course earlier would be convenient)
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There is a special classification for the pronouns with indefinite reference:
Conceptual Diagram 3 : Indefinite Reference Pronouns
Countable
Personal
Universal
everyone everybody
Non-Countable
Non-Personal
everything, each
each, all, both
Partitive
Quantifying
assertive
someone, somebody
everywhere
it
all
something, somewhere
some
non-assertive
anyone, anybody
anything, anywhere
any
negative
no one, nobody
nothing, nowhere
none
many, much, few, little, several, enough
ACTIVITY 3: Underline and classify the pronouns in the following text.
All over the world children learn to understand and speak their own language
before they go to school. They acquire this wonderful skill by constant practice, by
listening and talking to themselves, to their family and friends. At first the child only
repeats words and phrases that he has heard and learned. But he finds that he has to
put new sentences together to get what he wants. He tries the new sentences out on
people. They accept some of his sentences but reject others because they are funny or
because they don't make sense.
Saitz &Stieglitz. Challenge: A First Reader/Workbook in English.
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ABOUT ADJECTIVES
Adjectives are words used to give characteristics of objects, people, animals, and
things among others. Adjectives, then, serve to describe qualitatively and
quantitatively. In the classification of the adjectives, they are said to be attributive
when used as premodifiers (before nouns); predicative when they appear in the
predicate as subject complement (My house is big), or as object complement (Susan
made me happy), and postpositive when they follow the item they modify.
Most indefinite pronouns ending in -one, where, -body, -thing can only be
modified by postpositive adjectives. Some adjectives beginning with a-:ablaze,
afloat, afraid, alert, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake, aware, are used
preferable as postposed adjectives as well as absent, present, involved, and
concerned. One example of this is the adjective absent in the sentence: A missing
person is someone absent.
To learn more about the classification of adjectives see the conceptual diagram
(Conceptual Diagram 4) given:
Conceptual Diagram 4: adjectives
Attributive (the dangerous road, an interesting film)
Adjectives
Predicative (The road is dangerous, He considered the film interesting)
Postpositive (The people involved were not found.)
Premodified by intensifiers (a very interesting film)
Comparative and superlative
(more dangerous roads, the most dangerous road)
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Remember:
1) Some adjectives can be head of a noun phrase: The rich can be
lonely and bored.
2) Adjectives can take the form of verbs ending in ‘ing’ or ‘ed’: They
were very relieved to see her, It was an alarming new.
3) Some nouns can function as adjectives: a love poem, the city bus,
September rain.
4) Some words can be nouns or adjectives without any difference in
form: a criminal lawyer (adj.); The criminal was sent to prison (n.).
5) Some words may be used as indefinite or demonstrative pronouns and
as adjectives: all, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, more, neither, one,
other, several, some, that, these, this, those, what, which.
These books are expensive. (adj.)
These are expensive. (pronoun)
6) When there are two or more adjectives before a noun, these are not
separated by the conjunction and, except when the last two are referring to color: an
intelligent tall boy, but a blue and black combination
7) When adjectives that refer to quality are used after linking verbs like
sound, is, and taste, an and is placed between the last two adjectives: The bed was
large, comfortable and clean.
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8) When a group of words expressing a characteristic is used to modify
a noun, these words always go after the noun: The book nominated for the awards is
really expensive.
9) When using two or more adjectives before a noun, they have to be
organized as follows: descriptive adjectives (clean, light, soft...), size or age
adjectives (small, big, ancient...), and color adjectives (blue, black, pink...): a light
new yellow box.
10) Adjectives or words expressing nationality (English, Italian...),
origin or style (western, Japan...) are the last kind of adjective used before the noun:
Peter found an old big Italian dresser.
11) Some adjectives are used followed by a verb in infinitive (It is
interesting to read, and I'm scared to talk there)
ACTIVITY 4: Identify and classify the pronouns and adjectives in the following
sentences.
-
On a sultry July afternoon we enjoyed sitting under the branches of a beautiful
willow tree.
-
Tubman was one of many former slaves who devoted their lives to the cause of
freedom and to the advancement of their people.
-
The anecdote is a very short story which is usually funny or entertaining.
-
Time passes quickly when you are reading interesting, enjoyable material.
-
The two front rollers of your refrigerator have adjustment screws located behind
the grille.
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ABOUT ADVERBS
An adverb is a word that can express idea of time, place, manner, frequency,
reason, and certainty among others. This word modifies or is related to the main verb
of a sentence, to adjectives or to another adverb. In English, the classification of this
group of words is really complex. The next conceptual diagram (Conceptual Diagram
5) shows one the most useful classifications of adverbs.
Conceptual Diagram 5: Adverbs
of manner (quickly, hard, fast)
KINDS
of place (here, down, near)
of time (now, soon, today)
of frequency (once, never)
of certainty (surely, definitely)
of degree (very, rather, too)
interrogative ( when?, why?)
relative (when, where, why)
ADVERB USED AS A MODIFIER:

It modifies an adjective: He’s rather tall for a ten-year old. The adverb enough
is placed after its adjective: This just isn’t good enough!

It modifies an adverb: You seem to be smoking rather heavily these days.
Oddly enough, nothing valuable was stolen.

It modifies a prepositional phrase: The nail went right through the wall.
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
It modifies a determiner, pronoun or numeral: He has hardly any friend.
Nearly everybody came to the housewarming party.
Over two hundred deaths were reported after the disaster.

It modifies a noun: Some adverbs denoting place or time postmodify nouns: the
journey home, the meeting yesterday, the day before, the sentence below.

It modifies a noun phrase: The place was in rather a mess; He told such a
funny story.

