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bio 2nd final

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Biology 2nd Semester Final
Multiple Choice
Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement. (1pt each)
_____ 1. Organisms that must obtain nutrients and energy by eating other organisms are
a. multicellular.
c. heterotrophic.
b. autotrophic.
d. eukaryotic.
_____ 2. A student looks at a slice of tissue on an unlabeled microscope slide. The student concludes
the tissue is not from an animal because the cells in the tissue have
a. membrane-bound organelles. c. cell membranes.
b. nuclei.
d. cell walls.
_____ 3. In chordates in which pharyngeal pouches develop slits that lead outside of the body, the
adult most likely uses what type of organ(s) to breathe?
a. gills
c. skin
b. lungs
d. nose
_____ 4. Nerves branch in intervals from which of the following structures in a chordate embryo?
a. tail
c. notochord
b. pharyngeal pouches
d. hollow nerve cord
_____ 5. The notochord is responsible for which function in an embryo?
a. processing wastes
c. respiration
b. structural support
d. processing nerve signals
_____ 6. Which chordate characteristic is visible on the outside of an adult cat?
a. notochord
c. pharyngeal pouches
b. hollow nerve cord
d. a tail that extends beyond the anus
_____ 7. All animals eat to obtain
a. oxygen.
c. carbon dioxide.
b. ammonia.
d. nutrients.
_____ 8. Muscles work together with a support structure called a
a. segment.
c. blastopore.
b. skeleton.
d. coelom.
_____ 9. Animals have an excretory system that eliminates all wastes except
a. oxygen.
c. ammonia.
b. carbon dioxide.
d. nutrients.
_____ 10. To maintain homeostasis, land animals that hunt and feed in salt water
a. drink salt water.
b. have adaptations that let them get rid of excess salt.
c. choose to eat animals that are not very salty.
d. drink less water to limit salt intake.
_____ 11. Which of the following represents a neural circuit that would be involved in the response to
a stimulus?
a. sensory cell
interneuron
sensory neuron
motor neuron
muscle
b. sensory cell
motor neuron
interneuron
sensory neuron
muscle
c. sensory cell
sensory neuron
interneuron
motor neuron
muscle
d. sensory cell
motor neuron
interneuron
sensory neuron
muscle
_____ 12. Which of the following invertebrates has cerebral ganglia that are organized into a brain?
a. sea star
b. earthworm
c. coral
d. octopus
_____ 13. The part of the vertebrate nervous system that connects the brain and the rest of the body is
called the
a. spinal cord.
b. vertebral column.
c. cerebral ganglia.
d. medulla oblongata.
_____ 14. Which of the following groups of animals rely on sensory cells rather than sensory tissues
and organs?
a. cephalopods
c. mammals
b. fishes
d. tunicates
_____ 15. If a butterfly touches sugar water with one of its legs, it usually will begin to feed. If it
touches salt water, it usually will not feed. The most likely explanation for this difference in
response is that butterflies
a. cannot tell the difference between sugar water and salt water.
b. can distinguish sugar water from salt water by sight.
c. use the ears behind their legs to distinguish sugar water from salt water.
d. have chemical receptors for taste on their legs.
_____ 16. What does molting enable arthropods to do?
a. to breathe
c. to grow
b. to reproduce
d. to eat
_____ 17. Joints are a critical feature of both endoskeletons and exoskeletons because
a. jointed skeletons are more lightweight than rigid skeletons.
b. joints provide flexibility and freedom of movement.
c. joints allow an animal to change its body shape.
d. joints are necessary for molting to occur.
Figure 28–1
_____ 18. Study Figure 28–1. The contraction of flexor muscles causes limbs to bend. The
contraction of extensor muscles causes limbs to straighten. Based on this information, what
is happening to the grasshopper’s leg at point A?
a. The extensor muscle in the femur is contracting and straightening the leg.
b. The extensor muscle in the tibia is contracting and straightening the leg.
c. The flexor muscle in the femur is contracting and straightening the leg.
d. The flexor muscle in the tibia is contracting and straightening the leg.
_____ 19. Gametes are formed by
a. parthenogenesis.
b. mitosis.
c. fertilization.
d. meiosis.
_____ 20. Which cnidarian form is produced through asexual reproduction?
a. medusa
b. polyp
c. larva
d. nymph
_____ 21. Synchronizing gamete release during external fertilization increases the chance that
a. offspring will mature.
b. females can internalize sperm.
c. eggs will be fertilized.
d. sperm will survive.
Figure 28–2
_____ 22. The type of development shown in Figure 28–2 is the result of
a. parthenogenesis.
c. complete metamorphosis.
b. molting.
d. incomplete metamorphosis.
_____ 23. One important characteristic shared by all embryos of land vertebrates and aquatic
vertebrates is that
a. they all develop in amniotic eggs.
b. they all develop fully before being born.
c. they all develop in a watery environment.
d. they all can survive independently after birth.
