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Smoking and Its Effects

Smoking and Its Effects
By Michael Zheng
Harmful Effects on Respiratory System
- Bronchitis: chronic inflammation of bronchi. Coughing mucus in the bronchi.
- Emphysema: alveoli lose their elasticity. Shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, sleep and heart
- Lung cancer: uncontrolled cell division in lungs, forms tumor/carcinoma. Shortness of breath, coughing,
chest pain and more symptoms.
(Johns Hopkins)
Harmful Effects on Other Body Systems
- Stroke
- Heart attacks
- Stomach cancer
(CDC 2018)
Why People Smoke
- Some people, especially teenagers may think smoking is cool and it represents that they become adult.
- Some people smoke because they have negative feelings and emotions, so they believe smoking can
help them to relieve and relax.
(Help To Quit 2018)
Technologies Assist to Quite Smoking
- Smartphone apps: tips on quit smoking, send reminders for important dates on quit smoking and related
events, motivate people by tracking their quit journey.
- Telemedicine: virtual appointments with healthcare providers, speak with a counselor for emotional
(Quitter's Circle 2016)
Why Smokers Coughing
- Mucus are produced by body and used to trap dust and other airborne particles. Smoking produces lots
of airborne particles, which urges the body to produce more mucus. With more mucus in the lungs the
only way to expel them is either swallowing or coughing. So that is why smokers tend to cough more often
than normal people.
Immediate Health Benefits of Quitting Smoking
- Drop in blood pressure, after 1h
- Carbon monoxide level returns to normal, increase in oxygen level in the body, after 12h
- Reduce the rate heart attack, after 1 day
- Increase in the sense of smell and taste, after 2 days
(Fletcher 2018)
Why Nicotine is Addictive
- Nicotine is main ingredient in tobacco. It affects brain to addicted to smoking. It releases chemical called,
dopamine in the brain. Dopamine prompts the brain to reinforce the same behavior.
(NIDA 2019)
Chemicals, Concentration, and effects
- In Canada, tar (14-35mg), nicotine (1.1-2.7mg), carbon monoxide (14-30mg), formaldehyde
(0.055-0.14mg), hydrogen cyanide (0.14-0.36mg), and benzene (0.043-0.097mg) are labelled on the
tobacco products.
- Tar cause lung cancer. Nicotine cause addiction and health issues. Carbon monoxide prevent gas
exchange in the human body. Formaldehyde cause cancer as long term effect. Hydrogen cyanide is fatal.
Benzene effect on the bone marrow and cause a decrease in RBC, leading to anemia.
(National Cancer Institute 2011)
Other Chemicals, Concentration, and effects
- Ammonia (0.05-0.13mg) is fatal.
- Lead (0.0006-0.0012mg), arsenic (0.00022–0.00036mg), chromium (0.0014–0.003 mg), nickel
(0.0021–0.0039mg) all cause cancer.
(Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014)
How Tobacco Chemicals Appear in Other Organs
- Most cancer or disease-causing substances get into other parts of the body through cardiovascular
system. Blood carries these substances and diffuses or leaves them into these important organs, such as
heart and reproductive organs.
Long-term Effects of Smoking
- Cancers
- COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
- Heart disease and stroke
- Ulcers in digestive system
- Type 2 diabetes.
(Better Health. Victoria Government 2019)
Short-term Effects of Smoking
- Increase blood pressure and heart rate
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea
- Abdominal cramps, vomiting
- Headache
- Coughing
(myDr,com.au 2012)
Effects on Pregnancy
Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of health problems for developing babies, including:
- Preterm birth
- Low birth weight
- Birth defects of the mouth & lip.
( 2019)
4 Tech Trends to Help You Quit Smoking. (2017, December 12). Retrieved from
Caruso, R. V., O'Connor, R. J., Stephens, W. E., Cummings, K. M., & Fong, G. T. (2013, December 20). Toxic metal concentrations in
cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.
Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924441/
Department of Health & Human Services. (2019, February 12). Smoking - effects on your body. Retrieved from
Formaldehyde and Cancer Risk. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking | CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Smoking and Respiratory Diseases. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Smoking: What are the effects? (2019, July 23). Retrieved from https://www.mydr.com.au/addictions/smoking-what-are-the-effects
Why do people smoke? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.helptoquit.com.au/smoking-facts/why-do-people-smoke
Why Is Nicotine So Addictive? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://teens.drugabuse.gov/blog/post/why-nicotine-so-addictive
Substance Use During Pregnancy | CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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