It is a complement of a preposition:
Some place and time adverbs act as complements of prepositions. From the place
adverbs, here and there occur for example with: along, around, down, from, in,
near, out (of), over, round, through, and up. Home can occur after at, from,
near, toward(s). Others are restricted to follow from, above, abroad, below,
downstairs, indoors, inside, outside, within, without: Is anybody at home?; He
shouted me from downstairs; I haven’t eaten since yesterday.
ACTIVITY 5: Identify the adverbs in the following sentences. Underline
and classify the word it modifies.
Example: It's really amazing.
Adv.
Adj.
-
I’m awfully sorry.
-
He turned slowly and faced the crowd.
-
They spoke in a friendly voice.
-
The accident happened near home.
-
Would you please move the chair from here to there’
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POSITION OF ADVERBS
MANNER:
- After the verb: He runs quickly.
- After the object: Mary speaks English well.
- When we have verb+preposition+object: Peter looked at me suspiciously or Peter
looked suspiciously at me.
- In sentences with verb+object, the length of the object affects the position of the
adverb: Peter looked at me suspiciously or Peter looked suspiciously at me (short
object); She carefully picked up all the bits of broken glass (long object).
PLACE:
- They usually go after the direct object or after the verb: I went there.
- If there is also an adverb of manner, the adverb of place comes after it: They played
well here.
TIME:
- Adverbs like afterwards, eventually, lately, recently, now, soon, then, today,
tomorrow, are normally placed at the beginning or the end of the sentence or clause:
They will come tomorrow.
- Late and immediately come at the end of a sentence: I arrived late.
FREQUENCY:
- They are placed after the simple tenses of to be: She is always on time.
- They are placed before the simple tenses of all other verbs: He usually gets there at
two.
- With tenses consisting of more than one verb, they are placed after the first auxiliary
or, with interrogative verbs: He can never understand, Have you ever been to
Merida? (Exceptions: Have to and used to: You hardly ever have to remind him.)
DEGREE:
- After be: He is undoubtedly more intelligent than his brother.
-Before main verbs: They certainly worked hard.
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-
Or placed at the beginning or end of a sentence or clause: Apparently he knew the
town well or He knew the town well apparently.
ACTIVITY 6: Identify and classify the adverbs in the following sentences.
-
Mrs. Smith is convinced that progress cannot be obstructed forever and that
eventually a highly original idea is accepted.
-
Tubman then carefully interpreted his observations and correctly arrived at his
exciting discovery.
ABOUT ARTICLES
An article is a word that modifies a noun or a word that functions as a noun by
expressing agreement in number like in an apple or the apples, the poor or the smart .
The articles also express if the speakers have previous knowledge or not on the topic
they are discussing; the following conceptual diagram (Conceptual Diagram 6) shows
a classification of articles.
Conceptual Diagram 6: ARTICLES
ARTICLES
Indefinite Articles (a, an)
Definite Article
(the)
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Some of the most important uses of the definite article the are:
-
When there is reference to something mentioned before (I visited a church and a
museum, but I bought a painting of the church.)
-
When the reference is made through postmodifiers (I brought the book I was
telling you about.)
-
When it refers to a unique object or group of objects (I always look at the stars.)
-
When there is reference to a community institution (Why don't you use the radio?)
-
When it makes reference to a generic or typical class of objects or countable
nouns (The dog is a domestic animal.) Mass nouns do not use the to express
generic reference (Water is one of the most important liquids in our body.)
-
When mass nouns are postmodified by an of-phrase (I want to learn about the
water of the oceans.)
-
When the precedes adjectives that denote a class of people (She wanted to help
the poor.) and abstract qualities (I explained from the abstract to the concrete.)
Note: A is used before words beginning with a consonant sound; an is used before
words beginning with a vowel sound.
EXAMPLES:
a student, a cow, a beautiful girl, a useful book
an orange, an artist, an amazing story
ACTIVITY 7: Complete the following paragraph using a, an, the or zero
article.
- _____students who major in _____ liberal arts field have to develop _____
background in ____ variety of subjects: ____history, ___pure science, ____language,
and ___ social science. _____administrators believe that it is ____valuable for ____
student to have ____ background in ____broad range of ____subjects. In many
schools ____students in ____technical fields, on ____ other hand can specialize in
their field of ___study without taking extra courses that do not relate to their major.
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ABOUT CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions are linking words used to join elements or structures without
modifying them. Linking words or conjunctions like and, but, and or are
coordinating when the elements or structures put together are of the same class:
EXAMPLE:
My mother is a teacher and my father a doctor, I don't want to go, but I will.
Sometimes the coordination is made through two words, one placed before the
first structure or element. These linking words are called correlative conjunctions.
EXAMPLE:
Peter is not only an excellent teacher, but (also) a well-known actor.
When the linking words join elements or structures that are not of the same class,
these linking words are called subordinating conjunctions. In the next diagram
(Conceptual Diagram 7) there is a list of linking words and their classification as
coordinating, correlative or subordinating conjunctions.
Conceptual Diagram 7: Conjunctions
Coordinating (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet)
CONJUNCTION
Correlative
(either...or, not only...but also, neither... nor,
Both...and, whether...or)
Subordinating (after, although, as, as much as, because,
Before, how, if, in order that, since, than,
that, though, unless, until,
when, where, while)
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There are simple, compound and correlative subordinating conjunctions:
-
Words like after, before, unless, whereas, since, when, while, that, if, however,
and as are called simple subordinating conjunctions (She was studying English
when I met her.)
-
Conjunctions ending with that (which sometimes can be omitted) are called
compound subordinating conjunctions: in that, for all that, except that, now that,
supposing that, and given that, (She is going to buy a house in order that her
mother has a safe place to live.) Compound subordinating conjunctions can also
end with as like in as far as, as long as, so as, and as soon as (I'll be here as soon
as I can.). They can also end with than followed by a non-finite clause: rather
than, sooner than (I would buy a car rather than spending my money on
clothes). As if, in case and as though are compound subordinating conjunctions.
-
The last group of subordinating conjunctions are called correlative because they
work in pairs like if...then, so...as, no sooner ...than, whether...or, the...the.
ACTIVITY 8: Identify and classify the conjunctions in the following
sentences.
-
Although some people enjoy living in cities, others dislike it.
-
Cities are sometimes crowded, yet they can be very interesting.
-
Some people think cities are dangerous because they do not have social security
programs.
-
If you had a choice, would you live in a city or in the country?
-
As far as I am concerned, nobody and somebody can not be used in the same way.
-
Peter will come; however, he can not stay long.
-
Words and phrases must be classified or identified as part of the objective of this
class, but only if the teacher requires it.
-
These machines are going to continue working unless there is an official order to
turn them off.
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ABOUT PREPOSITIONS
A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between a noun or a pronoun and
another word in a sentence. Prepositions are sometimes followed by the object of the
preposition, which may be formed by more than one word or modifiers (in the
classroom, on a light blue cover). The combination of the preposition and its object
receives the name of prepositional phrase. In some circumstances, the preposition the
object of the preposition is absent. For example, in wh-questions (Who do you live
with?), in relative clauses (That woman is the one I'm studying with.), in wh-clauses
(It is true what they have been talking about.), to name a few.
Pronouns that are used after prepositions normally take the objective form (for
me, after him). Many prepositions can be used as adverbs too. A preposition always
has an object while and adverb does not (The girls ran outside the park; the girls ran
outside).
Some commonly used prepositions: about, above, across, according to, after,
against, along, amid, among, around, at, as, because of, before, behind, below,
beneath, beside, besides, between, beyond, but (meaning "except"), by, concerning,
down, during, except, for, from, in, in front of, in spite of, into, inside, instead of, like,
near, next to, of, off, on, over, out, out of, outside, past, since, through, to,
throughout, toward, under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon, with, within, without.
ACTIVITY 9: Identify each preposition and its object.
-
Stravinsky was born in Russia but left before the beginning of World War I.
-
Stravinsky died in 1971, but his influence on music goes on.
-
One opera by Wagner talks about the marriage between a knight and a princess.
-
The famous melody of the "Wedding March" from this opera is often played at
weddings.
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ABOUT INTERJECTIONS
An interjection is a word that expresses emotion and has no grammatical relation
to other words in the sentence. Interjections express emotions like surprise, anger,
pain, happiness, and relief. Some sounds can be represented by interjections.
Examples: Oh!, My Goodness!, Hurry!, Ah!, Ouch!, Okay, I'll go, Bam. That was a
loud noise.
When the interjection expresses a strong feeling, write a period after it.
Example: My Goodness. I don't believe it!
Use a comma after an expression of mild feeling.
Example: Oh, What a lovely day!
ACTIVITY 10: Identify and classify (if possible) the articles, conjunctions,
prepositions, and interjections in the following sentences.
-
We found an unusual bargain on the bargain table.
-
Wow! Wait until you see your picture! It's great!
-
At the end of the game, neither the coach nor the team members could account for
the lopsided score.
-
John Updike's novels have met with success from critics and public alike.
-
Well, I'm not sure.
-
Whoops! Phil shouldn't have swung at that one.
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ACTIVITY 1: Write your own definition for each part of speech.
NOUN:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
ADJECTIVE:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
ADVERB:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
ARTICLE:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
PREPOSITION:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
INTERJECTION:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
CONJUNCTION:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
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REFERENCES
- FROMKIN,V; RODMAN, R. (1974). An Introduction to Language. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
New York.
- STAGEBERG, N. (1965). An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New
York.
- WARRINER, J. (1951). English Grammar and Composition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
United States of America.
- CROWELL, T. (1964). Index to Modern English. McGraw-Hill. United States of America.
- SCHRAMPFER, B. (1989). Understanding and using English Grammar. Prentice Hall Regents.
New Jersey.
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SAMPLE TEST ON
PARTS OF SPEECH
This sample test provides possible ways for evaluating parts of speech in a
grammar class.
ACTIVITIES:
Instructions: Identify and classify the nouns in the following sentence.
-
The teams finished level at the end, so their managers asked them to replay
the match on Wednesday.
Instructions: Identify and classify the adjectives in the following sentence.
-
It is difficult to remember its simple parallel structure, but the lines seem
primitive and delicate.
Instructions: Organize the adjectives given.
-
Ability: creative, spelling, exceptional, English
Objects: white, flat, many, ancient, cooking, impressive, blue.
Exhibition: cockroach, living, disgusting, most, winged
Eyes: several, red, thousand, flashing, robot, bullet-shaped.
Instructions: Identify each word in the following sentence according to Parts of
Speech. Then, classify NOUNS and ADJECTIVES.
- Together, the two sites cover an area as great as Machu Picchu itself, which
dates from the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries.
Instructions: Write sentences following the instructions
1. A sentence using 'hardly' as an adverb.
2. A sentence using the preposition 'inside'.
3. An interrogative sentence using the subordinating conjunction 'when'.
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CHAPTER 3:
LEARNING ABOUT VERBS AND VERBALS
This section is going to deal with the verb and verbals and their classification.
Verbs are words that tell what the subject of a sentence is or does. Verbals are forms
of verbs but used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs. Verbals can be of three kinds:
participles, gerunds, and infinitives.
ABOUT PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
A participle is a verb form used as an adjective. There are two kinds of participles:
present participle and past participle. A present participle ends in -ing, while a past
participle may end in -ed (played), -d (loved), -t (slept), -en (driven), or -n (seen).
VERB
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
PAST PARTICIPLE
Write
Writing
Written
Study
Studying
Studied
Cut
Cutting
Cut
Eat
Eating
Eaten
Since participles act like adjectives, they modify nouns or pronouns.
- A swimming pool is the best to go on vacations.
- I want to find an organized person for that activity.
Participles can come either before or after the noun or pronoun they modify.
-
Chilled and exhausted, most of the climbers returned home after an hour.
-
They saw their children sleeping.
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ACTIVITY 1: Underline each participle in the following sentences and say
which word it modifies.
Example: They are going to employ organized (planners).
participle
-
A nicely written paragraph offers excitement to a reader.
-
Practicing, experienced writers look for new ways to develop their ideas.
-
Writers use their imagination, creativity and trained minds to express themselves.
-
Many writers expect to help people reading.
A gerund is the present participle of a verb (the -ing form) used as a noun. In
a sentence a gerund verbal can work in all the ways that a noun does: as a subject
(Reading is my favorite activity), as a direct object (I love reading), as the object
of a preposition (I always find a good moment for reading), and as complement of
the subject (My hobby is reading).
ACTIVITY 2: Underline each gerund in the following sentences and say what
function it has in the structure of the sentence (S, OD, OI, Co, Cs, Object of
prep).
Example: I don't mind (giving you my new address). Direct object
-
Would you like coming to a lecture on Phonetics in the auditorium tonight?
-
One of the students suggested taking the book, leaving it on his chair and
pretending that it had been somebody else's fault.
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-
The teacher asked seeing my report, and when I wasn't able finding it he made me
write it again.
-
After spending a week in the beach, he decided that really didn't enjoy swimming
and sunbathing and begun thinking on an excuse to go back home.
The following diagram (Conceptual Diagram 1) shows different classifications of
the verbs.
Conceptual Diagram 1 : Types of verbs
Lexical : Regular and Irregular ( She believed in love; He ate an
apple; They studied English)
Transitive and Intransitive ( Susan has a dress; Mary runs
quickly)
VERB
Semi-auxiliaries ( have to, be about to, have got to, happen to,
come to, be going to, get to be sure to, be to)
Auxiliary Primary ( do, have , be)* they lose their meaning when
used as auxiliary
Modal
( can, may, shall, will, could, might, should,
Would, must, ought to, used to, need, dare)