_____ 24. The endocrine system relies on which of the following body systems to communicate with
the other systems in the body?
a. respiratory system
c. reproductive system
b. circulatory system
d. excretory system
_____ 25. An endotherm is an animal that
a. regulates its body temperature by staying in the sun.
b. regulates its body temperature by living underground.
c. regulates its body temperature partly by generating its own body heat.
d. does not regulate its body temperature.
_____ 26. A parasite is a type of
a. carnivore.
c. symbiont.
b. filter feeder.
d. detritivore.
_____ 27. Some mollusks are detritivores. Their main source of food comes from
a. living animals.
c. bacteria in the muddy bottom.
b. living plants.
d. decaying plant and animal remains.
_____ 28. Intracellular digestion occurs when
a. food is digested inside specialized cells.
b. food is digested outside cells in a digestive system.
c. food is digested in the spaces between cells.
d. food is digested outside the body.
_____ 29. A side-to-side movement of the jaws would be most useful in an animal that eats
a. blood.
c. algae.
b. meat.
d. grass.
Figure 27–1
_____ 30. Look at the teeth in Figure 27–1. The teeth in this skull are best suited for
a. tearing meat.
c. cracking seeds.
b. filtering plankton.
d. grinding leaves.
_____ 31. Gases diffuse most efficiently across a
a. thin, moist, selectively permeable membrane.
b. thin, moist, impermeable membrane.
c. thick, moist, selectively permeable membrane.
d. thick, moist impermeable membrane.
_____ 32. Some aquatic chordates obtain oxygen
a. by diffusion across their body surfaces only.
b. partially by diffusion across their body surfaces.
c. by diffusion across gill surfaces only.
d. by diffusion across lung surfaces only.
_____ 33. Which of the following groups of animals has the most efficient gas exchange?
a. amphibians
c. birds
b. reptiles
d. mammals
_____ 34. Humans have lungs with alveoli. This implies that humans
a. have a lower metabolic rate than amphibians and reptiles.
b. have a higher metabolic rate than amphibians and reptiles.
c. have the same metabolic rate as amphibians.
d. have the same metabolic rate as reptiles.
_____35. A closed circulatory system is one in which
a. blood spreads freely throughout the body’s tissues.
b. blood travels through a system of blood vessels that extend throughout the body.
c. blood travels through blood vessels into spongy cavities called sinuses.
d. blood travels through a system of blood vessels and air sacs.
_____36. Which of the following invertebrates is most likely to have a closed circulatory system?
a. a sponge
b. a small mollusk that is permanently attached to the ocean floor
c. a large, free-swimming mollusk
d. a cnidarian
_____37. Which of the following animals has a two-chambered heart?
a. garter snake
c. African bullfrog
b. dog
d. trout
_____38. Kidneys that can conserve water are essential to homeostasis because
a. some animals live in dry or salty environments.
b. some animals drink water.
c. urea is not soluble in water.
d. their cells will be unable to convert ammonia into urea if excess water is excreted.
_____39. How do saltwater fishes conserve water?
a. Their kidneys produce large amounts of dilute urine.
b. Their kidneys produce small amounts of concentrated urine.
c. Their kidneys produce small amounts of concentrated uric acid.
d. They absorb extra water from their environment.
_____40. Butterflies and house flies convert ammonia to uric acid in their
a. nephrons.
c. kidneys.
b. nephridia.
d. Malpighian tubules.
Completion
Complete each statement on the line provided. (1pt each)
41.
are not considered a clade because the organisms all lack a particular
characteristic instead of sharing one.
42. In some invertebrates, digestive and circulatory processes take place in the tissues that line the
_________________________.
43. Carbon dioxide cannot diffuse into the blood from an animal’s cells unless the blood has a
___________ concentration of carbon dioxide.
44. Sea turtles must come to the surface regularly to breathe because they rely on
for gas exchange.
45. A student is dissecting a three-chambered heart. When she discovers that the ventricle has no
partitions, she should conclude that the heart belonged to a(n) _________________.
46. The smell of blood in water is an example of a(n)
for a hungry shark.
Figure 28–3
47. Study Figure 28–3. The nervous system in the hydra is a
.
48. A marine biologist finds hard fragments of an endoskeleton and determines that they belong to an
echinoderm when testing shows they are not made of cartilage or
.
49. Muscles work in
so that force is generated in more than one direction
50. An organism is able to survive because its systems work together to maintain
.
Short Answer
In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided.
51. What two fundamental characteristics distinguish animals from plants? (2pts)
52. Why is it important for the immune system to be able to tell the difference between the animal’s
own cells and pathogens? (1pt)
53. What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?(2pts)
54. What would happen if the relative concentrations of oxygen inside the lung and in the blood
became equal to each other? (1pt)
55. An earthworm tunnel floods during a rainstorm, and the earthworm washes out onto the grass.
Why will the earthworm die if it cannot get back into a tunnel quickly? (2pts)
Essay
Write the answer to each question in the space provided.
56. Explain how feedback inhibition helps you maintain body temperature.(4pts)
57. What is the relationship between cephalization and the development of sense organs? (4pts)
58. One of the disadvantages of reproducing sexually is the potential difficulty in finding a mate. How
might being a hermaphrodite solve this problem? (4pts)
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