They can give different meanings according
to the context in which they are used
REMEMBER:
- Transitive verbs have a Direct Object: (He shaved himself)
- Intransitive verbs do not have Object: (They sang well)
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ACTIVITY 3:Identify and classify the verbs in the following sentences.
- My friend jumped up and down and shouted when she heard the news.
- With the coming of spring, the river flooded and inundated several villages.
- When I saw Diana, she was trying to find out what she was supposed to do.
- I think I’d better go to the library.
- You need to sharpen your skills so you can get a better job.
- When I am home alone in the evening, I like to read or watch television.
- We have been married for a long time.
FINITE AND NON-FINITE VERB PHRASES
The non-finite forms of the verb are the infinitive (to call, to eat), the -ing participle
(calling, eating), and the -ed participle (called, eaten). Non-finite verb phrases
consist of one or more such items.
FINITE VERB PHRASES
NON-FINITE VERB PHRASES
She studies a lot
To study like that must be tiring
They are swimming
I saw him swimming
They had been elected before
Having been elected before, they
were prepared for everything
ABOUT TENSE AND TIME
The English speaker, like speakers of many other languages, can conceive of many
different kinds of time expressions: “right now”, “yesterday”, “tomorrow”, “the day
before yesterday”, etc.
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As far as verb forms go, however, the English speaker has only two categories of
time: past tense and non-past tense.
NON-PAST TENSE
PAST TENSE
can go
could go
is going to say
was going to say
has been raining
had been raining
will have been killed
would have been killed
REMEMBER that TIME and TENSE are not synonyms. Time concerns matters like
“right now” and “yesterday” and “tomorrow”. Tense is a verb form or a
combination of verb forms. Tense is used not only to express time; it also expresses
grammatical relationship or agreement (“ I believed he could win”) and reality or
unreality (“I wish I could go”).
ACTIVITY 4: Classify the verbs in the sentences in Activity 1 according to their
Tense, and say if they are Finite or Non-finite.
MAJOR TENSE FORMS
FOR THE PRESENT
Simple Present
They study English
Present Progressive
They are studying English
Present Perfect
They have studied English
Present Perfect Progressive
They have been studying English for two hours.
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FOR THE PAST
Simple Past
They studied English
Past Progressive
They were studying English
Past Perfect
They had studied English
Past Perfect Progressive
They had been studying English for two hours
before their teacher came in.
FOR THE FUTURE
Simple Future
They will study English
Future Progressive
They will be studying English when I get there
Future Perfect
They will already have studied English when the
teacher arrives
Future Perfect Progressive
They will have been studying for two hours by
the time their teacher arrives
ACTIVITY 5: Complete the following sentences using the correct verb tenses.
1. Everyone of us______ (have, has) his own burden to shoulder.
2. What are these things doing here _____(is, are) what I’d like to know.
3. War and peace _____(is, are) a constant theme in history.
4. The people outside are getting very impatient.
5. Neither John nor Mary _____(has, have) replied to my letter.
6. Physics, as well as chemistry, ____(is, are) taught at this school.
7. Please be quiet. I (try)_________ to concentrate.
8. Ten years ago, the government (decide)_________ to begin a food program. At
that time, many people in the rural areas of the country (starve)_______ due to
several years of drought.
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9. I was late. The teacher (give, already)_______ a quiz when I (get)____ to class.
10. I’m going to eat lunch at 12:30. After I (eat)_____, I (take, probably)______ a
nap.
ABOUT TENSE, ASPECT AND MOOD
There are three concepts that are of great relevance in grammar: tense, aspect, and
mood. Aspect has to do with the way in which the action expressed by the verb is
experienced: if this action is complete (perfective aspect) or incomplete or in progress
(progressive aspect).
Progressive Aspect:
It refers to activity in progress. It suggests that the activity is temporary (of
limited duration), and that is not completed.
- He was writing a novel several years ago (but I don’t know whether he finished it)
- I have been mending the car this morning (but the job may not be finished.)
REMEMBER: The verbs that most typically take the progressive aspect are verbs
denoting ACTIVITIES (walk, read, write, work, etc) or processes (change, grow,
widen, improve, etc). Verbs denoting MOMENTARY events (knock, jump, nod, kick,
etc), if they are used with the progressive, suggest repetition:
- He nodded (one movement of the head)
- He was nodding (repeated movements of the head)
Some verbs often cannot be used with the progressive at all, because the notion of
‘something in progress’ cannot be easily applied to them:
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A) Verbs of perception: feel, hear, see, smell, and taste
B) Verbs that refer to state of mind or feeling: believe, adore, desire, detest, dislike,
doubt, forget, hate, hope, imagine, know, like, love, mean, prefer, remember, suppose,
understand, want, wish, etc.
C) Verbs referring to a relationship or a state of being: be, belong to, concern,
consist of, contain, cost, depend on, deserve, equal, fit, have, involve, matter, owe,
own, posses, remain, require, resemble, etc.
Exceptions: In many circumstances, those verbs (A, B, C) may change to ‘activity
verbs’ referring to an active form of behavior: I’m looking at your drawings; I was
listening to the news when he entered.
Perfective Aspect: The meaning of the verb expresses completion through the
situation or context. This element of meaning is most evident in the past tense or in
the present perfect.
- He wrote a novel several years ago (he finished it)
- I have repaired the car this morning (the job is finished.)
The concept of mood has to do with the conditions that are implicit in the action of
the verb such as certainty, obligation, necessity, and possibility.
Subjunctive Mood: This construction is used as a way of expressing hypothetical
meaning in the past, present or future.
- In that-clauses: It is necessary that every member should inform himself of these
rules
- Formulaic expressions: Come what may, we will go ahead
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- Subjunctive were: If she were to do something like that...; He spoke to me as if I
were deaf.
Indicative Mood: This construction is used as a way of expressing physical specific
relation between speakers.
Who takes sugar?
Imperative Mood: This construction is used to express commands.
Please take this letter to the post for me.
ACTIVITY 6: Write sentences following the instructions provided.
EXAMPLE:
1. (to be, mine)_This table is mine__________________________
YOUR TURN
2. (start-transitive)_______________________________________
3. (himself-emphatic)_____________________________________
4. (simple present tense)__________________________________
5. (express a habitual action)______________________________
6. (express a future plan)_________________________________
7. ( write-lately)_________________________________________
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USES OF THE TENSES
SIMPLE PRESENT:
It is used to refer to “present events" or facts that are true at the moment of
1.
speaking. It is also used on sports commentary, formal declarations or
demonstrations:
-
We have to press the red button to start the machine; then we can introduce the diskette.
-
Galarraga hits the ball and nobody can stop it. It is a home run.
-
Venezuelan people speak Spanish.
-
Do you write very clearly?
-
Whenever I go to the beach, I swim a lot.
2. It is used to refer to a “present state or truth”, a condition or a state using verbs
that indicate a mental or emotional state like: agree, appear, be believe, belong, care,
consist, contain, forget, hate, please, seem, taste, think, etc.
-
My cat likes milk.
-
I remember Julia very well.
-
He understands everything.
3. It can also be used to refer to the exact words an author or publication has said or
told.
-
The Impulso says that Cardenales is our best baseball team.
-
Dictionaries tell the different meanings of words.
4. It can also express a “present habit”:
-
I always take a bus to work.
-
She likes drinking iced tea.
5. It is used to express a future action in a categorical way:
-
Do eat all your food. The trip takes more than six hours, and there are no stops!
-
We have to go to Miami. The concert is on Saturday.
6. It can be used to refer to a past action or meaning:
-
I hear you have changed your job.
-
We read the semester will be over in July.
-
They tell me you need another opportunity.
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SIMPLE PAST:
1.
It is used to refer to actions that were completed in the past at a definite time:
-
I already had dinner.
-
I went there yesterday.
2.
It can also refer to an action with no time reference:
-
How did you find my address?
-
Why did you register in this university?
3.
It can also refer to a gap between a time in the past and the present moment
-
He worked in that company for many years.
-
My aunt lived in Paris for ten years.
4.
It can express a habit in the past:
-
I used to ride my bike in the morning.
-
Helen never bought expensive shoes.
5.
It can also be used to express a tactful attitude of the speaker to a special
circumstance:
-
I wondered if you could give me hand.
-
Did you want to talk to me now?
6.
It also expresses a hypothetical past, especially in “if” clauses.
-
If I were you, I would tell him all the truth.
-
If I were he, I wouldn’t dress on pink.
CONTINUOUS PRESENT:
1. It is used to refer to an action that is happening now:
-
I’m not studying for my English test.
-
What are you doing?
-
Somebody is knocking at the door.
2. It also expresses an action that could be happening about this time but not
necessarily at the moment of speaking.
-
She’s studying English at the UPEL.
-
I’m working in a company near here.
3. It can also be used to talk about a definite arrangement in the near future:
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-
I’m having a party tomorrow.
-
The Browns are travelling to Europe on Saturday morning.
4. It can also be used with a point in time to indicate an action, which begins by this
time and continues after it:
-
I’m teaching Judo classes at 9 p.m.
5. It expresses a frequently repeated action with the help of the adverb 'always':
-
My mother is always cooking for the family.
-
Mr. Taker and his wife are always travelling to Miami.
6. Some verbs that imply deliberate use of the senses can be used in the continuous
form:
-
I hear footsteps.
-
My brother is listening to his favorite singer.
CONTINUOUS PAST:
1. It can be used with or without time expression:
-
It was getting darker.
- At noon, she was having lunch with her boyfriend.
2. This can also be used to describe (narration):
-
A good fire was burning, and a cat was sleeping in front of it. Near there, a girl
was writing a poem when somebody knocked at her door.
3. It is used in the indirect speech to express the future in the past:
- I told him that I was studying a lot.
4. It also refers to express a repeated action in the past:
-
They were always discussing.
PERFECT PRESENT:
1. It expresses a state that continues to the present time.
-
I have studied English for a long time.
-
The essence of poetry has not changed since the beginning of time.
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2. It also refers to a habit that continues to happen in the future:
-
I have gone there only a few times; and I love it.
-
Planes have constantly been improved by new inventions.
3. It expresses an event that occurred with results in the present time.
-
The taxi has arrived.
-
The glass of that window has been broken.
PERFECT PAST:
1. It is used to refer to the past in the past:
-
Karl thought he had met Miss Cochrane in Paris in 1980.
-
She supposed that her teacher had kept a record of her grades.
2. It is used to express an unreal past condition:
-
If Paul had studied harder last semester, he would have got a better grade.
-
I wish I had gone to the movies last night.
REFERENCES
- FROMKIN,V; RODMAN, R. (1974). An Introduction to Language. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
New York.
- STAGEBERG, N. (1965). An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New
York.
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EXERCISES ON USES
OF THE TENSES
ACTIVITIES
USES OF THE TENSES
Instructions: Past continuous or simple? Find the second part of each sentence.
Rewrite the sentence changing the verb given into the past continuous or simple past.
Follow the example.
1. I (dream)
2. When Mary (see) the question,
3. The train (wait)
4. Ellis (have) a puncture
5. When I (try) the pudding,
6. When Jane (lift) the chair,
7. When the gates (open),
8. I (read) a library book
a. she (feel) a sudden pain in her back.
b. when she (drive) on the motorway.
c. when I (find) a $100 note between two
pages.
d. the crowd (walk) in.
e. she (know) the answer.
f. when the alarm clock (ring).
g. I (like) it.
h. when we (arrive) at the station.
Example: I was dreaming when the alarm clock rang.
2.________________________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________________________
4. ________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________
6. ________________________________________________________________
7. ________________________________________________________________
8. ________________________________________________________________
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Instructions: Present perfect or simple past? Complete the conversation with the
correct verb forms. Use the verbs given.
Craig: (you-hear) (Have you heard the news about Cathy?
Nicola: No, what (happen) ______________________ ?
Craig: She (have) ___________________ an accident. She was running for a bus
when she (fall) _________________ down and (break) __________ her leg.
Nicola: Oh, how awful! When (this-happen) ____________________?
Craig: Yesterday afternoon. Sarah (tell) _____________me about it last night.
Nicola: Last night! You (know) __________________ last night, and you
(not-tell)__________me!
Craig: Well, I (not-see)________________you last night. And I (not-see)
__________you
today, until now.
Nicola: I hope she's all right. She (have) _____________lots of accidents, you know.
She (do) ______________the same thing about two years ago.
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CHAPTER 4:
LEARNING ABOUT HELPING VERBS
AND MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
Helping verbs or auxiliary verbs such as will, shall, may, might, can, could, must,
ought to, should, would, used to, need are used in conjunction with main verbs to
express shades of time and mood. The combination of helping verbs with main verbs
creates what are called verb phrases or verb strings. In the following sentence, "will
have been" are helping or auxiliary verbs and "studying" is the main verb; the whole
verb string is underlined:
- As of next August, I will have been studying chemistry for ten years.
REMEMBER that adverbs and contracted forms are not, technically, part of the
verb. In the sentence, "He has already started." the adverb already modifies the verb,
but it is not really part of the verb. The same is true of the 'nt in "He hasn't started
yet" (the adverb not, represented by the contracted n't, is not part of the verb, has
started).
Shall, will and forms of have, do and be combine with main verbs to indicate time
and voice. As auxiliaries, the verbs be, have and do can change form to indicate
changes in subject and time.
•I shall go now.
• He had won the election.
• They did write that novel together.
•I am going now.
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• He was winning the election.
• They have been writing that novel for a long time.
In the United States, people seldom use shall for anything other than polite
questions (suggesting an element of permission) in the first-person:
• "Shall we go now?"
• "Shall I call a doctor for you?"
(In the second sentence, many writers would use should instead.) To express the
future tense, the verb will is used in all other cases. This avoidance of shall is less
true of British English.
MODAL AUXILIARIES:
Other helping verbs, called modal auxiliaries or modals, such as can, could, may,
might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, and would, do not change form for different
subjects. For instance, try substituting any of these modal auxiliaries for can with any
of the subjects listed below.
I
you (singular)
he
we
you (plural)
they can write well.

Can and Could, May and Might
Two of the more troublesome modal auxiliaries are might and may. When used in
the context of granting or seeking permission, might is the past tense of may. Might is
considerably more tentative than may.
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• May I leave class early?
•If I've finished all my work and I'm really quiet, might I leave early?
In the context of expressing possibility, may and might are interchangeable present
and future forms and might + have + past participle is the past form:
• She might be my advisor next semester.
• She may be my advisor next semester.
• She might have advised me not to take biology.

The modal auxiliary can is used:
• to express ability (in the sense of being able to do something or knowing how to do
something):
He can speak Spanish but he can't write it very well.
• to express permission (in the sense of being allowed or permitted to do
something):
Can I talk to my friends in the library waiting room? (Note that can is less formal
than may. Also, some writers will object to the use of can in this context.)
• to express theoretical possibility:
American automobile makers can make better cars if they think there's a profit in it.

The modal auxiliary could is used:
• to express an ability in the past:
I could always beat you at tennis when we were kids.
• to express past or future permission:
Could I bury my cat in your back yard?
• to express present possibility:
We could always spend the afternoon just sitting around talking.
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• to express possibility or ability in contingent circumstances:
If he studied harder, he could pass this course.
In expressing ability, can and could frequently also imply willingness: Can you help
me with my homework?
WILL and SHALL
1. WILL and SHALL + the infinitive of the verb (shall is rarely used in Modern English)
are used to form the future.
- She will go to London next year.
- They will visit us next August.
2. Sometimes SHALL can indicate obligation or a promise. In this case 'shall' is usually
stressed in the pronunciation of the sentence.
- He shall go to school! (obligation)
- I shall ask him! (promise)
3. WILL + infinitive = future:
a. Simon will leave for Poland tonight.
b. His next trip will be to Australia.
c. Lucy will change her job at Easter.
d. My parents will celebrate their fortieth wedding anniversary next week.
MAY and MIGHT
1. MAY expresses:
a. Permission
b. Possibility
2. MIGHT expresses:
a. Possibility
3. MIGHT can replace MAY only when MAY is used to express possibility:
- It may rain today.
- It might rain today.
4. MAY and MIGHT used to express possibility never take the negative form.
Affirmative form:
- She may go to the cinema.
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- They might go to the cinema.
Negative form:
- She may not go to the cinema.
- They might not go to the cinema.
Interrogative form: (N.B. Permission only)
- May I go to the cinema. - May I leave
now?
5. MAY for PERMISSION
a. May I watch television tonight?
b. May I leave work at 16.00hrs?
Note:
Yes, you may.
No, you may not.
Here 'may' has the same function as 'can': - Can I help you?
- May I help you?
6. MAY and MIGHT for POSSIBILITY
a. We may go to dinner tonight, I'm not sure.
b. We might go to dinner tonight, I'm not sure.
c. It may snow tomorrow.
d. It might snow tomorrow.
e. He may not go to Spain this year.
f. He might not go to Spain this year.
CAN and COULD
CAN and COULD are used to express:
- Capacity / capability
- Permission
- Possibility.
Note: CAN and COULD cannot be used in the future. The future is formed with 'will be able
to'.

CAN
Present
- She can speak English.
Past
- She could speak English. - They could swim.
Future
- She will be able to speak English. - They will be able to swim.
Affirmative
Present:
can (is able to)
- They can swim.
Negative
cannot (isn't able to)
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Past:
could (was able to)
Future:
will be able to
could not (wasn't able to)
will not be able to
I can speak French.
They can not (can't, cannot) play tennis.
Can't she dance?
Can we come?
1. CAPACITY
i. Howard can play the guitar.
ii. Can Jennifer sing?
iii. He can't understand German.
2.PERMISSION
i. Can I park my car here?
ii. No, you can't. It is a no parking zone.
iii. Can I go to the theatre with Michael?
3. POSSIBILITY
i. A car can be a useful means of transport or a dangerous weapon.
ii. She can be very hard to understand sometimes.
iii. We can live life with a positive or a negative attitude.

COULD
COULD is also the conditional of CAN and is often used in polite forms.
Could you help me ?
A. For polite requests
In the conditional form
a. Could you tell me the time, please?
b. Could you help me, please?
c. Could I have a coffee, please?
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d. Could we come and visit you this evening?
As the past of CAN
e. She couldn't come to dinner last night.
f. They could walk faster when they were younger.
g. Pierre could play the piano when he was a boy.
MUST = TO HAVE TO: To express obligation or necessity
a. We only use 'must' in the present. For all other tenses we use 'have to'.
b. MUST is used with the infinitive of the verb.
Example: She must leave immediately.
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
1.Present.
I must go .
I mustn't go.
2.Past
I had to go.
I didn't have to go.
Do I have to go?
I will have to go.
I won't have to go.
Will I have to go?
3.Future
SHOULD and OUGHT TO
a. They are invariable. There is no need to change their form.
b. They have three main uses:
1. Moral obligation
You ought to thank them.
They should be happy.
A good mother ought to love her children.
2.Advice
You should not (shouldn't) eat too much.
You ought to exercise every day.
He shouldn't drive his car too fast.
3.Probability
It should be sunny on the weekend.
They should arrive before dinner.
Must I go?
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He is tired. He should sleep well tonight.
* OUGHT TO is only used in the interrogative negative form.
Should I see the doctor?
Oughtn't she (to) see the doctor?
CONDITIONAL VERB FORMS

The Factual versus the Unreal or Hypothetical
In expressing a conditional situation, we must be able to distinguish between what
is a factual statement and what is a hypothetical statement. (Other terms for
hypothetical could be unreal, imagined, wished for, only possible, etc.) For instance,
if we say
•"The dog is always happy if Dad stays home,"
that's a simple statement of present habitual fact.
A general truth is expressed in the same way:
•"If the sun shines all day, it gets hot."
Statements of habitual fact can also be made in the past:
•"If we ate out at all, it was always in a cheap restaurant."
And conditional or hypothetical statements can be made about the future:
•"I will give you a call, if I fly to Phoenix tomorrow.
(In the future, we could combine the base form of the verb ("give," in this case) with
other modal verbs: may, might, and could.)
HYPOTHETICAL STATEMENTS
When we express the hypothetical in English in the present tense, we end up
using the past tense in an interesting way.
•If you liked tennis, we could go play on the new courts.
(Instead of could, we could have have, used, would or might in that sentence.) The
speaker of that sentence is not talking about something in the past tense, even though
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he uses the past tense "liked." The speaker implies, in fact, that you don't like to play
tennis (in the present), so there's no point, now, in going to the new tennis courts.
When we use the hypothetical in the conditional mood, we accommodate our
need to speculate on how things could have been different, how we wish things were
different, how we imagine that things could be different in the future, etc. In order to
express the unreal, the hypothetical, the speculative, or imagined (all those being the
same in this case), English has adopted an interesting habit of moving time one step
backward. Two verbs are involved: one in the clause stating the condition (the "if"
clause) and one in the result clause. Watch how the verbs change.
If the hypothetical result is in the future, we put the verb in the condition clause one
step back into the present:
•If the Bulls win the game tomorrow, they will be champs again.
For present unreal events, we put the verb in the condition clause one step back into
the past:
•If the Bulls won another championship, Roberto would drive into Chicago for the
celebration.
•I wish I had tickets.
•If they were available anywhere, I would pay any price for them.
•If he were a good friend, he would buy them for me.
Note that wishing is always an unreal condition. Note, too, that the verb to be uses
the form were in an unreal condition.
For past unreal events --things that didn't happen, but we can imagine -- we put the
verb in the condition clause a further step back into the past perfect:
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•If the Pacers had won, Aunt Glad would have been rich.
•If she had bet that much money on the Bulls, she and Uncle Chester could have
retired.
•I wish I had lived in Los Angeles when the Lakers were good.
•If I had known you were coming, I would have baked a cake.
In this last sentence, note the conditional clause in the past perfect (had known) and
the result clause that uses the conditional modal + have + the past participle of the
main verb (would have baked).
Some writers seem to think that the subjunctive mood is disappearing from
English, but that's probably not true. We use the subjunctive all the time to
accommodate this human urge to express possibility, the hypothetical, the imagined.
Frequently, the conditional mood requires that we use were where we would
otherwise have used another form of to be. The switch to were is not the only
manifestation of the subjunctive in expressing the conditional, but it is the most
common.
•If my brother were my boss, I wouldn't have a job today.
•If I were to lose my job, I wouldn't be able to pay my bills. [Notice how this is
more uncertain, more "iffey," than "If I lose my job, I won't be able to pay my bills."]
•If I were eight feet tall, I'd be one heck of a basketball player. [The subjunctive is
sometimes to express purely imaginary situation.]
•If I should grow to be eight feet tall, I'd be a great basketball player. [This
statement seems even more imaginary and unlikely.]
USING WOULD AND COULD
When expressing the unreal, the result clauses need would, could or will. The
condition clauses do not use those verbs; the condition clauses, instead, use verbs
moved one step back in time from the result.
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- Future Conditionals versus Hypothetical Conditionals
When we want to predict something conditional about the future (what we think
might happen), we can use the present tense in the if clause and will or be going +
the base form of the verb in the result clause.
•If Jeffrey grows any taller, the basketball coach is going to recruit him for the
team.
•If he doesn't grow more, the coach will ignore him.
On the other hand, the hypothetical conditional allows us to express quite unlikely
situations or situations that are downright impossible.
•If I boxed against Evader Holyfield, he would kill me.
•If my dad had been seven feet tall instead of less than six feet tall, he would
have been a great athlete.
OTHER FORMS OF CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS
The conditional can also be signaled by means of a subject-verb inversion. This
inversion replaces the word "if"; it is inappropriate to use both the word "if" and the
subject-verb inversion in the same sentence.
• Were Judith a better student, she would have a better relationship with her
instructors.
• Had Judith studied harder last fall, she would not have to take so many courses this
spring.
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EXERCISES
Complete the following sentences using the appropriate Modal Verbs.
-
Why _________ everyone be invited except me?
-
I ______ know tomorrow. It _____ be in the news.
-
_________ we stop here for a drink?
-
_________ you have another piece of chocolate cake?
-
I ________ mind taking you home after the play.
-
I'm not dressed for a party. _______ I go home and change this suit?
-
I _______ rather play with my dog outside.
-
He _______ get here on time. Let's wait a little bit more.
-
I'm not quite sure. Mrs. Hunter ______ have an answer for you.
-
The taxi driver _______ to be here already. That was the agreement.
-
Well, Susan _______ come today because she knows she has an appointment
with the director.
-
I _______ accept a no for answer.
-
_________ you please let me when you are ready to leave?
-
FROMKIN,V; RODMAN, R. (1974). An Introduction to Language. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
New York.
- STAGEBERG, N. (1965). An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New
York.
- WARRINER, J. (1951). English Grammar and Composition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
United States of America.
- CROWELL, T. (1964). Index to Modern English. McGraw-Hill. United States of America.
- SCHRAMPFER, B. (1989). Understanding and using English Grammar. Prentice Hall Regents.
New Jersey.
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EXERCISES ON
MODALS
ACTIVITIES
Instructions: Read the first sentence of each set. Write the meaning of each sentence
(what really happened) in the space provided. Follow the example.
Example: I shouldn't have called him. I called him, and I don't like it
1.
My parents ought to have moved away from that neighborhood.
2.
I should have told them what I thought.
3.
We could have told you that the movie was not good.
4.
He might have warned us about the traffic.
5.
Felicia could have been a vice-president by now.
6.
I ought to have practice more.
7.
They shouldn't have lent him their car.
Instructions: Read about these events and the speculations on their causes. Then
rewrite the sentences. Substitute a modal phrase for the underlined words or phrases.
Beginning two hundred million years ago, dinosaurs existed on the Earth. Then,
about sixty-five million years ago, these giant reptiles all died in a short period of
time. What could have caused the dinosaurs to become extinct? Here's what scientists
say.
1. It's likely that the Earth became colder. (must)
The Earth must have become colder.
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2. Probably, dinosaurs didn't survive the cold. (must not)
__________________________________________________________________
3. It's been suggested that a huge meteor hit the Earth. (might)
__________________________________________________________________
4. It's possible that dust from the impact blocked the sun for a long time. (may)
__________________________________________________________________
Instructions: Answer the following questions using conditionals.
1. How do you get to work if the bus is late?
2. What do you do if there's no food in the house and some relatives come to visit
you from the country?
3. What would you do if you were a millionaire?
4. Where do you go if this class is canceled and you have some extra time?
5. How would you feel if you never needed to sleep?
6. What do you do if you find a famous singer in your house?
7. If you could build anything, what would it be?
Instructions: Write what negative results might happen to you if the following
wishes came true.
Example: I wish I were a baby.
If I were a baby, I wouldn't be teaching Grammar, and I would miss you a lot.
1.
I wish I were famous.
2.
I wish I spoke perfect English.
3.
I wish I knew how to fly a plane.
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Instructions:
verbs given.
Tom:
Mark:
Tom:
Mark:
Tom:
Mark:
Complete the following conversation with the correct form of the
Did you hear that Danny was walking down the street and found a wallet
with just a hundred-dollar bill and a library card?
Did he call the owner?
If he ___________ the phone numbers, he _________, of course, but the
(have)
(call)
library card only had the person's name.
Well, what did he do?
He took it to the police.
Oh, I ________________it to the police if I ___________ it.
(not take)
(find)
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CHAPTER 5:
LEARNING ABOUT PHRASAL VERBS
PHRASAL VERBS:
Combining a simple verb and one of a number of particles forms a phrasal verb.
The result is called ‘phrasal’ because it looks like a phrase rather than a single word.
Although it looks like a phrase, it functions as a single word. It is a unit.
-
Intransitive Phrasal Verbs: It consists of a verb plus a particle. Normally the
particle cannot be separated from its verb.
“The children were sitting down”, “He is playing around”, “Drink up quickly”,
“The plane has now taken off”, “When will they give in?, “Did he catch on?”,
“The tank blew up”.
Some intransitive phrasal verbs have a prepositional adverb as particle, which
is behaving as a preposition with an ellipsis of its complement:
He walked past (the object/place)
They ran across (the intervening space)
They moved out (of the house)
-
Transitive Phrasal Verbs: Many phrasal verbs can take a direct object:
We will set up a new unit
They are bringing over the whole family
Drink up your milk quickly
He turned on the light
They called off the strike
She gave in her resignation
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NOTE: Some combinations can be either transitive or intransitive (drink up, give
in).
With most transitive phrasal verbs, the particle can either precede or follow the
direct object:
They turned on the light
or
They turned the light on
Although it cannot precede personal pronouns: “They turned it on” and not “They
turned on it”.
Many transitive phrasal verbs have prepositional adverbs:
“They dragged the case along” (the road)
“They moved the furniture out” (of the house)
-
Prepositional Verbs: The preposition in a prepositional verb must precede its
complement. So we can contrast the prepositional verb “call on” (‘visit’) with the
phrasal verb “call up” (‘summon’):
PREPOSITIONAL VERB
“They called on the man”
CORRECT= “ They called on him”
PHRASAL VERB
“They called up the man”
INCORRECT= “They called
up him”
INCORRECT= “They called the man on”
CORRECT = “They called
the man up”
INCORRECT= “They called him on”
CORRECT = “They called
him up”
On the other hand, the prepositional verb allows an inserted adverb after the verb
CORRECT= “They called early on the man”
early up the man”
INCORRECT= “They called
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Other examples of prepositional verbs: ask for, believe in, care for, deal with, live
on, long for, object to, part with, refer to, write about.
-
Phrasal-prepositional verbs: Some multi-word verbs consist of a verb followed
by two particles:
“He puts up with a lot of teasing” (‘tolerates’)
As with prepositional verbs, we cannot insert an adverb immediately before the
object:
INCORRECT= “He puts up with willingly that secretary of his”
CORRECT= “He puts up willingly with that secretary of his”
Other phrasal-prepositional verbs: break in on (the conversation), ‘interrupt’; cut
down on (expenses), ‘curtail’; get away with (such behavior), ‘avoid being
reprimanded or punished for’; look down on (somebody), ‘despite’; look in on
(somebody), ‘visit’; look up to (somebody), ‘respect’; walk out on (the project),
‘abandon’.
- Separable Phrasal Verbs
The object may come after the following phrasal verbs or it may separate the two
parts:
• You have to do this paint job over.
• You have to do over this paint job.
When the object of the following phrasal verbs is a pronoun, the two parts of the
phrasal verb must be separated:
• You have to do it over.
- Inseparable Phrasal Verbs (Transitive)
With the following phrasal verbs, the lexical part of the verb (the part of the
phrasal
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verb that carries the "verb-meaning") cannot be separated from the prepositions (or
other parts) that accompany it: "Who will look after my estate when I'm gone?"
MEANING OF SOME PARTICLES
UP:

In an upward direction: “The smoke started to rise up into the air”, “Sparks flew
up when the burning building collapsed.”

Approaching Direction: “The child came up and spoke to us”, “ The trucks were
driven up to the house site.”

Completion: “He used the coal until there was none left. He used up the coal”,
“They ate the food until it was all gone. They ate up the food.”

Emphasis: “Speak up!”, “Hurry up!”
DOWN:

In a downward direction: “The smoke drifted down”

Direction of writing and cleaning: “He wrote the message down”, “She cleaned
the walls down”

Completion (destructive result): “The shop closed down”, “He watered the
whisky down”
IN:

From exterior to interior: “The man came in”

From distance to nearer point: “The line curved in”

In or within a particular place: “The family dined in last night”

Restricting someone or something to a particular place: “The village was snowed
in for a week”
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OUT:

From interior to exterior: “The man went out”

Extension, projection: “He held his hands out”, “The stone stuck out”

Distribution: “ She gave the papers out”

Emphasis: “They shouted out”

Fulfillment of a definite end: “He reasoned the matter out”, “She copied the work
out”

Disappearance, elimination: “She wiped the marks out”
ON:

Basic meaning: “He lifted the box on”, “She pinned the brooch on”

Indefinite continuation: “He hurried on”, “She worked on”
OFF:

In an outward and downward direction: “The bus stopped and we got off”

In a generally outward direction: “ The car drove off”, “The airplane took off”

In an outward but unspecified direction: “He wandered off somewhere”, “She
went off on her own”

Separation: “She cut some slices off”

Delineation, demarcation: “They marked the place off with white paint”

Termination, elimination: “They called the meeting off”
OVER:

Direction above a place: “The airplanes flew over”

Direction from one place to another: “He took the boxes over”

Completion: “She read the book over carefully”
AWAY:

Movement from a given place: “He got up and walked away”
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
Continuous action: “He works away for hours in his room”

Removal: “She washed the dirt away”
BACK:

Return: “They came back”

Reciprocal action: “She said she would phone me back”

To the side, out of a direct line: “He pulled the curtains back”
Three-Word Phrasal Verbs (Transitive)
With the following phrasal verbs, you will find three parts:
- My brother dropped out of school before he could graduate.
- I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call
- After our month-long trip, it was time to catch up with the neighbors and the news
around town.
- The boys promised to check up on the condition of the summer house from time to
time.
- After years of giving nothing, the old parishioner was able to come up with a
thousand-dollar donation.
- We tried to cut down on the money we were spending on entertainment.
- I hope none of my students drop out of school this semester.
- I found it very hard to get along with my brother when we were young.
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EXERCISES
1. Complete the following sentences using the particles UP, OFF, OVER, OUT,
DOWN, AWAY, BACK, IN, and ON.
- The terrorists tried to blow ________ the railroad station.
- My mother brought ________ that little matter of my prison record again.
- It isn't easy to bring _______ children nowadays.
- They called _______ this afternoon's meeting
- Do this homework _______.
- Fill _______ this application form and mail it in.
- She filled _______ the grocery cart with free food.
- My sister found ______ that her husband had been planning a surprise party for her.
- The filling station was giving _______ free gas.
- My brother borrowed my car. I have a feeling he's not about to give it _______.
- The students handed _______ their papers and left the room
- She hung _______ the phone before she hung _______ her clothes.
- I hate to hold _______ the meeting, but I have to go to the bathroom.
- Three masked gunmen held _______ the Security Bank this afternoon.
- You left ______ the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue.
- The lawyers looked ______ the papers carefully before questioning the witness.
- You've misspelled this word again. You'd better look it _______.
- She knew she was in trouble, so she made _______ a story about going to the
movies with her friends.
- He was so far away, we really couldn't make ______ what he was saying.
- There were three men in the line-up. She picked _______ the guy she thought had
stolen her purse.
- The crane picked _______ the entire house.
- As we drove through Paris, Francoise pointed _______ the major historical sites.
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- We put _______ money for our retirement.
- She put _______ the cereal boxes.
- We asked the boss to put _______ the meeting until tomorrow.
- I put _______ a sweater and a jacket.
- The firefighters put _______ the house fire before it could spread.
- I read _______ the homework, but couldn't make any sense of it.
- My wife set _______ the living room exactly the way she wanted it.
- These are your instructions. Write them _______ before you forget.
- It was so hot that I had to take _______ my shirt.
- We have serious problems here. Let's talk them _______ like adults.
- They country went ________ most of its coal reserves in one year.
- Did he go ________ all his money already?
- My mother promised to look _______ my dog while I was gone.
- The police will look ________ the possibilities of embezzlement.
- I ran ________ my old roommate at the college reunion.
- Carlos ran ________ his English professor in the hallway.
- My second son seems to take ________ his mother.
- That old Jeep had a tendency to break _______ just when I needed it the most.
- Popular songs seem to catch _______ in California first and then spread eastward.
- Father promised that we would never come _______ to this horrible place.
- They tried to come _______ through the back door, but it was locked.
- The children promised to come _______, but they never do.
- When we visited Paris, we loved eating _______ in the sidewalk cafes.
2. Complete the following sentences using the particles BY, AFTER, INTO,
THROUGH, and ACROSS.
- Their country went ________ most of its coal reserves in one year.
- Did he go ________ all his money already?
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- My mother promised to look ________ my dog while I was gone.
- The police will look ________ the possibilities of embezzlement.
- I ran ________ my old roommate at the college reunion.
- Carlos ran ________ his English professor in the hallway.
- My second son seems to take ________ his mother.
- We used to just drop ________, but they were never home, so we stopped doing
that.
- Uncle Heinrick didn't have much money, but he always seemed to get ________
without borrowing money from relatives.
3. Complete using the verb given and two particles. Use your dictionary.
GET:
- Janine cheated on the exam and then tried to get ________ ______ it.
- The citizens tried to get ______ ______ their corrupt mayor in the recent election.
- When will you ever get ______ ______ that program?
- It's hard to keep ______ ______the Jones's when you lose your job!
LOOK:
- I always look ______ ______ the beginning of a new semester.
- It's typical of a jingoistic country that the citizens look ______ ______ their
geographical neighbors.
- We were going to look ______ ______ my brother-in-law, but he wasn't home.
- Good instructors will look ______ ______ early signs of failure in their students
-
First-graders really look ______ ______ to their teachers.
- FROMKIN,V; RODMAN, R. (1974). An Introduction to Language. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York.
- STAGEBERG, N. (1965). An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York.
- WARRINER, J. (1951). English Grammar and Composition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. United States of America.
- CROWELL, T. (1964). Index to Modern English. McGraw-Hill. United States of America.
- SCHRAMPFER, B. (1989). Understanding and using English Grammar. Prentice Hall Regents.
New Jersey.
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CHAPTER 6:
LEARNING ABOUT THE SENTENCE,
CLAUSES, AND PHRASES
So far, we have studied some morphological and syntactical aspects of English
language. Now, we are going to start working on how to combine words to create
larger units of meaning like clauses, phrases and sentences. A sentence is the
maximal grammatical unit in Syntax, and the word is the minimal unit. Look at the
following diagram:
Conceptual Diagram 1
SYNTAX
SENTENCE
CLAUSE
PHRASE
WORD
Words, phrases and clauses as you can see in the previous chart form sentences.
The following patterns or combinations of words to form sentences identify the
English simple sentence:
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Pattern 1:
Subject (S) + Verb (V)
Mary Ann
ate.
Pattern 2: Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Subjective Complement (Cs)
Peter
is
an intelligent student.
Pattern 3: Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Direct Object (OD)
The clerk
will answer
your question.
Pattern 4: Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Indirect Object (OI) + Direct Object (OD)
Nobody
wrote
me
a romantic poem.
Pattern 5: Subject (S) + Verb (V) + Direct Object (OD) + Objective Complement (Co)
She
drives
Pattern 6: There (Dummy) + Be +
There
were
everybody
crazy.
Subject (S)
many red roses.
These patterns are what we will consider to be the first level or syntax level of the
sentence structure. The subject in a very general way is the part of the sentence that
performs the action expressed by the verb in active sentences, or the part of what
something is said. The complements (Subjective and Objective) modify or relate to
the subject and the object, respectively. The Subjective Complement requires a
linking verb or copulative verb (be, taste, smell, sound, become, appear, and look
among others) as main verb in the sentence. In the sentence Peter is an intelligent
student, what appears after the verb is referring back to the subject. Objective
Complements are information related to the direct object and require verbs like
consider, name, proclaim, vote, pronounce, drive, make, push, keep, and call among
others as main verbs. This pattern (No.5) often uses verbs in passive voice.
Objects (Direct and Indirect) somehow receive what is being expressed by the
verb. Verbs that are followed by objects are called TRANSITIVE VERBS (I have a
new job, Give me a flower, He threw the ball). Objects do not follow
INTRANSITIVE VERBS (I will go, Run!, He studied hard). Remember that
intransitive verbs can never be used in passive voice sentences.
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There is an optional element that can be added to all patterns studied before, the
ADJUNCT. The adjunct is an information related to place, time, manner, means,
instrument,
duration,
reason,
condition,
frequency,
destination,
source,
companionship, opposition, support, reaction, and purpose among others, that can be
expressed through adverbs, prepositional phrases or nouns and their modifiers. There
can be more than one adjunct in a sentence, and in any place of that sentence (at the
beginning, middle or end of a sentence).
ACTIVITY 1: Identify and classify the elements in the syntax level of the
following sentences.
1. Those children make me happy.
2. I will never understand your position.
3. Mrs. Brighten and her family go always to the park on Sundays.
4. There are many beautiful images of dogs and cats in that program.
5. Get closer.
6. Nobody seems familiar.
The previous information is about the first level of the structure of a simple
sentence. In the second level of the analysis of a sentence the different relations that
are established among words that form phrases are studied.
Phrases receive their names according to the word that constitutes the center or
head of the idea expressed: noun phrases, adjective phrases, verb phrases, adverb
phrases and prepositional phrases. A phrase can be of one word or more depending on
the different words used as modifiers.
A NOUN PHRASE is formed by a noun and all the words and groups of words
that modify it. Examples of noun phrases are: the red rose, a new shirt in blue, Peter
and Mary, the woman in the garden, many people who were happily sharing.
The nouns rose, shirt, Peter, Mary, woman, and people are the center or HEAD
of the phrase. Nouns can be modified by words. There can be words before them,
which are called PREMODOFIERS, and words after it called POSTMODIFIERS. In
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a noun phrase like 'many red roses in my garden' the words many and red are called
premodifiers, while in my garden, which is a combination of a preposition (in) +
another noun phrase (my garden) known as prepositional phrase, is called a
postmodifier. There are different kinds of words that can function as premodifiers of
a noun: predeterminers like all, twice and half; determiners like those and neither;
and postdeterminers like numerals (first, two) and quantifiers (many, lots of).
Infinitive phrases, participial phrases, and prepositional phrases can work as
postmodifiers of a noun. The following conceptual diagram adapted from Quirk's A
University Grammar of English shows the elements of a noun phrase:
Conceptual Diagram 2
-Predeterminers: (all, both, half, twice...)
Premodifiers -Determiners:(a, an, the, this those, either, each..)
-Postdeterminers:
Numerals
NOUN
Ordinal (first, last, past...)
PHRASE
Cardinal (one, two...)
Quantifiers
Closed-Class (many, several, much...)
Open-Class (a great deal of, plenty
of...)
Head
All kinds of nouns
Postmodifiers Infinitive phrases, Participial phrases,
Prepositional phrases, relative clauses
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ACTIVITY 2: Identify and classify the elements of the following Noun Phrases.
-
A really interesting game
-
Two groups of students
-
A few lines in your notebook
-
Plenty of people with personal computers
Noun phrases can perform different functions in a sentence; they can be subjects,
objects, complements, and adjuncts.
An ADJECTIVE PHRASE is formed by an adjective as the headword, and all
the words and group of words that modify adjectives. Examples of adjective phrases
are: happy, very interesting, too expensive, rather boring, strange enough, much more
simple. Adjective phrases can function as objective complement as in She makes me
happy; and subjective complement: That book is really interesting.
ACTIVITY 3: Identify each Adjective Phrase and its function in the following
sentences.
-
It doesn't seem really interesting.
-
Two groups of students considered the problem very easy, but I couldn't do it.
-
A few lines in your notebook were enough to me.
-
I'm happy for you.
A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE is formed by a preposition followed by a noun
phrase (a noun as head and its modifiers). The prepositional phrase is an exocentric
construction where the noun phrase that follows the preposition is the object of the
preposition. This phrase can be used as (a) subject: After lunch is too late; (b) adjunct:
I will come in the morning; (c) indirect object: They have a present for you; (d)
postmodifier of a noun: (The lady in red) is my sister; or (e) postmodifier of and
adjective: He is crazy for you.
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ACTIVITY 4: Use the given prepositional phrase to write sentences that show
the different functions it may have.
Prepositional Phrase: Through the window
An ADVERB PHRASE is formed by an adverb as the headword, and all the
words and group of words that modify adverbs. This phrase modifies verbs,
adjectives, or another adverb; it is used as different kinds of adjuncts as shown in the
following sentences: She will never find the address; They run really fast; My dog
hardly ever follows an order.
ACTIVITY 5: Identify the Adverb Phrases in the following sentences.
-
I hardly ever see him on weekends.
-
Tomorrow, all the students will surely come and ask for a better explanation.
-
Consequently, my mother had to start a more organized proposal.
A GERUND PHRASE is formed by a gerund and its modifiers or complements.
This phrase has the same functions a noun may have: a) subject: Inviting me was a
good idea; b) object: The teacher advises answering the easy ones first; c) object of a
preposition: I will end my story (by) pointing at you; d) complement of the subject:
(Her best achievement) was writing a children story. I
ACTIVITY 6: Identify and classify the elements of the following Gerund
Phrases. Identify the function of the phrase in each sentence.
-
Coming early in the morning is a good habit.
-
Nobody likes driving on a rainy night.
-
The newspaper sent me a letter asking for my permission to publish those ideas.
A PARTICIPIAL PHRASE is a phrase that contains a participle as headword
and any of its complements or modifiers. The function of a participial phrase is to
modify a noun or pronoun acting as an adjective: Riding the horse, (Mrs. Smith) went
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away; (My Dad), feeling tired, decided to leave the party early; Enjoyed by many
people, (the story) became famous.
ACTIVITY 7: Identify and classify the elements of the following Participial
Phrases. Identify the function of the phrase in each sentence.
-
Wearing her best dress, the main actress approached the audience.
-
Being watched by all his partners, the policeman couldn't find the address.
-
The young lady, organized as she was, headed to the main office.
An INFINITIVE PHRASE is formed by an infinitive as headword and any of its
complements or modifiers. As well as gerunds introduce gerund phrases and
participle forms introduce participial phrases, the infinitive form usually introduces
infinitive phrases. The infinitive phrase functions as a) object: We will try to be there
on time; b) subject: To learn English was her dream; c) postmodifier of a noun: There
should be (an idea) to start the activities; d) postmodifier of an adjective: She is (too
intelligent) to waste this opportunity; e) subjective complement: My goal is to travel
abroad.
ACTIVITY 8: Identify and classify the elements of the following Infinitive
Phrases. Identify the function of the phrase in each sentence.
-
The order was to start collecting the money as soon as possible.
-
Clark and his wife want to travel to Mexico next vacations.
-
There were good reasons to believe she was guilty of the robbery.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
Conceptual Diagram 3
-
Simple: One independent clause
She understands me.
SENTENCE
-
Compound: Two independent clauses or
more joined by coordinating conjunctions
She understands me, and I love her.
-
Complex: One independent clause and at
least one dependent clause
She understands what I need.
-
Compound-Complex: Two independent
clauses and one dependent clause
CLASSIFICATION
ACCORDING TO
STRUCTURE
She understands what I need, and I love her.
As seen in the diagram given, a sentence can be classified according to its
structure into SIMPLE, COMPOUND, COMPLEX and COMPOUND-COMPLEX.
This classification takes into account the clauses that form the sentence.
A clause contains a subject and a simple predicate, which may have additional
complements: I don't know him; I don't know her, and I don't know her family either;
I don't know who told you that story; I don't know what happened. Clauses can be
either INDEPEDENT (when they are not part of another clause: I don't know him) or
DEPENDENT (when they are part of another clause: I don't know who told you that
story). One independent clause and no dependent clauses form a SIMPLE sentence: I
don't know him. When a sentence has two or more independent clauses joined by
coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or...) it is called a COMPOUND sentence:
I don't know her, and I don't know her family either. When a sentence has an
independent clause including one or more dependent clauses, it is called a
COMPLEX sentence: I don't know who told you that story.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
Remember that in order to separate independent clauses joined by coordinating
conjunctions, a comma is used. When no coordinating conjunctions are used to
separate independent clauses, a semicolon is used.
ACTIVITY 9: Identify and classify the following sentences according to their
structure.
-
I follow the VCR instructions whenever I want to watch a movie.
-
Nobody wants to travel those days, but some people go back to their hometowns.
-
As you see, a few students gave me the report, and those are the grades I have.
-
Peter and his wife are coming on Carnival; they love the beach.
-
When are you planning to get married?
Conceptual Diagram 4
CLAUSE
FUNCTION
Noun Clause: It is a dependent clause that functions as nouns,
pronouns and noun phrases do:
I know (it).
I know what you mean.
Adjective Clause: It is a dependent clause that gives
characteristics about nouns, pronouns and
noun phrases:
I have (that) information.
I have the information that they gave me.
Adverb Clause: It is a dependent clause that functions as adverbs
do, and which can be at the beginning, in the
middle or at the end of a sentence:
As you said, I have that information.
My father, as everybody knows, has that information.
I went to sleep when I got there.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
A dependent clause may function as a noun, an adjective or as an adverb.
According to this, dependent clauses can be classified as noun clauses, adjective
clauses and adverb clauses, which also determines the position of the clause in a
sentence.
An adjective clause follows the word or group of words it modifies and can be
introduced by:
a) A wh word: (The hospital) where she works has a new director.
b) A preposition followed by an object that begins with a wh word: (The student) for
whom everybody is expecting arrived.
c) The word that: (The restaurant) that is on the corner is open now.
d) The subject of the clause: (The woman) who entered after me smiled at you.
When an adjective clause restricts the meaning of the word(s) it modifies, it is also
called restrictive clause, and no commas are needed to separate it from the rest of the
sentence: (The woman) who smiled at you is my sister. On the other hand, when the
adjective clause adds information about the word(s) that it modifies, it is called nonrestrictive clause and commas are needed to separate the clause from the rest of the
sentence: (The woman), whose name is Helen, called this morning.
Remember that wh words can be used in both restrictive and non-restrictive
clauses, but the word that may not be used in restrictive clauses when they are
introduced by a preposition: Caracas is a city about which I wrote a book; Caracas is
a city that I visited some time ago.
ACTIVITY 10: Identify the adjective clause in each sentence and circle the
word(s) it modifies.
-
Melanie Griffith is an actress who does excellent performances in movies.
-
A restaurant where you find good service is a treasure.
-
The time when I arrived there will be considered as a record.
-
A poem that describes nature power won the first place of the competition.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
A noun clause works as a pronoun, a noun, or a noun phrase does. This clause is
frequently introduced by wh words or that: What you told me is a lie; I said that I will
do it. When that begins the clause and this clause is not at the beginning of the
sentence it can be omitted: I said that I will do it or I said I will do it, but That he
needs a new engine for his car is true. When the clause beginning with that is
between commas as a nonrestrictive appositive, that that can not omitted: Mary, that
woman I told you about, is going to work with us.
The following are some examples of different noun clauses:
-
As subject: Where they live is important.
-
As subjective complement: That is where they live.
-
As direct object: I know where they live.
-
As indirect object: Tell me where they live.
-
As object of a preposition: Write a paragraph about where they live.
-
As objective complement: I consider information where they live.
ACTIVITY 11: Use this noun clause to write sentences following the
instructions. Noun clause: who wrote Doña Barbara
-
As subjective complement: ___________________________________________
-
As objective complement: ____________________________________________
-
As object of a preposition: ____________________________________________
An adverb clause is a depending idea that works as an adverb, taking different
positions in a sentence. Do not use commas to separate them from the sentence when
they appear at the end of it. Some of the following subordinating conjunctions
introduced adverb clauses: after, although, however, whenever, as, whether, while,
until, so, because, if, and providing; and by the word that.
The following are some examples of different adverb clauses:
-
Although she handles all the data, there must be a written report on it.
-
If he finds a good solution to his problem, the university will accept him back.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
-
A new group was opened so many more students have a chance to take the
subject.
-
Whenever she uses the telephone, she checks for new messages.
-
Before the time I have lunch, I am really busy.
-
Since I met him, he has changed a lot.
ACTIVITY 12: Identify the adverb clause in each sentence.
-
I don't want to know when the grades are ready.
-
Until she finds a better job, that will be her position.
-
Because the offers have been so good, my boss is planning to produce a new line.
-
I couldn't believe anything after she told me the whole story.
- FROMKIN,V; RODMAN, R. (1974). An Introduction to Language. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York.
- STAGEBERG, N. (1965). An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York.
- WARRINER, J. (1951). English Grammar and Composition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. United States of America.
- CROWELL, T. (1964). Index to Modern English. McGraw-Hill. United States of America.
- SCHRAMPFER, B. (1989). Understanding and using English Grammar. Prentice Hall Regents.
New Jersey.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
EXERCISES ON
SENTENCES
AND CLAUSES
Instructions: Classify the following sentences according to STRUCTURE and
ATTITUDE of the speaker.
1. The first business computers were introduced just about thirty years ago, and now
they are being used in a wide variety of fields, from banking to space travel.
2. However, until just a few years ago, computers and microprocessors were bought,
used, and sold only by very large corporations and governments.
3. Although everyone knew that computers existed, very few people had ever seen
one and even fewer had used one.
4. The silicon chip could store a large amount of information in a very small space,
and computers could be smaller and less expensive.
5. Don't interrupt the meeting, but make everybody feel comfortable.
6. Here I am!
7. Will you stay longer or do you really have to leave now?
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
CHAPTER 7:
LEARNING ABOUT PASSIVE VOICE
AND REPORTED SPEECH
ABOUT PASSIVE VOICE
-
It is commonly used in English when the complement of a sentence is more
important than the active subject.
Some scientists found a cure for Cancer. (ACTIVE)
A cure for Cancer was found by some scientists. (PASSIVE)
(The complement of a sentence in the active voice changes to subject position in a
Passive Voice sentence).
As seen in the example given , the Passive Voice is a combination of a form of
the
verb
be
with
the
past
participle
of
another
verb
(find-found).
The subject in the active sentence becomes the agent in the passive one which comes
after the preposition by (by some scientists).
ACTIVE VOICE SENTENCE
Mary Ann bought a nice picture.
The news surprised me.
Did the news surprise you?
Someone built this house in 1904
PASSIVE VOICE SENTENCE
A nice picture was bought by Mary Ann.
I was surprised by the news.
Were you surprised by the news?
This house was built in 1904.
(by someone=unnecesary)
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
SUMMARY OF PASSIVE VERB FORMS
FROM ACTIVE
ACTIVE TENSE
Simple present
TO PASSIVE
FROM ACTIVE
Mary
helps
Peter
TO PASSIVE
Peter is helped
by Mary
Present Progressive
is helping
is being helped
Present Perfect
has helped
has been helped
Simple Past
helped
was helped
Past Progressive
was helping
was being helped
Past Perfect
had helped
had been helped
Future 'to be going to'
is going to help
is going to be helped
Future 'will'
will help
will be helped
Present 'can'
can help
can be helped
Present 'have to'
has to help
has to be helped
ACTIVITY 1: Change the following sentences from Active Voice to Passive
Voice.
1. My boyfriend gives me a rose everyday.
2. Pastor's brother was looking for a new job last week.
3. The committee is considering action on the bill.
- Sometimes the use of passive voice can create awkward sentences, as in
"Watching a framed, mobile world through a car's windshield reminds me of
watching a movie or TV.", which is a completely strange and unusual sentence
but it looks like a correct passive voice structure.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
In scientific writing, however, passive voice is more readily accepted since using
it allows one to write without using personal pronouns or the names of particular
researchers as the subjects of sentences creating the appearance of an objective, factbased discourse.
You can recognize passive-voice expressions because the verb phrase will always
include a form of be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been. The presence of a beverb, however, does not necessarily mean that the sentence is in passive voice.
Another way to recognize passive-voice sentences is that they may include a "by ..."
phrase after the verb (The novel was written by Gallegos); the agent performing the
action, if named, is the object of the preposition in this phrase.
.
Changing active to passive
If you want to change an active-voice sentence to passive voice, consider carefully
who or what is performing the action expressed in the verb, and then make that agent
the object of a "by the..."phrase. Make what is acted upon the subject of the sentence,
and change the verb to a form of be + past participle. Including an explicit "by the..."
phrase is optional.

active:
The presiding officer vetoed the committee's recommendation.
The leaders are seeking a fair resolution to the crisis.
Scientists have discovered traces of ice on the surface of Mars.

passive:
The committee's recommendation was vetoed by the presiding officer.
A fair resolution to the crisis is being sought.
Traces of ice have been discovered on the surface of Mars.
In each of these examples, the passive voice is useful for highlighting the action and
what is acted upon instead of the agent.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
.2. REPORTED SPEECH:
It refers to reproducing the idea of another person's words. Not all of the exact
words are used: verb forms and pronouns may change. Quotations marks are not
used. The following chart shows the changes in TENSES that occur when rewriting a
sentence in direct speech to another in indirect speech or reported speech
SUMMARY OF VERB FORMS USAGE
From Quoted Speech
To Reported Speech
present tense verb
Simple past
She said: "I like to eat"
She said that she liked to eat.
present continuous
Past continuous
She said: "I am swimming"
She said that she was swimming.
present perfect
She said:
"I have studied a lot"
simple past
Past perfect
She said that she had studied a lot.
past perfect
simple future (will)
Would
She said: "My mother will be there" She said that her mother would be there
future (be going to)
Was/were going to
She said: "I am going to study
She said that she was going to study
English"
English.
Modals:
She said: "I can dance"
She said that she could dance.
can
Could
may (possibility)
Might
may (permission)
Could
will
Would
might
Might
must
Had to
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
have to
Had to
should
Should
ought to
Ought to
shall
Would (future)
shall
Should (ask for advice)
Imperative
Infinitive
She said: "Open the window"
She ordered me to open the window.
yes/no question
if + noun clause
She asked: "Are you a student?"
She asked if I was a student.
Note:

If the reporting verb (the main verb of the sentences, e.g., said, is in the past,
the verb in the noun clause will usually be in a past form.

If the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the noun
clause verb is not changed.
She says, "I wash my hair every day."
She says she washes her hair every day.
She has said, "I wash my hair every
She has said that she washes her hair every day.
day."
She will say, "I wash my hair every
She will say that she washes her hair every day.
day."
*Exceptions:

If the reported sentence deals with a fact or general truth, the present tense is
(can be) retained. She said that the moon causes the tides.

If the speaker reports something immediately or soon after it was said, the
noun clause verb often remains as spoken.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
A: What did the conductor say?
B: He said that the next stop is Northgate.

If will is the modal in the reported utterance and expresses future time, and if
the situation described in the quote still holds true at the time of the indirect
report, the will may not be changed to would even though the reporting verb is
in the past tense:
Mr. Arden said that a volcanic eruption will occur next year.
Changes in time and place words
now
then, at that time
today
that day
tomorrow
the following day, the next day, a day later
yesterday
the previous day, the day before
next month
the following month, the next month, a month later
next year
the following year, the next, year, a year later
last month
the month before, the previous month, the preceding month
last year
the year before, the previous year, the preceding year
in two days weeks)
two days from then, two weeks from then
five days ago
five days before, five days earlier
five weeks ago
five weeks before, five weeks earlier
here
there
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
REPORTING QUESTIONS
YES/NO QUESTIONS:
From Quoted Speech
Sam said to me, "Are you hungry?"
To Reported Speech
Sam asked me if I was hungry.
Sam asked me whether I was hungry.
Sam wanted to know if I was hungry.
Sam wondered if I was hungry.
Sam inquired whether or not I was hungry.
Wh-QUESTIONS:
Bob said, "Where do you live?"
Bob asked me where I lived.
Eric said, "What are you thinking about?" Eric asked me what I was thinking about.
Helen said, "What time is it?"
Helen asked me what the time was.
USING VERB+ INFINITIVE TO REPORT SPEECH
Joe said, "Please come to my party."
Joe invited me to come to his party.
Joe said, "Would you like to come to my party?"
Joe said, "Can you come to my party?"
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
ACTIVITY 2: Change the following sentences into Reported Speech.
1. My teacher said, "I think you should take another English course."
2. My mother said, "Make an appointment with the dentist."
3. He said, "Do you want to move in with me?"
4. She said, "Where is your apartment?"
REFERENCES
- AZAR, B. (1989). Understanding and Using English Grammar. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall Regents.
- CROWELL, T. (1964). Index to Modern English. McGraw-Hill. New York.
- FROMKIN,V; RODMAN, R. (1974). An Introduction to Language. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
New York.
- McARTHUR, T. Using Phrasal Verbs. London: Collins.
- QUIRK, R; Greenbaum, et al. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of English. London: Longman.
- STAGEBERG, N. (1965). An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New
York.
- WARRINER, J. (1951). English Grammar and Composition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.United
States of America.
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
EXERCISES ON
PASSIVE VOICE AND
REPORTED SPEECH
Instructions: Answer the following questions or situations using passive voice .
The Daily Journal
1. If you visit different countries in the world and find this sign in all the
Shops of the airports where you get, what does it mean?
______________________________________________________________
2. If you get to the university and see this objects in the middle of the halls, what do
you understand?
____________________________________________________________
3. If you are watching USA TV channels and you see this picture on the screen, What
happened?
____________________________________________________________
4. If the children of your neighbor break the glass of your window, what should be
done?
____________________________________________________________
5. Name how many times you have cut your hair since January.
____________________________________________________________
UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR
Prof JOSELY ALVAREZ FRANCO
Instructions: Answer the following questions using indirect speech or reported
speech structure.
1. What did you think when you saw the first part of this test?
2. Your family invited your favorite movie star to your birthday this year. What will
your favorite movie star tell you on your birthday? (Use his/her name in your
answer)
3. What did your favorite movie star tell you on your birthday?
4. What did I ask you in the second (2) question of Part I in this test?
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